Primorial numbers
You are encouraged to solve this task according to the task description, using any language you may know.
Primorial numbers are those formed by multiplying successive prime numbers.
The primorial number series is:
- primorial(0) = 1 (by definition)
- primorial(1) = 2 (2)
- primorial(2) = 6 (2*3)
- primorial(3) = 30 (2*3*5)
- primorial(4) = 210 (2*3*5*7)
- primorial(5) = 2310 (2*3*5*7*11)
- primorial(6) = 30030 (2*3*5*7*11*13)
- ∙ ∙ ∙
To express this mathematically, primorial_{n} is
the product of the first n (successive) primes:
- ─── where is the k^{th} prime number.
In some sense, generating primorial numbers is similar to factorials.
As with factorials, primorial numbers get large quickly.
task requirements:
- Show the first ten primorial numbers (0 ──► 9, inclusive).
- Show the length of primorial numbers whose index is: 10 100 1,000 10,000 and 100,000.
- Show the length of the one millionth primorial number (optional).
- Use exact integers, not approximations.
By length (above), it is meant the number of decimal digits in the numbers.
links:
See the MathWorld webpage: primorial
See the Wikipedia webpage: primorial.
See the OEIS webpage: A2110.
Related tasks:
Contents
C[edit]
Uses a custom bit-sieve to generate primes, and GMP to keep track of the value of the primorial. Output takes ~3m to generate on a typical laptop.
#include <inttypes.h>
#include <math.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdint.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <gmp.h>
/* Eratosthenes bit-sieve */
int es_check(uint32_t *sieve, uint64_t n)
{
if ((n != 2 && !(n & 1)) || (n < 2))
return 0;
else
return !(sieve[n >> 6] & (1 << (n >> 1 & 31)));
}
uint32_t *es_sieve(const uint64_t nth, uint64_t *es_size)
{
*es_size = nth * log(nth) + nth * (log(log(nth)) - 0.9385f) + 1;
uint32_t *sieve = calloc((*es_size >> 6) + 1, sizeof(uint32_t));
for (uint64_t i = 3; i < sqrt(*es_size) + 1; i += 2)
if (!(sieve[i >> 6] & (1 << (i >> 1 & 31))))
for (uint64_t j = i * i; j < *es_size; j += (i << 1))
sieve[j >> 6] |= (1 << (j >> 1 & 31));
return sieve;
}
size_t mpz_number_of_digits(const mpz_t op)
{
char *opstr = mpz_get_str(NULL, 10, op);
const size_t oplen = strlen(opstr);
free(opstr);
return oplen;
}
#define PRIMORIAL_LIMIT 1000000
int main(void)
{
/* Construct a sieve of the first 1,000,000 primes */
uint64_t sieve_size;
uint32_t *sieve = es_sieve(PRIMORIAL_LIMIT, &sieve_size);
mpz_t primorial;
mpz_init_set_ui(primorial, 1);
uint64_t prime_count = 0;
int print = 1;
double unused;
for (uint64_t i = 2; i < sieve_size && prime_count <= PRIMORIAL_LIMIT; ++i) {
if (print) {
if (prime_count < 10)
gmp_printf("Primorial(%" PRIu64 ") = %Zd\n", prime_count, primorial);
/* Is the current number a power of 10? */
else if (!modf(log10(prime_count), &unused))
printf("Primorial(%" PRIu64 ") has %zu digits\n", prime_count, mpz_number_of_digits(primorial));
print = 0;
}
if (es_check(sieve, i)) {
mpz_mul_ui(primorial, primorial, i);
prime_count++;
print = 1;
}
}
free(sieve);
mpz_clear(primorial);
return 0;
}
- Output:
Primorial(0) = 1 Primorial(1) = 2 Primorial(2) = 6 Primorial(3) = 30 Primorial(4) = 210 Primorial(5) = 2310 Primorial(6) = 30030 Primorial(7) = 510510 Primorial(8) = 9699690 Primorial(9) = 223092870 Primorial(10) has 10 digits Primorial(100) has 220 digits Primorial(1000) has 3393 digits Primorial(10000) has 45337 digits Primorial(100000) has 563921 digits Primorial(1000000) has 6722809 digits
Clojure[edit]
Single Process[edit]
Using HashMap prime number generation from https://rosettacode.org/wiki/Sieve_of_Eratosthenes#Unbounded_Versions
(ns example
(:gen-class))
; Generate Prime Numbers (Implementation from RosettaCode--link above)
(defn primes-hashmap
"Infinite sequence of primes using an incremental Sieve or Eratosthenes with a Hashmap"
[]
(letfn [(nxtoddprm [c q bsprms cmpsts]
(if (>= c q) ;; only ever equal
; Update cmpsts with primes up to sqrt c
(let [p2 (* (first bsprms) 2),
nbps (next bsprms),
nbp (first nbps)]
(recur (+ c 2) (* nbp nbp) nbps (assoc cmpsts (+ q p2) p2)))
(if (contains? cmpsts c)
; Not prime
(recur (+ c 2) q bsprms
(let [adv (cmpsts c), ncmps (dissoc cmpsts c)]
(assoc ncmps
(loop [try (+ c adv)] ;; ensure map entry is unique
(if (contains? ncmps try)
(recur (+ try adv))
try))
adv)))
; prime
(cons c (lazy-seq (nxtoddprm (+ c 2) q bsprms cmpsts))))))]
(do (def baseoddprms (cons 3 (lazy-seq (nxtoddprm 5 9 baseoddprms {}))))
(cons 2 (lazy-seq (nxtoddprm 3 9 baseoddprms {}))))))
;; Generate Primorial Numbers
(defn primorial [n]
" Function produces the nth primorial number"
(if (= n 0)
1 ; by definition
(reduce *' (take n (primes-hashmap))))) ; multiply first n primes (retrieving primes from lazy-seq which generates primes as needed)
;; Show Results
(let [start (System/nanoTime)
elapsed-secs (fn [] (/ (- (System/nanoTime) start) 1e9))] ; System start time
(doseq [i (concat (range 10) [1e2 1e3 1e4 1e5 1e6])
:let [p (primorial i)]] ; Generate ith primorial number
(if (< i 10)
(println (format "primorial ( %7d ) = %10d" i (biginteger p))) ; Output for first 10
(println (format "primorial ( %7d ) has %8d digits\tafter %.3f secs" ; Output with time since starting for remainder
(long i) (count (str p)) (elapsed-secs))))))
- Output:
primorial ( 0 ) = 1 primorial ( 1 ) = 2 primorial ( 2 ) = 6 primorial ( 3 ) = 30 primorial ( 4 ) = 210 primorial ( 5 ) = 2310 primorial ( 6 ) = 30030 primorial ( 7 ) = 510510 primorial ( 8 ) = 9699690 primorial ( 9 ) = 223092870 primorial ( 100 ) has 220 digits after 0.012 secs primorial ( 1000 ) has 3393 digits after 0.048 secs primorial ( 10000 ) has 45337 digits after 0.284 secs primorial ( 100000 ) has 563921 digits after 7.731 secs primorial ( 1000000 ) has 6722809 digits after 706.593 secs Using: i7 920 @ 2.67 GHz CPU with Windows 10 /64 bit OS
Parallel Process[edit]
Using HashMap prime number generation from https://rosettacode.org/wiki/Sieve_of_Eratosthenes#Unbounded_Versions
(ns example
(:gen-class))
(defn primes-hashmap
"Infinite sequence of primes using an incremental Sieve or Eratosthenes with a Hashmap"
[]
(letfn [(nxtoddprm [c q bsprms cmpsts]
(if (>= c q) ;; only ever equal
; Update cmpsts with primes up to sqrt c
(let [p2 (* (first bsprms) 2),
nbps (next bsprms),
nbp (first nbps)]
(recur (+ c 2) (* nbp nbp) nbps (assoc cmpsts (+ q p2) p2)))
(if (contains? cmpsts c)
; Not prime
(recur (+ c 2) q bsprms
(let [adv (cmpsts c), ncmps (dissoc cmpsts c)]
(assoc ncmps
(loop [try (+ c adv)] ;; ensure map entry is unique
(if (contains? ncmps try)
(recur (+ try adv))
try))
adv)))
; prime
(cons c (lazy-seq (nxtoddprm (+ c 2) q bsprms cmpsts))))))]
(do (def baseoddprms (cons 3 (lazy-seq (nxtoddprm 5 9 baseoddprms {}))))
(cons 2 (lazy-seq (nxtoddprm 3 9 baseoddprms {}))))))
;; Number of workers (threads) based upon number of available processors
(def workers
(+ 2 (.. Runtime getRuntime availableProcessors)))
;; Generate of primorial numbers (using multiple processors)
(defn primorial [n]
(if (= n 0)
1
;(reduce mul+ (pmap #(reduce *' %) (partition-all (max workers (long (/ n workers))) (take n (primes-hashmap)))))));(*' allows for big integer arithmetic as needed)
(->> ; Threads (i.e. pipes) sequence of expressions
(take n (primes-hashmap) ) ; generate primes
