Logical operations

From Rosetta Code
Task
Logical operations
You are encouraged to solve this task according to the task description, using any language you may know.

Basic Data Operation
This is a basic data operation. It represents a fundamental action on a basic data type.

You may see other such operations in the Basic Data Operations category, or:

Integer Operations
Arithmetic | Comparison

Boolean Operations
Bitwise | Logical

String Operations
Concatenation | Interpolation | Comparison | Matching

Memory Operations
Pointers & references | Addresses

Task

Write a function that takes two logical (boolean) values, and outputs the result of "and" and "or" on both arguments as well as "not" on the first arguments.

If the programming language doesn't provide a separate type for logical values, use the type most commonly used for that purpose.

If the language supports additional logical operations on booleans such as XOR, list them as well.

11l[edit]

F logic(a, b)
   print(‘a and b: ’(a & b))
   print(‘a or b: ’(a | b))
   print(‘not a: ’(!a))

360 Assembly[edit]

Assembler 360 offers a full set of opcodes for logical operations: or, and, xor (exclusive or). The "not" can be done by inversing the branching: BNE (Branch Not Equal) instead of BE (Branch Equal). An othe way to perform a not is to use a xor with the true value (X'FF').

 Op-codes
                     Or    And   Xor
                     ---   ---   ---      
 Memory to memory    OC    NC    XC
 Memory to register  O     N     X
 Immediate           OI    NI    XI


An example:

*        Logical operations       04/04/2017
LOGICAL  CSECT
         USING  LOGICAL,R15
*     -- C=A and B
         MVC    C,A                C=A
         NC     C,B                C=A and B
*     -- C=A or B
         MVC    C,A                C=A
         OC     C,B                C=A or B
*     -- C=not A
         MVC    C,A                C=A
         XI     C,X'01'            C=not A
*     -- if C then goto e
         CLI    C,X'01'            if C 
         BE     E                  then goto e
         XPRNT  =C'FALSE',5
*
E        BR     R14
TRUE     DC     X'01'
FALSE    DC     X'00'
A        DC     X'01'
B        DC     X'00'
C        DS     X
PG       DC     CL80' '
         YREGS
         END    LOGICAL
Output:
FALSE

6502 Assembly[edit]

There are no built-in boolean types; however, supporting the concept in software is trivial. Typically, the zero flag or the carry flag can act as a boolean, with zero being false and nonzero being true.

LDA myBoolean
BNE isTrue
;code that would execute if myBoolean is false, goes here.
RTS
isTrue:
;code that would execute if myBoolean is true, goes here.
RTS

Branches Based On Equality to Zero[edit]

A logical AND can easily be implemented as a nested if. Here, we'll be executing the following pseudocode. For this example, all variables are one byte in size.

if(myValue == 3 && myOtherValue == 5){
myResult = true;
}
LDA myValue
CMP #3
BNE .skip

;if we got to here, "myValue == 3" evaluated to true.

LDA myOtherValue
CMP #5
BNE .skip

;if we got to here, both "myValue == 3" and "myOtherValue" == 5 evaluated to true.

STA myResult         ;any nonzero value is considered TRUE, so we've stored 5 into myResult.

.skip:

A logical OR is somewhat similar.

if(myValue == 3 || myOtherValue == 5){
myResult = true;
}
LDA myValue
CMP #3
BEQ .doTheThing

;if not equal, check myOtherValue

LDA myOtherValue
CMP #5
BNE .skip

;if we got to here, either "myValue == 3" or "myOtherValue" == 5 evaluated to true.

.doTheThing:
STA myResult         ;any nonzero value is considered TRUE, so we've stored 5 into myResult.

.skip:

Logical NOT is the easiest of all; just use the opposite branch condition.

Using Bit Shifts[edit]

Chances are, however, on an 8-bit computer like the 6502, rather than using an entire byte to represent a single variable, you're going to store up to 8 related booleans in a single byte. Variables such as these are often called "bit flags" and is very common for parameters that are passed to/from external hardware, such as joysticks, video display processors, or sound cards. Each bit typically represents a different yet related variable. For example, reading a one-button joystick returns 5 bits, one for the "fire button" and the 4 directions.

Side note: For joysticks, it's actually more common for 0 to represent pressed and 1 to represent not pressed, but that's out of the scope of this task.

For testing multiple bits, a simple BNE or BEQ won't cut it, as this doesn't tell you WHICH bits are 0 or 1, only that a 1 exists/doesn't exist somewhere in the byte (which, if you need that info specifically, can be a nice shortcut.) In this example, we'll be testing the bottom 2 bits of the 8-bit variable "Flags", and we want to test if both bits are 1.

LDA flags
LSR        ;test the rightmost bit.
BCC .skip
LSR        ;test the bit just to the left of the one we tested prior.
BCC .skip

;your code for what happens when both of the bottom 2 bits are 1, goes here.

.skip:

Using BIT[edit]

If we're testing the top 2 bits of a byte (usually referred to as bit 7 or 6) then there's a special method we can use. The BIT instruction sets the N flag to bit 7 of the tested byte, and the V flag to bit 6 of the tested byte.

BIT myBitFlags
BMI .Bit7Set
BVS .Bit6Set

For this reason, it's a good strategy when designing a bit flags variable to put the bits you'll be testing the most in bit 7 or 6 so that you spend less time checking them.


ACL2[edit]

(defun logical-ops (a b)
   (progn$ (cw "(and a b) = ~x0~%" (and a b))
           (cw "(or a b)  = ~x0~%" (or a b))
           (cw "(not a) =   ~x0~%" (not a))))



Action![edit]

BYTE FUNC Not(BYTE a)
  IF a=0 THEN
    RETURN (1)
  FI
RETURN (0)

PROC Main()
  BYTE a,b,res

  FOR a=0 TO 1
  DO 
    FOR b=0 TO 1
    DO
      res=a AND b
      PrintF("%B AND %B=%B",a,b,res)
      res=a OR b
      PrintF("|%B OR %B=%B",a,b,res)
      res=a ! b
      PrintF("|%B XOR %B=%B",a,b,res)
      res=Not(a)
      PrintF("|NOT %B=%B%E",a,res)
    OD
  OD
RETURN
Output:

Screenshot from Atari 8-bit computer

0 AND 0=0|0 OR 0=0|0 XOR 0=0|NOT 0=1
0 AND 1=0|0 OR 1=1|0 XOR 1=1|NOT 0=1
1 AND 0=0|1 OR 0=1|1 XOR 0=1|NOT 1=0
1 AND 1=1|1 OR 1=1|1 XOR 1=0|NOT 1=0

Ada[edit]

I have also included logical xor because it is defined for Ada boolean types. All the operators below work equally well on arrays of boolean types. In fact, a packed array of boolean is an array of bits, providing a direct link between logical and bitwise operations.

procedure Print_Logic(A : Boolean; B : Boolean) is
begin
   Put_Line("A and B is " & Boolean'Image(A and B));
   Put_Line("A or B  is " & Boolean'Image(A or B));
   Put_Line("A xor B is " & Boolean'Image(A xor B));
   Put_Line("not A   is " & Boolean'Image(not A));
end Print_Logic;

Agda[edit]

module AndOrNot where

open import Data.Bool
open import Data.Product

test : Bool  Bool  Bool × Bool × Bool
test x y = x  y , x  y , not x

e.g.

test true false ⇒ false , true , false

Aikido[edit]

function logic(a,b) {
  println("a AND b: " + (a && b))
  println("a OR b: " + (a || b))
  println("NOT a: " + (!a))
}

Aime[edit]

void
out(integer a, integer b)
{
    o_integer(a && b);
    o_byte('\n');
    o_integer(a || b);
    o_byte('\n');
    o_integer(!a);
    o_byte('\n');
}

ALGOL 68[edit]

PROC print_logic = (BOOL a, b)VOID:
(
# for a 6-7 bit/byte compiler #
  printf(($"a and b is "gl$, a AND b);
  printf(($"a or b is "gl$, a OR b);
  printf(($"not a is "gl$, NOT a);
  printf(($"a equivalent to b is "gl$, a EQ b);
  printf(($"a not equivalent to b is "gl$, a NE b);

# Alternatively ASCII # 
  printf(($"a and b is "gl$, a & b); 
  printf(($"a and b is "gl$, a /\ b);  <!-- http://web.archive.org/web/20021207211127/http://www.bobbemer.com/BRACES.HTM -->
  printf(($"a or b is "gl$, a \/ b);
  printf(($"a equivalent to b "gl$, a = b);
  printf(($"a not equivalent to b "gl$, a /= b);

¢ for a European 8 bit/byte charcter set eg. ALCOR or GOST ¢
  printf(($"a and b is "gl$, a ∧ b);
  printf(($"a or b is "gl$, a ∨ b);
  printf(($"not a is "gl$, ¬ a)
  printf(($"a not equivalent to b is "gl$, a ≠ b)
)

ALGOL W[edit]

procedure booleanOperations( logical value a, b ) ;
    begin

        % algol W has the usual "and", "or" and "not" operators         %
        write( a,      " and ", b, ": ", a and   b );
        write( a,      "  or ", b, ": ", a  or   b );
        write( "         not ", a, ": ",   not   a );

        % logical values can be compared with the = and not = operators %
        %     a not = b can be used for a xor b                         %
        write( a,      " xor ", b, ": ", a not = b );
        write( a,      " equ ", b, ": ", a     = b );

    end booleanOperations ;

Amazing Hopper[edit]

#include <hopper.h>

main:
  a=0, b=1  // a and b have some values...

  {"values A=",a,", B=",b} println

  {"AND : ",a,b} and, println
  {"OR  : ",a,b} or, println
  {"XOR : ",a,b} xor, println
  {"NAND: ",a,b} nand, println
  {"NOR : ",a,b} nor, println
  {"NOT A: ",a}not, println
  {"NOT B: ",b}not, println
  
  x=-1,{3,3} rand array(x), mulby(10),ceil,gthan(5),mov(x)
  y=-1,{3,3} rand array(y), mulby(10),ceil,gthan(5),mov(y)

  {"\nArrays\nX:\n",x,"\nY:\n",y}println

  {"AND :\n",x,y} and, println
  {"OR  :\n",x,y} or, println
  {"XOR :\n",x,y} xor, println
  {"NAND:\n",x,y} nand, println
  {"NOR :\n",x,y} nor, println
  {"NOT X :\n",x} not, println
  {"NOT Y :\n",y} not, println

exit(0)
Output:
values A=0, B=1
AND : 0
OR  : 1
XOR : 1
NAND: 1
NOR : 0
NOT A: 1
NOT B: 0

Arrays
X:
0 0 0
1 1 1
1 1 0

Y:
1 1 0
0 1 1
1 1 0

AND :
0 0 0
0 1 1
1 1 0

OR  :
1 1 0
1 1 1
1 1 0

XOR :
1 1 0
1 0 0
0 0 0

NAND:
1 1 1
1 0 0
0 0 1

NOR :
0 0 1
0 0 0
0 0 1

NOT X :
1 1 1
0 0 0
0 0 1

NOT Y :
0 0 1
1 0 0
0 0 1

Apex[edit]

boolean a = true;
boolean b = false;
System.Debug('a AND b: ' + (a && b));
System.Debug('a OR b: ' + (a || b));
System.Debug('NOT a: ' + (!a));
System.Debug('a XOR b: ' + (a ^ b));

APL[edit]

APL represents Boolean values using 1 and 0. This function takes Boolean arguments before it and after it—which may be arrays of Booleans—and returns an array consisting of arg1 AND arg2, arg1 OR arg2, NOT arg1, arg1 NAND arg2, arg1 NOR arg2, and arg1 XOR arg2, in that order.

      LOGICALOPS{()()(~)()()()}

ARM Assembly[edit]

Works with: as version Raspberry Pi
/* ARM assembly Raspberry PI  */
/*  program logicoper.s   */
/* Constantes    */
.equ STDOUT, 1
.equ WRITE,  4
.equ EXIT,   1
/* Initialized data */
.data
szMessResultAnd:   .asciz "Result of And : \n"
szMessResultOr:    .asciz "Result of Or : \n"
szMessResultEor:   .asciz "Result of Exclusive Or : \n"
szMessResultNot:   .asciz "Result of Not : \n"
szMessResultClear: .asciz "Result of Bit Clear : \n"

sMessAffBin: .ascii "Register value : "
sZoneBin:    .space 36,' '
             .asciz "\n"

/* code section */
.text
.global main 
main:                /* entry of program  */
    push {fp,lr}     /* save 2 registers */

    mov r0,#0b1100      @ binary value 1
    mov r1,#0b0110      @ binary value 2
    bl logicfunc

100:   @ standard end of the program 
    mov r0,#0                   @ return code
    pop {fp,lr}                 @ restore 2 registers
    mov r7,#EXIT                @ request to exit program
    swi 0                       @ perform the system call

/******************************************************************/
/*     logics functions                              */ 
/******************************************************************/
/* r0 contains the first value */
/* r1 contains the second value */
logicfunc:
    push {r2,lr}                     @ save  registers 
    mov r2,r0                        @ save value 1 in r2 
    ldr r0,iAdrszMessResultAnd       @ and
    bl affichageMess
    mov r0,r2                        @ load value 1 in r0
    and r0,r1
    bl affichage2
    ldr r0,iAdrszMessResultOr        @ or
    bl affichageMess
    mov r0,r2
    orr r0,r1
    bl affichage2
    ldr r0,iAdrszMessResultEor       @ exclusive or
    bl affichageMess
    mov r0,r2
    eor r0,r1
    bl affichage2
    ldr r0,iAdrszMessResultNot       @ not
    bl affichageMess
    mov r0,r2
    mvn r0,r1
    bl affichage2
    ldr r0,iAdrszMessResultClear     @ bit clear
    bl affichageMess
    mov r0,r2
    bic r0,r1
    bl affichage2
100:
    pop {r2,lr}                      @ restore registers 
    bx lr	
iAdrszMessResultAnd:    .int szMessResultAnd
iAdrszMessResultOr:     .int szMessResultOr
iAdrszMessResultEor:    .int szMessResultEor
iAdrszMessResultNot:    .int szMessResultNot
iAdrszMessResultClear:  .int szMessResultClear
/******************************************************************/
/*     register display in binary                              */ 
/******************************************************************/
/* r0 contains the register */
affichage2:
    push {r0,lr}     /* save registers */  
    push {r1-r5}     /* save other registers */
    mrs r5,cpsr      /* saves state register in r5 */
    ldr r1,iAdrsZoneBin
    mov r2,#0         @ read bit position counter
    mov r3,#0         @ position counter of the written character
1:                @ loop 
    lsls r0,#1        @ left shift  with flags
    movcc r4,#48      @ flag carry off   character '0'
    movcs r4,#49      @ flag carry on    character '1'
    strb r4,[r1,r3]   @ character ->   display zone
    add r2,r2,#1      @ + 1 read bit position counter
    add r3,r3,#1      @ + 1 position counter of the written character
    cmp r2,#8         @ 8 bits read
    addeq r3,r3,#1    @ + 1 position counter of the written character
    cmp r2,#16        @ etc
    addeq r3,r3,#1
    cmp r2,#24
    addeq r3,r3,#1
    cmp r2,#31        @ 32 bits shifted ?
    ble 1b            @ no -> loop

    ldr r0,iAdrsZoneMessBin    @ address of message result
    bl affichageMess           @ display result
    
