# Array length

You are encouraged to solve this task according to the task description, using any language you may know.

Determine the amount of elements in an array.

As an example use an array holding the strings 'apple' and 'orange'.

## 11l

`print([‘apple’, ‘orange’].len)`
Output:
```2
```

## 360 Assembly

Array length is computed at compilation time with the formula : (AEND-A)/L'A

```*        Array length              22/02/2017
ARRAYLEN START
USING ARRAYLEN,12
LR    12,15               end of prolog
LA    1,(AEND-A)/L'A      hbound(a)
XDECO 1,PG+13             edit
XPRNT PG,L'PG             print
BR    14                  exit
A        DC    CL6'apple',CL6'orange'   array
AEND     DC    0C
PG       DC    CL25'Array length='      buffer
END   ARRAYLEN```
Output:
```Array length=           2
```

## 6502 Assembly

Translation of: 360 Assembly

Array length is computed at compilation time with the formula: (Array_End-Array). Even though the labels Array and Array_End are both 16-bit values, if their difference fits into 8 bits the assembler will allow you to load it into a register.

```start:
LDA #(Array_End-Array)   ;evaluates to 13
RTS

Array:
byte "apple",0
byte "orange",0
Array_End:```

## 68000 Assembly

Array length is computed at compilation time with the formula: (Array_End-Array). The "bit width" of this value is the bit width of the result, not the bit width of the inputs. In other words, even though code labels are 32-bit memory addresses, if their difference is 8 or 16-bit you can use a `.B` or `.W` instruction or directive on them without a compile-time error.

The biggest limitation to the (Array_End-Array) method is that it always measures in total bytes. So if your array elements are of a different type you'll have to adjust accordingly. For an array strings, you should instead construct an array of pointers to strings and divide the result of the difference by 4 to get the total number of "strings" in the array.

```start:
MOVE.B #(MyArray_End-MyArray)/4   ;evaluates to 2
RTS

Apple:
DC.B "apple",0
even
Orange:
DC.B "orange",0
even

MyArray:
DC.L Apple
DC.L Orange
MyArray_End:```

## 8th

```["apples", "oranges"] a:len . cr
```
Output:
```2
```

## AArch64 Assembly

Works with: as version Raspberry Pi 3B version Buster 64 bits
```/* ARM assembly AARCH64 Raspberry PI 3B */
/*  program lenAreaString64.s   */

/*******************************************/
/* Constantes file                         */
/*******************************************/
/* for this file see task include a file in language AArch64 assembly*/
.include "../includeConstantesARM64.inc"
/*******************************************/
/* Initialized data                        */
/*******************************************/
.data
szMessLenArea:     .asciz "The length of area is :  @ \n"
szCarriageReturn:  .asciz "\n"

/* areas strings  */
szString1:  .asciz "Apples"
szString2:  .asciz "Oranges"
/* pointer items area */
tablesPoi:
/*******************************************/
/* UnInitialized data                      */
/*******************************************/
.bss
sZoneConv:   .skip 30
/*******************************************/
/*  code section                           */
/*******************************************/
.text
.global main
main:                        // entry of program

ldr x1,qAdrtablesPoi     // begin pointer table
mov x0,0                 // counter
1:                           // begin loop
ldr x2,[x1,x0,lsl 3]     // read string pointer address item x0 (8 bytes by pointer)
cmp x2,0                 // is null ?
cinc x0,x0,ne            // no increment counter
bne 1b                   // and loop

bl conversion10S
bl strInsertAtCharInc    // insert result at @ character
bl affichageMess

100:                         // standard end of the program
mov x0,0                 // return code
mov x8,EXIT              // request to exit program
svc 0                    // perform the system call
/********************************************************/
/*        File Include fonctions                        */
/********************************************************/
/* for this file see task include a file in language AArch64 assembly */
.include "../includeARM64.inc"```

## ABAP

The concept of arrays does not exist in ABAP, instead internal tables are used. Since ABAP Version 7.40 they can be accessed with the common index notation. Note that the index starts at 1 and out of bound access raises an exception. The built-in function "lines" returns the number of records.

```report z_array_length.

data(internal_table) = value stringtab( ( `apple` ) ( `orange` ) ).

write: internal_table[ 1 ] , internal_table[ 2 ] , lines( internal_table ).
```
Output:
```apple orange          2
```

```with Ada.Text_IO;  use Ada.Text_IO;
with System;

procedure Array_Length is

Fruits : constant array (Positive range <>) of access constant String
:= (new String'("orange"),
new String'("apple"));

Memory_Size : constant Integer := Fruits'Size / System.Storage_Unit;

begin
Put_Line ("Number of elements : " & Fruits'Length'Image);
Put_Line ("Array memory Size  : " & Memory_Size'Image & " bytes" );
Put_Line ("                     " & Integer'Image (Memory_Size * System.Storage_Unit / System.Word_Size) & " words" );
end Array_Length;
```
Output:
```Number of elements :  2
Array memory Size  :  32 bytes
4 words
```

## ALGOL 68

```# UPB returns the upper bound of an array, LWB the lower bound #
[]STRING fruits = ( "apple", "orange" );
print( ( ( UPB fruits - LWB fruits ) + 1, newline ) ) # prints 2 #```

## AntLang

```array: seq["apple"; "orange"]
length[array]
/Works as a one liner: length[seq["apple"; "orange"]]```

## Apex

`System.debug(new String[] { 'apple', 'banana' }.size()); // Prints 2`

## APL

```⍴'apple' 'orange'
```

Output:

`2`

## AppleScript

```set theList to {"apple", "orange"}
count theList
-- or
length of theList
-- or
number of items in theList
```

Strictly speaking, 'items in' can be omitted from the last example, since 'number of' does essentially the same as 'length of'. The additional stage of extracting theList's 'items' is inefficient.

Output:
`2`

No context or goal is provided for this task – sometimes for example, we may simply want to take the last member of an array, and counting the length to derive an index might well not be the best route.

More generally, we may learn more about AppleScript by defining length() ourselves. There are two basic functional approaches to doing that – we can write a simple recursive definition, or, if we have a higher order fold/reduce function (see Catamorphism) we can derive length() as:

`fold (λx n -> 1 + n)  0`
```on run

set xs to ["alpha", "beta", "gamma", "delta", "epsilon", ¬
"zeta", "eta", "theta", "iota", "kappa", "lambda", "mu"]

{_length(xs), fold(xs, succ, 0), item 12 of xs, item -1 of xs}

--> {12, 12, "mu", "mu"}

end run

-- TWO FUNCTIONAL DEFINITIONS OF LENGTH

-- 1. Recursive definition

on _length(xs)
if xs is [] then
0
else
1 + _length(rest of xs)
end if
end _length

-- 2. fold (λx n -> 1 + n)  0

on succ(x)
1 + x
end succ

--[a] - > (a - > b) - > b - > [b]
on fold(xs, f, startValue)
script mf
property lambda : f
end script

set v to startValue
repeat with x in xs
set v to mf's lambda(v, x)
end repeat
end fold
```
Output:
`{12, 12, "mu", "mu"}`

## ARM Assembly

Works with: as version Raspberry Pi
```/* ARM assembly Raspberry PI  */
/*  program lenAreaString.s   */

/* Constantes    */
.equ STDOUT, 1     @ Linux output console
.equ EXIT,   1     @ Linux syscall
.equ WRITE,  4     @ Linux syscall
/* Initialized data */
.data
szMessLenArea: .ascii "The length of area is : "
sZoneconv:		 .fill 12,1,' '
szCarriageReturn:  .asciz "\n"

/* areas strings  */
szString1:  .asciz "Apples"
szString2:  .asciz "Oranges"
/* pointer items area */
tablesPoi:
ptApples:		.int szString1
ptOranges:   .int szString2
ptVoid:		.int 0

/* UnInitialized data */
.bss

/*  code section */
.text
.global main
main:                /* entry of program  */
push {fp,lr}    /* saves 2 registers */

ldr r1,iAdrtablesPoi  @ begin pointer table
mov r0,#0    @ counter
1:              @ begin loop
ldr r2,[r1,r0,lsl #2]    @ read string pointer address item r0 (4 bytes by pointer)
cmp r2,#0                @ is null ?
addne r0,#1             @ no increment counter
bne 1b                  @ and loop

bl conversion10S
bl affichageMess

2:

100:   /* standard end of the program */
mov r0, #0                  @ return code
pop {fp,lr}                 @restaur 2 registers
mov r7, #EXIT              @ request to exit program
swi 0                       @ perform the system call
/******************************************************************/
/*     display text with size calculation                         */
/******************************************************************/
/* r0 contains the address of the message */
affichageMess:
push {fp,lr}    			/* save  registres */
push {r0,r1,r2,r7}    		/* save others registers */
mov r2,#0   				/* counter length */
1:      	/* loop length calculation */
ldrb r1,[r0,r2]  			/* read octet start position + index */
cmp r1,#0       			/* if 0 its over */
bne 1b          			/* and loop */
/* so here r2 contains the length of the message */
mov r1,r0        			/* address message in r1 */
mov r0,#STDOUT      		/* code to write to the standard output Linux */
mov r7, #WRITE             /* code call system "write" */
swi #0                      /* call systeme */
pop {r0,r1,r2,r7}     		/* restaur others registers */
pop {fp,lr}    				/* restaur des  2 registres */
bx lr	        			/* return  */

/***************************************************/
/*   conversion register signed décimal     */
/***************************************************/
/* r0 contient le registre   */
/* r1 contient l adresse de la zone de conversion */
conversion10S:
push {r0-r5,lr}    /* save des registres */
mov r2,r1       /* debut zone stockage */
mov r5,#'+'     /* par defaut le signe est + */
cmp r0,#0       /* nombre négatif ? */
movlt r5,#'-'     /* oui le signe est - */
mvnlt r0,r0       /* et inversion en valeur positive */
mov r4,#10   /* longueur de la zone */
1: /* debut de boucle de conversion */
bl divisionpar10 /* division  */
add r1,#48        /* ajout de 48 au reste pour conversion ascii */
strb r1,[r2,r4]  /* stockage du byte en début de zone r5 + la position r4 */
sub r4,r4,#1      /* position précedente */
cmp r0,#0
bne 1b	       /* boucle si quotient different de zéro */
strb r5,[r2,r4]  /* stockage du signe à la position courante */
subs r4,r4,#1   /* position précedente */
blt  100f         /* si r4 < 0  fin  */
/* sinon il faut completer le debut de la zone avec des blancs */
mov r3,#' '   /* caractere espace */
2:
strb r3,[r2,r4]  /* stockage du byte  */
subs r4,r4,#1   /* position précedente */
bge 2b        /* boucle si r4 plus grand ou egal a zero */
100:  /* fin standard de la fonction  */
pop {r0-r5,lr}   /*restaur desregistres */
bx lr

/***************************************************/
/*   division par 10   signé                       */
/* Thanks to http://thinkingeek.com/arm-assembler-raspberry-pi/*
/* and   http://www.hackersdelight.org/            */
/***************************************************/
/* r0 contient le dividende   */
/* r0 retourne le quotient */
/* r1 retourne le reste  */
divisionpar10:
/* r0 contains the argument to be divided by 10 */
push {r2-r4}   /* save registers  */
mov r4,r0
ldr r3, .Ls_magic_number_10 /* r1 <- magic_number */
smull r1, r2, r3, r0   /* r1 <- Lower32Bits(r1*r0). r2 <- Upper32Bits(r1*r0) */
mov r2, r2, ASR #2     /* r2 <- r2 >> 2 */
mov r1, r0, LSR #31    /* r1 <- r0 >> 31 */
add r0, r2, r1         /* r0 <- r2 + r1 */
add r2,r0,r0, lsl #2   /* r2 <- r0 * 5 */
sub r1,r4,r2, lsl #1   /* r1 <- r4 - (r2 * 2)  = r4 - (r0 * 10) */
pop {r2-r4}
bx lr                  /* leave function */
bx lr                  /* leave function */
.Ls_magic_number_10: .word 0x66666667```

## Arturo