(partition-all (max workers (long (/ n workers)))) ; partition primes amongst workers
(pmap #(reduce *' %)) ; Multiply primes in each worker in parallel
(reduce *')))) ; multiply results of all workers together
;; Generate and Time Output
(let [start (System/nanoTime)
elapsed-secs (fn [] (/ (- (System/nanoTime) start) 1e9))] ; System start time
(doseq [i (concat (range 10) [1e2 1e3 1e4 1e5 1e6])
:let [p (primorial i)]] ; Generate ith primorial number
(if (< i 10)
(println (format "primorial ( %7d ) = %10d" i (biginteger p))) ; Output for first 10
(println (format "primorial ( %7d ) has %8d digits\tafter %.3f secs" ; Output with time since starting for remainder
(long i) (count (str p)) (elapsed-secs))))))
- Output:
primorial ( 0 ) = 1 primorial ( 1 ) = 2 primorial ( 2 ) = 6 primorial ( 3 ) = 30 primorial ( 4 ) = 210 primorial ( 5 ) = 2310 primorial ( 6 ) = 30030 primorial ( 7 ) = 510510 primorial ( 8 ) = 9699690 primorial ( 9 ) = 223092870 primorial ( 100 ) has 220 digits after 0.016 secs primorial ( 1000 ) has 3393 digits after 0.050 secs primorial ( 10000 ) has 45337 digits after 0.364 secs primorial ( 100000 ) has 563921 digits after 2.619 secs primorial ( 1000000 ) has 6722809 digits after 69.812 secs Using: i7 920 @ 2.67 GHz CPU with Windows 10 /64 bit OS
Elixir[edit]
Prime generator works too inefficiently to generate 1 million in a short time, but it will work eventually. This solution is efficient up to 100,000 primes.
defmodule SieveofEratosthenes do
def init(lim) do
find_primes(2,lim,(2..lim))
end
def find_primes(count,lim,nums) when (count * count) > lim do
nums
end
def find_primes(count,lim,nums) when (count * count) <= lim do
find_primes(count+1,lim,Enum.reject(nums,&(rem(&1,count) == 0 and &1 > count)))
end
end
defmodule Primorial do
def first(n,primes) do
s = 0..9 |> Stream.map(fn n -> Enum.at(primes,n) end)
(0..n-1)
|> Enum.map(fn a -> s
|> Enum.take(a)
|> Enum.reduce(1, fn b,c -> b*c end)
|> format(a) end)
end
def numbers(lims,primes) do
numbers(lims,primes,[])
end
def numbers([],_primes,vals) do
vals
|> Enum.reverse
|> Enum.map(fn {m,n} -> str_fr(n,m) end)
end
def numbers([lim|lims],primes,vals) do
numbers(lims,primes,[{lim,number_length(primes,lim)}] ++ vals)
end
defp number_length(primes,n) do
primes
|> Enum.take(n)
|> Enum.reduce(fn a,b -> a * b end)
|> Integer.to_string
|> String.length
end
defp format(pri,i), do: IO.puts("Primorial #{i}: #{pri}")
defp str_fr(pri,i), do: IO.puts("Primorial #{i} has length: #{pri}")
end
Primorial.first(10,SieveofEratosthenes.init(50))
Primorial.numbers([10,100,1_000,10_000,100_000],SieveofEratosthenes.init(1_300_000))
- Output:
Primorial 0: 1
Primorial 1: 2
Primorial 2: 6
Primorial 3: 30
Primorial 4: 210
Primorial 5: 2310
Primorial 6: 30030
Primorial 7: 510510
Primorial 8: 9699690
Primorial 9: 223092870
Primorial 10 has length: 10
Primorial 100 has length: 220
Primorial 1000 has length: 3393
Primorial 10000 has length: 45337
Primorial 100000 has length: 563921
Fortran[edit]
The Plan[edit]
Since exact integer arithmetic is required, there can be no use of various approximations and the primorial numbers very soon exceed the integer limits, even faster than do factorials. As the one who provided the example of calculating factorials in the wikipedia for multi-precision arithmetic, I am hoist by my own petard.
Prepare a list of prime numbers[edit]
The first task is to prepare a collection of the first million prime numbers. I already have disc files for up to 4,294,984,663 but this would not be portable so instead a subroutine to prepare the values, which is possibly faster than reading from a disc file anyway. Since this is a largeish set, the division method is probably not as good as the sieve method. Both methods could be employed to generate consecutive prime numbers, interlaced with their use to calculate the next primorial number, but divide-and-conquer is more attractive, so, first, prepare the primes. The sieve is arranged to represent only odd numbers so that there is no tedious pass with every other element, and further, by arranging the length of the sieve to be a primorial number, the pattern of the knock-outs for the first few primes is the same for each usage. A span of 30030 (spanned by an array of 15015 elements) seems reasonable, as the next size up would be 510510 which is a bit large. It would be nice if the initial-value specification protocol could generate that pattern via the repetition of the components in an expression that would be evaluated by the compiler - something like (3-pattern) & (5-pattern) & (7-pattern) & (11-pattern) & (13-pattern), with each pattern being generated by a suitable repetition count - I am certainly not going to write out a sequence of 15015 constants, and there are limits on a statement length anyway so devising a programme to generate the required source statements is not promising. But alas, I can't see how to do this either via a DATA statement or a PARAMETER specification. So, array START is initialised by executable statements that sieve out multiples of 3, 5, 7, 11, and 13 - including their own appearances. Then, a proper sieve process is started, that augments the PRIME collection as it goes at the beginning since the first sieve pass needs prime numbers that are not initially in array PRIME. On the other hand, by abandoning the special initial value array one could double the size of the sieve using no more storage, which might be better. When the sieve process is working with large numbers, there will be fewer and fewer "hits" for each sieve number. With a sieve span of 30,030, a prime of the order of 300,000 will have only one chance in ten of falling within a particular surge (and if so delivers only one hit within it), and the effort for the misses will have been wasted. For this task, the largest prime required for sieving is less than 4,000 so each prime is still making a few hits.
Because the sieve does not represent even numbers, the determination of a starting point is a little tricky. For a given prime P, the requirement is to find the first odd multiple of P beyond N0 (the start of a span, an even number), and if this value is beyond the end of the span (marked by NN) then there is no need to step through the span with P. Conflating this test with the test for the start point of P*P being beyond the end of the span is a mistake that, with a span of 30, led to 361 being declared a prime, because 360/17 = 21+ so 22 would be the start multiple for 17 except that 22 is even so 23 is used, and 23*17 = 391 which is beyond the end of the span so, wrongly, the sieving was thereby deemed complete and 19 was not tried, a mistake because 19*19 = 361.
The sieve array is declared LOGICAL*1 as it is painful to use the default of a 32-bit storage word to represent a boolean variable. Alas, accessing a single byte of storage may take more time, especially when placing a value. Still worse would be the unpacking of say a 32-bit integer to get at individual bits in isolation. With large arrays, a lot of storage could be saved, but execution speed would be poor unless the hardware offered support for single-bit access.
And after all that fuss, the production of the first million primes is completed in a blink.