100:
    msr cpsr,r5    /* restore state register */
    pop {r1-r5}    /* restore other registers */
    pop {r0,lr}
    bx lr	
iAdrsZoneBin: .int sZoneBin	   
iAdrsZoneMessBin: .int sMessAffBin

/******************************************************************/
/*     display text with size calculation                         */ 
/******************************************************************/
/* r0 contains the address of the message */
affichageMess:
    push {fp,lr}    			/* save registers */ 
    push {r0,r1,r2,r7}    		/* save others registers */
    mov r2,#0   				/* counter length */
1:      	            /* loop length calculation */
    ldrb r1,[r0,r2]  			/* read byte start position + index */
    cmp r1,#0       			/* if 0 it's over */
    addne r2,r2,#1   			/* else add 1 to the length */
    bne 1b          			/* and loop */
                                /* so here r2 contains the length of the message */
    mov r1,r0        			/* address message in r1 */
    mov r0,#STDOUT      		/* code to write to the standard output */
    mov r7,#WRITE               /* "write" system call */
    swi #0                      /* system call */
    pop {r0,r1,r2,r7}     		/* restore other registers */
    pop {fp,lr}    				/* restore 2 registers */ 
    bx lr	        			/* return */

Arturo[edit]

logic: function [a b][
	print ["a AND b =" and? a b]
	print ["a OR b =" or? a b]
	print ["NOT a = " not? a]
]
 
logic true false
Output:
a AND b = false 
a OR b = true 
NOT a =  false

Asymptote[edit]

bool a = true;
bool b = false;

write(a & b);
write(a && b);  //(with conditional evaluation of right-hand argument)
write(a | b);
write(a || b);  //(with conditional evaluation of right-hand argument)
write(a ^ b);
write(!a);

AutoHotkey[edit]

a = 1
b = 0
msgbox % "a and b is " . (a && b)
msgbox % "a or b is " . (a || b)
msgbox % "not a is " . (!a)

Avail[edit]

Avail provides logical operators to cover all possibilities of a two-argument truth table. (Hence there are 12 entries below, plus the 4 ommitted for the trivial a, b, true, and false = 2^4.)

Method "logic ops_,_" is
[
    a : boolean;
    b : boolean;
|
    Print: "not a: " ++ “¬a”;
    Print: "not b: " ++ “¬b”;
    Print: "a and b: " ++ “a ∧ b”;
    Print: "a or b: " ++ “a ∨ b”;
    Print: "a nand b: " ++ “a ↑ b”;
    Print: "a nor b: " ++ “a ↓ b”;
    Print: "a implies b: " ++ “a → b”; // = not a OR b
    Print: "a is implied b b: " ++ “a ← b”; // = a OR not b
    Print: "a does not imply b: " ++ “a ↛ b”; // = a AND not b
    Print: "a is not implied by b: " ++ “a ↚ b”; // not a AND b
    Print: "a xor b: " ++ “a ⊕ b”; // equivalent to a ≠ b
    Print: "a biconditional b: " ++ “a ↔ b”; // equivalent to a = b
];

AWK[edit]

$ awk '{print "and:"($1&&$2),"or:"($1||$2),"not:"!$1}'
0 0
and:0 or:0 not:1
0 1
and:0 or:1 not:1
1 0
and:0 or:1 not:0
1 1
and:1 or:1 not:0

Axe[edit]

Lbl LOGIC
r₁→A
r₂→B
Disp "AND:",(A?B)▶Dec,i
Disp "OR:",(A??B)▶Dec,i
Disp "NOT:",(A?0,1)▶Dec,i
Return

Note that unlike TI-83 BASIC, the "and", "or", "xor", and "not(" tokens in Axe are bitwise operators, not logical operators.

BASIC[edit]

Commodore BASIC[edit]

In Commodore BASIC the "logical" operators are actually bitwise operators; to enable the proper semantics when they're used for logic, true expressions return -1 (all bits set) and false expressions return 0 (all bits clear).

10 A = -1
20 B = 0
30 PRINT A AND B
40 PRINT A OR B
50 PRINT (A AND (NOT B)) OR ((NOT A) AND B)
60 PRINT NOT A
Output:
0
-1
-1
0

Commodore BASIC version 7 for the C-128 added XOR, but it's a function, and for some reason was written to accept only unsigned (16-bit) numbers.

70 PRINT XOR(1, 0)
Output:
1

BASIC256[edit]

a = true
b = false
print a and b
print a or b
print a xor b
print not a

BBC BASIC[edit]

      PROClogic(FALSE, FALSE)
      PROClogic(FALSE, TRUE)
      PROClogic(TRUE, FALSE)
      PROClogic(TRUE, TRUE)
      END
      
      DEF PROClogic(a%, b%)
      LOCAL @% : @% = 2 : REM Column width
      PRINT a% " AND " b% " = " a% AND b% TAB(20);
      PRINT a% " OR "  b% " = " a% OR b%  TAB(40);
      PRINT a% " EOR " b% " = " a% EOR b% TAB(60);
      PRINT " NOT " a% " = " NOT a%
      ENDPROC
Output:
 0 AND  0 =  0       0 OR  0 =  0        0 EOR  0 =  0       NOT  0 = -1
 0 AND -1 =  0       0 OR -1 = -1        0 EOR -1 = -1       NOT  0 = -1
-1 AND  0 =  0      -1 OR  0 = -1       -1 EOR  0 = -1       NOT -1 =  0
-1 AND -1 = -1      -1 OR -1 = -1       -1 EOR -1 =  0       NOT -1 =  0

IS-BASIC[edit]

100 LET A=-1
110 LET B=0
120 PRINT A AND B
130 PRINT A OR B
140 PRINT (A AND(NOT B)) OR((NOT A) AND B)
150 PRINT NOT A
160 PRINT 15 BAND 4
170 PRINT 2 BOR 15
180 PRINT (A BOR B)-(A BAND B) ! xor

QBasic[edit]

Works with: QBasic version 1.1

No booleans in BASIC... these are integers. -1 for True 0 for False.

b1 = -1
b2 = 0
PRINT b1 AND b2
PRINT b1 OR b2
PRINT NOT b1

Yabasic[edit]

b1 = true     //value of 1
b2 = false    //value of 0
print b1 and b2
print b1 or b2
print not b1

QuickBASIC[edit]

Works with: QuickBasic version 4.5
SUB logic (a%, b%) 'no booleans in BASIC...these are integers. 1 for true 0 for false.
  PRINT a AND b
  PRINT a OR b
  PRINT NOT a
END SUB

FreeBASIC[edit]

In addition to And, Or and Not FreeBASIC supports several other logical operators:

  • XOr - Exclusive Or : true if both operands are different, false if they're the same
  • Eqv - Equivalence  : true if both operands are the same, false if they're different
  • Imp - Implication  : true unless the first operand is true and the second operand is false when it is false


There are also 'short-circuiting' operators:

  • AndAlso - Same as AND but the second operand is only evaluated if the first is true
  • OrElse - Same as OR but the second operand is only evaluated if the first is false


The following program illustrates the use of these operators:

' FB 1.05.0 Win64

Sub logicalDemo(b1 As Boolean, b2 As Boolean)
  Print "b1             = "; b1
  Print "b2             = "; b2 
  Print "b1 And b2      = "; b1 And b2
  Print "b1 Or b2       = "; b1 Or b2
  Print "b1 XOr b2      = "; b1 Xor b2
  Print "b1 Eqv b2      = "; b1 Eqv b2
  Print "b1 Imp b2      = "; b1 Imp b2
  Print "Not b1         = "; Not b1
  Print "b1 AndAlso b2  = "; b1 AndAlso b2
  Print "b1 OrElse b2   = "; b1 OrElse b2
  Print
End Sub

Dim b1 As Boolean = True
Dim b2 As Boolean = True
logicalDemo b1, b2
b2 = False
logicalDemo b1, b2
b1 = False
logicalDemo b1, b2
b2 = True
logicalDemo b1, b2
Print "Press any key to quit"
Sleep
Output:
b1             = true
b2             = true
b1 And b2      = true
b1 Or b2       = true
b1 XOr b2      = false
b1 Eqv b2      = true
b1 Imp b2      = true
Not b1         = false
b1 AndAlso b2  = true
b1 OrElse b2   = true

b1             = true
b2             = false
b1 And b2      = false
b1 Or b2       = true
b1 XOr b2      = true
b1 Eqv b2      = false
b1 Imp b2      = false
Not b1         = false
b1 AndAlso b2  = false
b1 OrElse b2   = true

b1             = false
b2             = false
b1 And b2      = false
b1 Or b2       = false
b1 XOr b2      = false
b1 Eqv b2      = true
b1 Imp b2      = true
Not b1         = true
b1 AndAlso b2  = false
b1 OrElse b2   = false

b1             = false
b2             = true
b1 And b2      = false
b1 Or b2       = true
b1 XOr b2      = true
b1 Eqv b2      = false
b1 Imp b2      = true
Not b1         = true
b1 AndAlso b2  = false
b1 OrElse b2   = true

bc[edit]

POSIX bc has neither Boolean values nor built-in logical operations. Thus one has to write them oneself:

/* The following three functions assume 0 is false and 1 is true */

/* And */
define a(x, y) {
    return(x * y)
}

/* Or */
define o(x, y) {
    return(x + y - x * y)
}

/* Not */
define n(x) {
    return(1 - x)
}

define f(a, b) {
    "a and b: "
    a(a, b)
    "a or b: "
    o(a, b)
    "not a: "
    n(a)
}
Works with: GNU bc

GNU bc's extensions make this task much easier:

define logic_test(a, b) {
    print "a and b: ", a && b, "\n"
    print "a or b: ", a || b, "\n"
    print "not a: ", !a, "\n"
}

BQN[edit]

BQN has four logical operators: AND (`∧`), OR (`∨`), NOT (`¬`), XOR (`≠`). The function L lists each of those results in the same order.

   L←∧∾∨∾¬∾≠
∧∾∨∾¬∾≠
   0 L 1
⟨ 0 1 0 1 ⟩

Bracmat[edit]

Bracmat has no boolean values. Instead, each expression has, apart from its value, also a S/F/I (SUCCEEDED/FAILED/IGNORE) feature, where the latter is used in the exceptional case that the success or failure of an expression should not influence the program flow.

The expression ~ is special in that it always fails. Most expressions only fail in exceptional cases, such as when a file cannot be opened. Match expressions stand apart from the rest and can be compared to expressions with comparison operations in other languages.

In the example below, the empty string represents 'true' and ~ represents 'false'. The binary operators & and |, which normally are used as the glue between expressions such as match operations, function definitions and function calls, are used as the logical operators 'and' and 'or', respectively.

( ( Logic
  =   x y
    .   '$arg:(=?x,?y)
      &   str
        $ ( "\n(x,y)="
            !arg
            ( ":\n"
              "x and y -> "
              ( (!x&!y)&true
              | false
              )
            )
            ( \n
              "x or y -> "
              ( (!x|!y)&true
              | false
              )
            )
            "\nnot x -> "
            (~!x&true|false)
          )
  )
& out$(Logic$(,))
& out$(Logic$(~,))
& out$(Logic$(,~))
& out$(Logic$(~,~))
);
Output:
(x,y)=(,):
x and y -> true
x or y -> true
not x -> false

(x,y)=(~,):
x and y -> false
x or y -> true
not x -> true

(x,y)=(,~):
x and y -> false
x or y -> true
not x -> false

(x,y)=(~,~):
x and y -> false
x or y -> false
not x -> true

Brat[edit]

logic = { a, b |
  p "a and b: #{ a && b }"
  p "a or b: #{ a || b }"
  p "not a: #{ not a }"
}

C[edit]

void print_logic(int a, int b)
{
  printf("a and b is %d\n", a && b);
  printf("a or b is %d\n", a || b);
  printf("not a is %d\n", !a);
}

C#[edit]

using System;

namespace LogicalOperations
{
    class Program
    {
        static void Main(string[] args)
        {
            bool a = true, b = false;
            Console.WriteLine("a and b is {0}", a && b);
            Console.WriteLine("a or b is {0}", a || b);
            Console.WriteLine("Not a is {0}", !a);
            Console.WriteLine("a exclusive-or b is {0}", a ^ b);
        }
    }
}

C++[edit]

void print_logic(bool a, bool b)
{
  std::cout << std::boolalpha; // so that bools are written as "true" and "false"
  std::cout << "a and b is " << (a && b) << "\n";
  std::cout << "a or b is " << (a || b) << "\n";
  std::cout << "not a is " << (!a) << "\n";
}

Clipper[edit]

 Function Foo( a, b )
   // a and b was defined as .F. (false) or .T. (true)
   ? a .AND. b
   ? a .OR. b
   ? .NOT. a, .NOT. b
   Return Nil

Clojure[edit]

(defn logical [a b] 
  (prn (str "a and b is " (and a b)))
  (prn (str "a or b is " (or a b)))
  (prn (str "not a is "  (not a))))

(logical true false)

COBOL[edit]

Logical operations in COBOL are exactly the same as bitwise operations.

       IDENTIFICATION DIVISION.
       PROGRAM-ID. print-logic.

       DATA DIVISION.
       LOCAL-STORAGE SECTION.
       01  result                  PIC 1 USAGE BIT.

       LINKAGE SECTION.
       01  a                       PIC 1 USAGE BIT.
       01  b                       PIC 1 USAGE BIT.

       PROCEDURE DIVISION USING a, b.
           COMPUTE result = a B-AND b
           DISPLAY "a and b is " result

           COMPUTE result = a B-OR b
           DISPLAY "a or b is " result

           COMPUTE result = B-NOT a
           DISPLAY "Not a is " result

           COMPUTE result = a B-XOR b
           DISPLAY "a exclusive-or b is " result

           GOBACK
           .

ColdFusion[edit]

<cffunction name = "logic" hint = "Performs basic logical operations">
  <cfargument name = "a" required = "yes" type = "boolean" />
  <cfargument name = "a" required = "yes" type = "boolean" />
  <cfoutput>
    'A' AND 'B' is #a AND b#< br />
    'A' OR  'B' is #a OR  b#< br />
    NOT 'A'     is #!a#
  </cfoutput>
</cffunction>

Common Lisp[edit]

(defun demo-logic (a b)
  (mapcar (lambda (op) 
                  (format t "~a ~a ~a is ~a~%" a op b (eval (list op a b)))) 
          '(and or)))

(loop for a in '(nil t) do 
  (format t "NOT ~a is ~a~%" a (not a)) 
  (loop for b in '(nil t) do (demo-logic a b) (terpri)))
Output:
NOT NIL is T
NIL AND NIL is NIL
NIL OR NIL is NIL

NIL AND T is NIL
NIL OR T is T

NOT T is NIL
T AND NIL is NIL
T OR NIL is T

T AND T is T
T OR T is T

CLISP has xor, which can be added to the list of ops in demo-logic if using that implementation, but it's not part of the standard.

