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Count how many vowels and consonants occur in a string

From Rosetta Code
Count how many vowels and consonants occur in a string is a draft programming task. It is not yet considered ready to be promoted as a complete task, for reasons that should be found in its talk page.
Task
Count how many vowels and consonants occur in a string


Other tasks related to string operations:
Metrics
Counting
Remove/replace
Anagrams/Derangements/shuffling
Find/Search/Determine
Formatting
Song lyrics/poems/Mad Libs/phrases
Tokenize
Sequences




Ada[edit]

This solution uses Ada 2012 aspect clauses to define discontinuous subtypes

--
-- count vowels and consonants in a string
--
with Ada.Text_IO; use Ada.Text_IO;
 
procedure count_vowels_and_consonants is
subtype letter is Character with
Static_Predicate => letter in 'A' .. 'Z' | 'a' .. 'z';
subtype Vowel is Character with
Static_Predicate => Vowel in 'A' | 'E' | 'I' | 'O' | 'U' | 'a' | 'e' |
'i' | 'o' | 'u';
subtype consonant is Character with
Dynamic_Predicate => consonant in letter
and then consonant not in Vowel;
 
Input  : String (1 .. 1_024);
length  : Natural;
consonant_count : Natural := 0;
vowel_count  : Natural := 0;
begin
Put ("Enter a string: ");
Get_Line (Item => Input, Last => length);
-- count consonants
for char of Input (1 .. length) loop
if char in consonant then
consonant_count := consonant_count + 1;
elsif char in Vowel then
vowel_count := vowel_count + 1;
end if;
end loop;
Put_Line ('"' & Input (1 .. length) & '"');
Put_Line
("contains" & vowel_count'Image & " vowels and" & consonant_count'Image &
" consonants.");
end count_vowels_and_consonants;
Output:
Enter a string: If not now then when? If not us then who?
"If not now then when? If not us then who?"
contains 10 vowels and 20 consonants.

ALGOL 68[edit]

Showing total and distinct vowel/consonant counts, as in the Go, Wren etc. samples.

BEGIN # count the vowels and consonants in a string                         #
# returns the 0-based index of the upper case letter c in the alphabet #
# or -1 if c is not a letter #
OP L = ( CHAR c )INT:
IF c >= "A" AND c <= "Z" THEN ABS c - ABS "A" ELIF c >= "a" AND c <= "z" THEN ABS c - ABS "a" ELSE -1 FI;
# prints the counts of vowels and consonants in s #
PROC print vc counts = ( STRING s )VOID:
BEGIN
[ 0 : 26 ]BOOL used; FOR i FROM LWB used TO UPB used DO used[ i ] := FALSE OD;
[ 0 : 26 ]BOOL vowel; FOR i FROM LWB vowel TO UPB vowel DO vowel[ i ] := FALSE OD;
vowel[ L "A" ] := vowel[ L "E" ] := vowel[ L "I" ] := vowel[ L "O" ] := vowel[ L "U" ] := TRUE;
INT v total := 0, c total := 0, v count := 0, c count := 0;
FOR i FROM LWB s TO UPB s DO
IF INT c index = L s[ i ];
c index >= LWB used
THEN
IF vowel[ c index ] THEN v total ELSE c total FI +:= 1;
IF NOT used[ c index ] THEN
IF vowel[ c index ] THEN v count ELSE c count FI +:= 1;
used[ c index ] := TRUE
FI
FI
OD;
print( ( """", s, """ contains", newline ) );
print( ( " ", whole( v count, 0 ), " vowels and ", whole( c count, 0 ), " consonants (distinct)", newline ) );
print( ( " ", whole( v total, 0 ), " vowels and ", whole( c total, 0 ), " consonants (total)", newline ) )
END; # print vc counts #
# test cases #
print vc counts( "Now is the time for all good men to come to the aid of their country" );
print vc counts( "Help avoid turns" )
END
Output:
"Now is the time for all good men to come to the aid of their country" contains
    5 vowels and 13 consonants (distinct)
    22 vowels and 31 consonants (total)
"Help avoid turns" contains
    5 vowels and 9 consonants (distinct)
    5 vowels and 9 consonants (total)

F#[edit]

 
// Count how many vowels and consonants occur in a string. Nigel Galloway: August 1th., 202
type cType = Vowel |Consonant |Other
let fN g=match g with 'a'|'e'|'i'|'o'|'u'->Vowel |g when System.Char.IsLetter g->Consonant |_->Other
let n="Now is the time for all good men to come to the aid of their country."|>Seq.countBy(System.Char.ToLower>>fN)
printfn "%A" n
 
Output:
seq [(Consonant, 31); (Vowel, 22); (Other, 16)]

Factor[edit]

Works with: Factor version 0.99 2021-06-02
USING: ascii combinators io kernel math.statistics prettyprint
sequences ;
 
: letter-type ( char -- str )
{
{ [ dup "aeiouAEIOU" member? ] [ drop "vowel" ] }
{ [ Letter? ] [ "consonant" ] }
[ "other" ]
} cond ;
 
"Forever Factor programming language"
"Now is the time for all good men to come to the aid of their country."
[ dup ... " -> " write [ letter-type ] histogram-by . nl ] [email protected]
Output:
"Forever Factor programming language"
 -> H{ { "other" 3 } { "consonant" 20 } { "vowel" 12 } }