Multi-precision multiplication[edit]
The multiplication of the multi-precision number is done on the cheap by passing the prime as an ordinary integer, not as a big number. The millionth prime is 15,485,863 which fits easily into a 32-bit integer that can hold values up to 2,147,483,647 but this implies a limit on the base of the arithmetic of the big number scheme. If it works in base 1,000 then a digit multiplied by that large prime would yield up to 15,485,863,000 - which exceeds the 32-bit integer limit, while if it works in base 10, the largest number would be up to 154,858,630, well within range. But at the cost of many more digits in the number, and correspondingly longer computation time. Some experiments with calculating Primorial(100000):
Base: 10 100 1,000 10,000 100,000 Secs: 554 278 185 117 52 - but wrong! 64-bit 300 241
The overflow happens in D*N + C, and converting D from INTEGER*4 to INTEGER*8 prevented the overflow, but introduces its own slowness. Activating "maximum optimisations" reduced 241 to 199, and reverting to base 100 with no INTEGER*8 converted 278 to 133. Then, abandoning the array bound checking reduced it further, to 121. The end result of the trick is to limit the base to 100. Given that, INTEGER*2 could be used for DIGIT, but a trial run showed almost the same time taken for Primorial(100000).
Hopefully, the compiler recognises the connection between the consecutive statementsD = B.DIGIT(I)
then D = D*N + C
(rather than D = B.DIGIT(I)*N + C
) which was done to facilitate trying INTEGER*8 D without needing to blabber on about conversion routines. But more importantly, one can dream that the compiler will recognise the classic sequence B.DIGIT(I) = MOD(D,BIGBASE)and avoid performing two divisions. When an integer division is performed, the quotient appears in one register and the remainder in another and when writing in assembler with access to such registers there is no need for the two divisions as is forced by the use of high-level languages. An alternative method, once consecutive primorials are not required, would be to compute the big number product of say ten consecutive primes then multiply the main big number by that, using multi-precision arithmetic for both. Abandoning the trick that restricts the base to 100 (for the current upper limit of the millionth prime) would allow the use of larger bases. Another possibility would be to calculate in a base more directly matching that of the computer (since the variable-length decimal arithmetic of the IBM1620 et al is no longer available), for instance base 65536 with sixteen-bit words, etc. Inspection of the result to calculate the number of decimal digits required would not be troublesome. In such a case, one might try something like
C = D/BIGBASE
INTEGER*4 D !A 32-bit product.
INTEGER*2 II(2),C,R !Some 16-bit variables.
EQUIVALENCE (D,II) !Align.
EQUIVALENCE (II(1),C),(II(2),R) !Carry in the high order half of D, Result in the low.
Supposing that unsigned 16-bit arithmetic was available then the product in D need not be split into a carry and a digit via the MOD and divide as above. But this is unlikely. Only in assembly would good code be possible.
Source[edit]
The source style takes advantage of F90 for the MODULE protocol that saves the annoyance of otherwise having to prepare a collection of COMMON statements for those who would not write a single mainline for the job. With F90 the lower bound of array BIT need no longer be one, otherwise, with older Fortran the expressions would have to be recast and one added or subtracted as appropriate. This is a simple (but error-prone) clerical task: computers excel at clerical tasks, so let the computer do it.
Also helpful is the TYPE statement to define a big number with the use of somewhat explanatory nomenclature. Associated names (such as BIGORDER, BIGBASE, etc.) could also have been defined as a part of a TYPE definition, but the extra blabber didn't seem worthwhile when one set only would be used. So, for them the old-style usage of names with a structure in the name's form. More serious is the assistance offered by the abilities of the PARAMETER statement to define constants with interrelationships, here especially with the use of BIGORDER.
Various F90 array statements provide a convenience that could otherwise be achieved via explicit DO-loops, but rather more difficult to do without are the I0 format code (which should be just "I") that reveals an integer value with a size to fit the number, and the I<ORDER>.<ORDER> usage of two features: the parameterisation of what would otherwise be constants, and the F90 augmentation of Iw to Iw.d whereby leading zero digits are supplied. This enables the value of the big number to be revealed as a proper string of digits. Before F90, this would have to be done via writing to a text variable and messing about. Thus, the topmost digit of a big number, B.DIGIT(B.LAST), is sent out with I0 format so that there are neither leading spaces nor zeroes, then the subsequent digits are rolled with I<ORDER>.<ORDER> so that any necessary leading zeroes for each of them are provided - else there would be gaps within the digit string as presented should the base be greater than ten and a B.DIGIT value be less than ten. Then there's the usual trick that once a FORMAT sequence is exhausted by the elements of an I/O list, a new line is started and the scan of the codes (of FORMAT 101) resumes at the rightmost open bracket. This is not exercised for the smaller numbers that are shown in full, but was during testing.
On the other hand, the modifying prefix nP for E (and F) format codes has long been available. This shifts the position of the decimal point left or right by n places, and with the E format code modifies the exponent accordingly. Thus, 1.2345E+5 can become .12345E+6 via the prefix -1P as in FORMAT 113. Evidently, this is the same value. When used with a F code there is no exponent part to modify accordingly, but here, the exponent is calculated separately (and presented via the I0 format code), and, one is added in the WRITE statement's output expressions, thus I4 + 1 and I8 + 1. The point of all this is that the resulting exponent part gives the number of decimal digits in the number, as per the specification.
MODULE BIGNUMBERS !Limited services: decimal integers, no negative numbers.
INTEGER BIGORDER !A limit attempt at generality.
PARAMETER (BIGORDER = 2) !This is the order of the base of the big number arithmetic.
INTEGER BIGBASE,BIGLIMIT !Sized thusly.
PARAMETER (BIGBASE = 10**BIGORDER, BIGLIMIT = 8888888/BIGORDER) !Enough?
TYPE BIGNUM !So, a big number is simple.
INTEGER LAST !This many digits (of size BIGBASE) are in use.
INTEGER DIGIT(BIGLIMIT) !The digits, in ascending power order.
END TYPE BIGNUM !So much for that.
CONTAINS !Now for some assistants.
SUBROUTINE BIGMULT(B,N) !B:=B*N; Multiply by an integer possibly bigger than the base.
TYPE(BIGNUM) B !The worker.
INTEGER N !A computer number, not a multi-digit number.
INTEGER D !Must be able to hold (BIGBASE - 1)*N + C
INTEGER C !The carry to the next digit.
INTEGER I !A stepper.
C = 0 !No previous digit to carry from.
DO I = 1,B.LAST !Step through the digits, upwards powers.
D = B.DIGIT(I) !Grab a digit.
D = D*N + C !Apply the multiply.
B.DIGIT(I) = MOD(D,BIGBASE) !Place the resulting digit.
C = D/BIGBASE !Agony! TWO divisions per step!!
END DO !On to the next digit up.
DO WHILE(C .GT. 0) !Now spread the last carry to further digits.
B.LAST = B.LAST + 1 !Up one more.
IF (B.LAST .GT. BIGLIMIT) STOP "Overflow by multiply!" !Perhaps not.
B.DIGIT(B.LAST) = MOD(C,BIGBASE) !The digit.
C = C/BIGBASE !The carry may be large, if N is large.
END DO !So slog on until it is gone.
END SUBROUTINE BIGMULT !Primary school stuff.
END MODULE BIGNUMBERS !No fancy tricks.
MODULE ERATOSTHENES !Prepare an array of prime numbers.
Considers odd numbers only as the pattern is very simple. Some trickery as a consequence.
INTEGER NP,LASTP !Counters.
PARAMETER (LASTP = 1000000) !The specified need.
INTEGER PRIME(0:LASTP),PREZAP !Initialisation is rather messy.
PARAMETER (PREZAP = 6) !Up to PRIME(6) = 13.
DATA NP/PREZAP/, PRIME(0:PREZAP)/1,2,3,5,7,11,13/ !Not counting the "zeroth" prime, 1.
CONTAINS !Some tricky stuff/
SUBROUTINE PREPARE PRIMES !Fetch a limited copy of the Platonic ideal.
INTEGER SURGE,LB !A sieve has a certain rather special size.