D[edit]

import std.stdio;

void logic(T, U)(T lhs, U rhs) {
    writefln("'%s' is of type '%s', '%s' is of type '%s';", 
             lhs, typeid(typeof(lhs)), rhs,typeid(typeof(rhs)));
    writefln("\t'%s' AND '%s' is %s, ", lhs, rhs, lhs && rhs);
    writefln("\t'%s' OR '%s' is %s, ", lhs, rhs, lhs || rhs);
    writefln("\tNOT '%s' is %s.\n", lhs, !lhs);
}

class C { int value; } 

void main() {
    bool theTruth = true;
    bool theLie = false;
    real zeroReal = 0.0L;
    real NaN; // D initializes floating point values to NaN
    int zeroInt  = 0;
    real[] nullArr = null;
    string emptyStr = "";
    string nullStr = null;
    C someC = new C;
    C nullC = null;

    // Note: Struct is value type in D, but composite
    //  so no default bool equivalent.

    logic(theTruth, theLie); 
    logic(zeroReal, NaN);  
    logic(zeroInt, nullArr); 
    logic(nullStr, emptyStr);  
    logic(someC, nullC);  
}
Output:
'true' is of type 'bool', 'false' is of type 'bool';
    'true' AND 'false' is false, 
    'true' OR 'false' is true, 
    NOT 'true' is false.

'0' is of type 'real', 'nan' is of type 'real';
    '0' AND 'nan' is false, 
    '0' OR 'nan' is true, 
    NOT '0' is true.

'0' is of type 'int', '[]' is of type 'real[]';
    '0' AND '[]' is false, 
    '0' OR '[]' is false, 
    NOT '0' is true.

'' is of type 'immutable(char)[]', '' is of type 'immutable(char)[]';
    '' AND '' is false, 
    '' OR '' is true, 
    NOT '' is true.

'logical_operations.C' is of type 'logical_operations.C', 'null' is of type 'logical_operations.C';
    'logical_operations.C' AND 'null' is false, 
    'logical_operations.C' OR 'null' is true, 
    NOT 'logical_operations.C' is false.

Dc[edit]

[ 1 q ] sT

[ 0=T 0 ] s!
[ l! x S@ l! x L@ + l! x ] s&
[ l! x S@ l! x L@ * l! x ] s|

[ 48 + P ] s.

[ Sb Sa
  la l. x [ ] P lb l. x [  ] P
  la lb l& x l. x [   ] P
  la Lb l| x l. x [   ] P
  La l! x l. x
  A P
] sF

[a b a&b a|b !a] P A P
0 0 lF x
0 1 lF x
1 0 lF x
1 1 lF x
Output:
a b a&b a|b !a
0 0  0   0   1
0 1  0   1   1
1 0  0   1   0
1 1  1   1   0

Delphi[edit]

Delphi supports all logical operators shown in § Pascal. Furthermore, the exclusive or operator xor is supported:

	{ exclusive or }
	writeLn(A:5, ' xor', B:6, '  yields', A xor B:7);

Beware: In Delphi the operators and, or and xor can also refer to bitwise operations.

DWScript[edit]

var a := True;
var b := False;

Print('a = ');
PrintLn(a);
Print('b = ');
PrintLn(b);

Print('a AND b: ');
PrintLn(a AND b);

Print('a OR b: ');
PrintLn(a OR b);

Print('NOT a: ');
PrintLn(NOT a);

Print('a XOR b: ');
PrintLn(a XOR b);
Output:
a = True
b = False
a AND b: False
a OR b: True
NOT a: False
a XOR b: True

Dyalect[edit]

var a = true
var b = false
print("a and b is \(a && b)")
print("a or b is \(a || b)")
print("Not a is \(!a)")

Déjà Vu[edit]

showbool a b:
    !.( a b or a b and a b xor a b not a )

for a in [ false true ]:
    for b in [ false true ]:
        showbool a b
Output:
true true true true false false
true false true false true false
false true true false true true
false false false false false true

E[edit]

def logicalOperations(a :boolean, b :boolean) {
    return ["and" => a & b,
            "or"  => a | b,
            "not" => !a,
            "xor" => a ^ b]
}

Each of these is a method on boolean objects; the above is precisely equivalent to:

def logicalOperations(a :boolean, b :boolean) {
    return ["and" => a.and(b),
            "or"  => a.or(b),
            "not" => a.not(),
            "xor" => a.xor(b)]
}

If the :boolean guards were removed, these operations would also work on other types, such as sets (& is union and | is intersection; not is not supported).

EasyLang[edit]

func logic a b . .
  if a = 1 and b = 1
    r1 = 1
  .
  if a = 1 or b = 1
    r2 = 1
  .
  if a = 0
    r3 = 1
  .
  print r1 & " " & r2 & " " & r3
.
call logic 0 0
call logic 0 1
call logic 1 0
call logic 1 1

ECL[edit]

LogicalOperations(BOOLEAN A,BOOLEAN B) := FUNCTION
  ANDit := A AND B;
  ORit  := A OR B;
  NOTA  := NOT A;
  XORit := (A OR B) AND NOT (A AND B);
  DS    := DATASET([{A,B,'A AND B is:',ANDit},
                    {A,B,'A OR B is:',ORit},
                    {A,B,'NOT A is:',NOTA},
                    {A,B,'A XOR B is:',XORit}],
                    {BOOLEAN AVal,BOOLEAN BVal,STRING11 valuetype,BOOLEAN val});
  RETURN DS;
END;

LogicalOperations(FALSE,FALSE);
LogicalOperations(FALSE,TRUE);
LogicalOperations(TRUE,FALSE);
LogicalOperations(TRUE,TRUE);
LogicalOperations(1>2,1=1); //Boolean expressions are also valid here

Efene[edit]

compare_bool = fn (A, B) {
    io.format("~p and ~p = ~p~n", [A, B, A and B])
    io.format("~p or ~p = ~p~n", [A, B, A or B])
    io.format("not ~p = ~p~n", [A, not A])
    io.format("~p xor ~p = ~p~n", [A, B, A xor B])
    io.format("~n")
}

@public 
run = fn () {
    compare_bool(true, true)
    compare_bool(true, false)
    compare_bool(false, true)
    compare_bool(false, false)
}

Elena[edit]

ELENA 4.x:

import extensions;
 
public program()
{
    bool a := true;
    bool b := false;
 
    console.printLine("a and b is ", a && b);
    console.printLine("a or b is ", a || b);
    console.printLine("Not a is ", a.Inverted);
    console.printLine("a xor b is ", a ^^ b)
}
Output:
a and b is false
a or b is true
Not a is false
a xor b is true

Elixir[edit]

Elixir also provides three boolean operators: or, and and not. These operators are strict in the sense that they expect a boolean (true or false) as their first argument:

iex(1)> true and false
false
iex(2)> false or true
true
iex(3)> not false
true

or and and are short-circuit operators. They only execute the right side if the left side is not enough to determine the result:

Besides these boolean operators, Elixir also provides ||, && and ! which accept arguments of any type. For these operators, all values except false and nil will evaluate to true:

(28)> nil || 23
23
iex(29)> [] || false
[]
iex(30)> nil && true
nil
iex(31)> 0 && 15
15
iex(32)> ! true
false
iex(33)> ! nil
true
iex(34)> ! 3.14
false

As a rule of thumb, use and, or and not when you are expecting booleans. If any of the arguments are non-boolean, use &&, || and !.

Elm[edit]

--Open cmd and elm-repl and directly functions can be created

--Creating Functions
t=True
f=False
opand a b= a && b
opor a b= a || b
opnot a= not a

--Using the created Functions
opand t f
opor t f
opnot f

--Output will be False, True and True of type Boolean!
--end

Erlang[edit]

1> true and false.
false
2> false or true.
true
3> true xor false.
true
4> not false.
true
5> not (true and true).
false

Euphoria[edit]

procedure print_logic(integer a, integer b)
    printf(1,"a and b is %d\n", a and b)
    printf(1,"a or b is %d\n", a or b)
    printf(1,"a xor b is %d\n", a xor b)
    printf(1,"not a is %d\n", not a)
end procedure

Excel[edit]

If the values are typed in cells A1 and B1, type in the following in cell C1

=CONCATENATE($A1, " AND ", $B1, " is ", AND($A1,$B1))

In D1

=CONCATENATE($A1, " OR ", $B1, " is ", OR($A1,$B1))

In E1

=CONCATENATE(" NOT ", $A1, " is ", NOT($A1))

F#[edit]

let printLogic a b =
    printfn "a and b is %b" (a && b)
    printfn "a or b is %b" (a || b)
    printfn "Not a is %b" (not a)
    // The not-equals operator has the same effect as XOR on booleans.
    printfn "a exclusive-or b is %b" (a <> b)

Factor[edit]

: logical-operators ( a b -- )
    {
        [ "xor is: " write xor . ]
        [ "and is: " write and . ]
        [ "or is:  " write or . ]
        [ "not is: " write drop not . ]
    } 2cleave ;

FALSE[edit]

FALSE uses zero/non-zero for testing False and True. Comparison operators return -1 for True and 0 for False, which work with bitwise operators for logical operations.

1 3=~["unequal, "]?
1 1= 1_=["true is -1, "]?
0~["false is 0, "]?
'm$'a>'z@>&["a < m < z"]?

Fantom[edit]

class Main
{
  static Void doOps (Bool arg1, Bool arg2)
  {
    echo ("$arg1 and $arg2 = ${arg1.and(arg2)}")
    echo ("$arg1 or $arg2 = ${arg1.or(arg2)}")
    echo ("not $arg1 = ${arg1.not}")
    echo ("$arg1 xor $arg2 = ${arg1.xor(arg2)}")
  }

  public static Void main ()
  {
    [true,false].each |Bool arg1|
    {
      [true,false].each |Bool arg2|
      {
        doOps (arg1, arg2)
      }
    }
  }
}

Forth[edit]

Forth can use bitwise operators if the boolean values are well formed: TRUE (-1) and FALSE (0). 0<> converts an ill-formed flag (zero/non-zero) to a well-formed flag (false/true).

: .bool ( ? -- ) if ." true" else ." false" then ;
: logic ( a b -- ) 0<> swap 0<> swap
 cr ." a = " over .bool ."   b = " dup .bool
 cr ." a and b = " 2dup and .bool
 cr ." a  or b = " over  or .bool
 cr ." not a = " 0= .bool ;

Fortran[edit]

In ANSI FORTRAN 66 or later, use LOGICAL data type:

       SUBROUTINE PRNLOG(A, B)
       LOGICAL A, B
       PRINT *, 'a and b is ', A .AND. B
       PRINT *, 'a or b is ', A .OR. B
       PRINT *, 'not a is ', .NOT. A
       
C       You did not ask, but the following logical operators are also standard
C       since ANSI FORTRAN 66 
C       =======================================================================
       
C       This yields the same results as .EQ., but has lower operator precedence
C       and only works with LOGICAL operands:
       PRINT *, 'a equivalent to b is ', A .EQV. B
       
C       This yields the same results as .NE., but has lower operator precedence
C       and only works with LOGICAL operands (this operation is also commonly
C       called "exclusive or"):
       PRINT *, 'a not equivalent to b is ', A .NEQV. B
       END

Free Pascal[edit]

See Delphi

Frink[edit]

logical[a,b] :=
{
   println["$a and  $b is " + (a and b)]
   println["$a or   $b is " + (a or b)]
   println["$a xor  $b is " + (a xor b)]
   println["$a nand $b is " + (a nand b)]
   println["$a nor  $b is " + (a nor b)]
   println["not $a     is " + (not a)]
}

FunL[edit]

def logical( a, b ) = println( """
a and b   = ${a and b}
a or b    = ${a or b}
not a     = ${not a}
a xor b   = ${a xor b}
""" )

for i <- [false, true], j <- [false, true] do logical( i, j )
Output:
a and b   = false
a or b    = false
not a     = true
a xor b   = false


a and b   = false
a or b    = true
not a     = true
a xor b   = true


a and b   = false
a or b    = true
not a     = false
a xor b   = true


a and b   = true
a or b    = true
not a     = false
a xor b   = false

FutureBasic[edit]

window 1, @"Logical Operations", (0,0,480,270)

Boolean a, b

text ,,,,, 43

print @"In FB, the Boolean constants _true or YES = 1, _false or NO = 0"
print fn StringByPaddingToLength( @"", 39, @"-", 0 )

print @"a\tb\tand\tor\txor\tnand\tnor"
print fn StringByPaddingToLength( @"", 39, @"-", 0 )

a = NO  : b = NO  : print a, b, a and b, a or  b, a xor b, a nand b, a nor b
a = NO  : b = YES : print a, b, a and b, a or  b, a xor b, a nand b, a nor b
a = YES : b = NO  : print a, b, a and b, a or  b, a xor b, a nand b, a nor b
a = YES : b = YES : print a, b, a and b, a or  b, a xor b, a nand b, a nor b

print

print "FB also has shorthand operator expressions"
print fn StringByPaddingToLength( @"", 39, @"-", 0 )
print @"a\tb\t&&\t||\t^^\t^&\t^|"
print fn StringByPaddingToLength( @"", 39, @"-", 0 )

a = NO  : b = NO  : print a, b, a && b, a ||  b, a ^^ b, a ^& b, a ^| b
a = NO  : b = YES : print a, b, a && b, a ||  b, a ^^ b, a ^& b, a ^| b
a = YES : b = NO  : print a, b, a && b, a ||  b, a ^^ b, a ^& b, a ^| b
a = YES : b = YES : print a, b, a && b, a ||  b, a ^^ b, a ^& b, a ^| b

HandleEvents
In FB, the Boolean constants _true or YES = 1, _false or NO = 0
---------------------------------------
 a     b    and   or    xor   nand  nor
---------------------------------------
 0     0     0     0     0     0    -1
 0     1     0     1     1     0    -2
 1     0     0     1     1     1    -1
 1     1     1     1     0     0    -1

FB also has shorthand operator expressions
---------------------------------------
 a     b    &&    ||    ^^    ^&    ^|
---------------------------------------
 0     0     0     0     0     0    -1
 0     1     0     1     1     0    -2
 1     0     0     1     1     1    -1
 1     1     1     1     0     0    -1

GAP[edit]

Logical := function(a, b)
    return [ a or b, a and b, not a ];
end;

Logical(true, true);
# [ true, true, false ]

Logical(true, false);
# [ true, false, false ]

Logical(false, true);
# [ true, false, true ]

Logical(false, false);
# [ false, false, true ]

gecho[edit]

3 4 and

3&&4

1 2 or

1||2

Genie[edit]

[indent=4]
/*
   Logical operations in Genie
   valac logicals.gs
   ./logicals true false
*/

def logicals(a:bool, b:bool)
    print @"$a and $b is $(a and b)"
    print @"$a or $b is $(a or b)"
    print @"not $a is $(not a)"

init
    a:bool = bool.parse(args[1])
    b:bool = bool.parse(args[2])
    logicals(a, b)
Output:
prompt$ valac logicals.gs
prompt$ ./logicals true false
true and false is false
true or false is true
not true is false

Go[edit]

func printLogic(a, b bool) {
    fmt.Println("a and b is", a && b)
    fmt.Println("a or b is", a || b)
    fmt.Println("not a is", !a)
}

Other operators that work on type bool are == and !=. == corresponds to the logical operation of equivalence.  != corresponds to exclusive or.