```fruit: ["apple" "orange"]

print ["array length =" size fruit]
```
Output:
`array length = 2`

## ATS

```#include
#include

val A0 =
array0_tuple<string>
( "apple", "orange" )
val () =
println!("length(A0) = ", length(A0))

implement main0((*void*)) = ((*void*))```

## AutoHotkey

```MsgBox % ["apple","orange"].MaxIndex()
```
Output:
`2`

## AutoIt

```Opt('MustDeclareVars',1)	 	; 1 = Variables must be pre-declared.

Local \$aArray = ["Apple", "Orange"]
Local \$Max = UBound(\$aArray)
ConsoleWrite("Elements in array: " & \$Max & @CRLF)

For \$i = 0 To \$Max - 1
ConsoleWrite("aArray[" & \$i & "] = '" & \$aArray[\$i] & "'" & @CRLF)
Next
```
Output:
```Elements in array: 2
aArray = 'Apple'
aArray = 'Orange'```

## Avail

Using Avail's tuples and the `|_|` method:

`|<"Apple", "Orange">|`

## AWK

The main use of the length()-function is to determine the length of a string.
When used on an array, it returns the number of elements.
Another method to count the elements of the array is by using a variant of for().

```# usage:  awk -f arraylen.awk
#
function countElements(array) {
for( e in array ) {c++}
return c
}

BEGIN {
array = "apple"
array = "orange"

print "Array length :", length(array), countElements(array)

print "String length:", array, length(array)
}
```
Output:
```Array length : 2 2
String length: apple 5
```

## BaCon

BaCon knows three types of arrays, the UBOUND function can query all.

```' Static arrays

DECLARE fruit\$[] = { "apple", "orange" }
PRINT UBOUND(fruit\$)

' Dynamic arrays

DECLARE vegetable\$ ARRAY 2
vegetable\$ = "cabbage"
vegetable\$ = "spinach"
PRINT UBOUND(vegetable\$)

' Associative arrays

DECLARE meat\$ ASSOC STRING
meat\$("first") = "chicken"
meat\$("second") = "pork"
PRINT UBOUND(meat\$)```

## Bash

```fruit=("apple" "orange" "lemon")
echo "\${#fruit[@]}"
```

## BASIC

```DIM X\$(1 TO 2)
X\$(1) = "apple"
X\$(2) = "orange"
PRINT UBOUND(X\$) - LBOUND(X\$) + 1
```

### Applesoft BASIC

```10  DIM A\$(2)
20 A\$(1) = "ORANGE"
30 A\$(2) = "APPLE"
40 N\$ = "A\$": GOSUB 70: PRINT L\$

60  PRINT
61  DIM A%(19,63,0),A3(4,5)
62 N\$ = "A%": GOSUB 70: PRINT L\$
63 N\$ = "A3": GOSUB 70: PRINT L\$
64 N\$ = "COMMODORE"
65  GOSUB 70: PRINT L\$: END

70 L\$ = "":N0 = 0:N1 = 0
71 N0\$ =  LEFT\$ (N\$,1)
72 N1\$ =  MID\$ (N\$,2,2)
73 N1 =  RIGHT\$ (N\$,1) = "\$"
74 N0 =  RIGHT\$ (N\$,1) = "%"
75  IF N0 THEN N1 = 1
76 I =  LEN (N1\$) - N1
77 N1\$ =  MID\$ (N1\$,1,I)
78 A =  ASC (N1\$ +  CHR\$ (0))
79 N1 = 128 * N1 + A
80 N0 = 128 * N0 +  ASC (N0\$)
90  DEF  FN P(A) =  PEEK (A) +  PEEK (A + 1) * 256
100 I =  FN P(109):A =  FN P(107)
110  FOR A = A TO I STEP 0
128  IF  PEEK (A) <  > N0 OR  PEEK (A + 1) <  > N1 THEN A = A +  FN P(A + 2): NEXT A: PRINT "ARRAY "N\$" NOT FOUND": STOP
130 N0 = A + 4
140 N1 = N0 +  FN P(N0) * 2
150 N0 = N0 + 2
160  FOR I = N1 TO N0 STEP  - 2
170 L\$ = L\$ +  STR\$ ( FN P(I))
180 L\$ = L\$ + " ": NEXT I
190  RETURN
```

### BASIC256

```fruta\$ = {"apple", "orange", "pear"}

print length(fruta\$)
print fruta\$[?]
print fruta\$
end```
```3
3
orange
```

### Chipmunk Basic

Works with: Chipmunk Basic version 3.6.4

Unless modified with OPTION BASE 1 or MAT ORIGIN 1, the lower limit of an array is 1.

```10 dim fruta\$(2)
30 data "apple","orange","lemon"
40 print "The length of the array 'fruit\$' is ";ubound(fruta\$)+1
50 end
```

### Commodore BASIC

Commodore BASIC has no way within the language to query an array for its length, but you can dive into the implementation to get that information. On a C-64 in particular, this works:

Works with: Commodore BASIC version 2.0 on C-64
```10 DIM A\$(1):REM 1=LAST -> ROOM FOR 2
20 A\$(0) = "ORANGE"
30 A\$(1) = "APPLE"
40 AT=0:N\$="":T=0:L=0:REM DECLARE ALL VARS BEFORE PEEKING
50 AT=PEEK(47)+256*PEEK(48):REM START OF ARRAYS IN MEMORY
60 N\$=CHR\$(PEEK(AT)AND127)+CHR\$(PEEK(AT+1)AND127):REM NAME
70 T=(PEEK(AT) AND 128)*2+(PEEK(AT+1)AND128):REM TYPE
80 IF T=384 THEN N\$=N\$+"%": REM INTEGER
90 IF T=128 THEN N\$=N\$+"\$": REM STRING
100 L=PEEK(AT+6): REM FIRST INDEX SIZE
110 PRINT N\$" HAS"L"ELEMENTS."
```
Output:
`A\$ HAS 2 ELEMENTS.`

### IS-BASIC

```100 STRING X\$(1 TO 2)
110 LET X\$(1)="apple":LET X\$(2)="orange"
120 PRINT "The length of the array 'X\$' is";SIZE(X\$)```

### True BASIC

```DIM fruta\$(2)
DATA "apple", "orange"

LET tamano = UBound(fruta\$) - LBound(fruta\$) + 1

PRINT "La longitud del array fruta\$ es" ; tamano
END
```
Output:
` La longitud del array fruta\$ es 2 `

True BASIC's arrays are not fixed in length and, although True BASIC is a compiled-language, the number of elements can be changed during runtime using such functions as the MAT REDIM (matrix re-dimension) function. Although the starting index of 1 is in implicit, it can be changed by setting the lower and upper bounds (eg. fruit(0 to 3)) when declaring the array. Also, the example below uses the MAT READ function to read in the data elements into the array without having to explicitly list each variable-array index. The example also uses the SIZE function vs the bounds method to determine the length of the array. Finally, in this example the SIZE function was not assigned to a separate variable and instead is used within the PRINT function itself.

```DIM fruit\$(2)
DATA "apple", "orange"

PRINT "The length of the array 'fruit\$' is "; SIZE(fruit\$)
END
```
Output:
` The length of the array 'fruit\$' is 2 `

### XBasic

Works with: Windows XBasic
```PROGRAM	"Array length"
VERSION	"0.0000"

DECLARE FUNCTION  Entry ()

FUNCTION  Entry ()
DIM F\$
F\$ = "apple"
F\$ = "orange"
F\$ = "pear"

PRINT "The length of the fruit array is "; UBOUND(F\$[])
PRINT F\$
END FUNCTION
END PROGRAM
```
Output:
```The length of the fruit array is  2
orange```

## Batch File

While batch files don't support arrays in the traditional sense, sets of variables forming somewhat of a pseudo-array are extremely useful. They are usually in the form of `%name{number}%`. The below code gives an example of how to create an array from a list stored in a variable, and how to acquire the amount of entries in the array.

```@echo off

:_main
setlocal enabledelayedexpansion

:: This block of code is putting a list delimitered by spaces into an pseudo-array
:: In practice, this could be its own function _createArray however for the demonstration, it is built in
set colour_list=red yellow blue orange green
set array_entry=0
for %%i in (%colour_list%) do (
set /a array_entry+=1
set colours[!array_entry!]=%%i
)

call:_arrayLength colours
echo _arrayLength returned %errorlevel%
pause>nul
exit /b

:: _arrayLength returns the length of the array parsed to it in the errorcode
:_arrayLength
setlocal enabledelayedexpansion

:loop
set /a arrayentry=%arraylength%+1
if "!%1[%arrayentry%]!"=="" exit /b %arraylength%
set /a arraylength+=1
goto loop```
Input:
```red yellow blue orange green
```
Output:
```_arrayLength returned 5
```

## BBC BASIC

```      DIM array\$(1)
array\$() = "apple", "orange"
PRINT "Number of elements in array = "; DIM(array\$(), 1) + 1
PRINT "Number of bytes in all elements combined = "; SUMLEN(array\$())
END
```
Output:
```Number of elements in array = 2
Number of bytes in all elements combined = 11```

## Beef

```using System;

namespace ArrayLength
{
class Program
{
public static void Main()
{
var array = new String[]("apple", "orange");
Console.WriteLine(array.Count);
delete(array);
}
}
}
```

## Brat

`p ["apple", "orange"].length`

## BQN

`≠` gives the length of an array in BQN.