PARAMETER (SURGE = 30030, LB = SURGE/2 - 1) != 2*3*5*7*11*13.
LOGICAL*1 BIT(0:LB),START(0:LB)!Two such arrays, thanks.
INTEGER N0,NN !Bounds for the current sieve span.
INTEGER I,P,IP !Assistants.
C The scheme for a cycle of 2*3*5 = 30, remembering that even numbers are not involved so BIT(0:14).
C | surge 1 | surge 2 | surge 3 |
C N = | 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2|3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5|6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8|9 9 9 9 9...
C |1 3 5 7 9 1 3 5 7 9 1 3 5 7 9|1 3 5 7 9 1 3 5 7 9 1 3 5 7 9|1 3 5 7 9 1 3 5 7 9 1 3 5 7 9|1 3 5 7 9...
C BIT(index) | 1 1 1 1 1| 1 1 1 1 1| 1 1 1 1 1|
C |0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4|0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4|0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4|0 1 2 3 4...
c 3 step | * * * * * | * * * * * | * * * * * | * *
c 5 step | * * * | * * * | * * * | *
c 7 step | x x | x * | * * |*
Concoct the initial state, once only, that repeats every SURGE.
START = .TRUE. !Prepare the field.
DO I = 2,PREZAP !Only odd numbers are represented, so no PRIME(1) = 2..
P = PRIME(I) !Select a step.
START(P/2:LB:P) = .FALSE. !Knock out multiples of P.
END DO !This pattern is palindromic.
NN = 0 !Syncopation. Where the previous surge ended.
Commence a pass through the BIT sieve.
10 N0 = NN !BIT(0) corresponds to N0 + 1, BIT(i) to N0 + 1 + 2i.
NN = NN + SURGE !BIT(LB) to NN - 1.
BIT = START !Pre-zapped for lesser primes.
IP = PREZAP !Syncopation. The last pre-zapped prime.
11 IP = IP + 1 !The next prime to sieve with.
IF (IP.GT.NP) CALL SCANFOR(.TRUE.) !Whoops, not yet to hand!
P = PRIME(IP) !Now grab it.
IF (P*P.GE.NN) GO TO 12 !If P*P exceeds the end, so will larger P.
I = N0/P + 1 !First multiple of P past N0.
IF (I.LT.P) I = P !Less than P is superfluous: the position was zapped by earlier action.
IF (MOD(I,2).EQ.0) I = I + 1 !If even, advance to the next odd multiple. Such as P.
I = I*P !The first number to zap. It will always be odd.
IF (I.LT.NN) THEN !Within the span?
I = (I - N0 - 1)/2 !Yes. Its offset into the current span.
BIT(I:LB:P) = .FALSE. !Zap every P'th position.
END IF !So much for that P.
GO TO 11 !On to the next.
Completed the passes. Scan for survivors.
12 CALL SCANFOR(.FALSE.) !All, not just the first new prime.
IF (NP.LT.LASTP) GO TO 10 !Another batch?
RETURN !Done.
CONTAINS !Fold two usages into one routine.
SUBROUTINE SCANFOR(ONE) !Finds survivors.
LOGICAL ONE !Perhaps only the first is desired.
INTEGER I,P !Assistants.
DO I = 0,LB !Scan the current state.
IF (BIT(I)) THEN !Is this one unsullied?
P = N0 + 1 + 2*I !Yes! This is its value.
IF (P.LE.PRIME(NP)) CYCLE !But we may have it already.
IF (NP.GE.LASTP) RETURN !Whoops, perhaps too many!
NP = NP + 1 !But if not, another new prime!
PRIME(NP) = P !So, stash it. Extract now just this one.
IF (ONE) RETURN !Later candidates may yet be unzapped.
END IF !So much for that value.
END DO !On to the next.
END SUBROUTINE SCANFOR !An odd IF allows for two usages in one routine.
END SUBROUTINE PREPARE PRIMES !Faster than reading from a disc file?
END MODULE ERATOSTHENES !Certainly, less storage is required this way.
PROGRAM PRIMORIAL !Simple enough, with some assistants.
USE ERATOSTHENES !Though probably not as he expected.
USE BIGNUMBERS !Just so.
TYPE(BIGNUM) B !I'll have one.
INTEGER P,MARK !Step stuff.
INTEGER E,D !Assistants for the floating-point analogue...
INTEGER TASTE,IT !Additional stuff for its rounding.
PARAMETER (TASTE = 8/BIGORDER) !Sufficient digits to show.
INTEGER LEAD(TASTE) !With a struggle.
REAL T0,T1 !Some CPU time attempts.
REAL*4 F4 !I'll also have a go via logs.
REAL*8 F8 !In two precisions.
INTEGER I4,I8 !Not much hope for single precision, though.
WRITE (6,1) LASTP,BIGBASE !Announce.
1 FORMAT ("Calculates primorial numbers up to prime ",I0,
1 ", working in base ",I0)
CALL PREPARE PRIMES !First, catch your rabbit.
Commence prime mashing.
100 B.LAST = 1 !Begin at the beginning.
B.DIGIT(1) = 1 !With one.
DO P = 0,9 !Step up to the ninth prime, thus the first ten values as specified.
CALL BIGMULT(B,PRIME(P)) !Multiply by a possibly large integer.
WRITE (6,101) P,PRIME(P),P,B.DIGIT(B.LAST:1:-1) !Digits in Arabic/Hindu order.
101 FORMAT ("Prime(",I0,") = ",I0,", Primorial(",I0,") = ",
1 I0,9I<BIGORDER>.<BIGORDER>,/,(10I<BIGORDER>.<BIGORDER>))
END DO !On to the next prime.
Convert to logarithmic striders.
CALL CPU_TIME(T0) !Start the clock.
MARK = 10 !To be remarked upon in passing.
DO P = 10,LASTP !Step through additional primes.
CALL BIGMULT(B,PRIME(P)) !Bigger, ever bigger the big number grows.
IF (P.EQ.MARK) THEN !A report point?
MARK = MARK*10 !Yes. Prepare to note the next.
CALL CPU_TIME(T1) !Where are we at?
E = (B.LAST - 1)*BIGORDER !Convert from 10**BIGORDER to base 10.
D = B.DIGIT(B.LAST) !Grab the high-order digit.
DO WHILE(D.GT.0) !It is not zero..
E = E + 1 !So it is at least one base ten digit.
D = D/10 !Snip.
END DO !And perhaps there will be more.
Contemplate the rounding of the floating-point analogue.
I4 = MIN(TASTE,B.LAST) !I'm looking to taste the top digits.
LEAD(1:I4) = B.DIGIT(B.LAST:B.LAST - I4 + 1:-1) !Reverse, to have normal order.
IF (B.LAST.GT.TASTE) THEN !Are there even more digits?
IT = I4 !Yes. This is now the low-order digit tasted.
D = 0 !We should consider rounding up.
IF (B.DIGIT(B.LAST - I4).GE.BIGBASE/2) D = 1 !If the next digit is big enough.
DO WHILE (D.GT.0) !Spread the carry.
D = 0 !This one is used up.
LEAD(IT) = LEAD(IT) + 1 !Thusly.
IF (LEAD(IT).GT.BIGBASE) THEN !But, maybe, overflow!
IF (IT.GT.1) THEN !Is there a higher-order to carry to?
LEAD(IT) = LEAD(IT) - BIGBASE !Yes!
IT = IT - 1 !Step back to it,
D = 1 !Reassert a carry.
END IF !But only if there was a recipient available.
END IF !If not, the carry will still be zero.
END DO !And the loop won't continue.
END IF !So, no test for IT > 0 in a compound "while".
Cast forth the results.
WRITE (6,102) P,PRIME(P), !Name the step and its prime.
1 P,LEAD(1:I4),E, !The step and the leading few DIGIT of its primorial.
2 T1 - T0 !CPU advance.
102 FORMAT ("Prime(",I0,") = ",I0,", Primorial(",I0,") ~ 0." !Approximately.
1 I0,<I4 - 1>I<BIGORDER>.<BIGORDER>,"E+",I0, !No lead zero digits, then with lead zero digits.
2 T80,F12.3," seconds.") !Append some CPU time information.
T0 = T1 !Ready for the next popup.