"Now is the time for all good men to come to the aid of their country."
 -> H{ { "other" 16 } { "consonant" 31 } { "vowel" 22 } }

Go[edit]

Same approach as the Wren entry.

package main
 
import (
"fmt"
"strings"
)
 
func main() {
const (
vowels = "aeiou"
consonants = "bcdfghjklmnpqrstvwxyz"
)
strs := []string{
"Forever Go programming language",
"Now is the time for all good men to come to the aid of their country.",
}
for _, str := range strs {
fmt.Println(str)
str = strings.ToLower(str)
vc, cc := 0, 0
vmap := make(map[rune]bool)
cmap := make(map[rune]bool)
for _, c := range str {
if strings.ContainsRune(vowels, c) {
vc++
vmap[c] = true
} else if strings.ContainsRune(consonants, c) {
cc++
cmap[c] = true
}
}
fmt.Printf("contains (total) %d vowels and %d consonants.\n", vc, cc)
fmt.Printf("contains (distinct %d vowels and %d consonants.\n\n", len(vmap), len(cmap))
}
}
Output:
Forever Go programming language
contains (total) 11 vowels and 17 consonants.
contains (distinct 5 vowels and 8 consonants.

Now is the time for all good men to come to the aid of their country.
contains (total) 22 vowels and 31 consonants.
contains (distinct 5 vowels and 13 consonants.

Haskell[edit]

The English of the task description is (perhaps unintentionally ?) ambiguous.

One of (at least) four possible meanings here:

import Control.Monad (join)
import Data.Bifunctor (bimap, first, second)
import Data.Bool (bool)
import Data.Char (toUpper)
import qualified Data.Set as S
 
----- SETS OF UNIQUE VOWELS AND CONSONANTS IN A STRING ---
 
vowelsAndConsonantsUsed ::
String -> String -> String -> (S.Set Char, S.Set Char)
vowelsAndConsonantsUsed vowels alphabet =
foldr
( \c vc ->
if_
(S.member c vs)
(first (S.insert c))
(if_ (S.member c cs) (second (S.insert c)) id)
vc
)
(S.empty, S.empty)
where
vs = S.fromList $ vowels <> fmap toUpper vowels
cs =
S.fromList $
filter
(`S.notMember` vs)
(alphabet <> fmap toUpper alphabet)
 
--------------------------- TEST -------------------------
main :: IO ()
main = do
putStrLn "Unique vowels and consonants used, with counts:\n"
mapM_ print $
[(,) . S.toList <*> S.size]
<*> ( [fst, snd]
<*> [ vowelsAndConsonantsUsed
"aeiou"
['a' .. 'z']
"Forever Fortran 2018 programming language"
]
)
 
------------------------- GENERAL ------------------------
 
both :: (a -> b) -> (a, a) -> (b, b)
both = join bimap
 
if_ :: Bool -> a -> a -> a
if_ p t f =
if p
then t
else f
Output:
Unique vowels and consonants used, with counts:

("aeiou",5)
("Fglmnprtv",9)


Another of (at least) four possible meanings:

import Control.Monad (join)
import Data.Bifunctor (bimap)
import Data.Char (isAlpha)
import Data.List (intercalate, partition)
import qualified Data.Map.Strict as M
 
------------ COUNTS OF EACH VOWEL AND CONSONANT ----------
 
vowelAndConsonantCounts ::
String ->
([(Char, Int)], [(Char, Int)])
vowelAndConsonantCounts =
join bimap M.toList
. M.partitionWithKey (const . isVowel)
. fst
. M.partitionWithKey (const . isAlpha)
. charCounts
 
charCounts :: String -> M.Map Char Int
charCounts =
foldr
(flip (M.insertWith (+)) 1)
M.empty
 
isVowel :: Char -> Bool
isVowel = (`elem` "aeiouAEIOU")
 
--------------------------- TEST -------------------------
main :: IO ()
main = do
let (v, c) =
vowelAndConsonantCounts
"Forever Fortran 2018 programming language"
(vTotal, cTotal) =
both
(foldr ((+) . snd) 0)
(v, c)
 
putStrLn $
unlines $
[ show (vTotal + cTotal)
<> " 'vowels and consonants'\n"
]
<> fmap
('\t' :)
( concatMap
report
[ ("vowels", vTotal, v),
("consonants", cTotal, c)
]
)
 
------------------------ FORMATTING ----------------------
 
report :: (String, Int, [(Char, Int)]) -> [String]
report (label, total, xs) =
[ show total
<> ( " characters drawn from "
<> show (length xs)
<> (' ' : label)
<> ":"
)
]
<> (('\t' :) . show <$> xs)
<> [""]
 
------------------------- GENERIC ------------------------
 
both :: (a -> b) -> (a, a) -> (b, b)
both = join bimap
Output:
33 'vowels and consonants'

    12 characters drawn from 5 vowels:
        ('a',4)
        ('e',3)
        ('i',1)
        ('o',3)
        ('u',1)
    
    21 characters drawn from 9 consonants:
        ('F',2)
        ('g',4)
        ('l',1)
        ('m',2)
        ('n',3)
        ('p',1)
        ('r',6)
        ('t',1)
        ('v',1)

JavaScript[edit]

This is a new genre of deliberately ambiguous task description, perhaps ?

I suppose it might be thought to offer scope for variety, but is it really consistent with the core Rosetta goal of comparability ?

(There seem to have been a surprising number of these recently, often associated with tasks of uncertain novelty ...)