```≠ 1‿"a"‿+
```
```3
```

## C

### A commonly used solution

C features two kinds of arrays: static (compile-time, fixed size) and dynamic (allocated at runtime).

The length of a dynamic array cannot be acquired from the array itself - its length must be stored elsewhere.

For static arrays:

```#include <stdio.h>

int main()
{
const char *fruit = { "apples", "oranges" };

// Acquire the length of the array by dividing the size of all elements (found
// with sizeof(fruit)) by the size of the first element.

// Note that since the array elements are pointers to null-terminated character
// arrays, the size of the first element is actually the size of the pointer
// type - not the length of the string.

// This size, regardless of the type being pointed to, is 8 bytes, 4 bytes, or
// 2 bytes on 64-bit, 32-bit, or 16-bit platforms respectively.
int length = sizeof(fruit) / sizeof(fruit);

printf("%d\n", length);

return 0;
}
```

A C pre-processor macro may be created for ease of use:

```#define ARRAY_LENGTH(A) (sizeof(A) / sizeof(A))
```

Note that these arrays become pointers when passed as a parameter to a function. Thus, the length of an array parameter may not be required directly - a dedicated length parameter would be required.

### Safe solution

The C language uses arrays of a declared size (including variable length arrays, i.e. VLA) and dynamically allocated memory blocks. While they are mostly the same, it is important that the sizeof operator, which returns a number of bytes, behaves quite differently for arrays and for memory pointers.

The problem is that arrays are passed to functions (procedures) via pointers. Even if we define a global variable as an array, after using it as a function argument the appropriate parameter will "forget" what size the array is.

Therefore, an object-oriented technique is used in the solution below. (This is possible even with standard C, i.e. C without ++.) Block of memory in which is stored the array is wrapped in structure and thus the size of the array can be easily stored. It is very convenient. Having defined such "classes" as StringArray, their use is easy and hassle-free. Nevertheless, the C language is not designed for OOP, and therefore C ++ is simply better for these kinds of applications.

#### Solution

```#define _CRT_SECURE_NO_WARNINGS    // turn off panic warnings
#define _CRT_NONSTDC_NO_WARNINGS   // enable old-gold POSIX names in MSVS

#include <stdarg.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <assert.h>

struct StringArray
{
size_t sizeOfArray;
size_t numberOfElements;
char** elements;
};
typedef struct StringArray* StringArray;

StringArray StringArray_new(size_t size)
{
StringArray this = calloc(1, sizeof(struct StringArray));
if (this)
{
this->elements = calloc(size, sizeof(int));
if (this->elements)
this->sizeOfArray = size;
else
{
free(this);
this = NULL;
}
}
return this;
}

void StringArray_delete(StringArray* ptr_to_this)
{
assert(ptr_to_this != NULL);
StringArray this = (*ptr_to_this);
if (this)
{
for (size_t i = 0; i < this->sizeOfArray; i++)
free(this->elements[i]);
free(this->elements);
free(this);
this = NULL;
}
}

{
char* s;
va_list args;
va_start(args, this);
while (this->numberOfElements < this->sizeOfArray && (s = va_arg(args, char*)))
this->elements[this->numberOfElements++] = strdup(s);
va_end(args);
}

int main(int argc, char* argv[])
{
StringArray a = StringArray_new(10);

printf(
"There are %d elements in an array with a capacity of %d elements:\n\n",
a->numberOfElements, a->sizeOfArray);

for (size_t i = 0; i < a->numberOfElements; i++)
printf("    the element %d is the string \"%s\"\n", i, a->elements[i]);

StringArray_delete(&a);

return EXIT_SUCCESS;
}
```
Output:
```There are 2 elements in an array with a capacity of 10 elements:

the element 0 is the string "apple"
the element 1 is the string "orange"```

#### An example why sizeof(A)/sizeof(E) may be a bad idea in C

```#define _CRT_SECURE_NO_WARNINGS    // turn off panic warnings
#define _CRT_NONSTDC_NO_WARNINGS   // enable old-gold POSIX names in MSVS

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <time.h>

#define N 10

// Fixed size global arrays

static const int scGlobal[N];
const int cGlobal[N];
static int sGlobal[N];
int Global[N];

#define TEST(A, N)                                                             \
do {                                                                          \
puts("");                                                                  \
printf("directly called:          sizeof(%8s) = %2d,  length = %2d,  %s\n",\
#A,                                                                    \
sizeof(A),                                                             \
sizeof(A) / sizeof(int),                                               \
sizeof(A) / sizeof(int) == N ? "pass" : "fail");                       \
\
test1(#A, A, N);                                                           \
test2(#A, A, N);                                                           \
test3(#A, A, N);                                                           \
} while (0);

void test1(char* name, int* A, int n)
{
printf("as parameter int* A:      sizeof(%8s) = %2d,  length = %2d,  %s\n",
name,
sizeof(A),
sizeof(A) / sizeof(int),
sizeof(A) / sizeof(int) == n ? "pass" : "fail");
}

void test2(char* name, int A[], int n)
{
printf("as parameter int A[]:     sizeof(%8s) = %2d,  length = %2d,  %s\n",
name,
sizeof(A),
sizeof(A) / sizeof(int),
sizeof(A) / sizeof(int) == n ? "pass" : "fail");
}

void test3(char* name, int A, int n)
{
printf("as parameter int A:   sizeof(%8s) = %2d,  length = %2d,  %s\n",
name,
sizeof(A),
sizeof(A) / sizeof(int),
sizeof(A) / sizeof(int) == n ? "pass" : "fail");
}

int main(int argc, char argv[])
{
// Fixed size local arrays (defined inside curly braces block)

static const int scLocal[N];
const int cLocal[N];
static int sLocal[N];
auto int aLocal[N];
int Local[N];

// Fixed size VLA arrays can/should be used instead dynamically alocated
// blocks. VLA has not implemented in Microsoft Visual Studio C.

srand(time(NULL));
int n = N + rand() % 2; // the value of n is unknow in the compile time?

#ifndef _MSC_VER
int vlaLocal[n];
#endif

// Memory blocks as ersatz arrays. This is not all possible ways to allocate
// memory. There are other functions, like LocalAlloc, HeapAlloc, sbreak...
// Don't use alloca in any serious program - this function is really bad
// choice - it can corrupt the program stack and generate a stack overflow.

int* mBlock = (int*)malloc(n * sizeof(int));
int* cBlock = (int*)calloc(n, sizeof(int));
int* aBlock = (int*)_alloca(n * sizeof(int)); // don't use in your programs!

TEST(scGlobal, N);
TEST(cGlobal, N);
TEST(sGlobal, N);
TEST(Global, N);

TEST(scLocal, N);
TEST(cLocal, N);
TEST(sLocal, N);
TEST(aLocal, N);
TEST(Local, N);

#ifndef _MSC_VER
TEST(vlaLocal, n);
#endif

TEST(mBlock, N);
TEST(cBlock, N);
TEST(aBlock, N);

free(mBlock, N);
free(cBlock, N);
// free must not be called on aBlock

return 0;
}
```

As we can see the sizeof(ArrayType)/sizeof(ElementType) approach mostly fail.

Output:
```directly called:          sizeof(scGlobal) = 40,  length = 10,  pass
as parameter int* A:      sizeof(scGlobal) =  4,  length =  1,  fail
as parameter int A[]:     sizeof(scGlobal) =  4,  length =  1,  fail
as parameter int A:   sizeof(scGlobal) =  4,  length =  1,  fail

directly called:          sizeof( cGlobal) = 40,  length = 10,  pass
as parameter int* A:      sizeof( cGlobal) =  4,  length =  1,  fail
as parameter int A[]:     sizeof( cGlobal) =  4,  length =  1,  fail
as parameter int A:   sizeof( cGlobal) =  4,  length =  1,  fail

directly called:          sizeof( sGlobal) = 40,  length = 10,  pass
as parameter int* A:      sizeof( sGlobal) =  4,  length =  1,  fail
as parameter int A[]:     sizeof( sGlobal) =  4,  length =  1,  fail
as parameter int A:   sizeof( sGlobal) =  4,  length =  1,  fail

directly called:          sizeof(  Global) = 40,  length = 10,  pass
as parameter int* A:      sizeof(  Global) =  4,  length =  1,  fail
as parameter int A[]:     sizeof(  Global) =  4,  length =  1,  fail
as parameter int A:   sizeof(  Global) =  4,  length =  1,  fail

directly called:          sizeof( scLocal) = 40,  length = 10,  pass
as parameter int* A:      sizeof( scLocal) =  4,  length =  1,  fail
as parameter int A[]:     sizeof( scLocal) =  4,  length =  1,  fail
as parameter int A:   sizeof( scLocal) =  4,  length =  1,  fail

directly called:          sizeof(  cLocal) = 40,  length = 10,  pass
as parameter int* A:      sizeof(  cLocal) =  4,  length =  1,  fail
as parameter int A[]:     sizeof(  cLocal) =  4,  length =  1,  fail
as parameter int A:   sizeof(  cLocal) =  4,  length =  1,  fail

directly called:          sizeof(  sLocal) = 40,  length = 10,  pass
as parameter int* A:      sizeof(  sLocal) =  4,  length =  1,  fail
as parameter int A[]:     sizeof(  sLocal) =  4,  length =  1,  fail
as parameter int A:   sizeof(  sLocal) =  4,  length =  1,  fail

directly called:          sizeof(  aLocal) = 40,  length = 10,  pass
as parameter int* A:      sizeof(  aLocal) =  4,  length =  1,  fail
as parameter int A[]:     sizeof(  aLocal) =  4,  length =  1,  fail
as parameter int A:   sizeof(  aLocal) =  4,  length =  1,  fail

directly called:          sizeof(   Local) = 40,  length = 10,  pass
as parameter int* A:      sizeof(   Local) =  4,  length =  1,  fail
as parameter int A[]:     sizeof(   Local) =  4,  length =  1,  fail
as parameter int A:   sizeof(   Local) =  4,  length =  1,  fail

directly called:          sizeof(  mBlock) =  4,  length =  1,  fail
as parameter int* A:      sizeof(  mBlock) =  4,  length =  1,  fail
as parameter int A[]:     sizeof(  mBlock) =  4,  length =  1,  fail
as parameter int A:   sizeof(  mBlock) =  4,  length =  1,  fail

directly called:          sizeof(  cBlock) =  4,  length =  1,  fail
as parameter int* A:      sizeof(  cBlock) =  4,  length =  1,  fail
as parameter int A[]:     sizeof(  cBlock) =  4,  length =  1,  fail
as parameter int A:   sizeof(  cBlock) =  4,  length =  1,  fail

directly called:          sizeof(  aBlock) =  4,  length =  1,  fail
as parameter int* A:      sizeof(  aBlock) =  4,  length =  1,  fail
as parameter int A[]:     sizeof(  aBlock) =  4,  length =  1,  fail
as parameter int A:   sizeof(  aBlock) =  4,  length =  1,  fail```

## C#