END IF !So much for a report.
END DO !On to the next prime.
Chew some logarithms.
110 WRITE (6,111) !Some explanation.
111 FORMAT (/,"Via summing logarithms: Single Double") !Ah, layout.
MARK = 10 !Start somewhere interesting.
112 F4 = SUM(LOG10( FLOAT(PRIME(1:MARK)))) !Whee!
F8 = SUM(LOG10(DFLOAT(PRIME(1:MARK)))) !Generic function names too.
I4 = F4 !Grab the integer part.
I8 = F8 !The idea being to isolate the fractional part.
WRITE (6,113) MARK,"10",10**(F4 - I4),I4 + 1,10**(F8 - I8),I8 + 1 !Reconstitute the number in extended E-format.
113 FORMAT (I8,"#...in base ",A2,-1PF9.5,"E+",I0,T40,-1PF13.7,"E+",I0) !As if via E-format.
F4 = SUM(LOG( FLOAT(PRIME(1:MARK))))/LOG(10.0) !Do it again in Naperian logs.
F8 = SUM(LOG(DFLOAT(PRIME(1:MARK))))/LOG(10D0) !Perhaps more accurately?
I4 = F4
I8 = F8
WRITE (6,113) MARK,"e ",10**(F4 - I4),I4 + 1,10**(F8 - I8),I8 + 1 !We'll see.
MARK = MARK*10 !The next reporting point.
IF (MARK.LE.LASTP) GO TO 112 !Are we there yet?
END !So much for that.
Results[edit]
For the smaller numbers, the number of digits in the results is apparent. For the larger values, it is given by the value of the exponent part.
Calculates primorial numbers up to prime 1000000, working in base 100 Prime(0) = 1, Primorial(0) = 1 Prime(1) = 2, Primorial(1) = 2 Prime(2) = 3, Primorial(2) = 6 Prime(3) = 5, Primorial(3) = 30 Prime(4) = 7, Primorial(4) = 210 Prime(5) = 11, Primorial(5) = 2310 Prime(6) = 13, Primorial(6) = 30030 Prime(7) = 17, Primorial(7) = 510510 Prime(8) = 19, Primorial(8) = 9699690 Prime(9) = 23, Primorial(9) = 223092870 Prime(10) = 29, Primorial(10) ~ 0.64696932E+10 0.000 seconds. Prime(100) = 541, Primorial(100) ~ 0.47119308E+220 0.000 seconds. Prime(1000) = 7919, Primorial(1000) ~ 0.6786296E+3393 0.000 seconds. Prime(10000) = 104729, Primorial(10000) ~ 0.9063360E+45337 0.875 seconds. Prime(100000) = 1299709, Primorial(100000) ~ 0.1909604E+563921 121.547 seconds. Prime(1000000) = 15485863, Primorial(1000000) ~ 0.1147175E+6722809 17756.797 seconds. Via summing logarithms: Single Double 10#...in base 10 0.64697E+10 0.6469693E+10 10#...in base e 0.64697E+10 0.6469693E+10 100#...in base 10 0.47123E+220 0.4711931E+220 100#...in base e 0.47120E+220 0.4711931E+220 1000#...in base 10 0.67887E+3393 0.6786296E+3393 1000#...in base e 0.67849E+3393 0.6786296E+3393 10000#...in base 10 0.10650E+45338 0.9063360E+45337 10000#...in base e 0.82047E+45337 0.9063360E+45337 100000#...in base 10 0.15399E+563940 0.1909604E+563921 100000#...in base e 0.48697E+563884 0.1909604E+563921 1000000#...in base 10 0.31623E+669099 0.1147174E+6722809 1000000#...in base e 0.10000E+669683 0.1147175E+6722809
This is a rather severe demonstration of a faster-than-exponential growth rate in CPU time - the problem size increases exponentially as 10, 100, 1000, 10000, etc. (so that another 90, 900, 9000, etc. multiplies must be done) but the CPU time increases by more than a factor of ten. This is on an AMD FX6300 "six" core cpu at 3·76GHz that is steadily running the Great Internet Mersenne Prime computation on all six. Despite being at "idle" priority, it is presumably their contention for memory access that roughly triples the running time of any other individual computation.
Progress messages would have been helpful, but prior experience prompts caution: an attempt at having a collection of subprograms each accumulate their own CPU time usage for later assessment caused a worse than tenfold increase in CPU time for test runs and bizarre values as well. Another attempt at a "wait until a given time of day" that in the absence of access to any system routine for that became a loop on a call to the time-of-day routine promptly crashed the system - presumably due to too many (software-instituted) interrupts per second. Windows...
By contrast, there is only a slight pause for the even the largest summation of logarithms. Single precision demonstrates again its limited precision and 1000# suggests that base e logarithms are computed slightly more accurately. The double-precision results are the same as the first few decimal digits of the exact calculation, once some effort had been expended to have the values shown rounded correctly.
FreeBASIC[edit]
' version 22-09-2015
' compile with: fbc -s console
Const As UInteger Base_ = 1000000000
ReDim Shared As UInteger primes()
Sub sieve(need As UInteger)
' estimate is to high, but ensures that we have enough primes
Dim As UInteger max = need * (Log(need) + Log(Log(need)))
Dim As UInteger t = 1 ,x , x2
Dim As Byte p(max)
ReDim primes (need + need \ 3) ' we trim the array later
primes(0) = 1 ' by definition
primes(1) = 2 ' first prime, the only even prime
' only consider the odd number
For x = 3 To Sqr(max) Step 2
If p(x) = 0 Then
For x2 = x * x To max Step x * 2
p(x2) = 1
Next
End If
Next
' move found primes to array
For x = 3 To max Step 2
If p(x) = 0 Then
t += 1
primes(t) = x
EndIf
Next
'ReDim Preserve primes(t)
ReDim Preserve primes(need)
End Sub
' ------=< MAIN >=------
Dim As UInteger n, i, pow, primorial
Dim As String str_out, buffer = Space(10)
Dim As UInteger max = 100000 ' maximum number of primes we need
sieve(max)
primorial = 1
For n = 0 To 9
primorial = primorial * primes(n)
Print Using " primorial(#) ="; n;
RSet buffer, Str(primorial)
str_out = buffer
Print str_out
Next
' could use GMP, but why not make are own big integer routine
Dim As UInteger bigint(max), first = max, last = max
Dim As UInteger l, p, carry, low = 9, high = 10
Dim As ULongInt result
Dim As UInteger Ptr big_i
' start at the back, number grows to the left like normal number
bigint(last) = primorial
For pow = 0 To Len(Str(max)) -2
If pow > 0 Then
low = high
high = high * 10
End If
For n = low + 1 To high
carry = 0
big_i = @bigint(last)
For i = last To first Step -1
result = CULngInt(primes(n)) * *big_i + carry
carry = result \ Base_
*big_i = result - carry * Base_
big_i = big_i -1
Next i
If carry <> 0 Then
first = first -1
*big_i = carry
End If
Next n
l = Len(Str(bigint(first))) + (last - first) * 9
Print " primorial("; high; ") has "; l ;" digits"
Next pow
' empty keyboard buffer
While InKey <> "" : Wend
Print : Print "hit any key to end program"
Sleep
End
- Output:
primorial(0) = 1 primorial(1) = 2 primorial(2) = 6 primorial(3) = 30 primorial(4) = 210 primorial(5) = 2310 primorial(6) = 30030 primorial(7) = 510510 primorial(8) = 9699690 primorial(9) = 223092870 primorial(10) has 10 digits primorial(100) has 220 digits primorial(1000) has 3393 digits primorial(10000) has 45337 digits primorial(100000) has 563921 digits
Go[edit]
Since this task isn't specifically about generating primes, a fast external package is used to generate the primes. The Go standard math/big package is used to multiply these as exact integers.