Count of "Vowels and Consonants" ?[edit]

(() => {
"use strict";
 
// -------- COUNT OF "VOWELS AND CONSONANTS" ---------
 
// countOfVowelsAndConsonants :: String -> Int
const countOfVowelsAndConsonants = s =>
Array.from(s).filter(isAlpha).length;
 
 
// ---------------------- TEST -----------------------
const main = () =>
`${countOfVowelsAndConsonants(
"Forever Fortran 2018 programming language"
)} "vowels and consonants"`;
 
 
// --------------------- GENERIC ---------------------
 
// isAlpha :: Char -> Bool
const isAlpha = c =>
(/[A-Za-z\u00C0-\u00FF]/u).test(c);
 
 
// MAIN ---
return main();
})();
Output:
33 "vowels and consonants"

Counts of distinct vowels and distinct consonants seen ?[edit]

(() => {
"use strict";
 
// NUMBERS OF DISTINCT VOWELS, AND DISTINCT CONSONANTS
 
// distinctVowelsAndConsonants ::
// String -> ([Char], [Char])
const distinctVowelsAndConsonants = s =>
both(
cs => sort(Array.from(new Set(cs)))
)(
partition(isVowel)(
Array.from(s).filter(isAlpha)
)
);
 
// ---------------------- TEST -----------------------
// main :: IO ()
const main = () => {
const vc = both(
cs => `(${cs.join("")}, ${cs.length})`
)(
distinctVowelsAndConsonants(
"Forever Fortran 2018 programming language"
)
);
 
return [
`Distinct vowels: ${vc[0]}`,
`Distict consonants: ${vc[1]}`
].join("\n\n");
};
 
// --------------------- GENERIC ---------------------
 
// Tuple (,) :: a -> b -> (a, b)
const Tuple = a =>
b => ({
type: "Tuple",
"0": a,
"1": b,
length: 2
});
 
 
// both :: (a -> b) -> (a, a) -> (b, b)
const both = f =>
ab => Tuple(
f(ab[0])
)(
f(ab[1])
);
 
 
// isAlpha :: Char -> Bool
const isAlpha = c =>
(/[A-Za-z\u00C0-\u00FF]/u).test(c);
 
 
// isVowel :: Char -> Bool
const isVowel = c =>
(/[AEIOUaeiou]/u).test(c);
 
 
// partition :: (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> ([a], [a])
const partition = p =>
// A tuple of two lists - those elements in
// xs which match p, and those which do not.
xs => xs.reduce(
(a, x) => p(x) ? (
Tuple(a[0].concat(x))(a[1])
) : Tuple(a[0])(a[1].concat(x)),
Tuple([])([])
);
 
// sort :: Ord a => [a] -> [a]
const sort = xs =>
// An A-Z sorted copy of xs.
xs.slice()
.sort((a, b) => a < b ? -1 : (a > b ? 1 : 0));
 
 
// MAIN ---
return main();
})();
Output:
Distinct vowels: (aeiou, 5)

Distict consonants: (Fglmnprtv, 9)

Counts of vowel and consonant occurrences ?[edit]

(() => {
"use strict";
 
// ---- COUNTS OF VOWEL AND CONSONANT OCCURRENCES ----
 
// vowelConsonantOccurrenceTotals :: String -> (Int, Int)
const vowelConsonantOccurrenceTotals = s =>
Array.from(s).reduce(
(ab, c) => (
isAlpha(c) ? (
isVowel(c) ? (
first(succ)
) : second(succ)
) : identity
)(ab),
Tuple(0)(0)
);
 
// ---------------------- TEST -----------------------
const main = () => {
const vc =
vowelConsonantOccurrenceTotals(
"Forever Fortran 2018 programming language"
);
 
return [
`Vowel occurrences: ${vc[0]}`,
`Consonent occurrences: ${vc[1]}`
].join("\n\n");
};
 
 
// --------------------- GENERIC ---------------------
 
// Tuple (,) :: a -> b -> (a, b)
const Tuple = a =>
b => ({
type: "Tuple",
"0": a,
"1": b,
length: 2
});
 
// first :: (a -> b) -> ((a, c) -> (b, c))
const first = f =>
// A simple function lifted to one which applies
// to a tuple, transforming only its first item.
xy => {
const tpl = Tuple(f(xy[0]))(xy[1]);
 
return Array.isArray(xy) ? (
Array.from(tpl)
) : tpl;
};
 
// identity :: a -> a
const identity = x =>
// The identity function.
x;
 
// isAlpha :: Char -> Bool
const isAlpha = c =>
(/[A-Za-z\u00C0-\u00FF]/u).test(c);
 
// isVowel :: Char -> Bool
const isVowel = c =>
(/[AEIOUaeiou]/u).test(c);
 
// second :: (a -> b) -> ((c, a) -> (c, b))
const second = f =>
// A function over a simple value lifted
// to a function over a tuple.
// f (a, b) -> (a, f(b))
xy => {
const tpl = Tuple(xy[0])(f(xy[1]));
 
return Array.isArray(xy) ? (
Array.from(tpl)
) : tpl;
};
 
// succ :: Int -> Int
const succ = x =>
1 + x;
 
return main();
})();
Output:
Vowel occurrences: 12

Consonent occurrences: 21

Counts of occurrence for each vowel and consonant ?[edit]

(() => {
"use strict";
 