Bitwise operators come into play when you have to work with byte- or bit-level data.

package main
// stackoverflow.com/questions/28432398/difference-between-some-operators-golang
import "fmt"

func main() {
	// Use bitwise OR | to get the bits that are in 1 OR 2
	// 1     = 00000001
	// 2     = 00000010
	// 1 | 2 = 00000011 = 3
	fmt.Println(1 | 2)

	// Use bitwise OR | to get the bits that are in 1 OR 5
	// 1     = 00000001
	// 5     = 00000101
	// 1 | 5 = 00000101 = 5
	fmt.Println(1 | 5)

	// Use bitwise XOR ^ to get the bits that are in 3 OR 6 BUT NOT BOTH
	// 3     = 00000011
	// 6     = 00000110
	// 3 ^ 6 = 00000101 = 5
	fmt.Println(3 ^ 6)

	// Use bitwise AND & to get the bits that are in 3 AND 6
	// 3     = 00000011
	// 6     = 00000110
	// 3 & 6 = 00000010 = 2
	fmt.Println(3 & 6)

	// Use bit clear AND NOT &^ to get the bits that are in 3 AND NOT 6 (order matters)
	// 3      = 00000011
	// 6      = 00000110
	// 3 &^ 6 = 00000001 = 1
	fmt.Println(3 &^ 6)
}

Groovy[edit]

def logical = { a, b ->
    println """
a AND b   = ${a} && ${b}   = ${a & b}
a OR b    = ${a} || ${b}   = ${a | b}
NOT a     = ! ${a}         = ${! a}
a XOR b   = ${a} != ${b}   = ${a != b}
a EQV b   = ${a} == ${b}   = ${a == b}
"""
}

Program:

[true, false].each { a -> [true, false].each { b-> logical(a, b) } }
Output:
a AND b   = true && true   = true
a OR b    = true || true   = true
NOT a     = ! true         = false
a XOR b   = true != true   = false
a EQV b   = true == true   = true


a AND b   = true && false   = false
a OR b    = true || false   = true
NOT a     = ! true         = false
a XOR b   = true != false   = true
a EQV b   = true == false   = false


a AND b   = false && true   = false
a OR b    = false || true   = true
NOT a     = ! false         = true
a XOR b   = false != true   = true
a EQV b   = false == true   = false


a AND b   = false && false   = false
a OR b    = false || false   = false
NOT a     = ! false         = true
a XOR b   = false != false   = false
a EQV b   = false == false   = true

Harbour[edit]

PROCEDURE Foo( a, b )
   // a and b was defined as .F. (false) or .T. (true)
   ? a .AND. b
   ? a .OR. b
   ? ! a, ! b
   RETURN

Haskell[edit]

Instead of a function and printing, which is unidiomatic for Haskell, here are the operations in the same style as in Bitwise operations:

a = False
b = True

a_and_b = a && b
a_or_b  = a || b
not_a   = not a
a_xor_b  = a /= b
a_nxor_b = a == b
a_implies_b = a <= b -- sic!

(&&) and (||) are lazy on the second argument and therefore this operations are not symmetric:

*Main > False && undefined 
False
Prelude> undefined && False 
*** Exception: Prelude.undefined
Prelude> True || undefined 
True
Prelude> undefined || True 
*** Exception: Prelude.undefined

(<=), (<), (>=) and (>) on the other hand are strict:

Prelude> False <= undefined 
*** Exception: Prelude.undefined
Prelude> undefined <= True 
*** Exception: Prelude.undefined
Prelude> True < undefined 
*** Exception: Prelude.undefined
Prelude> undefined < False 
*** Exception: Prelude.undefined

hexiscript[edit]

fun logic a b
  println "a and b = " + (a && b)
  println "a or  b = " + (a || b)
  println "  not a = " + (!a)
endfun

HicEst[edit]

No logical variables. Nonzero is true, zero is false in logical expressions:

  x     = value1 /= 0
  y     = value2 /= 0
  NOTx  = x == 0
  xANDy = x * y
  xORy  = x + y  /= 0
  EOR   = x /= y

HolyC[edit]

U0 PrintLogic(Bool a, Bool b) {
  Print("a and b is %d\n", a && b);
  Print("a or b is %d\n", a || b);
  Print("not a is %d\n", !a);
}

PrintLogic(TRUE, FALSE);

Hy[edit]

(defn logic [a b]
  (print "a and b:" (and a b))
  (print "a or b:" (or a b))
  (print "not a:" (not a)))

Icon and Unicon[edit]

Icon/Unicon do not have a native logical or Boolean type; nor do they use Boolean values for flow control. Instead for flow control they use the concept of success (a result is returned) or failure (a signal). For more on this see see Short Circuit Evaluation. Because there is almost no need for Boolean values the concept is somewhat alien.

One likely situation where Boolean values could be encountered is working with an external array of bits/flags. This example attempts to show a solution that would work in such a scenario. Some characteristics would include:

  • the ability to work with an entire array of bits
  • the ability to test an individual bit for true/false
  • need to be careful with automatic type conversions

Of course other characteristics and functionality might be desirable, examples include:

  • shifting (based on ishift)
  • rotation
  • conversion to a (large) integer
  • setting a specific bit in the array

Those are left as an exercise for the reader.

There are a couple of choices for implementation. Briefly:

  • use of &null and a non-null - this creates problems for negation as not &null can be any or all values
  • use of large integers as bit arrays - only signed integers are supported and this complicates preserving array length
  • use of strings - a bit wasteful of space

This implementation uses strings as packed arrays of bits. This facilitates easy reading and writing from external sources. While string length is variable it is controlled and doesn't change under negation. The built-in integer bit operations (ior, ixor, iand, ishift) can be utilized under the covers.

invocable all

procedure main()                      #: sample demonstrating boolean function use

limit := 4
char2 := char(2)||char(0)
every (i := char(1 to limit)|char2) do {
   write(iop := "bnot","( ",image(i)," ) = ",image(iop(i)))
   every k := 3 | 10 do {
     write("bistrue(",image(i),",",k,") - ", if bistrue(i,k) then "returns" else "fails")
     write("bisfalse(",image(i),",",k,") - ", if bisfalse(i,k) then "returns" else "fails")
     }
   every (j := char(1 to limit)) & (iop := "bor"|"band"|"bxor") do 
      write(iop,"( ",image(i),", ",image(j)," ) = ",image(iop(i,j)))
   }
end


procedure bisfalse(b,p)                #: test if bit p (numbered right to left from 1) is false; return b or fails
return boolean_testbit(0,b,p)
end

procedure bistrue(b,p)                 #: test if bit p is true; return b or fails
return boolean_testbit(1,b,p)
end

procedure bnot(b)                      #: logical complement of b (not is a reserved word)
static cs,sc
initial sc := reverse(cs := string(&cset))
if type(b) ~== "string" then runerr(103,b)
return map(b,cs,sc)                    # en-mass inversion through remapping ordered cset
end

procedure bor(b1,b2)                   #: logical or
return boolean_op(ior,b1,b2)
end

procedure band(b1,b2)                  #: logical or
return boolean_op(iand,b1,b2)
end

procedure bxor(b1,b2)                  #: logical or
return boolean_op(ixor,b1,b2)
end

procedure boolean_testbit(v,b,p)       #: (internal) test if bit p is true/false; return b or fail
if not 0 <= integer(p) = p then runerr(101,p)
if type(b) ~== "string" then runerr(103,b)
if v = ishift(ord(b[-p/8-1]), -(p%8)+1) then return b
end

procedure boolean_op(iop,b1,b2)        #: boolean helper 
local b3,i
static z
initial z := char(0)
if type(b1) ~== "string" then runerr(103,b1)
if type(b2) ~== "string" then runerr(103,b2)
b3 := ""
every i := -1 to -max(*b1,*b2) by -1 do 
   b3 :=  char(iop(ord(b1[i]|z),ord(b2[i]|z))) || b3
return b3
end
Partial Sample Output
:
...
bnot( "\x03" ) = "\xfc"
...
bor( "\x03", "\x01" ) = "\x03"
band( "\x03", "\x01" ) = "\x01"
bxor( "\x03", "\x01" ) = "\x02"
...
bnot( "\x02\x00" ) = "\xfd\xff"
bistrue("\x02\x00",3) - fails
bisfalse("\x02\x00",3) - returns
bistrue("\x02\x00",10) - returns
bisfalse("\x02\x00",10) - fails
bor( "\x02\x00", "\x01" ) = "\x02\x01"
band( "\x02\x00", "\x01" ) = "\x00\x00"
bxor( "\x02\x00", "\x01" ) = "\x02\x01"
...

Io[edit]

printLogic := method(a,b,
  writeln("a and b is ", a and b)
  writeln("a or b is ", a or b)
  writeln("not a is ", a not) 
)

J[edit]

J uses 0 for logical false and 1 for logical true.

   aon=: *.`+.`(-.@[)`:0

Given boolean arguments, *. is logical and, +. is logical or, and -.is logical not.

Additional primary logical operators include *: (not-and), +: (not-or), ~: (exclusive-or) and <: (logical implication).

   a=: 0 0 1 1   NB. Work on vectors to show all possible
   b=: 0 1 0 1   NB. 2-bit combos at once.
   a aon b
0 0 0 1
0 1 1 1
1 1 0 0

An alternate approach, based on a probabilistic interpretation, uses * for logical and, -. for logical negation and derives the others: (*&.-.) for logical or, (-.@*) for not-and, (-.@*&.-.) for not-or, (* *&.-. -.@*&.-.) for exclusive or, and (*&.-. -.)~ for logical implication. You get the same results for simple truth values this way, but you also get consistent treatment for values between 0 and 1.

That said, J also supports truth valued operations on the binary representations of integers. (This is the concept of "packed binary", roughly speaking). For example 2b10001 b. is and, 2b10111 b. is or, 2b11110 b. is nand, etc. (the last four bits of the control argument to b. represent the desired binary truth table, while the prefix of that control argument in these examples specifies "packed binary"). Thus:

   (2b10001 b. table/~i.4);(2b10110 b. table/~i.4);<2b10000 b. table/~i.4
┌───────────────┬───────────────┬───────────────┐
│┌─────┬───────┐│┌─────┬───────┐│┌─────┬───────┐│
││17 b.0 1 2 3│││22 b.0 1 2 3│││16 b.0 1 2 3││
│├─────┼───────┤│├─────┼───────┤│├─────┼───────┤│
││0    0 0 0 0│││0    0 1 2 3│││0    0 0 0 0││
││1    0 1 0 1│││1    1 0 3 2│││1    0 0 0 0││
││2    0 0 2 2│││2    2 3 0 1│││2    0 0 0 0││
││3    0 1 2 3│││3    3 2 1 0│││3    0 0 0 0││
│└─────┴───────┘│└─────┴───────┘│└─────┴───────┘│
└───────────────┴───────────────┴───────────────┘

Java[edit]

public static void logic(boolean a, boolean b){
  System.out.println("a AND b: " + (a && b));
  System.out.println("a OR b: " + (a || b));
  System.out.println("NOT a: " + (!a));
}

Additionally, ^ is used for XOR and == is used for "equal to" (a.k.a. bidirectional implication).

JavaScript[edit]

function logic(a,b) {
  print("a AND b: " + (a && b));
  print("a OR b: " + (a || b));
  print("NOT a: " + (!a));
}

jq[edit]

In jq, and and or have short-circuit semantics, and can be used with non-boolean arguments.

In addition to the basic logical operators, jq has any and all filters. Versions of jq since 1.4 also have extended versions of these for working efficiently with streams.

def logic(a; b):
  "\(a) and \(b) => \(a and b)",
  "\(a) or \(b)  => \(a or  b)",
  "\(a) | not    => \(a | not)",
  "if \(a) then true else false end => \(if a then true else false end)" ;

Example:

  (false, null, []) as $a
| (false, null, {}) as $b
| logic( $a; $b )
$ jq -n -r -f logical_operations.jq
false and false => false
false or false  => false
false | not    => true
if false then true else false end => false
false and null => false
false or null  => false
false | not    => true
if false then true else false end => false
false and {} => false
false or {}  => true
false | not    => true
if false then true else false end => false
null and false => false
null or false  => false
null | not    => true
if null then true else false end => false
null and null => false
null or null  => false
null | not    => true
if null then true else false end => false
null and {} => false
null or {}  => true
null | not    => true
if null then true else false end => false
[] and false => false
[] or false  => true
[] | not    => false
if [] then true else false end => true
[] and null => false
[] or null  => true
[] | not    => false
if [] then true else false end => true
[] and {} => true
[] or {}  => true
[] | not    => false
if [] then true else false end => true

Julia[edit]

using Printf

function exerciselogic(a::Bool, b::Bool)
    st = @sprintf " %5s" a
    st *= @sprintf " %5s" b
    st *= @sprintf " %5s" ~a
    st *= @sprintf " %5s" a | b
    st *= @sprintf " %5s" a & b
    st *= @sprintf " %5s" a $ b
end

println("Julia's logical operations on Bool:")
println("   a     b    not   or    and   xor")
for a in [true, false], b in [true, false]
    println(exerciselogic(a, b))
end
Output:
Julia's logical operations on Bool:
   a     b    not   or    and   xor
  true  true false  true  true false
  true false false  true false  true
 false  true  true  true false  true
 false false  true false false false

Notes

This solution shows the bitwise operators in action. There are also short-circuiting or and and (||, &&). In addition, there are updating versions of the three binary logical operators, |=, &= and $=.