package main
import (
"fmt"
"math/big"
"time"
"github.com/jbarham/primegen.go"
)
func main() {
start := time.Now()
pg := primegen.New()
var i uint64
p := big.NewInt(1)
tmp := new(big.Int)
for i <= 9 {
fmt.Printf("primorial(%v) = %v\n", i, p)
i++
p = p.Mul(p, tmp.SetUint64(pg.Next()))
}
for _, j := range []uint64{1e1, 1e2, 1e3, 1e4, 1e5, 1e6} {
for i < j {
i++
p = p.Mul(p, tmp.SetUint64(pg.Next()))
}
fmt.Printf("primorial(%v) has %v digits", i, len(p.String()))
fmt.Printf("\t(after %v)\n", time.Since(start))
}
}
- Output:
primorial(0) = 1 primorial(1) = 2 primorial(2) = 6 primorial(3) = 30 primorial(4) = 210 primorial(5) = 2310 primorial(6) = 30030 primorial(7) = 510510 primorial(8) = 9699690 primorial(9) = 223092870 primorial(10) has 10 digits (after 367.273µs) primorial(100) has 220 digits (after 8.460177ms) primorial(1000) has 3393 digits (after 8.760826ms) primorial(10000) has 45337 digits (after 26.838309ms) primorial(100000) has 563921 digits (after 2.049290216s) primorial(1000000) has 6722809 digits (after 4m19.931513819s)
Since this includes timing information this is also relevant:
% go version ; sysctl -n hw.model go version go1.4.2 freebsd/amd64 Intel(R) Xeon(R) CPU E3-1245 v3 @ 3.40GHz
Haskell[edit]
import Control.Arrow ((&&&))
import Data.List (scanl1, foldl1')
getNthPrimorial :: Int -> Integer
getNthPrimorial n = foldl1' (*) (take n primes)
primes :: [Integer]
primes = 2 : filter isPrime [3,5..]
isPrime :: Integer -> Bool
isPrime = isPrime_ primes
where isPrime_ :: [Integer] -> Integer -> Bool
isPrime_ (p:ps) n
| p * p > n = True
| n `mod` p == 0 = False
| otherwise = isPrime_ ps n
primorials :: [Integer]
primorials = 1 : scanl1 (*) primes
main :: IO ()
main = do
-- Print the first 10 primorial numbers
let firstTen = take 10 primorials
putStrLn $ "The first 10 primorial numbers are: " ++ show firstTen
-- Show the length of the primorials with index 10^[1..6]
let powersOfTen = [1..6]
primorialTens = map (id &&& (length . show . getNthPrimorial . (10^))) powersOfTen
calculate = mapM_ (\(a,b) -> putStrLn $ "Primorial(10^"++show a++") has "++show b++" digits")
calculate primorialTens
- Output:
The first 10 primorial numbers are: [1,2,6,30,210,2310,30030,510510,9699690,223092870] Primorial(10^1) has 10 digits Primorial(10^2) has 220 digits Primorial(10^3) has 3393 digits Primorial(10^4) has 45337 digits Primorial(10^5) has 563921 digits Primorial(10^6) has 6722809 digits
J[edit]
Implementation:
primorial=:*/@:p:@i."0
Task examples:
primorial i. 10 NB. first 10 primorial numbers
1 2 6 30 210 2310 30030 510510 9699690 223092870
#":primorial 10x NB. lengths (of decimal representations)...
10
#":primorial 100x
220
#":primorial 1000x
3393
#":primorial 10000x
45337
#":primorial 100000x
563921
#":primorial 1000000x
6722809
Note that the x suffix on a decimal number indicates that calculations should be exact (what the lisp community has dubbed "bignums"). This is a bit slow (internally, every number winds up being represented as a list of what might be thought of as "digits" in a very large base), but it gets the job done.
Java[edit]
import java.math.BigInteger;
public class PrimorialNumbers {
final static int sieveLimit = 1300_000;
static boolean[] notPrime = sieve(sieveLimit);
public static void main(String[] args) {
for (int i = 0; i < 10; i++)
System.out.printf("primorial(%d): %d%n", i, primorial(i));
for (int i = 1; i < 6; i++) {
int len = primorial((int) Math.pow(10, i)).toString().length();
System.out.printf("primorial(10^%d) has length %d%n", i, len);
}
}
static BigInteger primorial(int n) {
if (n == 0)
return BigInteger.ONE;
BigInteger result = BigInteger.ONE;
for (int i = 0; i < sieveLimit && n > 0; i++) {
if (notPrime[i])
continue;
result = result.multiply(BigInteger.valueOf(i));
n--;
}
return result;
}
public static boolean[] sieve(int limit) {
boolean[] composite = new boolean[limit];
composite[0] = composite[1] = true;
int max = (int) Math.sqrt(limit);
for (int n = 2; n <= max; n++) {
if (!composite[n]) {
for (int k = n * n; k < limit; k += n) {
composite[k] = true;
}
}
}
return composite;
}
}
primorial(0): 1 primorial(1): 2 primorial(2): 6 primorial(3): 30 primorial(4): 210 primorial(5): 2310 primorial(6): 30030 primorial(7): 510510 primorial(8): 9699690 primorial(9): 223092870 primorial(10^1) has length 10 primorial(10^2) has length 220 primorial(10^3) has length 3393 primorial(10^4) has length 45337 primorial(10^5) has length 563921
Kotlin[edit]
// version 1.0.6
import java.math.BigInteger
const val LIMIT = 1000000 // expect a run time of about 20 minutes on a typical laptop
fun isPrime(n: Int): Boolean {
if (n < 2) return false
if (n % 2 == 0) return n == 2
if (n % 3 == 0) return n == 3
var d : Int = 5
while (d * d <= n) {
if (n % d == 0) return false
d += 2
if (n % d == 0) return false
d += 4
}
return true
}
fun countDigits(bi: BigInteger): Int = bi.toString().length
fun main(args: Array<String>) {
println("Primorial(0) = 1")
println("Primorial(1) = 2")
var count = 1
var p = 3
var prod = BigInteger.valueOf(2)
var target = 10
while(true) {
if (isPrime(p)) {
count++
prod *= BigInteger.valueOf(p.toLong())
if (count < 10) {
println("Primorial($count) = $prod")
if (count == 9) println()
}
else if (count == target) {
println("Primorial($target) has ${countDigits(prod)} digits")
if (count == LIMIT) break
target *= 10
}
}
p += 2
}
}
- Output:
Primorial(0) = 1 Primorial(1) = 2 Primorial(2) = 6 Primorial(3) = 30 Primorial(4) = 210 Primorial(5) = 2310 Primorial(6) = 30030 Primorial(7) = 510510 Primorial(8) = 9699690 Primorial(9) = 223092870 Primorial(10) has 10 digits Primorial(100) has 220 digits Primorial(1000) has 3393 digits Primorial(10000) has 45337 digits Primorial(100000) has 563921 digits Primorial(1000000) has 6722809 digits
Mathematica[edit]
The first 10 primorial numbers are:
FoldList[Times, 1, NestList[NextPrime, 2, 8]]
- Output:
{1,2,6,30,210,2310,30030,510510,9699690,223092870}
The lengths of selected primorial numbers are:
primes = NestList[NextPrime, 2, 999999];
[email protected][{"primorial(10^" <> ToString[n] <> ") has ",
[email protected][Times @@ (primes[[;; 10^n]])], " digits"}, {n,
6}]
- Output:
primorial(10^1) has 10 digits primorial(10^2) has 220 digits primorial(10^3) has 3393 digits primorial(10^4) has 45337 digits primorial(10^5) has 563921 digits primorial(10^6) has 6722809 digits
PARI/GP[edit]
A faster approach would be to use a factor tree, but for these small numbers a simple approach is fine.
nthprimorial(n)=prod(i=1,n,prime(i));
vector(10,i,nthprimorial(i-1))
vector(5,n,#Str(nthprimorial(10^n)))
#Str(nthprimorial(10^6))
- Output:
%1 = [1, 2, 6, 30, 210, 2310, 30030, 510510, 9699690, 223092870] %2 = [10, 220, 3393, 45337, 563921] %3 = 433637
Pascal[edit]
Using unit like GMP. MPArith of wolfgang-ehrhardt.de mp_primorial {-Primorial of n; a = n# = product of primes <= n.} so i sieve to get the right n
{$H+}
uses
sysutils,mp_types,mp_base,mp_prime,mp_numth;
var
x: mp_int;
t0,t1: TDateTime;
s: AnsiString;
var
i,cnt : NativeInt;
ctx :TPrimeContext;
begin
mp_init(x);
cnt := 1;
i := 2;
FindFirstPrime32(i,ctx);
i := 10;
t0 := time;
repeat
repeat
FindNextPrime32(ctx);
inc(cnt);
until cnt = i;
mp_primorial(ctx.prime,x);
s:= mp_adecimal(x);
writeln('MaxPrime ',ctx.prime:10,length(s):8,' digits');
i := 10*i;
until i > 1000*1000;
t1 := time;
Writeln((t1-t0)*86400.0:10:3,' s');
end.