```using System;

class Program
{
public static void Main()
{
var fruit = new[] { "apple", "orange" };
Console.WriteLine(fruit.Length);
}
}
```

Note that any of the following array declarations could be used:

```var fruit = new[] { "apple", "orange" };
var fruit = new string[] { "apple", "orange" };
string[] fruit = new[] { "apple", "orange" };
string[] fruit = new string[] { "apple", "orange" };
string[] fruit = { "apple", "orange" };
```

A shorter variant could also have been used:

```using static System.Console;

class Program
{
public static void Main()
{
WriteLine(new[] { "apples", "oranges" }.Length);
}
}
```

## C++

C++ follows the same rules as C regarding static and dynamic arrays.

However, C++ has an additional `std::array` type (amongst other collections) in its standard library:

```#include <array>
#include <iostream>
#include <string>

int main()
{
std::array<std::string, 2> fruit { "apples", "oranges" };
std::cout << fruit.size();
return 0;
}
```

Note that `char*` or `const char*` could have been used instead of `std::string`.

In addition to the `std::array` type, the C++ standard library also provides dynamically-sized containers to hold arbitrary objects. These all support similar interfaces, though their implementations have different performance characteristics.

```    std::vector<std::string> fruitV({ "apples", "oranges" });
std::list<std::string> fruitL({ "apples", "oranges" });
std::deque<std::string> fruitD({ "apples", "oranges" });
std::cout << fruitV.size() << fruitL.size() << fruitD.size() << std::endl;
```

Of these, vector is probably the most widely used.

## Ceylon

```shared void run() {
value array = ["apple", "orange"];
print(array.size);
}
```

## Clipper/XBase++

```/*
* nizchka: March - 2016
* This is a Clipper/XBase++ of RosettaCode Array_Length
*/

PROCEDURE MAIN()
LOCAL FRUIT := { "apples","oranges" }

? LEN(FRUIT)
RETURN```
Outputs:
`2`

nizchka 23:27, 16 March 2016 (UTC)

## Clojure

```; using count:
(count ["apple" "orange"])

; OR alength if using Java arrays:
(alength (into-array ["apple" "orange"]))
```

## COBOL

Arrays in COBOL are usually referred to as tables. Tables can have fixed or variable (with known maximum) allocations, using a syntax of OCCURS DEPENDING ON. The value of the ODO identifier is the number of active elements in the table.

```       identification division.
program-id. array-length.

environment division.
configuration section.
repository.
function all intrinsic.

data division.
working-storage section.
01 table-one.
05 str-field pic x(7) occurs 0 to 5 depending on t1.

77 t1           pic 99.

procedure division.
array-length-main.
perform initialize-table
perform display-table-info
goback.

initialize-table.
move 1 to t1
move "apples" to str-field(t1)

move "oranges" to str-field(t1).

*> add an extra element and then retract table size
move "bananas" to str-field(t1).
subtract 1 from t1
.

display-table-info.
display "Elements: " t1 ", using " length(table-one) " bytes"
display table-one
.

end program array-length.
```
Output:
```\$ cobc -xjd array-length.cob
Elements: 02, using 000000014 bytes
apples oranges
```

## ColdFusion

```<cfset testArray = ["apple","orange"]>
<cfoutput>Array Length = #ArrayLen(testArray)#</cfoutput>```
Outputs:
`Array Length = 2`

Mike Knapp 15:57, 26 May 2016 (UTC)

## Common Lisp

```(print (length #("apple" "orange")))
```

### Alternate solution

I use Allegro CL 10.1

```;; Project : Array length

(setf my-array (make-array '(2)))
(setf (aref my-array 0) "apple")
(setf (aref my-array 1) "orange")
(format t "~a" "length of my-array: ")
(length my-array)
(terpri)
```

Output:

```length of my-array: 2
```

## Component Pascal

```MODULE AryLen;
IMPORT StdLog;

TYPE
String = POINTER TO ARRAY OF CHAR;
VAR
a: ARRAY 16 OF String;

PROCEDURE NewString(s: ARRAY OF CHAR): String;
VAR
str: String;
BEGIN
NEW(str,LEN(s\$) + 1);str^ := s\$; RETURN str
END NewString;

PROCEDURE Length(a: ARRAY OF String): INTEGER;
VAR
i: INTEGER;
BEGIN
i := 0;
WHILE a[i] # NIL DO INC(i) END;
RETURN i
END Length;

PROCEDURE Do*;
BEGIN
a := NewString("Apple");
a := NewString("Orange");
StdLog.String("Length:> ");StdLog.Int(Length(a));StdLog.Ln
END Do;

END AryLen.```

Execute: ^Q AryLen.Do

Output:
```Length:>  2
```

## Crystal

```puts ["apple", "orange"].size
```
Output:
```2
```

## D

```import std.stdio;

int main()
{
auto fruit = ["apple", "orange"];
fruit.length.writeln;
return 0;
}
```

Or a somewhat shorter...

```import std.stdio;

void main()
{
["apple", "orange"].length.writeln;
}
```

## Dart

```arrLength(arr) {
return arr.length;
}

main() {
var fruits = ['apple', 'orange'];
print(arrLength(fruits));
}
```

## DataWeave

```var arr = ["apple", "orange"]
sizeOf(arr)```

## Delphi

```   showmessage(  length(['a','b','c']).ToString );
```

## Diego

```set_namespace(rosettacode)_me();

me_msg()_array()_values(apple,orange)_length();

reset_namespace[];```
Output:
`2`

## Dragon

```select "std"

a = ["apple","orange"]
b = length(a)

show b```

## dt

`[ "apple" "orange" ] len`

## Dyalect

```var xs = ["apple", "orange"]
print(xs.Length())```

## EasyLang

```fruit\$[] = [ "apples" "oranges" ]
print len fruit\$[]
```

## EchoLisp

```(length '("apple" "orange")) ;; list
→ 2
(vector-length #("apple" "orange")) ;; vector
→ 2
```

## Ecstasy

```String[] array  = ["apple", "orange"];
Int      length = array.size;
```

## Ela

`length [1..10]`

## Elena

ELENA 5.0 :

```    var array := new string[]{"apple", "orange"};
var length := array.Length;```

## Elixir

```iex(1)> length( ["apple", "orange"] )          # List
2
iex(2)> tuple_size( {"apple", "orange"} )      # Tuple
2
```

## Elm

```import Array
import Html

main : Html.Html
main =
["apple", "orange"]
|> Array.fromList
|> Array.length
|> String.fromInt
|> Html.text
```

## Emacs Lisp

```(length ["apple" "orange"])
=> 2
```

`length` also accepts a list or a string.

## EMal

`writeLine(text["apple", "orange"].length)`

## Erlang

```1> length(["apple", "orange"]).     %using a list
2
1> tuple_size({"apple", "orange"}). %using a tuple
2
```

## Euphoria

```sequence s = {"apple","orange",2.95} -- Euphoria doesn't care what you put in a sequence

? length(s)

3 -- three objects

? length(s)

5 -- apple has 5 characters

? length(s[\$])

1 -- 'e' is an atomic value

? length(s[\$])

1 -- 2.95 is an atomic value```

## F#

```[|1;2;3|].Length |> printfn "%i"
```

Or:

```[|1;2;3|] |> Array.length |> printfn "%i"
```

## Factor

```{ "apple" "orange" } length
```

## Forth

The philosophy of Chuck Moore, the creator of Forth was that he did not want to write code for something he may never use. His solution was to distill his language into a large set of very simple routines that control the hardware directly. This demonstration must build "arrays" from scratch. In Forth, like in Assembler, you can do this any way you want. This demonstration adds new words to Forth that make a syntax to create simple variable length string arrays. Each string is a counted string with no trailing zero.

The code is commented to explain what is going on for those unfamiliar with Forth.

```: STRING,  ( caddr len -- ) \ Allocate space & compile string into memory
HERE  OVER CHAR+  ALLOT  PLACE ;

: "     ( -- ) [CHAR] " PARSE  STRING, ; \ Parse input to " and compile to memory

\ Array delimiter words
: {  ALIGN 0 C, ;               \ Compile 0 byte start/end of array
: }  ALIGN 0 C,  ;

\ String array words
: {NEXT}    ( str -- next_str)       \ Iterate to next string
COUNT + ;

: {NTH}    ( n array_addr -- str)   \ Returns address of the Nth item in the array
SWAP 0 DO {NEXT} LOOP ;

: {LEN} ( array_addr -- n)  \ count strings in the array
0 >R                      \ Counter on Rstack
{NEXT}
BEGIN
DUP C@                 \ Fetch length byte
WHILE                     \ While true
R> 1+ >R               \ Inc. counter
{NEXT}
REPEAT
DROP
R> ;      \ return counter to data stack
```

Test code at Forth console

```CREATE Q { " Apples" " Oranges" }   q {len} . 2  ok
```

## Fortran

Early fortrans offered no protocol for ascertaining the length (or dimensionality) of arrays, though the compiler has this information. Thus a statement such as `PRINT A` would print all the elements of a variable `A` according to its definition. A subprogram that received a parameter would have no access to these details, so its parameter might be declared as `A(12345)` simply to signify that it was an array (rather than an ordinary variable) and the programmer would rely on other data to know the upper bound to employ, for instance via an additional parameter. Any mistakes would cause crashes! On the other hand, with heavy computational tasks, it was common to take advantage of the opportunities. Thus, a subprogram might regard its array parameter as one-dimensional even though the actual parameter was not. Carefully-programmed routines might thusly process a sequence of elements via 1-D indexing, far faster than the 2-D or higher order indexing of the original. Success at this game required understanding how array elements were arranged in multidimensional arrays.