Kotlin[edit]

Similar style to FreeBASIC entry:

// version 1.0.6

fun logicalDemo(b1: Boolean, b2: Boolean) {
    println("b1             =  $b1")
    println("b2             =  $b2")
    println("b1 and b2      =  ${b1 and b2}")
    println("b1 or b2       =  ${b1 or b2}")
    println("b1 xor b2      =  ${b1 xor b2}")
    println("not b1         =  ${!b1}")
    println("b1 && b2       =  ${b1 && b2}")
    println("b1 || b2       =  ${b1 || b2}")
    println()
}

fun main(args: Array<String>) {
    logicalDemo(true, true)
    logicalDemo(true, false)
    logicalDemo(false, false)
    logicalDemo(false, true)
}
Output:
b1             =  true
b2             =  true
b1 and b2      =  true
b1 or b2       =  true
b1 xor b2      =  false
not b1         =  false
b1 && b2       =  true
b1 || b2       =  true

b1             =  true
b2             =  false
b1 and b2      =  false
b1 or b2       =  true
b1 xor b2      =  true
not b1         =  false
b1 && b2       =  false
b1 || b2       =  true

b1             =  false
b2             =  false
b1 and b2      =  false
b1 or b2       =  false
b1 xor b2      =  false
not b1         =  true
b1 && b2       =  false
b1 || b2       =  false

b1             =  false
b2             =  true
b1 and b2      =  false
b1 or b2       =  true
b1 xor b2      =  true
not b1         =  true
b1 && b2       =  false
b1 || b2       =  true

Lambdatalk[edit]

{and true true true false true}  -> false
{or  true true true false true}  -> true
{not true}                       -> false

langur[edit]

The logical operators in langur compare the "truthiness" of the left and right operands and do not require Booleans. A null is a non-truthy result.

The operators and, or, nand, nor, and?, or?, nand?, nor?, xor?, and nxor? are short-circuiting.

Operators that end with ? are null propagating or "database" operators, and will return null if either operand is null. They short-circuit differently than normal operators (only if the left operand is null).

val .test = f(.a, .b) join("\n", [
    $"not \.a;: \{not .a}",
    $"\.a; and \.b;: \.a and .b;",
    $"\.a; or \.b;: \.a or .b;",
    $"\.a; nand \.b;: \.a nand .b;",
    $"\.a; nor \.b;: \.a nor .b;",
    $"\.a; xor \.b;: \.a xor .b;",
    $"\.a; nxor \.b;: \.a nxor .b;",
    "",

    $"not? \.a;: \{not? .a}",
    $"\.a; and? \.b;: \.a and? .b;",
    $"\.a; or? \.b;: \.a or? .b;",
    $"\.a; nand? \.b;: \.a nand? .b;",
    $"\.a; nor? \.b;: \.a nor? .b;",
    $"\.a; xor? \.b;: \.a xor? .b;",
    $"\.a; nxor? \.b;: \.a nxor? .b;",
    "\n",
])

val .tests = [
    [true, false],
    [false, true],
    [true, true],
    [false, false],

    # including null...
    [true, null],
    [null, true],
    [false, null],
    [null, false],
    [null, null],
]

for .t in .tests {
    write .test(.t[1], .t[2])
}
Output:
not true: false
true and false: false
true or false: true
true nand false: true
true nor false: false
true xor false: true
true nxor false: false

not? true: false
true and? false: false
true or? false: true
true nand? false: true
true nor? false: false
true xor? false: true
true nxor? false: false

not false: true
false and true: false
false or true: true
false nand true: true
false nor true: false
false xor true: true
false nxor true: false

not? false: true
false and? true: false
false or? true: true
false nand? true: true
false nor? true: false
false xor? true: true
false nxor? true: false

not true: false
true and true: true
true or true: true
true nand true: false
true nor true: false
true xor true: false
true nxor true: true

not? true: false
true and? true: true
true or? true: true
true nand? true: false
true nor? true: false
true xor? true: false
true nxor? true: true

not false: true
false and false: false
false or false: false
false nand false: true
false nor false: true
false xor false: false
false nxor false: true

not? false: true
false and? false: false
false or? false: false
false nand? false: true
false nor? false: true
false xor? false: false
false nxor? false: true

not true: false
true and null: false
true or null: true
true nand null: true
true nor null: false
true xor null: true
true nxor null: false

not? true: false
true and? null: null
true or? null: null
true nand? null: null
true nor? null: null
true xor? null: null
true nxor? null: null

not null: true
null and true: false
null or true: true
null nand true: true
null nor true: false
null xor true: true
null nxor true: false

not? null: null
null and? true: null
null or? true: null
null nand? true: null
null nor? true: null
null xor? true: null
null nxor? true: null

not false: true
false and null: false
false or null: false
false nand null: true
false nor null: true
false xor null: false
false nxor null: true

not? false: true
false and? null: null
false or? null: null
false nand? null: null
false nor? null: null
false xor? null: null
false nxor? null: null

not null: true
null and false: false
null or false: false
null nand false: true
null nor false: true
null xor false: false
null nxor false: true

not? null: null
null and? false: null
null or? false: null
null nand? false: null
null nor? false: null
null xor? false: null
null nxor? false: null

not null: true
null and null: false
null or null: false
null nand null: true
null nor null: true
null xor null: false
null nxor null: true

not? null: null
null and? null: null
null or? null: null
null nand? null: null
null nor? null: null
null xor? null: null
null nxor? null: null

Lasso[edit]

// br is just for formatting output here
define br => '\r'

// define vars
local(a = true, b = false)

// boolean comparators.
// note, not including comparison operators which would return boolean results
'a AND b: ' + (#a && #b)
br
'a OR b: ' + (#a || #b)
br
'NOT a: ' + !#a
br
'NOT a (using not): ' + not #a

Liberty BASIC[edit]

There is no truly Boolean type. 0 = false, nonzero = true. A true value is ANY value not zero, but is usually considered to be either "1" or "-1".

False =0
True  =not( False)

print " True ="; True, "False ="; False, "NB True here shown as -1"
print

print " a   b    AND  OR   XOR"
a =0: b =0: print " "; a; "   "; b; "     "; a and b; "    "; a or  b; "    "; a xor b
a =0: b =1: print " "; a; "   "; b; "     "; a and b; "    "; a or  b; "    "; a xor b
a =1: b =0: print " "; a; "   "; b; "     "; a and b; "    "; a or  b; "    "; a xor b
a =1: b =1: print " "; a; "   "; b; "     "; a and b; "    "; a or  b; "    "; a xor b

end
True =-1     False =0      NB True here shown as -1
.
a   b    AND  OR   XOR
0   0     0    0    0
0   1     0    1    1
1   0     0    1    1
1   1     1    1    0

LIL[edit]

# Logical operations, in LIL
set first [expr 1 == 1]
set second [expr 1 == 0]

func and-or-not {a b} {
    print a $a b $b
    print "a AND b" [expr $a && $b]
    print "a OR b " [expr $a || $b]
    print "NOT a  " [expr !$a]
}

and-or-not $first $second
Output:
prompt$ lil logicalOperations.lil
a 1 b 0
a AND b 0
a OR b  1
NOT a   0

LiveCode[edit]

function boolOps p1, p2
    local boolOpsResult
    put p1 && "AND" && p2 && "=" && merge("[[p1 and p2]]") & cr after boolOpsResult
    put p1 && "OR" && p2 && "=" && merge("[[p1 or p2]]") & cr after boolOpsResult
    put "NOT" && p1 && "=" && merge("[[not p1]]")  & cr after boolOpsResult
    return boolOpsResult
end boolOps

Example

repeat for each item bop in "true,false"
  put boolops(bop, bop) & cr after bopResult
  put boolops(bop, not bop) & cr after bopResult
end repeat
put bopResult

-- results
true AND true = true
true OR true = true
NOT true = false

true AND false = false
true OR false = true
NOT true = false

false AND false = false
false OR false = false
NOT false = true

false AND true = false
false OR true = true
NOT false = true

LLVM[edit]

; This is not strictly LLVM, as it uses the C library function "printf".
; LLVM does not provide a way to print values, so the alternative would be
; to just load the string into memory, and that would be boring.

; Additional comments have been inserted, as well as changes made from the output produced by clang such as putting more meaningful labels for the jumps

;--- The declarations for the external C functions
declare i32 @printf(i8*, ...)

$"FORMAT_AND" = comdat any

$"FORMAT_OR" = comdat any

$"FORMAT_NOT" = comdat any

@"FORMAT_AND" = linkonce_odr unnamed_addr constant [15 x i8] c"a and b is %d\0A\00", comdat, align 1
@"FORMAT_OR" = linkonce_odr unnamed_addr constant [14 x i8] c"a or b is %d\0A\00", comdat, align 1
@"FORMAT_NOT" = linkonce_odr unnamed_addr constant [13 x i8] c"not a is %d\0A\00", comdat, align 1

; Function Attrs: noinline nounwind optnone uwtable
define void @print_logic(i32, i32) #0 {
  %3 = alloca i32, align 4          ;-- allocate b
  %4 = alloca i32, align 4          ;-- allocate a
  store i32 %1, i32* %3, align 4    ;-- copy parameter b
  store i32 %0, i32* %4, align 4    ;-- copy parameter a
  %5 = load i32, i32* %4, align 4   ;-- load a
  %6 = icmp ne i32 %5, 0            ;-- is a true?
  br i1 %6, label %and_true, label %and_false

and_true:
  %7 = load i32, i32* %3, align 4
  %8 = icmp ne i32 %7, 0
  br label %and_false

and_false:
  %9 = phi i1 [ false, %2 ], [ %8, %and_true ]
  %10 = zext i1 %9 to i32
  %11 = call i32 (i8*, ...) @printf(i8* getelementptr inbounds ([15 x i8], [15 x i8]* @"FORMAT_AND", i32 0, i32 0), i32 %10)
  %12 = load i32, i32* %4, align 4  ;-- load a
  %13 = icmp ne i32 %12, 0          ;-- is a true?
  br i1 %13, label %or_true, label %or_false

or_false:
  %14 = load i32, i32* %3, align 4  ;-- load b
  %15 = icmp ne i32 %14, 0          ;-- is b true?
  br label %or_true

or_true:
  %16 = phi i1 [ true, %and_false ], [ %15, %or_false ]
  %17 = zext i1 %16 to i32
  %18 = call i32 (i8*, ...) @printf(i8* getelementptr inbounds ([14 x i8], [14 x i8]* @"FORMAT_OR", i32 0, i32 0), i32 %17)

  %19 = load i32, i32* %4, align 4  ;-- load a
  %20 = icmp ne i32 %19, 0
  %21 = xor i1 %20, true
  %22 = zext i1 %21 to i32
  %23 = call i32 (i8*, ...) @printf(i8* getelementptr inbounds ([13 x i8], [13 x i8]* @"FORMAT_NOT", i32 0, i32 0), i32 %22)
  ret void
}

; Function Attrs: noinline nounwind optnone uwtable
define i32 @main() #0 {
  %1 = alloca i32, align 4          ;-- allocate i
  %2 = alloca i32, align 4          ;-- allocate j
  store i32 0, i32* %1, align 4     ;-- store 0 in i
  br label %loop_i

loop_i:
  %3 = load i32, i32* %1, align 4   ;-- load i
  %4 = icmp slt i32 %3, 2           ;-- i < 2
  br i1 %4, label %loop_j_init, label %exit

loop_j_init:
  store i32 0, i32* %2, align 4     ;-- store 0 in j
  br label %loop_j

loop_j:
  %5 = load i32, i32* %2, align 4   ;-- load j
  %6 = icmp slt i32 %5, 2           ;-- j < 2
  br i1 %6, label %loop_body, label %loop_i_inc

loop_body:
  %7 = load i32, i32* %2, align 4   ;-- load j
  %8 = load i32, i32* %1, align 4   ;-- load i
  call void @print_logic(i32 %8, i32 %7)
  %9 = load i32, i32* %2, align 4   ;-- load j
  %10 = add nsw i32 %9, 1           ;-- increment j
  store i32 %10, i32* %2, align 4   ;-- store j
  br label %loop_j

loop_i_inc:
  %11 = load i32, i32* %1, align 4  ;-- load i
  %12 = add nsw i32 %11, 1          ;-- increment i
  store i32 %12, i32* %1, align 4   ;-- store i
  br label %loop_i

exit:
  ret i32 0
}

attributes #0 = { noinline nounwind optnone uwtable "correctly-rounded-divide-sqrt-fp-math"="false" "disable-tail-calls"="false" "less-precise-fpmad"="false" "no-frame-pointer-elim"="false" "no-infs-fp-math"="false" "no-jump-tables"="false" "no-nans-fp-math"="false" "no-signed-zeros-fp-math"="false" "no-trapping-math"="false" "stack-protector-buffer-size"="8" "target-cpu"="x86-64" "target-features"="+fxsr,+mmx,+sse,+sse2,+x87" "unsafe-fp-math"="false" "use-soft-float"="false" }
Output:
a and b is 0
a or b is 0
not a is 1
a and b is 0
a or b is 1
not a is 1
a and b is 0
a or b is 1
not a is 0
a and b is 1
a or b is 1
not a is 0

[edit]

The boolean literals are used as words ("true and "false) when used in a program.

to logic :a :b
  (print [a AND b =] and :a :b)
  (print [a OR b =] or :a :b)
  (print [NOT a =] not :a)
end

AND and OR may have arity greater than two if used in parentheses (and :a :b :c).

Lua[edit]

function logic(a,b)
  return a and b, a or b, not a
end

M2000 Interpreter[edit]

Module CheckIt {
      Def Boolean A, B
      Document Rep$
      A=True
      B=False
      k=(A, B)
      And=Lambda (a as Boolean, b as Boolean)-> a and b
      Or=Lambda (a as Boolean, b as Boolean)-> a or b
      Xor=Lambda (a as Boolean, b as Boolean)-> a xor b
      Not=Lambda (a)->Not a
      func=((And, "And"), (Or, "Or"), (Xor, "Xor"))
      F1=Each(func)
      While F1 {
            M1=Each(k)
            M2=Each(k)
            While M1 {
                  While M2 {
                       A=Array(Array(F1), 0)
                       Rep$=Format$("{0} {1} {2} = {3}",Array(M1), Array$(Array(F1), 1),Array(M2), A(Array(M1), Array(M2)))+{
                                    }
                  }
            }
      }
      M1=Each(k)
      While M1 {
            Rep$=Format$("Not {0} = {1}",Array(M1),  Not Array(M1))+{
                        }      
      }
      Report Rep$
      Clipboard Rep$
}
CheckIt
Output:
True And True = True
True And False = False
False And True = False
False And False = False
True Or True = True
True Or False = True
False Or True = True
False Or False = False
True Xor True = False
True Xor False = True
False Xor True = True
False Xor False = False
Not True = False
Not False = True

M4[edit]

define(`logical',
   `and($1,$2)=eval($1&&$2)  or($1,$2)=eval($1||$2)  not($1)=eval(!$1)')
logical(1,0)
Output:
and(1,0)=0  or(1,0)=1  not(1)=0

Maple[edit]

Infix and prefix operators are provided for each of and, or, not as well as xor and implies.

f:=proc(a,b) a and b, a or b, not a; end proc:

f(true,true);
f(true,false);
f(false,true);
f(false,false);
Output:
                              true, true, false
                             false, true, false
                              false, true, true
                             false, false, true

Mathematica/Wolfram Language[edit]

And[a,b,...]
Or[a,b,...]
Not[a]

And can also be given using the infix operator &&, Or can also be used using the infix operator ||. Not[a] can also be written as !a. Furthermore Mathematica supports:

Xor[a, b,...]
Nand[a, b,...]
Nor[a, b,...]
Xnor[a, b,...]