// COUNTS OF OCCURRENCE FOR EACH VOWEL AND CONSONANT
 
// countsOfEachVowelAndConsonant ::
// String -> ([(Char, Int)], [(Char, Int)])
const countsOfEachVowelAndConsonant = s =>
partition(
cn => isVowel(cn[0])
)(
sort(
Object.entries(
charCounts(
Array.from(s).filter(isAlpha)
)
)
)
.map(([c, n]) => Tuple(c)(n))
);
 
// ---------------------- TEST -----------------------
const main = () => {
const report = label =>
cns => {
const
total = cns.reduce(
(a, cn) => a + cn[1],
0
),
rows = cns.map(
compose(s => `\t${s}`, showTuple)
).join("\n");
 
return [
`${label} counts:\n${rows}`,
`\ttotal: ${total}`
].join("\n\n");
};
 
const counts = countsOfEachVowelAndConsonant(
"Forever Fortran 2018 programming language"
);
 
return Array.from(
bimap(
report("Vowel")
)(
report("Consonant")
)(
counts
)
).join("\n\n");
};
 
 
// --------------------- GENERIC ---------------------
 
// Tuple (,) :: a -> b -> (a, b)
const Tuple = a =>
b => ({
type: "Tuple",
"0": a,
"1": b,
length: 2
});
 
 
// bimap :: (a -> b) -> (c -> d) -> (a, c) -> (b, d)
const bimap = f =>
// Tuple instance of bimap.
// A tuple of the application of f and g to the
// first and second values respectively.
g => tpl => Tuple(f(tpl[0]))(
g(tpl[1])
);
 
 
// charCounts :: String -> Dict
const charCounts = s => {
// A dictionary of characters seen,
// with their frequencies.
const go = (dct, c) =>
Object.assign(dct, {
[c]: 1 + (dct[c] || 0)
});
 
return Array.from(s).reduce(go, {});
};
 
 
// compose (<<<) :: (b -> c) -> (a -> b) -> a -> c
const compose = (...fs) =>
// A function defined by the right-to-left
// composition of all the functions in fs.
fs.reduce(
(f, g) => x => f(g(x)),
x => x
);
 
 
// isAlpha :: Char -> Bool
const isAlpha = c =>
(/[A-Za-z\u00C0-\u00FF]/u).test(c);
 
 
// isVowel :: Char -> Bool
const isVowel = c =>
(/[AEIOUaeiou]/u).test(c);
 
 
// partition :: (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> ([a], [a])
const partition = p =>
// A tuple of two lists - those elements in
// xs which match p, and those which do not.
xs => xs.reduce(
(a, x) => p(x) ? (
Tuple(a[0].concat(x))(a[1])
) : Tuple(a[0])(a[1].concat(x)),
Tuple([])([])
);
 
 
// sort :: Ord a => [a] -> [a]
const sort = xs =>
// An A-Z sorted copy of xs.
xs.slice()
.sort((a, b) => a < b ? -1 : (a > b ? 1 : 0));
 
 
// showTuple :: Tuple -> String
const showTuple = tpl =>
`(${tpl[0]}, ${tpl[1]})`;
 
 
// MAIN ---
return main();
})();
Output:
Vowel counts:
    (a, 4)
    (e, 3)
    (i, 1)
    (o, 3)
    (u, 1)

    total: 12

Consonant counts:
    (F, 2)
    (g, 4)
    (l, 1)
    (m, 2)
    (n, 3)
    (p, 1)
    (r, 6)
    (t, 1)
    (v, 1)

    total: 21

jq[edit]

Works with: jq

Works with gojq, the Go implementation of jq

This entry focuses solely on the A-Z alphabet.

 
def is_lowercase_vowel: IN("a","e","i","o","u");
def is_lowercase_letter: "a" <= . and . <= "z";
def is_lowercase_consonant: is_lowercase_letter and (is_lowercase_vowel|not);
 
def synopsis:
# Output: a stream of the constituent characters
def characters: ascii_downcase | explode[] | [.] | implode;
# For the sake of DRYness:
def s(stream; $vowels; $consonants):
reduce stream as $c ({($vowels): 0, ($consonants):0};
if $c|is_lowercase_vowel then .[$vowels] += 1
elif $c|is_lowercase_consonant then .[$consonants] += 1
else . end);
 
s( characters; "vowels"; "consonants" )
+ s( [characters]|unique[]; "distinct_vowels"; "distinct_consonants" );
 
def task:
def pp: "Synopsis for:", ., synopsis;
 
"Forever HOPL",
"Now is the time for all good men to come to the aid of their country."
| pp, "";
 
task
Output:
Synopsis for:
Forever HOPL
{
  "vowels": 4,
  "consonants": 7,
  "distinct_vowels": 2,
  "distinct_consonants": 6
}

Synopsis for:
Now is the time for all good men to come to the aid of their country.
{
  "vowels": 22,
  "consonants": 31,
  "distinct_vowels": 5,
  "distinct_consonants": 13
}

