This programming language may be used to instruct a computer to perform a task.
|Execution method:||Compiled (machine code)|
|Parameter passing methods:||By reference, By value|
COBOL, an acronym for 'COmmon Business Oriented Language', is one of the oldest programming languages, being created in 1959. It was designed by a CODASYL (Conference on Data System Languages) committee with Grace Hopper. It is primarily used in business, finance and administration for companies and governments. It is primarily an imperative, structured language, with support for object-oriented programming added in 2002.
- COBOL 60 was the first version of the language.
- COBOL-65 added some new features to the original specification.
- COBOL-68 is the first COBOL standard and was published by ANSI. It was created to improve compatibility between the different versions of the language.
- COBOL-74 added a few more features to the language, including the ability to
ACCEPTthe date, day and time, and the file organization clause.
- COBOL-85 added many new features to COBOL, notably including: excplicit scope terminators (
END-READ, etc.), the
PERFORMstatements, the ability to pass arguments by content, and the deprecation of the infamous
ALTERverb. This standard was followed by the intrinsic functions amendment and a clarifications amendment in 1989 and 1991, respectively.
- X/Open COBOL was a technical standard published by the X/Open Group in 1991 to facilitate uniformity of implementations and program portability. Based on COBOL-85, it excluded much of its optional modules and obsolete features, and also specified some common non-ANSI extensions that would later become incorporated into the standard, such as the screen section for TUI programming, and record locking.
- COBOL 2002 was published by ISO as ISO/IEC 1989. It included a host of new features, most notably including object-oriented programming. However, there were also other features, including: floating-point support, portable arithmetic results, pointers, calling conventions to other languages, function prototypes, XML facilities and support for execution within framework environments. This standard has suffered from poor vendor support, due to little commercial demand for the new features.
- COBOL 2014 was published on July 8th, 2014 and accepted by ISO early that summer, and then adopted by ANSI on Oct 31st, 2014. It includes numeric definitions following the IEEE 754 standard.
- COBOL 2023 is the latest version of the standard, adopted in January 2023. It includes the standardizations of many previously nonstandard extensions, including transaction processing, asynchronous messaging, line sequential file organization, enhanced string manipulation, boolean shifting operators and a sleep statement.
- X/Open. Technical Standard: COBOL Language. https://pubs.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/009680799/toc.pdf.
- John Billman & Huib Klink. Thoughts on the Future of COBOL Standardization. https://web.archive.org/web/20090711032647/http://www.cobolstandard.info/j4/files/08-0034.pdf.
- ISO/IEC 1989:2014 Information technology – Programming languages, their environments and system software interfaces – Programming language COBOL. https://www.iso.org/iso/home/store/catalogue_tc/catalogue_detail.htm?csnumber=51416.
This category has the following 2 subcategories, out of 2 total.
Pages in category "COBOL"
The following 200 pages are in this category, out of 361 total.(previous page) (next page)
- Abbreviations, automatic
- ABC words
- Abstract type
- Ackermann function
- Additive primes
- Address of a variable
- Align columns
- Almost prime
- Anagrams/Deranged anagrams
- Angle difference between two bearings
- Append a record to the end of a text file
- Apply a callback to an array
- Arbitrary-precision integers (included)
- Arithmetic-geometric mean
- Array concatenation
- Array length
- Attractive numbers
- Averages/Arithmetic mean
- Averages/Root mean square
- Caesar cipher
- Calculating the value of e
- Calendar - for "REAL" programmers
- Call a foreign-language function
- Call a function
- Call a function in a shared library
- Call an object method
- Cantor set
- Case-sensitivity of identifiers
- Character codes
- Check input device is a terminal
- Check output device is a terminal
- Check that file exists
- Code segment unload
- Colour bars/Display
- Comma quibbling
- Command-line arguments
- Compare a list of strings
- Compiler/AST interpreter
- Compiler/code generator
- Compiler/lexical analyzer
- Compiler/syntax analyzer
- Compiler/virtual machine interpreter
- Compound data type
- Conditional structures
- Constrained random points on a circle
- Continued fraction
- Convert seconds to compound duration
- Conway's Game of Life
- Copy a string
- Count how many vowels and consonants occur in a string
- Count in octal
- Count occurrences of a substring
- Count the coins
- Cousin primes
- Create a file
- Create a file on magnetic tape
- Create an HTML table
- Create an object at a given address
- CSV data manipulation
- Cumulative standard deviation
- Factors of an integer
- Fibonacci sequence
- File input/output
- File size
- Find limit of recursion
- Find prime numbers of the form n*n*n+2
- Find squares n where n+1 is prime
- Find the last Sunday of each month
- Find words which contains all the vowels
- Find words which contains more than 3 e vowels
- First 9 prime Fibonacci number
- Five weekends
- Fixed length records
- Flow-control structures
- Floyd's triangle
- Forest fire
- Formatted numeric output
- Four bit adder
- Function definition
- Function prototype
- Hailstone sequence
- Handle a signal
- Happy numbers
- Harmonic series
- Harshad or Niven series
- Hello world/Graphical
- Hello world/Line printer
- Hello world/Newbie
- Hello world/Newline omission
- Hello world/Standard error
- Hello world/Text
- Hickerson series of almost integers
- Hofstadter Q sequence
- Holidays related to Easter
- Horizontal sundial calculations
- Langton's ant
- Last Friday of each month
- Leap year
- Least common multiple
- Letter frequency
- Levenshtein distance
- Logical operations
- Long multiplication
- Look-and-say sequence
- Loop over multiple arrays simultaneously
- Loops/Downward for
- Loops/For with a specified step