Note that the functions are not restricted to 2 arguments; any number of arguments are allowed (except for the function Not). All these functions can also be used with infix operators, the characters for that are: \[Xor], \[Nand], \[Nor], and \[Xnor]. Or by typing [escape] [name boolean operator] [escape].

Maxima[edit]

f(a, b) := [not a, a or b, a and b];

/* to use multiple arguments, use any of these */
a and b and c and d;
a or b or c or d;
"and"(a, b, c, d);
"or"(a, b, c, d);
apply("and", [a, b, c, d]);
apply("or", [a, b, c, d]);

MAXScript[edit]

fn printLogic a b =
(
    format "a and b is %\n" (a and b)
    format "a or b is %\n" (a or b)
    format "not a is %\n" (not a)
)

Metafont[edit]

def tf(expr a) = if a: "true" else: "false" fi enddef;
def test(expr a, b) =
  for o = "and", "or":
    message tf(a) & " " & o & " " & tf(b);
    show a scantokens(o) b;
  endfor
  message "not " & tf(a);
  show not a enddef;
test(true, true);
test(false, false);
test(true, false);
test(false, true);
end

min[edit]

Works with: min version 0.19.3
(
  :b :a
  "xor is: " print! a b xor puts!
  "and is: " print! a b and puts!
  "or is: " print! a b or puts!
  "not is: " print! a not puts!
) :logical-operators

Modula-2[edit]

MODULE LogicalOps;
FROM FormatString IMPORT FormatString;
FROM Terminal IMPORT WriteString,WriteLn,ReadChar;

PROCEDURE Print(a,b : BOOLEAN);
VAR buf : ARRAY[0..31] OF CHAR;
BEGIN
    FormatString("a and b is %b\n", buf, a AND b);
    WriteString(buf);
    FormatString("a or b is %b\n", buf, a OR b);
    WriteString(buf);
    FormatString("not a is %b\n", buf, NOT a);
    WriteString(buf);
    WriteLn
END Print;

BEGIN
    Print(FALSE, FALSE);
    Print(FALSE, TRUE);
    Print(TRUE, TRUE);
    Print(TRUE, FALSE);

    ReadChar
END LogicalOps.

Modula-3[edit]

MODULE Logical EXPORTS Main;

FROM IO IMPORT Put;
FROM Fmt IMPORT Bool;

PROCEDURE Test(a, b: BOOLEAN) =
  BEGIN
    Put("a AND b is " & Bool(a AND b) & "\n");
    Put("a OR b is " & Bool(a OR b) & "\n");
    Put("NOT a is " & Bool(NOT a) & "\n");
  END Test;

BEGIN
  Test(TRUE, FALSE);
END Logical.

MUMPS[edit]

LOGIC(A,B)
 WRITE !,A," AND ",B," IS ",A&B
 WRITE !,A," OR  ",B," IS ",A!B
 WRITE !,"NOT ",A," AND ",B," IS ",'(A)&B
 WRITE !,"NOT ",A," OR ",B," IS ",'(A)!B

Nanoquery[edit]

Translation of: Python
def logic(a, b)
	println "a and b: " + (a && b)
	println "a or b:  " + (a && b)
	println "not a:   " + !a
end

While this is translated from Python, Nanoquery does not allow any object to be treated as a boolean value. As a result, this function must be called with explicit boolean values.

Output:
% import "logic.nq"
% logic($true, $true)
a and b: true
a or b:  true
not a:   false
% logic($true, $false)
a and b: false
a or b:  true
not a:   false

Neko[edit]

/**
 Logical operations, in Neko
*/

/* For logical operations, values need to be explicitly treated as boolean */
/* Only null, false and 0 evaluate as false with $istrue() */

var logical = 1
if logical $print("literal 1 tests true\n") else $print("literal 1 tests false\n")
if $istrue(logical) $print("$istrue(1) tests true\n")

/* supports && logical AND, || logical OR, $not(value) the opposite of $istrue() */

if $istrue(logical) && logical > 0 $print("true path for logical AND\n")
if $istrue(logical) || logical > 1 $print("true path for logical OR\n")
if $not(logical) $print("true path for $not(1)\n") else $print("false path for $not(1)\n")
Output:
prompt$ nekoc logical-operations.neko
prompt$ neko logical-operations.n
literal 1 tests false
$istrue(1) tests true
true path for logical AND
true path for logical OR
false path for $not(1)

Nemerle[edit]

using System;
using System.Console;

module Logical
{
    WriteLogical(a : bool, b : bool) : void
    {
        WriteLine("{0} and {1} is {2}", a, b, a && b);
        WriteLine("{0} or {1} is {2}", a, b, a || b);
        WriteLine("not {0} is {1}", a, !a);
    }
    
    Main() : void {WriteLogical(true, false)}
}

Or, if you prefer keywords to operators import the Nemerle.English namespace to use and, or, and not.

NetRexx[edit]

/* NetRexx */
options replace format comments java crossref symbols binary

runSample(arg)
return

-- ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
method logicalOperation(xL = boolean, xR = boolean) public static
  say showBool(xL) 'AND' showBool(xR) '=' showBool(xL &  xR) -- AND
  say showBool(xL) 'OR ' showBool(xR) '=' showBool(xL |  xR) -- OR
  say showBool(xL) 'XOR' showBool(xR) '=' showBool(xL && xR) -- XOR
  say '     '      'NOT' showBool(xL) '=' showBool(\xL)      -- NOT
  say
  return

-- ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
method showBool(bb = boolean) public static
  if bb then bt = 'true '
  else       bt = 'false'
  return bt

-- ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
method runSample(arg) private static
  TRUE_  = (1 == 1)
  FALSE_ = \TRUE_ 
  lpairs = [ -
    [TRUE_,  TRUE_ ], -
    [TRUE_,  FALSE_], -
    [FALSE_, TRUE_ ], -
    [FALSE_, FALSE_]  -
  ]
  loop lx = 0 to lpairs.length - 1
    lpair = lpairs[lx]
    --say showBool(lpair[0]) showBool(lpair[1])
    logicalOperation(lpair[0], lpair[1])
    end lx
  return
Output:
true  AND true  = true 
true  OR  true  = true 
true  XOR true  = false
      NOT true  = false

true  AND false = false
true  OR  false = true 
true  XOR false = true 
      NOT true  = false

false AND true  = false
false OR  true  = true 
false XOR true  = true 
      NOT false = true 

false AND false = false
false OR  false = false
false XOR false = false
      NOT false = true

NewLISP[edit]

(define (logic a b)
		(print "a and b is: " (and a b) "\n a or b is: " (or a b))
		(print "\n not a is: " (not a)))

Nim[edit]

proc logic(a, b: bool) =
  echo "a and b: ", a and b
  echo "a or b: ", a or b
  echo "not a: ", not a
  echo "a xor b: ", a xor b

Objeck[edit]

bundle Default {
  class Logic {
    function : Main(args : String[]) ~ Nil {
      a := true;
      b := false;
      IO.Console->GetInstance()->Print("a and b is: ")->PrintLine(a & b);
      IO.Console->GetInstance()->Print("a or b is: ")->PrintLine(a | b);
      IO.Console->GetInstance()->Print("not a is: ")->PrintLine(a <> true);
    }
  }
}

OCaml[edit]

let print_logic a b =
  Printf.printf "a and b is %B\n" (a && b);
  Printf.printf "a or b is %B\n" (a || b);
  Printf.printf "not a is %B\n" (not a)

Octave[edit]

function test(a, b)
  s1 = num2str(a);
  s2 = num2str(b);
  disp(strcat(s1, " and ", s2, " = ", num2str(a&&b)));
  disp(strcat(s1, " or ", s2, " = ", num2str(a||b)));
  disp(strcat("not ", s1, " = ", num2str(!a)));
endfunction

% constant true is 1, false is 0
test(true, true);
test(false, false);
test(true, false);
test(false, true);

Oforth[edit]

: logical(b1, b2)
   System.Out "and = " << b1 b2 and << cr
   System.Out "or  = " << b1 b2 or << cr
   System.Out "xor = " << b1 b2 xor << cr
   System.Out "not = " << b1 not << cr ;

OOC[edit]

Bools in ooc are just covers for C's bools and respond to the same operators.

logic: func (a: Bool, b: Bool) {
  println()
  "A=#{a}, B=#{b}:"  println()
  "AND:   #{a && b}" println()
  "OR:    #{a || b}" println()
  "NOT A: #{!a}"     println()
}

main: func {
  logic(true, false)
  logic(true, true)
  logic(false, false)
  logic(false, true)
}

OpenEdge/Progress[edit]

The logical data type can have three values: true, false or unknown (represented by question mark).

FUNCTION testLogical RETURNS CHAR (
   i_l1 AS LOGICAL,
   i_l2 AS LOGICAL
):

   RETURN 
      SUBSTITUTE( '&1 and &2:  &3', i_l1, i_l2, i_l1 AND i_l2 ) + '~n' +
      SUBSTITUTE( '&1 or &2:  &3', i_l1, i_l2, i_l1 OR i_l2 )  + '~n' +
      SUBSTITUTE( 'not &1:  &2', i_l1, NOT i_l1 )
      .

END FUNCTION.
MESSAGE 
   testLogical( FALSE, FALSE ) SKIP(1)
   testLogical( FALSE, TRUE ) SKIP(1)
   testLogical( TRUE, FALSE ) SKIP(1)
   testLogical( TRUE, TRUE ) SKIP(2)

   testLogical( ?, ? ) SKIP(1)
   testLogical( ?, FALSE ) SKIP(1)
   testLogical( ?, TRUE ) SKIP(1)
VIEW-AS ALERT-BOX.
Output:
---------------------------
Message (Press HELP to view stack trace)
---------------------------
no and no:  no
no or no:  no
not no:  yes 

no and yes:  no
no or yes:  yes
not no:  yes 

yes and no:  no
yes or no:  yes
not yes:  no 

yes and yes:  yes
yes or yes:  yes
not yes:  no 


? and ?:  ?
? or ?:  ?
not ?:  ? 

? and no:  no
? or no:  ?
not ?:  ? 

? and yes:  ?
? or yes:  yes
not ?:  ? 

---------------------------
OK   Help   
---------------------------

Oz[edit]

proc {PrintLogic A B}
   %% using not short-circuiting standard library functions
   {Show {And A B}}
   {Show {Or A B}}
   {Show {Not A}}

   %% using short-circuiting keywords
   {Show A andthen B}
   {Show A orelse B}
end

PARI/GP[edit]

Note that the forms bitand(), bitor(), bitneg(), and bitxor() also exist. These apply the operator to each bit and do not short-circuit, unlike the below.

logic(a,b)={
  print(a&b); \\ && is the same
  print(a|b); \\ || is the same
  print(!a);
};

Pascal[edit]

Nine logical operators are standard. Since Boolean is a built-in enumeration data type, all relational operators except the membership operator (in) are applicable. Moreover, Delphi and Free Pascal support the exclusive operator xor.

function logicalOperations(A, B: Boolean): Boolean;
begin
	{ logical conjunction }
	writeLn(A:5, ' and', B:6, '  yields', A and B:7);
	{ logical disjunction }
	writeLn(A:5, '  or', B:6, '  yields',  A or B:7);
	{ logical negation }
	writeLn('      not', A:6, '  yields',   not A:7);
	{ logical equivalence }
	writeLn(A:5, '   =', B:6, '  yields',   A = B:7);
	{ negation of logical equivalence }
	writeLn(A:5, '  <>', B:6, '  yields',  A <> B:7);
	{ relational operators }
	writeLn(A:5, '   <', B:6, '  yields',   A < B:7);
	writeLn(A:5, '   >', B:6, '  yields',   A > B:7);
	writeLn(A:5, '  <=', B:6, '  yields',  A <= B:7);
	writeLn(A:5, '  >=', B:6, '  yields',  A >= B:7);
	{ fulfill task requirement of writing a function: }
	logicalOperations := true
end;

Furthermore, Extended Pascal (ISO standard 10206) defines two additional logical operators. The operators and_then and or_else are intended for short-circuit evaluation. However, since all actual parameters need to be evaluated prior activation of the function, it makes little sense to use/show them in the above sample code.

Perl[edit]

sub show_bool
{
        return shift() ? 'true' : 'false', "\n";
}

sub test_logic
{
        my ($a, $b) = @_;
        print "a and b is ", show_bool $a && $b;
        print "a or b is ", show_bool $a || $b;
        print "not a is ", show_bool !$a;
        print "a xor b is ", show_bool($a xor $b);
}

There are also and, or, and not operators. These are just like &&, ||, and ! (respectively) except for their precedences, which are much lower.

Phix[edit]

Library: Phix/basics

There is a builtin bool type, which is actually just an alias for integer, and a proper boolean type in builtins/ptypes.e
The operators always return 1(true) or 0(false), and treat operands of 0 as false and all other (atom) values as true.
Short-circuiting is always applied (to all "and"/"or" expressions)
Other relational operators and maths are also valid, if you wanna get clever.

function logicop(bool a, b)
    return {a, b, a and b, a or b, not a, a xor b, a==b, a!=b}
end function
 
printf(1,"  a      b     and    or      not     xor    ==     !=\n")
for a=FALSE to TRUE do  -- nb: TRUE to FALSE would need a "by -1".
    for b=FALSE to TRUE do
        printf(1,"%-5t  %-5t  %-5t  %-5t   %-5t   %-5t  %-5t  %-5t\n",logicop(a,b))
    end for
end for
Output:
  a      b     and    or      not     xor    ==     !=
false  false  false  false   true    false  true   false
false  true   false  true    true    true   false  true
true   false  false  true    false   true   false  true
true   true   true   true    false   false  true   false

Simpler version using plain integer flags:

function logiicop(integer a, b)
    return {a, b, a and b, a or b, not a, a xor b, a=b, a!=b}
end function

printf(1," a  b and or not xor == !=\n")
for a=0 to 1 do
    for b=0 to 1 do
        printf(1," %d  %d  %d  %d   %d   %d  %d  %d\n",logiicop(a,b))
    end for
end for
Output:
 a  b and or not xor == !=
 0  0  0  0   1   0  1  0
 0  1  0  1   1   1  0  1
 1  0  0  1   0   1  0  1
 1  1  1  1   0   0  1  0

PHP[edit]

function print_logic($a, $b)
{
    echo "a and b is ", $a && $b ? 'True' : 'False', "\n";
    echo "a or b is ", $a || $b ? 'True' : 'False', "\n";
    echo "not a is ", ! $a ? 'True' : 'False', "\n";
}

PicoLisp[edit]

(de logic (A B)
   (prin "A AND B is ")
   (println (and A B))
   (prin "A OR B is ")
   (println (or A B))
   (prin "A XOR B is ")
   (println (xor A B))
   (prin "NOT A is ")
   (println (not A)) )

PL/I[edit]

logical_ops: procedure (t, u);
   declare (t, u) bit (1);

   put skip list (t & u);
   put skip list (t | u); /* logical or   */
   put skip list (^t);    /* logical not  */
   put skip list (t ^ u); /* exclusive or */
end logical_ops;

Pop11[edit]

define print_logic(a, b);
    printf(a and b, 'a and b is %p\n');
    printf(a or b, 'a or b is %p\n');
    printf(not(a), 'not a is %p\n');
enddefine;

Example usage is:

print_logic(true, false);

PostScript[edit]

/logical{
/a exch def
/b exch def
a b and =
a b or =
a not =
}def

PowerShell[edit]

function Test-Boolean ([bool] $a, [bool] $b) {
    Write-Host "A and B:   " ($a -and $b)
    Write-Host "A or B:    " ($a -or $b)
    Write-Host "not A:     " (-not $a)
    Write-Host "not A:     " (!$a)
    Write-Host "A xor B:   " ($a -xor $b)
}

Prolog[edit]

In Prolog, ',' is used for and, ';' for or and \+ for not.