Julia[edit]

isvowel(c) = c in ['a', 'e', 'i', 'o', 'u', 'A', 'E', "I", 'O', 'U']
isletter(c) = 'a' <= c <= 'z' || 'A' <= c <= 'Z'
isconsonant(c) = !isvowel(c) && isletter(c)
 
function vccounts(s)
a = collect(lowercase(s))
au = unique(a)
count(isvowel, a), count(isconsonant, a), count(isvowel, au), count(isconsonant, au)
end
 
function testvccount()
teststrings = [
"Forever Julia programming language",
"Now is the time for all good men to come to the aid of their country."]
for s in teststrings
vcnt, ccnt, vu, cu = vccounts(s)
println("String: $s\n Vowels: $vcnt (distinct $vu)\n Consonants: $ccnt (distinct $cu)\n")
end
end
 
testvccount()
 
Output:
String: Forever Julia programming language
    Vowels: 13 (distinct 5)
    Consonants: 18 (distinct 9)

String: Now is the time for all good men to come to the aid of their country.
    Vowels: 22 (distinct 5)
    Consonants: 31 (distinct 13)

Mathematica/Wolfram Language[edit]

vowels = {"a", "e", "i", "o", "u"};
conso = {"b", "c", "d", "f", "g", "h", "j", "k", "l", "m", "n", "p", "q", "r", "s", "t", "v", "w", "x", "y", "z"};
vowels = Join[vowels, [email protected]];
conso = Join[conso, [email protected]];
str = "The universe is under no obligation to make sense to you.";
<|"vowels" -> StringCount[str, Alternatives @@ vowels],
"consonants" -> StringCount[str, Alternatives @@ conso],
"other" -> StringCount[str, Except[Alternatives @@ Join[vowels, conso]]]|>
Output:
<|"vowels" -> 22, "consonants" -> 24, "other" -> 11|>

Nim[edit]

import strutils
 
const
Vowels = {'a', 'e', 'i', 'o', 'u'}
Consonants = {'a'..'z'} - Vowels
 
func value(val: int; unit: string): string =
$val & ' ' & unit & (if val > 1: "s" else: "")
 
proc vcCount(text: string) =
var vowels, consonants: set[char]
var vowelCount, consonantCount = 0
for c in text.toLowerAscii:
if c in Consonants:
consonants.incl c
inc consonantCount
elif c in Vowels:
vowels.incl c
inc vowelCount
echo "“$#” contains" % text
echo " $1 and $2 (distinct)".format(value(vowels.card, "vowel"),
value(consonants.card, "consonant"))
echo " $1 and $2 (total)".format(value(vowelCount, "vowel"),
value(consonantCount, "consonant"))
 
vcCount("Now is the time for all good men to come to the aid of their country.")
Output:
“Now is the time for all good men to come to the aid of their country.” contains
    5 vowels and 13 consonants (distinct)
    22 vowels and 31 consonants (total)

Perl[edit]

#!/usr/bin/perl
 
use strict; # https://rosettacode.org/wiki/Count_how_many_vowels_and_consonants_occur_in_a_string
use warnings;
 
while( <DATA> )
{
print "@{[ $- = tr/aeiouAEIOU// ]} vowels @{[ tr/a-zA-Z// - $-
]} consonants in: $_\n"

}
 
__DATA__
test one
TEST ONE
Now is the time for all good men to come to the aid of their country.
Forever Perl Programming Language
Output:
3 vowels 4 consonants in: test one

3 vowels 4 consonants in: TEST ONE

22 vowels 31 consonants in: Now is the time for all good men to come to the aid of their country.

11 vowels 19 consonants in: Forever Perl Programming Language


Phix[edit]

with javascript_semantics
procedure count_vowels_and_consonants(string s)
    constant vco = {"vowels","consonants","other"}, fvco = {"%d %s (%d distinct)"}
    sequence r = sort(filter(apply(true,find,{lower(s),{"aeioubcdfghjklmnpqrstvwxyz"}}),"!=",0))
    integer v = abs(binary_search(6,r))-1, uv = length(unique(r[1..v])),
            c = length(r)-v,               uc = length(unique(r[v+1..$])),
            o = length(s)-length(r),       uo = length(unique(lower(s)))-(uv+uc)
    string {sv,sc,so} = apply(true,sprintf,{fvco,columnize({{v,c,o},vco,{uv,uc,uo}})})
    printf(1,"The string \"%s\"\n  contains %s, %s, and %s.\n",{s,sv,sc,so})
end procedure
count_vowels_and_consonants("Now is the time for all good men to come to the aid of their country.")
Output:
The string "Now is the time for all good men to come to the aid of their country."
  contains 22 vowels (5 distinct), 31 consonants (13 distinct), and 16 other (2 distinct).

Python[edit]

Translation of: Julia
def isvowel(c):
""" true if c is an English vowel (ignore y) """
return c in ['a', 'e', 'i', 'o', 'u', 'A', 'E', "I", 'O', 'U']
 
def isletter(c):
""" true if in English standard alphabet """
return 'a' <= c <= 'z' or 'A' <= c <= 'Z'
 
def isconsonant(c):
""" true if an English consonant """
return not isvowel(c) and isletter(c)
 
def vccounts(s):
""" case insensitive vowel counts, total and unique """
a = list(s.lower())
au = set(a)
return sum([isvowel(c) for c in a]), sum([isconsonant(c) for c in a]), \
sum([isvowel(c) for c in au]), sum([isconsonant(c) for c in au])
 
def testvccount():
teststrings = [
"Forever Python programming language",
"Now is the time for all good men to come to the aid of their country."]
for s in teststrings:
vcnt, ccnt, vu, cu = vccounts(s)
print(f"String: {s}\n Vowels: {vcnt} (distinct {vu})\n Consonants: {ccnt} (distinct {cu})\n")
 
testvccount()
 
Output:

String: Forever Python programming language

   Vowels: 11 (distinct 5)
   Consonants: 21 (distinct 11)

String: Now is the time for all good men to come to the aid of their country.

