Category:M2000 Interpreter

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M2000 Interpreter
This programming language may be used to instruct a computer to perform a task.
Official website
Execution method: Interpreted
Garbage collected: Allowed
Parameter passing methods: By reference, By value
Type strength: Both
Type compatibility: Duck
Type expression: Implicit, Explicit
Type checking: Dynamic

Listed below are all of the tasks on Rosetta Code which have been solved using M2000 Interpreter.

M2000 is an interpreter running on its own Environment written in Visual Basic 6, as an open source project and can be found in GitHub[1]. Current version is 12, revision 13. See M2000 Interpreter Implementation

M2000 has two set of vocabularies, one with English identifiers and one with Greek identifiers. We can mix languages, but not if some identifiers are part of a statement in non matching language.

M2000 start as an experimental interpreted language, using a Module in Module idea (like a Procedure in Procedure) where each inner Module is closed for modification, but open for expansion, by replacing code at run time. Source code executed as is, without second interpretation of a simple form, although block of code arranged for execution in a manner of consuming code (code which executed deleted, code in a loop kept as a copy for next iteration).

Module's may be Global, or local to other modules. We can define global modules in a module, and all these definitions deleted at the end of module execution. Because we have to execute the definition of a module, we can select definition, or load definition before we call the module. Also modules can be part of object's of type Group. A module can't call itself unless we use Call module_name. The standard call is by using only the name of module. So from a module we can call local modules or global, but we can't call parent module (if isn't global). In a group we can call anything like a module plus the modules of the groups.

We can change a inner module at the calling of a module, see the example: We call inner Beta in two stages. At the second stage we change inner Theta with Theta2. This is the decoration of Beta with Theta as Theta2. This is a temporary decoration because Beta after execution erase any new identifier including Theta. So each time we call Beta, statement Module Theta make this module unless a decoration stop it.

English Vocabulary

Module Beta {
      Module Theta (x){
            Print "This is Theta, we get x=";x
      For i=1 to 3 : Theta i : Next i
Module Theta2 (x) {
            Print "This is Theta2, we get x=";x
Beta ; Theta as Theta2

Greek Vocabulary

Τμήμα Βήτα {
      Τμήμα Θήτα (χ){
            Τύπωσε "Αυτό είναι το Θήτα, θα πάρουμε το χ=";χ
      Για ι=1 έως 3 : Θήτα ι : Επόμενο ι
Τμήμα Θήτα2 (χ) {
            Τύπωσε "Αυτό είναι το Θήτα2, θα πάρουμε το χ=";χ
Βήτα ; Θήτα ως Θήτα2

As we can see from code, some statements are like BASIC, except the use of curly brackets {}. Check the code below. We have a Module (as a Procedure), where we define some functions and some variables, as entities. These entities defined in every call to CheckIt, and erased when execution return from CheckIt. By default every parameter in M2000 pass by value. We define two functions, Alfa() where we set type for parameter x and ExpType$() where we not set type for x, and we wish to return the name of type when we make a call.

Module CheckIt {
      \\ We can't call something out of this module
      Function Alfa(X as double) {
      Print Alfa(5) ' we pass a double type number
      Print Alfa(12121221121.1212@) ' we pass a Decimal type
      \\ M get type from first assignment
      Print Type$(M) ' Double
      double z   // new from version 12
      \\ If a variable get a type then any number convert to that type before assign to it
      Print Type$(Z)
      Currency Z1=212.12, Z2=323233.12, Z3=223212323323.12
      Print Z1, Z2, Z3
      Def ExpType$(x)=Type$(x)
      Print ExpType$(Z1+Z2) ' Currency
      Print ExpType$(Z1*Z2) ' Currency
      Print ExpType$(Z2*Z3) ' Double (Currency can't hold this number)
      \\ Integer, Long, Single, Currency, Decimal
      Print ExpType$(10%), ExpType$(10&), ExpType$(10~), ExpType$(10#), ExpType$(10@)
      \\ Without symbol is a Double
      Print ExpType$(10)
\\ We call it
\\ Now Function Alfa and all variables erased.
// We can call it again

For small programs, for learning algorithms there is no need to use types, except the major types, Numeric and Strings, plus one more: Integer. Integers can be number types like Long and Integer types, or can be any numeric type using without decimal part. So Integer variables are variables with % suffix on their name. String Variable can use a $ suffix. From version 12 we can use string variables without suffix. Although the interpreter own string functions use suffix $ (like str$()).

A statement Input Alfa$ can input characters for a string or for object typed group with that name. Interpreter implicitly use the appropriate method.

Types are strong for values with a name (variables, constants), but weak for items in containers. In a container (Array, Inventory and Stack) we can place anything including other containers. We can bypass the "strong" capability but this isn't a practice for good programming. Internal or variables are of type of Variant, so we can make a reference of A to A$ and we can save a string "1212" and read from A the number 1212.