 ?- true,true.
true.

 ?- true,false.
false.

 ?- true;false.
true .

 ?- false;true.
true .

 ?- false;false.
false .

 ?- \+true.
false.

 ?- \+false.
true.

 ?- \+((true,false)).
true.


 ?- \+((true;false)).
false.


PureBasic[edit]

Procedure LogicDebug(a,b)
  Debug a & b ;And
  Debug a | b ;Or
  Debug  ~a   ;Not
  Debug a ! b ;XOr
EndProcedure

logicDebug(#True, #True)
logicDebug(#True, #False)
logicDebug(#False, #False)

Python[edit]

def logic(a, b):
    print('a and b:', a and b)
    print('a or b:', a or b)
    print('not a:', not a)

Note: Any normal object can be treated as a Boolean in Python. Numeric objects which evaluate to any non-zero value are "True" otherwise they are false. Non-empty strings, lists, tuples and other sequences are "True" otherwise they are false. The pre-defined None object is also treated as "False." In Python 2.3 pre-defined objects named True and False were added to the language; prior to that it was a common convention to include a line: False, True = 0, 1 to use these as names. Custom classes which implement __nonzero__ or __len__ or some other special methods can be implicitly evaluated as Booleans based on those results.

QB64[edit]

Dim As _Unsigned _Bit First, Second
First = 0: Second = 1
Print "  Operator    F    S   results "

Print "  AND         1    0  "; First And Second
Print "  XOR         1    0  "; First Xor Second
Print "   OR         1    0  "; First Or Second
Print "  NOT         1       "; Not First
Print "  EQV         1    0  "; First Eqv Second
Print "  IMP         1    0  "; First Imp Second

Quackery[edit]

Quackery also has the boolean words nand and xor.

  [ iff [ say "true" ]
    else [ say "false"] ]         is echobool (   b --> )

  [ 2dup and 
    say "A and B is " echobool cr 
    over or
    say "A or B is " echobool cr
    not 
    say "not A is " echobool cr ] is task     ( A B --> )
Output:

As a dialogue in the Quackery shell.

/O> true true task
...
A and B is true
A or B is true
not A is false

Stack empty.

/O> true false task
...
A and B is false
A or B is true
not A is false

Stack empty.

/O> false true task
...
A and B is false
A or B is true
not A is true

Stack empty.

/O> false false task
...
A and B is false
A or B is false
not A is true

Stack empty.

R[edit]

logic <- function(a, b) {
  print(a && b)
  print(a || b)
  print(! a)
}

logic(TRUE, TRUE)
logic(TRUE, FALSE)
logic(FALSE, FALSE)

Racket[edit]

#lang racket

(define (logic a b)
  (displayln (format "a and b equals ~a" (and a b)))
  (displayln (format "a or b equals ~a" (or a b)))
  (displayln (format "not a equals ~a" (not a)))
  (displayln (format "a nand b equals ~a" (nand a b)))
  (displayln (format "a nor b equals ~a" (nor a b)))
  (displayln (format "a implies b equals ~a" (implies a b)))
  (displayln (format "a xor b equals ~a" (xor a b))))

Raku[edit]

(formerly Perl 6)

Raku has an abundance of logical operators for various purposes.

sub logic($a,$b) {
    say "$a && $b is ", $a && $b;     # short-circuiting
    say "$a || $b is ", $a || $b;     # short-circuiting
    say "$a ^^ $b is ", $a ^^ $b;
    say "!$a is ",     !$a;

    say "$a ?& $b is ", $a ?& $b;     # non-short-circuiting
    say "$a ?| $b is ", $a ?| $b;     # non-short-circuiting
    say "$a ?^ $b is ", $a ?^ $b;     # non-short-circuiting

    say "$a +& $b is ", $a +& $b;     # numeric bitwise
    say "$a +| $b is ", $a +| $b;     # numeric bitwise
    say "$a +^ $b is ", $a +^ $b;     # numeric bitwise

    say "$a ~& $b is ", $a ~& $b;     # buffer bitwise
    say "$a ~| $b is ", $a ~| $b;     # buffer bitwise
    say "$a ~^ $b is ", $a ~| $b;     # buffer bitwise

    say "$a & $b is ", $a & $b;       # junctional/autothreading
    say "$a | $b is ", $a | $b;       # junctional/autothreading
    say "$a ^ $b is ", $a ^ $b;       # junctional/autothreading

    say "$a and $b is ", ($a and $b); # loose short-circuiting
    say "$a or $b is ",  ($a or $b);  # loose short-circuiting
    say "$a xor $b is ", ($a xor $b);
    say "not $a is ",    (not $a);
}

logic(3,10);
Output:
3 && 10 is 10
3 || 10 is 3
3 ^^ 10 is Nil
!3 is False
3 ?& 10 is True
3 ?| 10 is True
3 ?^ 10 is False
3 +& 10 is 2
3 +| 10 is 11
3 +^ 10 is 9
3 ~& 10 is 1
3 ~| 10 is 30
3 ~^ 10 is 30
3 & 10 is all(3, 10)
3 | 10 is any(3, 10)
3 ^ 10 is one(3, 10)
3 and 10 is 10
3 or 10 is 3
3 xor 10 is Nil
not 3 is False

Rascal[edit]

import IO;

public void logic(bool a, bool b){
	println("a and b, is <a && b>");
	println("a or b, is <a || b>");
	println("a equivalent to b, is <a <==> b>");
	println("a implies b, is <a ==> b>");
	println("not a", <!a>");
}
Output:
rascal>logic(false, false);

a and b, is false
a or b, is false
a equivalent to b, is true
a implies b, is true
not a, true
ok

REBOL[edit]

logics: func [a [logic!] b [logic!]] [
    print ['and tab a and b]
    print ['or  tab a or  b]
    print ['not tab   not a]
    print ['xor tab a xor b]

    print ['and~ tab and~ a b]
    print ['or~  tab or~  a b]
    print ['xor~ tab xor~ a b]

    print ['any tab any [a b]]
    print ['all tab all [a b]]
]

Example:

>> logics true false
and      false
or       true
not      false
xor      true
and~     false
or~      true
xor~     true
any      true
all      none

Relation[edit]

program logic(x,y)
relation a, b, op, result
insert x, y, "and", x and y
insert x, y, "or", x or y
insert x, "", "not", not x
insert x, y, "xor", x xor y
print
end program

run logic(0,0)
run logic(0,1)
run logic(1,0)
run logic(1,1)

In Relation TRUE is the number 1 (or any different from 0) and FALSE 0.

ReScript[edit]

let logic = (a, b) => {
  Js.log(string_of_bool(a) ++ " and " ++ string_of_bool(b) ++ " = " ++ string_of_bool(a && b))
  Js.log(string_of_bool(a) ++ " or " ++ string_of_bool(b) ++ " = " ++ string_of_bool(a || b))
}

let logic2 = (a) =>
  Js.log("not(" ++ string_of_bool(a) ++ ") = " ++ string_of_bool(!a))

logic(true, true)
logic(true, false)
logic(false, true)
logic(false, false)

logic2(true)
logic2(false)
Output:
$ bsc logical_op.res > logical_op.bs.js
$ node logical_op.bs.js
true and true = true
true or true = true
true and false = false
true or false = true
false and true = false
false or true = true
false and false = false
false or false = false
not(true) = false
not(false) = true

Retro[edit]

: .bool ( f- ) [ "true" ] [ "false" ] if puts cr ;
: logic ( ab- )
 "\na = "  puts over .bool "b = " puts dup .bool
 "\na and b = " puts 2dup and .bool
 "\na  or b = " puts over  or .bool
 "\nnot a = " puts not .bool ;

REXX[edit]

The REXX language's boolean values are well formed:

  •   1   (true)
  •   0   (false)


Any other value will raise a REXX syntax error condition.

basic boolean functions[edit]

/*REXX program  demonstrates some  binary  (also known as  bit  or logical)  operations.*/
                        x= 1    ;    @x= ' x '   /*set the initial values of  X  and Y, */
                        y= 0    ;    @y= ' y '   /*  and a couple of literals for HDRs. */
                                                 /* [↓]  echo  the   X  and  Y   values.*/
call $ 'name', "value"                           /*display the  header  (title) line.   */
call $ 'x'   ,    x                              /*display "x"  and then the value of X.*/
call $ 'y'   ,    y                              /*   "    "y"   "    "   "    "    " Y */
                                                 /* [↓]  negate the X; then the Y value.*/
call $ 'name', "negated"                         /*some REXXes support the  ¬  character*/
call $ 'x'   ,   \x                              /*display "x"  and then the value of ¬X*/
call $ 'y'   ,   \y                              /*   "    "y"   "    "   "    "    " ¬Y*/
say
say
call $ @x, @y, 'AND';    do x=0  to 1;   do y=0  to 1;   call $ x, y, x  & y;    end;  end
call $ @x, @y, 'OR' ;    do x=0  to 1;   do y=0  to 1;   call $ x, y, x  | y;    end;  end
call $ @x, @y, 'XOR';    do x=0  to 1;   do y=0  to 1;   call $ x, y, x && y;    end;  end
exit 0                                           /*stick a fork in it,  we're all done. */
/*──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────*/
$: parse arg @.1, @.2, @.3, @.4;         hdr= length(@.1) \== 1;        if hdr  then say
             do j=0  to hdr;             _=
                   do k=1  for arg();    _= _  center(@.k, 7)
                   end   /*k*/
             say _
             @.= copies('═', 7)                  /*define a new header separator line.  */
             end         /*j*/
   return
output   when using the default (internal) inputs:
  name    value
 ═══════ ═══════
    x       1
    y       0

  name   negated
 ═══════ ═══════
    x       0
    y       1



    x       y      AND
 ═══════ ═══════ ═══════
    0       0       0
    0       1       0
    1       0       0
    1       1       1

    x       y      OR
 ═══════ ═══════ ═══════
    0       0       0
    0       1       1
    1       0       1
    1       1       1

    x       y      XOR
 ═══════ ═══════ ═══════
    0       0       0
    0       1       1
    1       0       1
    1       1       0

extended boolean functions[edit]

All sixteen boolean functions could easily be shown.

/*REXX pgm demonstrates some binary (also known as bit or logical)  extended operations.*/
                        x= 1    ;    @x= ' x '   /*set the initial values of  X  and Y, */
                        y= 0    ;    @y= ' y '   /*  and a couple of literals for HDRs. */
                                                 /* [↓]  echo  the   X  and  Y   values.*/
call $ 'name', "value"                           /*display the  header  (title) line.   */
call $ 'x'   ,    x                              /*display "x"  and then the value of X.*/
call $ 'y'   ,    y                              /*   "    "y"   "    "   "    "    " Y */
                                                 /* [↓]  negate the X; then the Y value.*/
call $ 'name', "negated"                         /*some REXXes support the  ¬  character*/
call $ 'x'   ,   \x                              /*display "x"  and then the value of ¬X*/
call $ 'y'   ,   \y                              /*   "    "y"   "    "   "    "    " ¬Y*/
say                                              /*note:  NXOR  is also known as  XNOR. */
say                                              /*all  16  boolean operations could ···*/
                                                 /*  be shown, but only the commonly ···*/
                                                 /*  known functions will be shown here.*/
call $ @x, @y, 'AND' ;   do x=0  to 1;   do y=0  to 1;   call $ x, y,   x  & y ;  end; end
call $ @x, @y, 'NAND';   do x=0  to 1;   do y=0  to 1;   call $ x, y, \(x  & y);  end; end
call $ @x, @y, 'OR'  ;   do x=0  to 1;   do y=0  to 1;   call $ x, y,   x  | y ;  end; end
call $ @x, @y, 'NOR' ;   do x=0  to 1;   do y=0  to 1;   call $ x, y, \(x  | y);  end; end
call $ @x, @y, 'XOR' ;   do x=0  to 1;   do y=0  to 1;   call $ x, y,   x && y ;  end; end
call $ @x, @y, 'NXOR';   do x=0  to 1;   do y=0  to 1;   call $ x, y, \(x && y);  end; end
exit 0                                           /*stick a fork in it,  we're all done. */
/*──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────*/
$: parse arg @.1, @.2, @.3, @.4;            hdr= length(@.1) \== 1;     if hdr  then say
              do j=0  to hdr;               _=
                    do k=1  for arg();      _=_  center(@.k, 7)
                    end   /*k*/
              say _
              @.= copies('═', 7)                 /*define a new separator (header) line.*/
              end         /*j*/
   return
output   when using the default (internal) inputs:
  name    value
 ═══════ ═══════
    x       1
    y       0

  name   negated
 ═══════ ═══════
    x       0
    y       1



    x       y      AND
 ═══════ ═══════ ═══════
    0       0       0
    0       1       0
    1       0       0
    1       1       1

    x       y     NAND
 ═══════ ═══════ ═══════
    0       0       1
    0       1       1
    1       0       1
    1       1       0

    x       y      OR
 ═══════ ═══════ ═══════
    0       0       0
    0       1       1
    1       0       1
    1       1       1

    x       y      NOR
 ═══════ ═══════ ═══════
    0       0       1
    0       1       0
    1       0       0
    1       1       0

    x       y      XOR
 ═══════ ═══════ ═══════
    0       0       0
    0       1       1
    1       0       1
    1       1       0

    x       y     NXOR
 ═══════ ═══════ ═══════
    0       0       1
    0       1       0
    1       0       0
    1       1       1

Ring[edit]

x = true
y = false

see "x and y = " + (x and y) + nl
see "x or y = " + (x or y) + nl
see  "not x = " + (not x) + nl

RLaB[edit]

RLaB allows for standard logic operations. and/or/not are synonymous with &&/||/!. In the case when the argument is a real number (default type of argument) the default statement in the absence of if command is is the argument non-zero. Therefore

>> x = 5
5
>> y = 0
0
>> !x
0
>> !y
1
>> x && y
0

However, if arguments to the functions are of the type integer then the functions operate bit-wise.