Later fortrans allowed `A(*)` to signify an array parameter of unstated upper bound, but there was still a problem with higher dimensions. All but the last dimension has to be stated correctly if a multi-dimensional array parameter is to be indexed correctly - Fortran stores array elements in column-major order.

With Fortran 90, a new protocol was introduced, whereby the parameter might be declared as `A(:)` signifying an array of one dimension, of bounds unstated. A 2-D array would have `A(:,:)` and so on. Further, arrays could have arbitrary lower bounds as well, as in `A(-7:12)` but if no colon appeared for a dimension, the lower bound would be assumed to be one so `A(2)` means an array of two elements, as before. And as before, in a subprogram a bound could be explicitly stated, perhaps via an explicit parameter such as `N`, but now with the `:` scheme, the compiler is passing secret additional parameters to the subprogram giving the bounds of the array, and these can be accessed via the library functions LBOUND and UBOUND. For multi-dimensional arrays there are multiple bounds, and an invocation might be `UBOUND(A,DIM = 2)` but in the example only a one-dimensional array is involved. These facilities are available only if the new MODULE protocol is employed.

The task is in terms of an array holding the texts "Apple" and "Orange", so a CHARACTER*6 element size will do; the subprogram receives yet another secret parameter specifying the size of CHARACTER parameters. This size can be accessed via the LEN function, and, since in principle the index span is arbitrary, no constant index is sure to be a valid index of some single element: thus the LBOUND function is used to finger one that is.

For a simple example, the WRITE(6,*) suffices: write to standard output (the 6), in free-format (the *).

```      MODULE EXAMPLE
CONTAINS
SUBROUTINE ABOUND(A)
CHARACTER*(*) A(:)	!One dimensional array, unspecified bounds.
WRITE (6,*) "Lower bound",LBOUND(A),", Upper bound",UBOUND(A)
WRITE (6,*) "Element size",LEN(A(LBOUND(A)))
WRITE (6,*) A
END SUBROUTINE ABOUND
END MODULE EXAMPLE

PROGRAM SHOWBOUNDS
USE EXAMPLE
CHARACTER*6 ARRAY(-1:1)
ARRAY(-1) = "Apple"
ARRAY(0) = "Orange"
ARRAY(1) = ""
CALL ABOUND(ARRAY)
WRITE (6,*) "But, when it is at home..."
WRITE (6,*) "L. bound",LBOUND(ARRAY),", U. bound",UBOUND(ARRAY)
END
```

Output:

```Lower bound           1 , Upper bound           3
Element size           6
Apple Orange
But, when it is at home...
L. bound          -1 , U. bound           1
```

Notice that the subprogram sees the array as an old-style array starting with index one! If it is to work with a lower bound other than one, the declaration in the subprogram must state it, perhaps as A(-1:) or as A(START:), etc. The upper bound remains unspecified, and with that declaration, UBOUND returns 1 instead of 3, corresponding to the shift. Thus, UBOUND returns not the actual upper bound of the array parameter (as supplied) but the upper bound relative to the lower bound in use in the subprogram so that UBOUND - LBOUND + 1 does give the number of elements.

If in the subprogram the bounds are fixed (say as `A(-1:6)`) then a CALL ABOUND(ARRAY) may provoke a compiler complaint if ARRAY is not a suitable size.

## FreeBASIC

```' FB 1.05.0 Win64

Dim fruit(1) As String = {"apple", "orange"}
Dim length As Integer = UBound(fruit) - LBound(fruit) + 1
Print "The length of the fruit array is"; length
Print
Print "Press any key to quit the program"
Sleep```
Output:
```The length of the fruit array is 2
```

## Frink

```a = ["apple", "orange"]
println[length[a]]```

## FurryScript

```THE_LIST( <apple> <orange> )
COUNT[ 0 SW ~| COUNT_STEP# 0 SW SU ]
COUNT_STEP[ DR 1 SU ]

`THE_LIST COUNT# +<>```

## Futhark

 This example may be incorrect due to a recent change in the task requirements or a lack of testing. Please verify it and remove this message. If the example does not match the requirements or does not work, replace this message with Template:incorrect or fix the code yourself.

The `shape` builtin returns the shape of an array as an array of integers. The length is element 0 of the shape:

```fun length(as: []int): int = (shape as)
```

## FutureBasic

NSUInteger count = fn ArrayCount( array ). Example:

```window 1
print fn ArrayCount( @[@"apple",@"orange",@"cherry",@"grape",@"lemon"] )
HandleEvents```

We can also use FB's len() function to get the length of an array.

```void local fn DoIt
CFArrayRef array = @[@"apple",@"orange",@"cherry",@"grape",@"lemon"]
print len(array)
end fn

fn DoIt

HandleEvents```
Output:
```5
```

## Fōrmulæ

Fōrmulæ programs are not textual, visualization/edition of programs is done showing/manipulating structures but not text. Moreover, there can be multiple visual representations of the same program. Even though it is possible to have textual representation —i.e. XML, JSON— they are intended for storage and transfer purposes more than visualization and edition.

Programs in Fōrmulæ are created/edited online in its website.

In this page you can see and run the program(s) related to this task and their results. You can also change either the programs or the parameters they are called with, for experimentation, but remember that these programs were created with the main purpose of showing a clear solution of the task, and they generally lack any kind of validation.

Solution

The cardinality expression reduces to the number of subexpressions the given expression has, including if the expressions is a list:

## Gambas

```Public Sub Main()
Dim siList As Short[] = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 0]

Print siList.Count

End```

Output:

```10
```

## Genie

```[indent=4]
/* Array length, in Genie */
init
arr:array of string = {"apple", "orange"}
stdout.printf("%d ", arr.length)
print arr```
Output:
```prompt\$ valac array_length.gs
prompt\$ ./array_length
2 orange```

## Go

```package main

import "fmt"

func main() {
arr := [...]string{"apple", "orange", "pear"}

fmt.Printf("Length of %v is %v.\n", arr, len(arr))
}
```

Output:
```Length of [apple orange pear] is 3.
```

## Groovy

```def fruits = ['apple','orange']
println fruits.size()
```

## Harbour

```LOCAL aFruits := {"apple", "orange"}
Qout( Len( aFruits ) ) // --> 2```

```-- [[Char]] -> Int
length ["apple", "orange"]
```

## hexiscript

```let a arr 2
let a "apple"
let a "orange"
println len a```

## Hoon

`|=  arr=(list *)  (lent arr)`

## i

`main: print(#["apple", "orange"])`

## Icon and Unicon

Icon, and therefore Unicon, includes a prefix size operator, star `*`. This operator can be applied to just about any data type or data structure.

```write(*["apple", "orange"])
```

## Idris

```length ["apple", "orange"]
```

## Insitux

`(len ['apple' 'orange'])`

## J

Tally (`#`) returns the length of the leading dimension of an array (or 1 if the array has no dimensions). Shape Of (`\$`) returns the length of each dimension of an array.

```   # 'apple';'orange'
2
\$ 'apple';'orange'
2
```

For the list array example given, the result appears to be the same. The difference is that the result of Tally is a scalar (array of 0 dimensions) whereas the result of Shape Of is a list (1 dimensional array), of length 1 in this case.

```   \$#'apple';'orange'

\$\$'apple';'orange'
1
```

This might be a clearer concept with a few more examples. Here's an array with two dimensions:

```   >'apple';'orange'
apple
orange
\$>'apple';'orange'
2 6
#>'apple';'orange'
2
```

And, here's an array with no dimensions:

```   9001
9001
#9001
1
\$9001
```

You can count the number of dimensions of an array (the length of the list of lengths) using `#\$array`:

```   #\$9001
0
#\$'apple';'orange'
1
#\$>'apple';'orange'
2
```

## Janet

```(def our-array @["apple" "orange"])
(length our-array)```
Output:
```2
```

## Java

The resulting array object will have a length field.

```String[] strings = { "apple", "orange" };
int length = strings.length;
```

Additionally, you can do this in one line, if need be.

```int length = new String[] { "apple", "orange" }.length;
```

## JavaScript

```console.log(['apple', 'orange'].length);
```

However, determining the length of a list, array, or collection may simply be the wrong thing to do.

If, for example, the actual task (undefined here, unfortunately) requires retrieving the final item, while it is perfectly possible to write last in terms of length

```function last(lst) {
return lst[lst.length - 1];
}
```

using length has the disadvantage that it leaves last simply undefined for an empty list.

We might do better to drop the narrow focus on length, and instead use a fold (reduce, in JS terms) which can return a default value of some kind.

```function last(lst) {
return lst.reduce(function (a, x) {
return x;
}, null);
}
```

Alternatively, rather than scanning the entire list to simply get the final value, it might sometimes be better to test the length:

```function last(list, defaultValue) {
return list.length ?list[list.length-1] :defaultValue;
}
```

Or use other built-in functions – this, for example, seems fairly clear, and is already 100+ times faster than unoptimised tail recursion in ES5 (testing with a list of 1000 elements):

```function last(list, defaultValue) {
return list.slice(-1) || defaultValue;
}
```

## Joy

`["apple" "orange"] size.`
Output:
`2`

## jq

`["apple","orange"] | length`

Output:

```2
```

Note that the length filter is polymorphic, so for example the empty string (""), the empty list ([]), and null all have length 0.

## Jsish

```/* Array length, in jsish */
var arr = new Array('apple', 'orange');
puts(arr.length);
puts(arr);
```
Output:
```prompt\$ jsish arrayLength.jsi
2
orange```

## Julia

```a = ["apple","orange"]
length(a)
```

## Klingphix

```include ..\Utilitys.tlhy

( "apple" "orange" ) len print

" " input```
Output:
`2`

## Klong

```#["apple" "orange"]
```

## Kotlin

```fun main(args: Array<String>) {
println(arrayOf("apple", "orange").size)
}
```

## Lambdatalk

```{A.length {A.new 1 2 3}}
-> 3
```

## Lang

```&arr \$= [apple, orange]

# Array length function
fn.println(fn.arrayLength(&arr))

# Length operator function
fn.println(fn.len(&arr))

# Length operator
fn.println(parser.op(@&arr))```

## Latitude

In Latitude, `length` and `size` are synonymous and will both retrieve the size of a collection.