   Vowels: 22 (distinct 5)
   Consonants: 31 (distinct 13)


Or, selecting another of the various possible meanings of an ambiguous task description:

'''Total and individual counts of vowel and consonant instances'''
 
from functools import reduce
 
 
# vowelAndConsonantCounts :: String ->
# ([(Char, Int)], [(Char, Int)])
def vowelAndConsonantCounts(s):
'''The sorted character counts for each
vowel seen in the string, tupled with the sorted
character counts for each consonant seen.
'''

return both(sorted)(
partition(lambda kv: isVowel(kv[0]))([
(k, v) for (k, v) in list(charCounts(s).items())
if k.isalpha()
])
)
 
 
# ------------------------- TEST -------------------------
# main :: IO ()
def main():
'''Total and individual counts for a given string'''
 
vs, cs = vowelAndConsonantCounts(
"Forever Fortran 2018 programming language"
)
nv, nc = valueSum(vs), valueSum(cs)
print(f'{nv + nc} "vowels and consonants"\n')
 
print(f'\t{nv} characters drawn from {len(vs)} vowels:')
print(showCharCounts(vs))
print(f'\n\t{nc} characters drawn from {len(cs)} consonants:')
print(showCharCounts(cs))
 
 
# ----------------------- DISPLAY ------------------------
 
# showCharCounts :: [(Char, Int)] -> String
def showCharCounts(kvs):
'''Indented listing of character frequencies.
'''

return '\n'.join(['\t\t' + repr(kv) for kv in kvs])
 
 
# ----------------------- GENERIC ------------------------
 
# both :: (a -> b) -> (a, a) -> (b, b)
def both(f):
'''The same function applied to both
values of a tuple.
'''

def go(ab):
return f(ab[0]), f(ab[1])
return go
 
 
# charCount :: String -> Dict
def charCounts(s):
'''A dictionary of characters seen,
with their frequencies.
'''

def go(dct, c):
dct.update({c: 1 + dct.get(c, 0)})
return dct
 
return reduce(go, list(s), dict())
 
 
# isVowel :: Char -> Bool
def isVowel(c):
'''True if the character is an Anglo-Saxon vowel'''
return c in "aeiouAEIOU"
 
 
# partition :: (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> ([a], [a])
def partition(p):
'''The pair of lists of those elements in xs
which respectively do, and don't
satisfy the predicate p.
'''

def go(a, x):
ts, fs = a
return (ts + [x], fs) if p(x) else (ts, fs + [x])
return lambda xs: reduce(go, xs, ([], []))
 
 
# valueSum :: [(String, Int)] -> Int
def valueSum(kvs):
'''The sum of values in a [(key, value)] list'''
return sum(kv[1] for kv in kvs)
 
 
# MAIN ---
if __name__ == '__main__':
main()
Output:
33 "vowels and consonants"

    12 characters drawn from 5 vowels:
        ('a', 4)
        ('e', 3)
        ('i', 1)
        ('o', 3)
        ('u', 1)

    21 characters drawn from 9 consonants:
        ('F', 2)
        ('g', 4)
        ('l', 1)
        ('m', 2)
        ('n', 3)
        ('p', 1)
        ('r', 6)
        ('t', 1)
        ('v', 1)

Quackery[edit]

  [ bit 
[ 0 $ "AEIOUaeiuo"
witheach [ bit | ] ] constant
& 0 != ] is vowel ( c --> b )
 
[ bit
[ 0 $ "BCDFGHJKLMNPQRSTVWXYZ"
$ "bcdfghjklmnpqrstvwxyz" join
witheach [ bit | ] ] constant
& 0 != ] is consonant ( c --> b )
 
[ 0 0 rot witheach
[ tuck vowel +
dip [ consonant + ] ] ] is task ( $ --> n n )
 
$ "How fleeting are all human passions compared"
$ " with the massive continuity of ducks." join
 
task
 
echo say " vowels" cr
echo say " consonants"
Output:
26 vowels
43 consonants

OR, depending on how you interpret the task…

  [ 0 $ "AEIOU" 
witheach [ bit | ] ] constant is vowels ( --> n )
 
[ 0 $ "BCDFGHJKLMNPQRSTVWXYZ"
witheach [ bit | ] ] constant is consonants ( --> n )
 
[ 0 swap
[ dup 0 > while
tuck 1 & +
swap 1 >> again ]
drop ] is bitcount ( n --> n )
 
[ 0 swap witheach [ upper bit | ]
dup consonants & bitcount
swap vowels & bitcount ] is task ( $ --> n n )
 
$ "How fleeting are all human passions compared"
$ " with the massive continuity of ducks." join
 
task
 
echo say " distinct vowels" cr
echo say " distinct consonants"
Output:
5 distinct vowels
16 distinct consonants

Raku[edit]

Note that the task does not ask for the total count of vowels and consonants, but for how many occur.

my @vowels     = <a e i o u>;
my @consonants = <b c d f g h j k l m n p q r s t v w x y z>;
 
sub letter-check ($string) {
my $letters = $string.lc.comb.Set;
"{sum $letters{@vowels}} vowels and {sum $letters{@consonants}} consonants occur in the string \"$string\"";
}
 
say letter-check "Forever Ring Programming Language";
Output:
5 vowels and 8 consonants occur in the string "Forever Ring Programming Language"