>> x = int(5)
5
>> y = int(0)
0
>> !x
-6
>> !y
-1
>> x && y
0

Robotic[edit]

Due to the lack of booleans, there is no way to perform logical operations in Robotic. However, bitwise operators can be used.

Ruby[edit]

def logic(a, b)
  print 'a and b: ', a && b, "\n"
  print 'a or b: ' , a || b, "\n"
  print 'not a: '  , !a    , "\n"
  print 'a xor b: ' , a ^ b, "\n"
end

and/or/not are synonymous with &&/||/! albeit with lower precedence.

Rust[edit]

Works with: Rust version 1.1
fn boolean_ops(a: bool, b: bool) {
    println!("{} and {} -> {}", a, b, a && b);
    println!("{} or {} -> {}", a, b, a || b);
    println!("{} xor {} -> {}", a, b, a ^ b);
    println!("not {} -> {}\n", a, !a);
}

fn main() {
    boolean_ops(true, true);
    boolean_ops(true, false);
    boolean_ops(false, true);
    boolean_ops(false, false)
}

The Boolean operators || and && are more efficient versions of | and & in that the right-hand operand is only evaluated when the left-hand operand does not already determine the result of the expression.

Scala[edit]

In vanilla Scala:

def logical(a: Boolean, b: Boolean): Unit = {
  println("and: " + (a && b))
  println("or:  " + (a || b))
  println("not: " + !a)
}

logical(true, false)

With Scalaz:

def logical(a: Boolean, b: Boolean): IO[Unit] = for {
  _ <- putStrLn("and: " ++ (a && b).shows)
  _ <- putStrLn("or:  " ++ (a || b).shows)
  _ <- putStrLn("not: " ++ (!a).shows)
} yield ()

logical(true, false).unsafePerformIO

Scheme[edit]

(define (logic a b)
  (display "a and b is ")
  (display (and a b))
  (newline)
  (display "a or b is ")
  (display (or a b))
  (newline)
  (display "not a is ")
  (display (not a))
  (newline))

Seed7[edit]

const proc: writeLogic (in boolean: a, in boolean: b) is func
  begin
    writeln("a and b is " <& a and b);
    writeln("a or b is " <& a or b);
    writeln("not a is " <& not a);
  end func;

Self[edit]

true not = false.
( true && false ) = false.
( true ^^ false ) = true. "xor"
( true || false ) = true. "or"

Sidef[edit]

func logic(a, b) {
    say ("a and b: ", a && b);
    say ("a  or b: ", a || b);
    say ("a xor b: ", a ^ b);
    say ("  not a: ", !a);
}

logic(false, true);
Output:
a and b: false
a  or b: true
a xor b: true
  not a: true

SkookumScript[edit]

SkookumScript has a Boolean class with two possible values: true or false. Conditionals such as if expect a Boolean type and no other types can be implicitly coerced to a Boolean though they can be explicitly converted. Likewise Boolean cannot be implicitly coerced to an Integer value.

This makes a closure that takes two Boolean values. Booleans can be indicated by predicate identifier names that end with a question mark ?.

!logic:
  (a? b?)
    [
    println("a and b: " a and b)
    println("a or b: "  a or b)
    println("not a: "   not a)
    println("a xor b: " a xor b)
    println("a nand b: " a nand b)
    println("a nor b: " a nor b)
    println("a not xor b: " a nxor b)
    ]

Example call:

logic(true false)

Slate[edit]

Some lines in this example are too long (more than 80 characters). Please fix the code if it's possible and remove this message.
{#/\. #\/. #not} do: [ |:func|
  func arity = 1 ifTrue: [inform: 'True ' ; (func as: String) ; ' = ' ; (func sendTo: {True}) printString.
                          inform: 'False ' ; (func as: String) ; ' = ' ; (func sendTo: {False}) printString.].

  func arity = 2 
    ifTrue: [{{True. True}. {True. False}. {False. True}. {False. False}} do:
              [ |:each| inform: each first printString ; (func as: String) ; each second printString ; ' = ' ; (func sendTo: each) printString]]

].
Output:
True/\True = True
True/\False = False
False/\True = False
False/\False = False
True\/True = True
True\/False = True
False\/True = True
False\/False = False
True not = False
False not = True

Smalltalk[edit]

Works with: GNU Smalltalk
Works with: Smalltalk/X

Logical operators "&"(and) and "|" (or) are evaluating their arg (i.e. <expr1> OP <expr2> will evaluate expr2 in any situation).
There are also non-evaluating versions named "and:" and "or:", which only evaluate expr2 if the result is not already determined by expr1.

|test|
test := [ :a :b |
  ('%1 %2 %3 = %4' % { a. 'and'. b. (a & b) }) displayNl.
  ('%1 %2 %3 = %4' % { a. 'or'. b. (a | b) }) displayNl.
  ('%1 %2 = %3' % {'not'. a. (a not) }) displayNl
].

test value: true value: true.
test value: false value: false.
test value: true value: false.
test value: false value: true.


Works with: Smalltalk/X
a implies: b
a xor: b

Standard ML[edit]

fun print_logic (a, b) = (
  print ("a and b is " ^ Bool.toString (a andalso b) ^ "\n");
  print ("a or b is " ^ Bool.toString (a orelse b) ^ "\n");
  print ("not a is " ^ Bool.toString (not a) ^ "\n")
)

Stata[edit]

Stata does not have a boolean type, and uses instead 0 and 1 to denote resp. false and true.

prog def bool
	args a b
	di `a'&`b'
	di `a'|`b'
	di !`a'
end

Likewise in Mata:

function bool(a,b) {
	printf("%f\n",a&b)
	printf("%f\n",a|b)
	printf("%f\n",!a)
}

Swift[edit]

func logic(a: Bool, b: Bool) {
  println("a AND b: \(a && b)");
  println("a OR b: \(a || b)");
  println("NOT a: \(!a)");
}

Additionally, ^ is used for XOR and == is used for "equal to" (a.k.a. bidirectional implication).

Tcl[edit]

proc logic {a b} {
    puts "a and b: [expr {$a && $b}]"
    puts "a or b:  [expr {$a || $b}]"
    puts "not a:   [expr {!$a}]"
}

Terraform[edit]

The Hashicorp Configuration Language ( HCL ) does not support user defined functions. It only supports AND, OR and NOT logical operations. HCL is not meant for generic programming but I don't see an use case for a logarithm function in a language meant to provision infrastructure either. So......

#Aamrun, August 15th 2022

variable "a" {
  type    = bool
  default = true
}

variable "b" {
  type    = bool
  default = false
}

output "a_and_b" {
  value = var.a && var.b
}

output "a_or_b" {
  value = var.a || var.b
}

output "not_a" {
  value = !var.a
}

Invocation and output :

$ terraform apply -var="a=true" -var="b=false" -auto-approve 

No changes. Your infrastructure matches the configuration.

Terraform has compared your real infrastructure against your configuration and found no differences, so no changes are needed.

Apply complete! Resources: 0 added, 0 changed, 0 destroyed.

Outputs:

a_and_b = false
a_or_b = true
not_a = false
$

Toka[edit]

This is an adaption of the code from the Forth example. Toka provides TRUE/FALSE flags that are the same as the well-formed flags in Forth.

[ 0 <> [ ." true" ] [ ." false"] ifTrueFalse ] is .bool
[ ( a b -- )
  cr ." a = " over .bool ."   b = " dup .bool
  cr ." a and b = " 2dup and .bool
  cr ." a  or b = " over  or .bool
  cr ." not a = " 0 = .bool
] is logic

uBasic/4tH[edit]

uBasic/4tH does not have logical operators, but every non-zero value will be considered TRUE in conditional statements. However, comparison operators (like =, #, < and >) can be used in expressions and will return fully qualified booleans. Hence, simple arithmetic operators will do the trick just fine.

Proc _Boolean(4, 2)
Proc _Boolean(0, 2)
Proc _Boolean(2, 0)

End


_Boolean Param(2)
  a@ = a@ # 0                          ' Transform to true booleans
  b@ = b@ # 0

  print "A and B is "; a@ * b@         ' Multiplication will now do AND
  print "A or B is "; a@ + b@          ' Addition will now do OR
  print "not A is "; a@ = 0            ' This will invert the boolean value
  print
Return
Output:
A and B is 1
A or B is 2
not A is 0

A and B is 0
A or B is 1
not A is 1

A and B is 0
A or B is 1
not A is 0


0 OK, 0:63

UNIX Shell[edit]

The shell has at least two levels of logical operators. Conditional logic (if, while, && and || at the statement level) operates on commands; the commands are executed, and their exit status determines their value in a Boolean context. If they return an exit code of 0, signaling successful execution, that is considered a "true" result; if they return a nonzero exit code, signaling a failure condition, that is considered a "false" result. However, these results are not returned as a Boolean value. if command; then do something; fi will do something if the command succeeds, but there's no "true" value, only the zero exit status. So this demo uses a function that examines the exit status of the last command and prints "true" if it is 0 and "false" otherwise. The two values for the task are the commands true and false, which do nothing but exit with status 0 and 1, respectively.

Works with: Bourne Again SHell
Works with: Korn Shell
Works with: Z Shell
function boolVal {
    if (( ! $? )); then
        echo true
    else
        echo false
    fi
}
       
a=true
b=false
printf '%s and %s = %s\n' "$a" "$b" "$("$a" && "$b"; boolVal)"
printf '%s or %s = %s\n' "$a" "$b" "$("$a" || "$b"; boolVal)"
printf 'not %s = %s\n' "$a" "$(! "$a"; boolVal)"
Output:
true and false = false
true or false = true
not true = false

A different variety of Boolean logic is available inside arithmetic expressions, using the C convention of 0=false and nonzero=true=1:

a=1
b=0
printf '%d and %d = %d\n' "$a" "$b" "$(( a && b ))"
printf '%d or %d = %d\n' "$a" "$b" "$(( a || b ))"
printf 'not %d = %d\n' "$a" "$(( ! a ))"
Output:
1 and 0 = 0
1 or 0 = 1
not 1 = 0

V[edit]

Using stack shuffles.

[mylogic
  [get2 [dup] dip swap [dup] dip].
   get2 and puts
   get2 or puts
   swap not puts
   pop
 ].

Using view.

[mylogic
   [get2 [a b : a b a b] view].
   get2 and puts
   get2 or puts
   swap not puts
   pop
 ].

Using internal defines

[mylogic [a b] let
  a b and puts
  a b or puts
  a not puts
].

Vala[edit]

public class Program {
    private static void print_logic (bool a, bool b) {
        print ("a and b is %s\n", (a && b).to_string ());
        print ("a or b is %s\n", (a || b).to_string ());
        print ("not a %s\n", (!a).to_string ());
    }
    public static int main (string[] args) {
        if (args.length < 3) error ("Provide 2 arguments!");
        bool a = bool.parse (args[1]);
        bool b = bool.parse (args[2]);
        print_logic (a, b);
        return 0;
    }
}

Verilog[edit]

module main;
integer a, b;

  initial begin
      a = 1; //true
      b = 0; //false
      $display(a && b);  //AND
      $display(a || b);  //OR
      $display(!a);      //NOT
      $finish ;
    end
endmodule

Visual Basic .NET[edit]

Function Test(ByVal a As Boolean, ByVal b As Boolean)
    Console.WriteLine("And " & a And b)
    Console.WriteLine("Or " & a Or b)
    Console.WriteLine("Not " & Not a)
    Console.WriteLine("Xor " & a Xor b)
    Console.WriteLine("And, short-circuited " & a AndAlso b)
    Console.WriteLine("Or, short-circuited " & a OrElse b)
End Function

Wren[edit]

Wren has a built in Bool type which has two instances true and false which are also keywords.

The Bool class overrides, the ! operator which it inherits from the Object class so that !true is false and !false is true as one would expect.

Unlike some other C fanily languages, the Bool class doesn't support the operators &, |, ^ and ~ which, in Wren, only apply to bitwise operations on unsigned 32-bit integers.

However, it does support the short-circuiting && and || logical operators as well as the conditional (or ternary) operator ?: all of which behave as expected.

var f = Fn.new { |a, b|
    System.print("a      = %(a)")
    System.print("b      = %(b)")
    System.print("!a     = %(!a)")
    System.print("a && b = %(a && b)")
    System.print("a || b = %(a || b)")
    System.print()
}

var tests = [ [true, true], [true, false], [false, true], [false, false] ]
for (test in tests) f.call(test[0], test[1])
Output:
a      = true
b      = true
!a     = false
a && b = true
a || b = true

a      = true
b      = false
!a     = false
a && b = false
a || b = true

a      = false
b      = true
!a     = true
a && b = false
a || b = true

a      = false
b      = false
!a     = true
a && b = false
a || b = false

XLISP[edit]

(defun logical-functions (a b)
    (print `(a and b = ,(and a b)))
    (print `(a or b = ,(or a b)))
    (print `(not a = ,(not a))) )

XPL0[edit]

Logical operations and bitwise operations are the same. The command word 'false' = 0 and 'true' = -1. These values are produced by comparison operations, such as A>=B. Any integer not equal to zero is considered true. Real numbers cannot be used as booleans. Symbols can be used instead: & = and, ! = or, ~ = not, | = xor. Note that not 1, which is true, is $FFFFFFFE, which is also true. Despite this, it's simple and convenient to combine logical and bitwise operations.

include c:\cxpl\codes;          \intrinsic 'code' declarations

func Logic(A, B);
int  A, B;
[HexOut(0, A and B);  ChOut(0, ^ );
 HexOut(0, A or  B);  ChOut(0, ^ );
 HexOut(0, not A);    ChOut(0, ^ );
 HexOut(0, A xor B);
]; \Logic

[Logic(false, false); CrLf(0);
 Logic(true, false);  CrLf(0);
 Logic(true, true);   CrLf(0);
 Logic(1, 1);   CrLf(0);
 Logic(1, 2);   CrLf(0);
]
Output:
00000000 00000000 FFFFFFFF 00000000
00000000 FFFFFFFF 00000000 FFFFFFFF
FFFFFFFF FFFFFFFF 00000000 00000000
00000001 00000001 FFFFFFFE 00000000
00000000 00000003 FFFFFFFE 00000003

XSLT[edit]

<xsl:template name="logic">
  <xsl:param name="a" select="true()"/>
  <xsl:param name="b" select="false()"/>
  <fo:block>a and b = <xsl:value-of select="$a and $b"/></fo:block>
  <fo:block>a or b = <xsl:value-of select="$a or $b"/></fo:block>
  <fo:block>not a = <xsl:value-of select="not($a)"/></fo:block>
 </xsl:template>

zkl[edit]

Logical and/or do the logic and returns one of the ops.

fcn f(a,b){a and b}
fcn g(a,b){a or b}
fcn h(a){(not a)}
f(0,1) //-->0
f(1,2) //-->2
f(True,True)  //-->True
f(True,False) //-->False

g(0,1) //-->1
g(1,2) //-->1
g(True,True)  //-->True
g(True,False) //-->True

h(0) //-->True
h(1) //-->False
h(True)  //-->False
h(False) //-->True