`println: ["apple", "orange"] length.`

## LDPL

```data:
fruits is text list
len is number

procedure:
push "apple" to fruits
push "orange" to fruits
get length of fruits in len
display len lf```
Output:
```2
```

## Liberty BASIC

When a one or two dimensional array, A\$, with subscript(s) of 10 or less is referenced (either by assigning or reading), the compiler does an implicit DIM A\$(10) or DIM A\$(10,10). Before referencing an array with any subscript numbered higher than 10, or arrays of three dimensions or more, the programmer must first issue an explicit DIM statement.

There is no function in Liberty Basic to directly read the size of an array. This program uses error trapping loops to, first, determine the number of dimensions of the array. Then, second, again uses error trapping loops to determine the number of elements in each dimension. Finally, it prints the DIM statement that was used to define the array.

I suppose the implicit DIM feature makes it a bit quicker to write short, simple programs. One or two dimension arrays may be resized with REDIM. Three dimension or more arrays can not be resized. All arrays may be cleared with REDIM. Keep in mind that A\$(n) and A\$(n,m) are the same array. You must refer to it with the correct arguments or get an error.

NOTE -- This program runs only under LB Booster version 3.05 or higher because of arrays with more than two dimensions, passed array names to functions and subroutines as a parameter, and structured error trapping syntax. Get the LBB compiler here: http://lbbooster.com/

Works with: LB Booster
```FruitList\$(0)="apple" 'assign 2 cells of a list array
FruitList\$(1)="orange"
dimension=dimension(FruitList\$()) 'first get the dimension of the array
if dimension>3 then
print "Sorry, program only written for array dimensions of 3 or less."
end
end if
call elements FruitList\$(), dimension 'next get the size of each dimension
end

function dimension(array\$())
for dimension=1 to 4
select case dimension
case 1
try: x\$=array\$(0)
catch: goto [TryNext]
end try
exit for
case 2
try: x\$=array\$(0,0)
catch: goto [TryNext]
end try
exit for
case 3
try: x\$=array\$(0,0,0)
catch: goto [TryNext]
end try
exit for
case 4
exit for
end select
[TryNext]
next dimension
if dimension<4 then print "array dimension = "; dimension
ArraySize(0)=dimension
end function

sub elements array\$(), dimension
select case dimension
case 1
try
do
x\$=array\$(a)
a+=1
loop
catch: elements=a
end try
ArraySize(1)=elements-1
print "dimension 1 has "; elements; " elements (cells), "_
"numbered 0 to "; ArraySize(1)
case 2
try
do
x\$=array\$(a,0)
a+=1
loop
catch: elements=a
end try
ArraySize(1)=elements-1
print "dimension 1 has "; elements; " elements (cells), "_
"numbered 0 to "; ArraySize(1)
elements=0
try
do
x\$=array\$(0,b)
b+=1
loop
catch: elements=b
end try            ArraySize(2)=elements-1
print "dimension 2 has "; elements; " elements (cells), "_
"numbered 0 to "; ArraySize(2)
case 3
try
do
x\$=array\$(a,0,0)
a+=1
loop
catch: elements=a
end try
ArraySize(1)=elements-1
print "dimension 1 has "; elements; " elements (cells), "_
"numbered 0 to "; ArraySize(1)
elements=0
try
do
x\$=array\$(0,b,0)
b+=1
loop
catch: elements=b
end try
ArraySize(2)=elements-1
print "dimension 2 has "; elements; " elements (cells), "_
"numbered 0 to "; ArraySize(2)
elements=0
try
do
x\$=array\$(0,0,c)
c+=1
loop
catch: elements=c
end try
ArraySize(3)=elements-1
print "dimension 3 has "; elements; " elements (cells), "_
"numbered 0 to "; ArraySize(3)
end select
'print the explicit or implied DIMension statement for this array
print "DIM array\$("; a-1;
if b>0 then print ","; b-1;
if c>0 then print ","; c-1;
print ")"
end sub```
Output:
```array dimension = 1
dimension 1 has 11 elements (cells), numbered 0 to 10
DIM array\$(10)
```

## LIL

LIL does not use arrays, but indexed lists. The builtin count command returns the item count in a list. The length command returns the length of the list after string conversion.

```# Array length, in LIL
set a [list "apple"]
append a "orange"
print [count \$a]
print [index \$a 1]
```
Output:
```prompt\$ lil arrayLength.lil
2
orange```

## Limbo

```implement Command;

include "sys.m";
sys: Sys;

include "draw.m";

include "sh.m";

init(nil: ref Draw->Context, nil: list of string)
{

a := array[] of {"apple", "orange"};
sys->print("length of a: %d\n", len a);
}
```

## Lingo

```fruits = ["apple", "orange"]
put fruits.count
-- 2```

## Little

```string fruit[] = {"apples", "oranges"};
puts(length(fruit));
```

## LiveCode

```put "apple","orange" into fruit
split fruit using comma
answer the number of elements of fruit```

## Lua

```-- For tables as simple arrays, use the # operator:
fruits = {"apple", "orange"}
print(#fruits)

-- Note the # symbol does not work for non-integer-indexed tables:
fruits = {fruit1 = "apple", fruit2 = "orange"}
print(#fruits)

-- For this you can use this short function:
function size (tab)
local count = 0
for k, v in pairs(tab) do
count = count + 1
end
return count
end

print(size(fruits))
```
Output:
```2
0
2
```

## M2000 Interpreter

```\\ A is a pointer to array
A=("Apple", "Orange")
Print  Len(A)=2  ' True
Print Dimension(A, 0)  ' LBound (0 or 1), here 0
Print Dimension(A)  ' No of Dimensions 1
Print Dimension(A, 1) ' for 1 dimension array this is also Length=2
\\ A\$( ) is an Array (not a pointer to array)
Dim Base 1, A\$(2)
A\$(1)="Apple", "Orange"
Print Dimension(A\$(), 0)  ' LBound (0 or 1), here 1
Print Dimension(A\$())  ' No of Dimensions 1
Print Dimension(A\$(), 1) ' for 1 dimension array this is also Length=2
Link A to B\$()  ' B\$() is a reference to A
Print B\$(0)=A\$(1)
Print B\$(1)=A\$(2)
Dim C\$()
\\ C\$() get a copy of B\$()
C\$()=B\$()
Print C\$()  ' prints Apple Orange
\\ An array can link to a new name as reference, and can change major type
\\ here A\$() get A() so we can read/store numbers and read/store strings in same array
\\ using two names
\\ An array pointer can point to another array
A=A()
Print Dimension(A, 0)  ' LBound (0 or 1), here 1 (was 0)
\\ Because B\$() is reference of A:
Print Dimension(B\$(), 0)  ' LBound (0 or 1), here 1 (was 0)
Print B\$(1)=A\$(1)
Print B\$(2)=A\$(2)
Print Dimension(C\$(), 0)  ' LBound (0 or 1), here 0
\\ change base preserve items
Dim Base 1, C\$(Dimension(C\$(), 1))
Print Dimension(C\$(), 0)  ' LBound (0 or 1), here 1 (was 0)
Print C\$()  ' prints Apple Orange
Print Len(C\$()) ' Len return all items of an array - can be 0
Dim K(1,1,1,1,1,1)  ' Maximum 10 dimensions
Print Len(K()=1 ' True```

## Maple

```a := Array(["apple", "orange"]);
numelems(a);```
Output:
```a := [ "apple" "orange" ]
2
```

## Mathematica/Wolfram Language

```Length[{"apple", "orange"}]
```

## MATLAB / Octave

```length({'apple', 'orange'})
```

For arrays with more than one dimension, length reports the length of the larges dimension. The number of elements in a multi-dimensional array can be obtained with numel.

```numel({'apple', 'orange'; 'pear', 'banana'})
```

## Modula-3

```MODULE ArrayLength EXPORTS Main;

IMPORT IO;

VAR
Arr:ARRAY[1..2] OF TEXT :=
ARRAY[1..2] OF TEXT{"apples", "oranges"};
BEGIN
IO.PutInt(NUMBER(Arr));
END ArrayLength.```

## Mercury

```:- module array_length.
:- interface.

:- import_module io.
:- pred main(io::di, io::uo) is det.

:- implementation.

:- import_module array, list.

main(!IO) :-
Array = array(["apples", "oranges"]),
io.write_int(size(Array), !IO).```

## min

Works with: min version 0.19.3
`("apple" "orange") size print`
Output:
```2
```

## MiniScript

```fruits = ["apple", "orange"]
print fruits.len
```

## MiniZinc

```array[int] of int: arr = [1,2,3];
var int: size = length(arr);

solve satisfy;

output [show(size),"\n"];```

## Nanoquery

```fruit = array(2)
fruit = "apple"
fruit = "orange"
println len(fruit)

// outputs 2```

## Neko

```var fruit = \$array("apple", "orange");

\$print(\$asize(fruit));```

## NewLISP

```(println (length '("apple" "orange")))

; Nehal-Singhal 2018-05-25
(length '(apple orange))
```

## NGS

```echo(len(['apple', 'orange']))
# same
echo(['apple', 'orange'].len())```

## Nim

```let fruit = ["apple", "orange"]
echo "The length of the fruit array is ", len(fruit)
```
Output:
```The length of the fruit array is 2
```

## Nu

`[apple orange] | length`
Output:
```2
```

## Nutt

```module main
imports native.io.output.say

say(#{"apple","orange"})

end```

## Oberon-2

Works with: oo2c
```MODULE ArrayLength;
IMPORT
Strings,
Out;
TYPE
String = POINTER TO ARRAY OF CHAR;
VAR
a: ARRAY 16 OF String;

PROCEDURE NewString(s: ARRAY OF CHAR): String;
VAR
str: String;
BEGIN
NEW(str,Strings.Length(s) + 1);COPY(s,str^);
RETURN str
END NewString;

PROCEDURE Length(a: ARRAY OF String): LONGINT;
VAR
i: LONGINT;
BEGIN
i := 0;
WHILE (a[i] # NIL) DO INC(i) END;
RETURN i;
END Length;

BEGIN
a := NewString("apple");
a := NewString("orange");
Out.String("length: ");Out.Int(Length(a),0);Out.Ln
END ArrayLength.```
Output:
```length: 2
```

## Objeck

```class Test {
function : Main(args : String[]) ~ Nil {
fruit := ["apples", "oranges"];
fruit->Size()->PrintLine();
}
}```