REXX[edit]

version 1[edit]

/* REXX */
Parse Arg s
If s='' Then
s='Forever Wren programming language'
con='BCDFGHJKLMNPQRSTVWXYZ'
vow='AEIOU'
su=translate(s) /* translate to uppercase */
suc=su
sx='' /* eliminate duplicate characters */
Do While suc<>''
Parse Var suc c +1 suc
If pos(c,sx)=0 Then sx=sx||c
End
Say s /* show input string */
Call count su /* count all consonants and vowels */
Call count sx,'distinct' /* count unique consonants and vowels */
Exit
count:
Parse Arg s,tag
sc=translate(s,copies('+',length(con))copies(' ',256),con||xrange('00'x,'ff'x))
sv=translate(s,copies('+',length(vow))copies(' ',256),vow||xrange('00'x,'ff'x))
Say length(space(sc,0)) tag 'consonants,' length(space(sv,0)) tag 'vowels'
Return
Output:
Forever Wren programming language
19  consonants, 11  vowels
9 distinct consonants, 5 distinct vowels

version 2[edit]

/*REXX program counts the vowels and consonants  (unique and total)  in a given string. */
parse arg $ /*obtain optional argument from the CL.*/
if $='' then $= 'Now is the time for all good men to come to the aid of their country.'
say 'input: ' $ /*display the original string ──► term.*/
call init /*initialize some constants and input. */
#.= 0; call cnt 1; call cnt 2 /*count unique vowels and consonants.*/
say 'There are ' #.1 " unique vowels, there are " #.2 ' unique consonants.'
say 'There are ' L - length( space( translate($, , @.1), 0)) " vowels total, " ,
'there are ' L - length( space( translate($, , @.2), 0)) " consonants total."
exit 0 /*stick a fork in it, we're all done. */
/*──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────*/
cnt: arg k; do j=1 to length(@.k); if pos(substr(@.k,j,1),$)>0 then #.k=#.k+1; end; return
init: @.1='AEIOU'; @.2="BCDFGHJKLMNPQRSTVWXYZ"; upper $; $=space($,0); L=length($); return
output   when using the default input:
input:  Now is the time for all good men to come to the aid of their country.
There are  5  unique vowels,  there are  13  unique consonants.
There are  22  vowels total,  there are  31  consonants total.

Ring[edit]

 
load "stdlib.ring"
see "working..." + nl
str = '"' + "Forever Ring Programming Language" + '"'
vowel = 0
cons =0
 
for n = 1 to len(str)
strc = str[n]
if isvowel(str[n]) = 1
vowel += 1
ok
if isconsonant(strc)
cons += 1
ok
next
 
see "Input string = " + str + nl
see "In string occur " + vowel + " vowels" + nl
see "In string occur " + cons + " consonants" + nl
see "done..." + nl
 
func isconsonant(c)
bool1 = not isvowel(c)
bool2 = (ascii(c) > 64 and ascii(c) < 91)
bool3 = (ascii(c) > 96 and ascii(c) < 123)
if bool1 and (bool2 or bool3)
return 1
else
return 0
ok
 
Output:
working...
Input string = "Forever Ring Programming Language"
In string occur 11 vowels
In string occur 19 consonants
done...

Ruby[edit]

RE_V = /[aeiou]/
RE_C = /[bcdfghjklmnpqrstvwxyz]/
str = "Now is the time for all good men to come to the aid of their country."
 
grouped = str.downcase.chars.group_by do |c|
case c
when RE_V then :Vowels
when RE_C then :Consonants
else :Other
end
end
 
grouped.each{|k,v| puts "#{k}: #{v.size}, #{v.uniq.size} unique."}
 
Output:
Consonants: 31, 13 unique.
Vowels: 22, 5 unique.
Other: 16, 2 unique.

Wren[edit]

Library: Wren-str

In the absence of any indications to the contrary, we take a simplistic view of only considering English ASCII vowels (not 'y') and consonants.

import "/str" for Str
 
var vowels = "aeiou"
var consonants = "bcdfghjklmnpqrstvwxyz"
 
var strs = [
"Forever Wren programming language",
"Now is the time for all good men to come to the aid of their country."
]
 
for (str in strs) {
System.print(str)
str = Str.lower(str)
var vc = 0
var cc = 0
var vmap = {}
var cmap = {}
for (c in str) {
if (vowels.contains(c)) {
vc = vc + 1
vmap[c] = true
} else if (consonants.contains(c)) {
cc = cc + 1
cmap[c] = true
}
}
System.print("contains (total) %(vc) vowels and %(cc) consonants.")
System.print("contains (distinct) %(vmap.count) vowels and %(cmap.count) consonants.\n")
}
Output:
Forever Wren programming language
contains (total) 11 vowels and 19 consonants.
contains (distinct) 5 vowels and 9 consonants.

Now is the time for all good men to come to the aid of their country.
contains (total) 22 vowels and 31 consonants.
contains (distinct) 5 vowels and 13 consonants.