- Output:
MaxPrime 29 10 digits MaxPrime 541 220 digits MaxPrime 7919 3393 digits MaxPrime 104729 45337 digits MaxPrime 1299709 563921 digits MaxPrime 15485863 6722809 digits 111.290 s using i4330 3.5 Ghz Win7 32-bit fpc 2.6.4 a little outdated uups: 174.468 s Linux 32-bit fpc 3.0.1 real 2m54.470s user 1m59.133s sys 0m55.188s!
alternative[edit]
getPrimorialExact uses multiplication to Base 1e9.Heavily inspired by FreeBASIC It is extremly slow.PrimorialExact (1000000) should take about 2400 seconds on my computer.See GO which takes 2 secs instead of my 38 secs ( 3.4 Ghz 64Bit vs 3.5 Ghz 32 Bit ). Tested x64 -> runtime 16m48 x64 div is substituted by mul and shift.Maybe first Mul then base convertion will be faster. Obviously GMP will do it by far better.
program Primorial;
{$IFDEF FPC} {$MODE DELPHI} {$ENDIF}
uses
sysutils;
var
primes : array[0..1000000] of LongInt;
procedure InitSieve;
const
HiSieve = 15485864;
var
sieve: array of boolean;
i, j: NativeInt;
Begin
setlength(sieve,HiSieve);
fillchar(sieve[0],HiSieve,chr(ord(True)));
For i := 2 to Trunc(sqrt(HiSieve)) do
IF sieve[i] then Begin
j := i*i;repeat sieve[j]:= false;inc(j,i);until j>= HiSieve-1;end;
i:= 2;j:= 1;
repeat
IF sieve[i] then begin primes[j]:= i;inc(j) end;
inc(i);
until i > HiSieve;
primes[0] := 1;setlength(sieve,0);
end;
function getPrimorial(n:NativeInt):Uint64;
Begin
result := ORD(n>=0);
IF (n >= 0) AND (n < 16) then
repeat result := result*primes[n]; dec(n); until n < 1;
end;
function getPrimorialDecDigits(n:NativeInt):NativeInt;
var
res: extended;
Begin
result := -1;
IF (n > 0) AND (n <= 1000*1000) then
Begin
res := 0;
repeat res := res+ln(primes[n]); dec(n); until n < 1;
result := trunc(res/ln(10))+1;
end;
end;
function getPrimorialExact(n:NativeInt):NativeInt;
const
LongWordDec = 1000000000;
var
MulArr : array of LongWord;
pMul : ^LongWord;
Mul1,prod,carry : Uint64;
i,j,ul : NativeInt;
begin
i := getPrimorialDecDigits(n) DIV 9 +10;
Setlength(MulArr,i);
Ul := 0;
MulArr[Ul]:= 1;
i := 1;
repeat
Mul1 := 1;
//Make Mul1 as large as possible
while (i<= n) AND ((LongWordDec DIV MUL1) >= primes[i]) do
Begin Mul1 := Mul1*primes[i]; inc(i); end;
carry := 0;
pMul := @MulArr[0];
For j := 0 to UL do
Begin
prod := Mul1*pMul^+Carry;
Carry := prod Div LongWordDec;
pMul^ := Prod - Carry*LongWordDec;
inc(pMul);
end;
IF Carry <> 0 then Begin inc(Ul);pMul^:= Carry; End;
until i> n;
//count digits
i := Ul*9;
Carry := MulArr[Ul];
repeat
Carry := Carry DIV 10;
inc(i);
until Carry = 0;
result := i;
end;
var
i: NativeInt;
Begin
InitSieve;
write('Primorial (0->9) ');
For i := 0 to 9 do
write(getPrimorial(i),',');
writeln(#8#32#13#10);
i:= 10;
repeat
writeln('Primorial (',i,') = digits ',
getPrimorialDecDigits(i),' digits');
i := i*10;
until i> 1000000;
writeln;
i:= 10;
repeat
writeln('PrimorialExact (',i,') = digits ',
getPrimorialExact(i),' digits');
i := i*10;
until i> 100000;
end.
- Output:
Primorial (0->9) 1,2,6,30,210,2310,30030,510510,9699690,223092870 Primorial (10) = digits 10 digits Primorial (100) = digits 220 digits Primorial (1000) = digits 3393 digits Primorial (10000) = digits 45337 digits Primorial (100000) = digits 563921 digits Primorial (1000000) = digits 6722809 digits //real 0m0.143s without PrimorialExact PrimorialExact (10) = digits 10 digits PrimorialExact (100) = digits 220 digits PrimorialExact (1000) = digits 3393 digits PrimorialExact (10000) = digits 45337 digits PrimorialExact (100000) = digits 563921 digits real 0m38.311s for x64 I tried it PrimorialExact (1000000) = digits 6722809 digits real 16m48.240s
Perl[edit]
use ntheory qw(pn_primorial);
say "First ten primorials: ", join ", ", map { pn_primorial($_) } 0..9;
say "primorial(10^$_) has ".(length pn_primorial(10**$_))." digits" for 1..6;
The pn_primorial
function is smart enough to return a Math::BigInt
object if the result won't fit into a native integer, so it all works out.
- Output:
First ten primorials: 1, 2, 6, 30, 210, 2310, 30030, 510510, 9699690, 223092870 primorial(10^1) has 10 digits primorial(10^2) has 220 digits primorial(10^3) has 3393 digits primorial(10^4) has 45337 digits primorial(10^5) has 563921 digits primorial(10^6) has 6722809 digits
Still using the library for the core activities, we can do the same in two steps. primes($n)
returns a reference to a list of primes up to n, nth_prime($n)
returns the nth prime, and vecprod
does an efficient product tree. So for 10^6 we can do:
use ntheory ":all";
say length( vecprod( @{primes( nth_prime(10**6) )} ) );
returning the same result in only slightly more time. Both examples take under 4 seconds.
Perl 6[edit]
constant @primes = (1..*).grep(*.is-prime);
sub primorial($n) { [*] @primes[^$n] }
say "First ten primorials: {(primorial $_ for ^10)}";
say "primorial(10^$_) has {primorial(10**$_).chars} digits" for 1..5;
- Output:
First ten primorials: 1 2 6 30 210 2310 30030 510510 9699690 223092870 primorial(10^1) has 10 digits primorial(10^2) has 220 digits primorial(10^3) has 3393 digits primorial(10^4) has 45337 digits ^C
If let running long enough, it should be able to find the 100000th primorial too, but I cut it off because it was so slow. Implementing a proper prime sieve would help matters.
Python[edit]
Uses the pure python library pyprimes .
from pyprimes import nprimes
from functools import reduce
primelist = list(nprimes(1000001)) # [2, 3, 5, ...]
def primorial(n):
return reduce(int.__mul__, primelist[:n], 1)
if __name__ == '__main__':
print('First ten primorals:', [primorial(n) for n in range(10)])
for e in range(7):
n = 10**e
print('primorial(%i) has %i digits' % (n, len(str(primorial(n)))))
- Output:
First ten primorials: [1, 2, 6, 30, 210, 2310, 30030, 510510, 9699690, 223092870] primorial(1) has 1 digits primorial(10) has 10 digits primorial(100) has 220 digits primorial(1000) has 3393 digits primorial(10000) has 45337 digits primorial(100000) has 563921 digits primorial(1000000) has 6722809 digits
Racket[edit]
We have to reimplement nth-prime
and replace it with a memorized version, to make it faster. But we can't memorize primorial
because it would use too much memory.