## OCaml

```Array.length [|"apple"; "orange"|];;
```

## Oforth

`[ "apple", "orange" ] size`

## Ol

All of these methods are equivalent.

```(print (vector-length (vector "apple" "orange")))
(print (vector-length #("apple" "orange")))
(print (vector-length ["apple" "orange"]))

(print (size #("apple" "orange")))
```

## Onyx

`[`apple' `orange'] length # leaves 2 on top of the stack`

## ooRexx

```/* REXX */
a = .array~of('apple','orange')
say a~size 'elements'
Do e over a
say e
End
Say "a="a```
Output:
```2 elements
apple
orange
a=orange```

## PARI/GP

```array = ["apple", "orange"]
length(array)       \\ == 2
#array              \\ == 2```

The `#` syntax is a handy shorthand. It usually looks best just on variables but it works on expressions too, possibly with parens to control precedence.

Both forms work on column vectors too, and also on strings and matrices. (For a matrix it is the number of columns.)

## Pascal

Works with: Free Pascal version 2.6.2
```#!/usr/bin/instantfpc
//program ArrayLength;

{\$mode objfpc}{\$H+}

uses SysUtils, Classes;

const
Fruits : array[0..1] of String = ('apple', 'orange');

begin
WriteLn('Length of Fruits by function : ', Length(Fruits));
WriteLn('Length of Fruits by bounds : ', High(Fruits) - Low(Fruits) + 1);
END.
```
Output:
```./ArrayLength.pas
Length of Fruits by function : 2
Length of Fruits by bounds : 2

```

## PascalABC.NET

```// Array length. Nigel Galloway: September 2nd., 2022
var n:array of string:=('apple','orange');
begin
writeln(Length(n));
end.
```
Output:
```2
```

## Perl

The way to get the number of elements of an array in Perl is to put the array in scalar context.

```my @array = qw "apple orange banana", 4, 42;

scalar @array;      #  5
0 + @arrray;        #  5
'' . @array;        # "5"
my \$elems = @array; # \$elems = 5

scalar @{  [1,2,3]  }; # [1,2,3] is a reference which is already a scalar

my \$array_ref = \@array; # a reference
scalar @\$array_ref;

# using subroutine prototypes, not generally recommended
# and not usually what you think they are
sub takes_a_scalar (\$) { my (\$a) = @_; return \$a }

takes_a_scalar @array;

# the built-ins can also act like they have prototypes
```

A common mistake is to use `length` which works on strings not arrays. So using it on an array, as a side-effect, actually gives you a number which represents the order of magnitude.

```length '' . @array; # 1
length      @array; # 1

print '0.', scalar @array, 'e', length @array, "\n"; # 0.5e1

@array = 1..123;
print '0.', scalar @array, 'e', length @array, "\n"; # 0.123e3

print 'the length of @array is on the order of ';
print 10 ** (length( @array )-1); # 100
print " elements long\n";
```

## Phix

Library: Phix/basics
```constant fruits = {"apple","orange"}
?length(fruits)
```
Output:
```2
```

## Phixmonti

`"apple" "orange" stklen tolist len print`

With syntactic sugar

```include ..\Utilitys.pmt
( "apple" "orange" ) len print```
Output:
```2
```

## PHP

```print count(['apple', 'orange']); // Returns 2
```

## Picat

```main =>
L = ["apple", "orange"],
println(len(L))),
println(length(L)),
println(L.len),
println(L.length).
```
Output:
```2
2
2
2```

## PicoLisp

```: (length '(apple orange))
-> 2
:```

## Pike

```void main()
{
array fruit = ({ "apple", "orange" });
write("%d\n", sizeof(fruit));
}
```
Output:
`2`

## PL/I

``` p: Proc Options(main);
Dcl a(2) Char(6) Varying Init('apple','orange');
Put Edit('Array a has',(hbound(a)-lbound(a)+1),' elements.')
(Skip,a,f(2),a);
Put Skip Data(a);
End;```
Output:
```Array a has 2 elements.
A(1)='apple'            A(2)='orange';```

## Plorth

`["apple", "orange"] length println`

## Pony

```actor Main
new create(env:Env)=>
var c=Array[String](2)
c.push("apple")
c.push("orange")
env.out.print("Array c is " + c.size().string() + " elements long!")
```

## Potion

`("apple", "orange") length print`

## PowerShell

```\$Array = @( "Apple", "Orange" )
\$Array.Count
\$Array.Length
```
Output:
```2
2```

## Processing

```String[] arr = {"apple", "orange"};
void setup(){
println(arr.length);
}```
Output:
```2
```

### Processing Python mode

```arr = ['apple', 'orange']  # a list for an array

def setup():
println(len(arr))```
Output:
```2
```

## Prolog

```| ?- length(["apple", "orange"], X).

X = 2

yes```

## PureBasic

```EnableExplicit
Define Dim fruit\$(1); defines array with 2 elements at indices 0 and 1
fruit\$(0) = "apple"
fruit\$(1) = "orange"
Define length = ArraySize(fruit\$()) + 1; including the element at index 0
If OpenConsole()
PrintN("The length of the fruit array is " + length)
PrintN("")
PrintN("Press any key to close the console")
Repeat: Delay(10) : Until Inkey() <> ""
CloseConsole()
EndIf```
Output:
```The length of the fruit array is 2
```

An abbreviated form of the above, not printing to console/terminal

```Dim fruit\$(1); defines array with 2 elements at indices 0 and 1
fruit\$(0) = "apple"
fruit\$(1) = "orange"
Debug ArraySize(fruit\$()) + 1 ;the number of elements is equal to the size + 1. For example: Dim a(2) contains 3 elements from a(0) to a(2) for a size of 2.```
Output:
```2
```

## Python

```>>> print(len(['apple', 'orange']))
2
>>>```

## QB64

```Dim max As Integer, Index As Integer
Randomize Timer
max = Int(Rnd * 10) + 1
Dim StringAr(1 To max) As String

For Index = 1 To max
If Int(Rnd * 6) + 1 <= 3 Then StringAr(Index) = "Apple" Else StringAr(Index) = "orange"
Next
Print UBound(Stringar)
End```

## Quackery

`  \$ "apples" \$ "oranges" 2 pack size echo`
Output:
`2`

## R

```a <- c('apple','orange')   # create a vector containing "apple" and "orange"
length(a)```
Output:
``` 2
```

## Racket

Translation of: EchoLisp
```#lang racket/base
(length '("apple" "orange")) ;; list
(vector-length #("apple" "orange")) ;; vector```
Output:
```2
2```

## Raku

(formerly Perl 6)

Works with: Rakudo version 2017.04

To get the number of elements of an array in Raku you put the array in a coercing Numeric context, or call `elems` on it.

```my @array = <apple orange>;

say @array.elems;  # 2
say elems @array;  # 2
say + @array;      # 2
say @array + 0;    # 2```

Watch out for infinite/lazy arrays though. You can't get the length of those.

```my @infinite = 1 .. Inf;  # 1, 2, 3, 4, ...

say @infinite;  # 5001
say @infinite.elems;  # Throws exception "Cannot .elems a lazy list"```

## Rapira

```arr := <* "apple", "orange" *>
output: #arr```

## REBOL

```>> length? ["apples" "oranges"]
== 2```

## Red

```length? ["apples" "oranges"]
== 2```

## Relation

```relation fruit
insert "apples"
insert "oranges"
project fruit count
print```
fruit_count
2

## ReScript

```let fruits = ["apple", "orange"]

Js.log(Js.Array.length(fruits))```
```<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<title>ReScript: Array.length()</title>
<style rel="stylesheet" type="text/css">
body { color:#EEE; background-color:#888; }
</style>
<script>var exports = {};</script>
<script src="./arrlen.js"></script>
<body>

</body>
</html>```
Output:
```// Generated by ReScript, PLEASE EDIT WITH CARE
'use strict';

var fruits = [
"apple",
"orange"
];

console.log(fruits.length);

exports.fruits = fruits;
/*  Not a pure module */```

## REXX

```/* REXX ----------------------------------------------
* The compond variable a. implements an array
* By convention, a.0 contains the number of elements
*---------------------------------------------------*/
a.=0                   /* initialize the "array" */
call store 'apple'
Call store 'orange'
Say 'There are' a.0 'elements in the array:'
Do i=1 To a.0
Say 'Element' i':' a.i
End
Exit
store: Procedure Expose a.
z=a.0+1
a.z=arg(1)
a.0=z
Return```
Output:
```There are 2 elements in the array:
Element 1: apple
Element 2: orange```

## Ring

`See len(['apple', 'orange']) # output = 2`

## Robotic

As stated before in the arrays section on this Wiki, there is no functions listed for the manipulation/status of arrays. The best way we can count for length in an array is to have a variable keep track of it.

Example 1:

```set "index" to 0
set "\$array&index&" to "apple"
inc "index" by 1
set "\$array&index&" to "orange"
* "Array length: ('index' + 1)"```

Example 2:

```set "index" to 0
set "local1" to random 1 to 99
: "rand"
set "array&index&" to random 0 to 99
inc "index" 1
dec "local1" 1
if "local1" > 1 then "rand"
* "Array length: ('index')"```

## RPL

The `SIZE` instruction can be used for arrays (e.g. vectors) and lists. RPL arrays can only contain real or complex numbers, so we will use a list here.

```{ "apple" "orange" } SIZE
```
Output:
```1: 2
```

## Ruby

`puts ['apple', 'orange'].length  # or .size`

## Rust

By default arrays are immutable in rust.

```fn main() {
let array = ["foo", "bar", "baz", "biff"];
println!("the array has {} elements", array.len());
}```

## S-BASIC

Finding the size of an S-BASIC array at run-time is convoluted, to say the least, but it can be done. (It would also generally be pointless, since the size of an array is fixed - and thus presumably known - at compile time.) Each array has an associated data structure (referred to in the documentation as "SPEC") containing information such as the number of dimensions, the size of an array element, the size of each dimension, and so on. The address of the SPEC for an array can be obtained using the LOCATION statement. For a single-dimension array, the number of elements will be found five bytes into the structure, at a point described in the documentation as the "dope vector".