X86 Assembly[edit]

Translation of XPL0. Assemble with tasm, tlink /t

        .model  tiny
.code
.486
org 100h
 
;Register assignments:
;al = Char
;ebx = CSet
;cl = CTC
;ch = VTC
;dl = CDC
;dh = VDC
;si = Str
;edi = VSet
;ebp = Item
 
start: mov si, offset str1 ;Text(Str1)
call vowcon
mov si, offset str2 ;Text(Str2)
 
;Display numbers of vowels and consonants in string at si
vowcon: push si
xor cx, cx ;CTC:= 0; VTC:= 0
xor dx, dx
xor ebx, ebx
xor edi, edi
 
;while Str(I) # 0 do
; Ch:= Str(I); I++
cv10: lodsb ;al:= ds:[si++]
cmp al, 0
je cv90 ; if Ch>=^A & Ch<=^Z then
cmp al, 'A'
jb cv20
cmp al, 'Z'
ja cv20
or al, 20h ; Ch:= Ch ! $20
cv20:
cmp al, 'a' ; if Ch>=^a & Ch<=^z then
jb cv50
cmp al, 'z'
ja cv50
 
push cx ; Item:= 1 << (Ch-^a)
mov cl, al
sub cl, 'a'
xor ebp, ebp ; mov ebp, 1
inc bp
shl ebp, cl
pop cx
 
cmp al, 'a' ; case Ch of a e i o u vowels
je cv22
cmp al, 'e'
je cv22
cmp al, 'i'
je cv22
cmp al, 'o'
je cv22
cmp al, 'u'
jne cv30
 
cv22: inc ch ; VTC++
test edi, ebp ; if (VSet&Item) = 0 then
jne cv25
inc dh ; VDC++
or edi, ebp ; VSet:= VSet ! Item
cv25: jmp cv50
cv30: ; other: consonants
inc cl ; CTC++
test ebx, ebp ; if (CSet&Item) = 0 then
jne cv50
inc dl ; CDC++
or ebx, ebp ; CSet:= CSet ! Item
cv50: jmp cv10
cv90:
pop si
call strout
mov si, offset crlf ;CrLf
call strout
mov di, offset msg2 ;Text(" total")
call common
 
mov cx, dx ;get distinct counts
mov di, offset msg2a;Text(" distinct")
call common
mov si, offset crlf
jmp strout
 
;Common display code
common: mov si, offset msg1 ;Text("Contains ")
call strout
mov al, ch ;numout(VTC/VDC)
call numout
mov si, di ;Text(" total/distinct")
call strout
mov si, offset msg3 ;Text(" vowels and ")
call strout
mov al, cl ;numout(CTC/CDC)
call numout
mov si, offset msg4 ;Text(" consonants.^M^J")
jmp strout
 
;Display string pointed to by si
so10: int 29h
strout: lodsb ;al:= ds:[si++]
cmp al, 0
jne so10
ret
 
;Display positive number in al (less than 100)
numout: aam 10 ;ah:= al/10; al:= rem
push ax
test ah, ah
je no10
mov al, ah
call numout
no10: pop ax
add al, '0'
int 29h
ret
 
str1 db "X86 Assembly Language!", 0
str2 db "Now is the time for all good men to come to the aid of their country.", 0
msg1 db "Contains ", 0
msg2 db " total", 0
msg2a db " distinct", 0
msg3 db " vowels and ", 0
msg4 db " consonants."
crlf db 0Dh, 0Ah, 0
end start
Output:
X86 Assembly Language!
Contains 6 total vowels and 11 consonants.
Contains 3 distinct vowels and 8 consonants.

Now is the time for all good men to come to the aid of their country.
Contains 22 total vowels and 31 consonants.
Contains 5 distinct vowels and 13 consonants.

XPL0[edit]

string 0;               \use zero-terminated strings
int VTC, VDC, \vowel total count, vowel distinct count
CTC, CDC, \consonant total count, consonant distinct count
VSet, CSet, \vowel and consonant bit arrays
Char, Item, I, J;
char Str;
[Str:= ["Forever XPL0 programming language.",
"Now is the time for all good men to come to the aid of their country."];
for J:= 0 to 1 do
[I:= 0; VTC:= 0; VDC:= 0; CTC:= 0; CDC:= 0; VSet:= 0; CSet:= 0;
while Str(J,I) do
[Char:= Str(J,I); I:= I+1;
if Char>=^A & Char<=^Z then
Char:= Char - ^A + ^a; \to lower case
if Char>=^a & Char<=^z then
[Item:= 1 << (Char-^a); \item in character set [a..z]
case Char of
^a, ^e, ^i, ^o, ^u:
[VTC:= VTC+1; \vowel
if (Item & VSet) = 0 then VDC:= VDC+1;
VSet:= VSet ! Item;
]
other [CTC:= CTC+1; \consonant
if (Item & CSet) = 0 then CDC:= CDC+1;
CSet:= CSet ! Item;
];
];
];
Text(0, @Str(J,0)); CrLf(0);
Text(0, "Contains "); IntOut(0, VTC); Text(0, " total vowels and ");
IntOut(0, CTC); Text(0, " consonants.^M^J");
Text(0, "Contains "); IntOut(0, VDC); Text(0, " distinct vowels and ");
IntOut(0, CDC); Text(0, " consonants.^M^J");
CrLf(0);
];
]
Output:
Forever XPL0 programming language.
Contains 10 total vowels and 19 consonants.
Contains 5 distinct vowels and 9 consonants.

Now is the time for all good men to come to the aid of their country.
Contains 22 total vowels and 31 consonants.
Contains 5 distinct vowels and 13 consonants.