Category:CLU
This programming language may be used to instruct a computer to perform a task.
Execution method:  Compiled (machine code) 

Garbage collected:  Yes 
Parameter passing methods:  By value 
Type safety:  Safe 
Type strength:  Strong 
Type compatibility:  Structural 
Type expression:  Explicit 
Type checking:  Static 
See Also: 

CLU is a programming language developed in the 1970s at MIT by professor Barbara Liskov. It pioneered many features that are common in programming languages today.
CLU was the first language to support iterators (using the yield statement), abstract data types, parameterized types, and typesafe unions. It was also one of the first to support structured exception handling. CLU also supports *clusters*, for which it is named, and which are only one step removed from modern objectoriented classes, lacking only inheritance and instance methods. All objects live on the heap, are automatically garbagecollected, and are accessed by reference, as in Java.
Furthermore, CLU allows every operator and special form to be overloaded. All of them are just syntactic sugar for type methods, e.g. x + y
is the same as T$add(x, y)
(where T
is the type of x
), and will work as long as the T
cluster contains an appropriate add
method. CLU takes this much further than most modern languages: even an expression like foo.bar := baz
is really just a setter underneath, and is exactly equivalent to T$set_bar(foo, baz)
(where, again, T
is the type of foo
).
CLU has left its mark on many modern programming languages. C++ templates and Java and C# generics were based on CLU's parameterized types. Java's garbagecollected object model is pretty much the same as CLU's, and its exception handling also strongly resembles CLU. Python, on top of the garbagecollected objects and the exceptions, also borrowed the yield statement and the overloading mechanism.
Pages in category "CLU"
The following 200 pages are in this category, out of 241 total.
(previous page) (next page)A
 ABC problem
 ABC words
 Abundant odd numbers
 Abundant, deficient and perfect number classifications
 Ackermann function
 Additive primes
 Aliquot sequence classifications
 Almost prime
 Amicable pairs
 Anagrams
 Antiprimes
 Append numbers at same position in strings
 Apply a callback to an array
 Arbitraryprecision integers (included)
 Attractive numbers
B
C
 Cantor set
 Catalan numbers
 Catamorphism
 Character codes
 Chowla numbers
 Combinations
 Comma quibbling
 Commandline arguments
 Common list elements
 Compound data type
 Convert seconds to compound duration
 Copy stdin to stdout
 Count how many vowels and consonants occur in a string
 Create a twodimensional array at runtime
 CUSIP
 Cycle detection
D
 Damm algorithm
 Day of the week
 Day of the week of Christmas and New Year
 De Bruijn sequences
 Department numbers
 Detect division by zero
 Determine if a string is collapsible
 Determine sentence type
 Digit fifth powers
 Digital root
 Digital root/Multiplicative digital root
 Disarium numbers
 Discordian date
 Doomsday rule
 Dot product
E
F
 Factorial
 Factors of an integer
 Fibonacci nstep number sequences
 Fibonacci sequence
 Fibonacci word
 Find adjacent primes which differ by a square integer
 Find first missing positive
 Find prime n such that reversed n is also prime
 Find prime numbers of the form n*n*n+2
 Find squares n where n+1 is prime
 Find words which contain the most consonants
 Find words which contains all the vowels
 Find words which contains more than 3 e vowels
 First 9 prime Fibonacci number
 FizzBuzz
 Floyd's triangle
 Fractran
 Function definition
 Fusc sequence
G
H
I
L
M
 Magic squares of odd order
 Magnanimous numbers
 Matrix with two diagonals
 Mayan numerals
 McNuggets problem
 Mertens function
 Middle three digits
 Minimum multiple of m where digital sum equals m
 Minimum number of cells after, before, above and below NxN squares
 Modular inverse
 Multifactorial
 Munchausen numbers
 Mutual recursion
N
 N'th
 Ngrams
 Nqueens problem
 Number reversal game
 Numbers divisible by their individual digits, but not by the product of their digits.
 Numbers in base16 representation that cannot be written with decimal digits
 Numbers whose binary and ternary digit sums are prime
 Numbers whose count of divisors is prime
 Numbers with equal rises and falls
P
 Palindrome detection
 Pangram checker
 Parsing/RPN calculator algorithm
 Partition an integer x into n primes
 Pascal matrix generation
 Perfect totient numbers
 Permuted multiples
 Pernicious numbers
 Pick random element
 Pig the dice game
 Playing cards
 Population count
 Primality by trial division
 Primality by Wilson's theorem
 Prime numbers which contain 123
 Primorial numbers
 Priority queue
 Product of min and max prime factors
 Pseudorandom numbers/Middlesquare method
R
S
 Safe primes and unsafe primes
 Search a list
 Selfdescribing numbers
 Sequence of nonsquares
 Shift list elements to left by 3
 Show ASCII table
 Show the (decimal) value of a number of 1s appended with a 3, then squared
 Sierpinski triangle
 Sieve of Eratosthenes
 Sleeping Beauty problem
 Smallest power of 6 whose decimal expansion contains n
 Smallest square that begins with n
 Smith numbers
 Sort the letters of string in alphabetical order
 Sort three variables
 Sorting algorithms/Bubble sort
 Sorting algorithms/Heapsort
 Sorting algorithms/Insertion sort
 Soundex
 Special divisors
 Split a character string based on change of character
 Square but not cube
 Stack