```dim string animals(2)                rem here is our array
based array_size = integer

animals(1) = "ardvark"
animals(2) = "bison"

base array_size at array_struct_address + 5

print "Size of array ="; array_size

end```
Output:
```Size of array = 2
```

## Scala

`println(Array("apple", "orange").length)`

## Scheme

Using Scheme's vector type as an equivalent to an array:

`(display (vector-length #("apple" "orange")))`

## Seed7

The function length determines the length of an array.

```\$ include "seed7_05.s7i";

const array string: anArray is [] ("apple", "orange");

const proc: main is func
begin
writeln(length(anArray));
end func;```

## SenseTalk

```put ("apple", "orange", "pear", "banana", "aubergine") into fruits
put the number of items in fruits```

## Shen

```\\ Using a vector
\\ @v creates the vector
\\ <> ends the vector
\\ limit returns the length of a vector
\\ apple and orange are symbols (vs strings) in this case.
(limit (@v apple orange <>))

\\ As an list
(length [apple orange])```

## Sidef

```var arr = ['apple', 'orange'];
say arr.len;        #=> 2
say arr.end;        #=> 1 (zero based)```

## Simula

```COMMENT ARRAY-LENGTH;
BEGIN

INTEGER PROCEDURE ARRAYLENGTH(A); TEXT ARRAY A;
BEGIN
ARRAYLENGTH := UPPERBOUND(A, 1) - LOWERBOUND(A, 1) + 1;
END ARRAYLENGTH;

TEXT ARRAY A(1:2);
INTEGER L;
A(1) :- "APPLE";
A(2) :- "ORANGE";
L := ARRAYLENGTH(A);
OUTINT(L, 0);
OUTIMAGE;
END```
Output:
```2
```

## Template:Heaer

`(length ["apple" "orange"])`

## SmallBASIC

```A = ["apple", "orange"]
print len(A)```

## Smalltalk

```a := #('apple' 'orange').
a size```

## SNOBOL4

```    ar = ARRAY('2,2')
ar<1,1> = 'apple'
ar<1,2> = 'first'
ar<2,1> = 'orange'
ar<2,2> = 'second'
OUTPUT = IDENT(DATATYPE(ar), 'ARRAY') PROTOTYPE(ar)
end```
Output:
`2,2`

## SPL

```a = ["apple","orange"]
#.output("Number of elements in array: ",#.size(a,1))```
Output:
```Number of elements in array: 2
```

## SQL

`SELECT COUNT() FROM (VALUES ('apple'),('orange'));`

## Standard ML

```let
val a = Array.fromList ["apple", "orange"]
in
Array.length a
end;```

## Stata

String data may be stored either in a Stata dataset or in a Mata matrix, not in a Stata matrix, which may hold only numeric data. A list of strings may also be stored in a Stata macro.

### Dimensions of a dataset

```clear
input str10 fruit
apple
orange
end

di _N
di c(N) " " c(k)```

### Length of a macro list

Use either the sizeof macro list function or the word count extended macro function. Notice that the argument of the former is the macro name, while the argument of the latter is the macro contents.

```local fruits apple orange
di `: list sizeof fruits'
di `: word count `fruits''```

### Mata

For a Mata array, use rows and similar functions:

```mata
a=st_sdata(.,"fruit")
rows(a)
cols(a)
length(a)
end```

## Swift

```let fruits = ["apple", "orange"] // Declare constant array literal
let fruitsCount = fruits.count // Declare constant array length (count)

print(fruitsCount) // Print array length to output window```
Output:
`2`

## Symsyn

```| Symsyn does not support Array of Strings
| The following code for an Array of Integers

A : 125 0
#A []
| shows 125

| A list of fixed length strings can be handled this way

S : 'apple ' : 'orange'
div #S 6 sz
sz []
| shows 2```

## Tailspin

`['apple', 'orange'] -> \$::length -> !OUT::write`
Output:
`2`

## Tcl

```;# not recommended:
set mylistA {apple orange}   ;# actually a string
set mylistA "Apple Orange"   ;# same - this works only for simple cases

set lenA [llength \$mylistA]
puts "\$mylistA :  \$lenA"

# better:  to build a list, use 'list' and/or 'lappend':
set mylistB [list apple orange "red wine" {green frog}]
lappend mylistB "blue bird"

set lenB [llength \$mylistB]
puts "\$mylistB :  \$lenB"```
Output:
```Apple Orange :  2
apple orange {red wine} {green frog} {blue bird} :  5```

## TI-83 BASIC

Works with: TI-83 2.55MP

Use function `dim()`.

```{1,3,–5,4,–2,–1}→L1
dim(L1)```
Output:
```6
```

## Transd

```#lang transd

MainModule : {
_start: (lambda
(with v ["apple", "orange"]
(lout (size v))
)
(lout (size ["apple", "orange"]))
)
}```
Output:
```2
2
```

## UNIX Shell

```#!/bin/bash
array=("orange" "apple")
echo "\${#array[@]}"```
Output:
```2
```

## Ursa

```> decl string<> stream
> append "two" "strings" stream
> out (size stream) endl console
2
> out (size "test string") endl console
11
> ```

## Vala

```void main() {
string[] fruit = {"apple", "orange"};
stdout.printf("%d\n", fruit.length);
}```

Note that any of the following array declarations could be used:

```var fruit = new string[] { "apple", "orange" };
string[] fruit = new string[] { "apple", "orange" };
string[] fruit = { "apple", "orange" };```

A shorter variant could also have been used:

```void main() {
stdout.printf("%d\n", new string[] {"apples", "orange"}.length);
}```

## VBA

One-liner. Assumes array lower bound, which is not always safe.

`Debug.Print "Array Length: " & UBound(Array("apple", "orange")) + 1`

Works regardless of lower bound:

```Dim funkyArray(7 to 8) As String

Public Function SizeOfArray(ar As Variant) As Long
SizeOfArray = UBound(ar) - LBound(ar) + 1
End Function

'call the function
Debug.Print "Array Length: " & SizeOfArray(funkyArray)```
Output:

In this instance, same output for both.

`Array Length: 2`

## VBScript

```arr = Array("apple","orange")
WScript.StdOut.WriteLine UBound(arr) - LBound(arr) + 1```
Output:
`2`

## Visual Basic

The amount of elements in an array in Visual Basic is computed via the upper bound and lower bound indices. In Visual Basic the indices of arrays have to be numeric, but it is even possible to have negative values for them. Of course the element numbering is continuous.

```' declared in a module
Public Function LengthOfArray(ByRef arr As Variant) As Long
If IsArray(arr) Then
LengthOfArray = UBound(arr) - LBound(arr) + 1
Else
LengthOfArray = -1
End If
End Function

' somewhere in the programm
' example 1
Dim arr As Variant

arr = Array("apple", "orange")

Debug.Print LengthOfArray(arr) ' prints 2 as result

' example 2
Dim arr As Variant

ReDim arr(-2 To -1)
arr(-2) = "apple"
arr(-1) = "orange"

Debug.Print LengthOfArray(arr) ' prints 2 as result```

## Visual Basic .NET

Works with: Visual Basic .NET version 9.0+
```Module ArrayLength

Sub Main()
Dim array() As String = {"apple", "orange"}
Console.WriteLine(array.Length)
End Sub

End Module```
Output:
```2
```

## V (Vlang)

A len property is maintained for all V (Vlang) arrays.

```// V, array length
// Tectonics: v run array-length.v
module main

// access array length
pub fn main() {
arr := ["apple", "orange"]
println(arr.len)
}```
Output:
```prompt\$ v run array-length.v
2```

## WDTE

```let io => import 'io';
let a => ['apple'; 'orange'];
len a -- io.writeln io.stdout;```

## Wren

```var arr = ["apple", "orange"]
System.print(arr.count)```
Output:
```2
```

## XLISP

`(vector-length #("apple" "orange"))`

## Yabasic

```dim fruta\$(3)
data "apple", "orange", "pear"

print arraysize(fruta\$(),1)
print fruta\$(2)
end```
```3
orange
```

## Z80 Assembly

Arrays don't have an "end" as defined by the language, so there are a couple ways to mark the end of an array. One is with a null terminator, and the other is with a pre-defined size byte stored at the beginning. Using a null terminator isn't the best choice for a general-purpose array since it means your array cannot contain that value anywhere except at the end. However, since having the size already determined defeats the purpose of this task, the null-terminator method will be used for this example.

The simplest way to implement an array of variable-length strings is to have the array contain pointers to said strings rather than the strings themselves. That way, the elements of the array are of equal length, which makes any array much easier to work with.

```	org &8000
ld hl,TestArray
call GetArrayLength_WordData_NullTerminated

call Monitor            ;show registers to screen, code omitted to keep this example short

ReturnToBasic:
RET

GetArrayLength_WordData_NullTerminated:
push hl			;we'll need this later
loop_GetArrayLength_WordData_NullTerminated
ld a,(hl)		;get the low byte
ld e,a			;stash it in E
inc hl			;next byte
ld a,(hl)		;get the high byte
dec hl			;go back to low byte, otherwise our length will be off.
or a			;compare to zero. This is a shorter and faster way to compare A to zero than "CP 0"

jr nz,keepGoing
cp e		;compare to E
jr z,Terminated_GetArrayLength			        ;both bytes were zero.
KeepGoing:
inc hl
inc hl								;next word
jp loop_GetArrayLength_WordData_NullTerminated	                ;back to start
Terminated_GetArrayLength:
pop de		;original array address is in DE
;or a		;normally it's best to clear the carry, but in this situation execution only arrives here after a compare that
;resulted in an equality to zero, which means the carry is guaranteed to be cleared.
sbc hl,de	;there is no sub hl,de; only sbc

srl h
rr l		;divide HL by 2, since each element is 2 bytes.

ret		;returns length in hl

TestArray:
word Apple,Orange
byte 0,0

Apple:
byte "Apple",0
Orange:
byte "Orange",0```
Output:
```(HL contains length of the array)
HL:0002
```

## zkl

zkl doesn't support arrays natively, use lists instead.

```List("apple", "orange").len().println() //-->2, == L("apple", "orange")
T("apple", "orange").len().println() //-->2, read only list (ROList)```

## Zig

```const std = @import("std");

pub fn main() !void {
// left hand side type can be ommitted
const fruit: []const u8 = [_][]const u8{ "apples", "oranges" };
const stdout_wr = std.io.getStdOut().writer();
// slices and arrays have an len field
try stdout_wr.print("fruit.len = {d}\n", .{fruit.len});
}```

## Zoea

```program: array_length
input: [a,b,c]
output: 3```

## zonnon

```module AryLength;
type
Vector = array 12 of string;
Matrix = array *,* of string;
var
a: Vector;
b: Matrix;
begin
writeln(len(a):4);		(* len(a) = len(a,0) *)

b := new Matrix(10,11);
writeln(len(b,0):4); 	(* first dimension *)
writeln(len(b,1):4)		(* second dimension *)
end AryLength.```