#lang racket
(require (except-in math/number-theory nth-prime))
(define-syntax-rule (define/cache (name arg) body ...)
(begin
(define cache (make-hash))
(define (name arg)
(hash-ref! cache arg (lambda () body ...)))))
(define (num-length n)
;warning: this defines (num-length 0) as 0
(if (zero? n)
0
(add1 (num-length (quotient n 10)))))
(define/cache (nth-prime n)
(if (zero? n)
2
(for/first ([p (in-naturals (add1 (nth-prime (sub1 n))))]
#:when (prime? p))
p)))
(define (primorial n)
(if (zero? n)
1
(* (primorial (sub1 n))
(nth-prime (sub1 n)))))
(displayln
(for/list ([i (in-range 10)])
(primorial i)))
(for ([i (in-range 1 6)])
(printf "Primorial(10^~a) has ~a digits.\n"
i
(num-length (primorial (expt 10 i)))))
- Output:
(1 2 6 30 210 2310 30030 510510 9699690 223092870) Primorial(10^1) has 10 digits. Primorial(10^2) has 220 digits. Primorial(10^3) has 3393 digits. Primorial(10^4) has 45337 digits. Primorial(10^5) has 563921 digits.
REXX[edit]
/*REXX program computes some primorial numbers for low #s, and for 10^n. */
parse arg N H . /*get optional arguments: N, L, H */
if N=='' | N==',' then N=10 /*was N given? Then use the default.*/
if H=='' | H==',' then H=100000 /*was H given? Then use the default.*/
numeric digits 600000; w=length(digits()) /* be able to handle large numbers.*/
@.=.; @.0=1; @.1=2; @.2=3; @.3=5; @.4=7; @.5=11; @.6=13 /*some low primes.*/
s.1=4; s.2=9; s.3=25; s.4=49; s.5=121; s.6=169 /*squared primes. */
#=6 /*number of primes*/
do j=0 for N /*calculate the first N primorial #s.*/
say right(j,length(N)) ' primorial is: ' primorial(j)
end /*j*/
p=1; say
do k=1 for H /*process a large range of numbers. */
p=p*prime(k) /*calculate the next primorial number. */
parse var k L 2 '' -1 R /*get the left and rightmost dec digits*/
if R\==0 then iterate /*if right─most decimal digit\==0, skip*/
if L\==1 then iterate /* " left─most " " \==1, " */
if strip(k,,0)\==1 then iterate /*Not a power of 10? Then skip this K.*/
say right(k,w) ' primorial length in decimal digits is:' right(length(p),w)
end /*k*/
exit /*stick a fork in it, we're all done. */
/*──────────────────────────────────PRIMORIAL subroutine──────────────────────*/
primorial: procedure expose @. s. #; parse arg y; !=1 /*obtain the arg Y.*/
do p=0 to y; !=!*prime(p); end /*p*/ /*calculate product.*/
return ! /*return with the #.*/
/*──────────────────────────────────PRIME subroutine──────────────────────────*/
prime: procedure expose @. s. #; parse arg n; if @.n\==. then return @.n
numeric digits 9 /*limit digs to min.*/
do [email protected].#+2 by 2 /*start looking at #*/
if j//2==0 then iterate; if j//3==0 then iterate /*divisible by 2│3 ?*/
parse var j '' -1 _; if _==5 then iterate /*right-most dig≡5? */
if j//7==0 then iterate; if j//11==0 then iterate /*divisible by 7│11?*/
do k=6 while s.k<=j; if j//@.k==0 then iterate j /*divide by primes. */
end /*k*/
#=#+1; @.#=j; s.#=j*j; return j /*next prime; return*/
end /*j*/
output when using the default inputs:
0 primorial is: 1 1 primorial is: 2 2 primorial is: 6 3 primorial is: 30 4 primorial is: 210 5 primorial is: 2310 6 primorial is: 30030 7 primorial is: 510510 8 primorial is: 9699690 9 primorial is: 223092870 10 primorial length in decimal digits is: 10 100 primorial length in decimal digits is: 220 1000 primorial length in decimal digits is: 3393 10000 primorial length in decimal digits is: 45337 100000 primorial length in decimal digits is: 563921
Ring[edit]
decimals(0)
numb = 10
for prim=1 to numb
prime = list(prim)
for num = 1 to len(prime)
prime[num] = 0
next
primorial(prim)
next
func primorial pr
n = 1
n2 = 0
flag = 1
while flag = 1 and n < 100
nr = isPrime(n)
if n=1 nr=1 ok
if nr=1 n2++ prime[n2]=n ok
if n2=pr flag=0 ok
n++
end
pro = 1
str = ""
for n=1 to len(prime)
pro = pro * prime[n]
str = str + string(prime[n]) + "*"
next
str = substr(str,1,len(str)-1)
see "primorial(" + string(pr) + ") : " + str + " = " + pro + nl
Func IsPrime num
if (num <= 1) return 0 ok
if (num % 2 = 0) and num != 2 return 0 ok
for i = 3 to floor(num / 2) - 1 step 2
if (num % i = 0) return 0 ok
next
return 1
Ruby[edit]
require 'prime'
def primorial_number(n)
pgen = Prime.each
(1..n).inject(1){|p,_| p*pgen.next}
end
puts "First ten primorials: #{(0..9).map{|n| primorial_number(n)}}"
(1..5).each do |n|
puts "primorial(10**#{n}) has #{primorial_number(10**n).to_s.size} digits"
end
- Output:
First ten primorials: [1, 2, 6, 30, 210, 2310, 30030, 510510, 9699690, 223092870] primorial(10**1) has 10 digits primorial(10**2) has 220 digits primorial(10**3) has 3393 digits primorial(10**4) has 45337 digits primorial(10**5) has 563921 digits
Sidef[edit]
say (
'First ten primorials: ',
{|i| pn_primorial(i) }.map(^10).join(', ')
)
{ |i|
say ("primorial(10^#{i}) has " + pn_primorial(10**i).len + ' digits')
} << 1..6
- Output:
First ten primorials: 1, 2, 6, 30, 210, 2310, 30030, 510510, 9699690, 223092870 primorial(10^1) has 10 digits primorial(10^2) has 220 digits primorial(10^3) has 3393 digits primorial(10^4) has 45337 digits primorial(10^5) has 563921 digits primorial(10^6) has 6722809 digits
zkl[edit]
Using Extensible prime generator#zkl and the GMP big int library.
sieve:=Import("sieve.zkl",False,False,False).postponed_sieve;
primes:=Utils.Generator(sieve).walk(0d10); // first 10 primes
foreach n in (10)
{ primes[0,n].reduce('*,1):println("primorial(%d)=%d".fmt(n,_)); }
var [const] BN=Import("zklBigNum");
primes:=Utils.Generator(sieve).walk(0d1_000_000);
foreach n in ([1..6]){ n=(10).pow(n);
primes[0,n].pump(BN(1).mul)
:println("primorial(%,d)=%,d digits".fmt(n,_.numDigits));
}
Big int multiplication is done in place to minimize garbage. Also, subsets of read only lists (which the list of primes is) are not copies (ie they are a small header that points into the original list).
Strangely, it takes much longer to do one million big int multiplications than to generate one million primes, so it would be a good idea to "generate a prime, multiply, print at intervals" but I'm too lazy.
- Output:
primorial(0)=1 primorial(1)=2 primorial(2)=6 primorial(3)=30 primorial(4)=210 primorial(5)=2310 primorial(6)=30030 primorial(7)=510510 primorial(8)=9699690 primorial(9)=223092870 primorial(10)=10 digits primorial(100)=220 digits primorial(1,000)=3,393 digits primorial(10,000)=45,338 digits primorial(100,000)=563,921 digits primorial(1,000,000)=6,722,809 digits