Module AKindOfMess {
      Print Type$(a)="Decimal"
      \\ a and a$ reference same variant type
      Link a to a$
      Print a$
      Let a$=str$(500.12, "")
      Rem : a++  ' error can't apply ++ to a string type
      Print type$(a)="String"  ' true
      ' Error a=a+a
      Print len(a$)
      Print a=500.12   ' true
      Print len(a$)
      Print a$, a=0
      a$=Left$(a$, len(a$)/2)
      Print a$
      Print a=500.12
      let a=100@
      Print Type$(a)="Double"
      Print a$="100"  ' true
      For This {
            swap M, a
      Print Valid(M)=false ' M not exist now
      Print Type$(a)="Decimal"  ' true
      Print a$="23451234512345123451234512345"  ' true
Print Valid(a)=false  ' not exist 
Print Valid(a$<>"")=false  ' not exist 
Print Valid(12/0)=false ' evaluate expression and return true if is ok (errors trapped always)
Print Error$=""

So check this for proper use of types.

Module CheckInt {
      Print A% ' 1212212
      Print A% ' 1212213
      Print Type$(A%) ' Decimal
      Print A% ' 1212214
      Print Type$(A%) ' Decimal
      B%=122121212.12 ' make Integer from Double
      Print B% ' 122121212
      Print Type$(B%) ' Double
      Print Type$(B%) ' Double
      Print B% ' 122121213

So we say about Integer Variables, and no Integer Numeric Type. Like in Basic, M2000 is not case sensitive (except for labels), so A% and a% is the same. We may have A, A$ and A% as three variables, or A(), A%(), A$() as arrays or and functions. We can use name(@ ) to call function and not array if we have each with same name.

Dim A(10)=1
Def A(x)=x**2
Print A(3), A(@ 4)

By default all variables are local. M2000 uses heap to store local variables, not stack. We can use global variables, but a local definition hide a global one. We can make global variables for temporary use (at return from module which we define a global, this global erased). A global definition in an already defined global variable with same name, hide for temporary use the old global variable.

It is easy to make modules, with modules, functions, variables, arrays. We can use subroutines when we want code in a module or a function to used more than once. We can use local variables inside subroutines. In subroutines we can use module's variables, functions, subroutines. Until here we see something like BASIC, except that variables are local to modules and functions, but can be used by subroutines. Also we have see that we can replace a module in a module when we call it. With this replacement we can use a predefined logic with some "terminals", modules that get parameters and do final things. We can make global modules and functions in local modules and functions, but these exist until creator module or function exit.

M2000 can be used for more advanced programming. Modules and functions can be members of Groups. Groups are values. So a function can return a Group.

Stack of Values

Modules and functions get parameters in a stack. Modules get the parent stack with parameters, and functions get a new stack with parameters. Modules return from call and are responsible to clear as needed the stack. Functions drop the stack after the call from an expression. A module can return entities in stack, if we want to do that. We can call a module and pass parameters, and that module can call other module leaving parameters in stack to be read in last module. We use Read to pop values from stack to feed variables, or Number to pop number, or Letter$ to pop alphanumeric. We can use Empty to check if we have an empty stack. And there are other statement to move or copy items, to drop items.

In the example below (y) is a Read y for module definition. Early versions of language use Module alfa {Read y ... }, and last can use Module alfa(y) {...} with or without space before open parenthesis.

As we see alfa has no read statement, because before get the first number need to make two modules, and then pop one number and call a module passing current stack, so if choose beta, then the second value feed y from a read y statement.

module alfa  {
      module beta (y) {
            print y**3
      module delta (y) {
            print y**2
     if number<2 then {beta} else delta
alfa 1, 3   ' 27
alfa 3, 3  ' 9

\\ number pop a number from stack
function sumall {
      While not empty {
print sumall(1,2,3,4,5,6,7)=28


Groups are objects for M2000. We can use them as values, and if we want we can use pointers for groups (but we can make a lot of programs without using pointers to groups). Without using pointer, a Group may be local with a name in a Module or can be in a container like array, inventory (a type of map) and stack objects, without name. Groups may have private and public members, may have properties as read only, may get value and return value, and may have operators. Members of Groups can be anything, including other groups. Groups may have events too. We can make groups by using CLASS statement or by using own function which return a Group or a pointer to Group.

A special object is the lambda object, which may have a number of closures, and have to faces, a variable and a function:

Module  Delta {
      \\ Make a group like a lambda
      \\ A Class make a Global Function
      \\ (in a group a Class definition make a group member, not a global function)
      Class Alfa {
            Value (x) {
            \\ see dot before Z
            \\ this is the same as This.Z
            \\ After Class: definitions are lost when we copy group
            \\ this is the constructor
            \\ here only a Read .Z used
            Module Alfa(.Z) {}
      \\ M, N, K and P get type by first value on assignment
      \\ M has no Alfa module, because a copy perform in Alfa()
      Print M(3)=14
      \\ Make a lambda
      N=Lambda Z=5 (x)->X**2+Z
      Print N(3)=14
      K=N ' copy lambda N to K
      Print N(3)=K(3)
      Print Type$(N)="lambda"
      \\ we want a copy of M not value of M
      P=Group(M )
      Print M(3)=P(3)
      Print Type$(P) ="Group"

We can place a lambda function as closure in a lambda function, and we can build a program as one "top" function, and many lambda as closures, which may have other lambda functions. Closures can be change values from lambda but not from outside unless they are pointers (so we may have same pointers outside of lambda, or in another lambda. A lambda variable can change function and closures in a new assignment. We can store lambda state (if we don't use pointers in closures) in a new variable which take as first value lambda (and then can take only lambda functions)

a class define a type too. We can make a class from other classes too. We can make inner classes too.

Form 80,50
\\ counters supposed we provide them from a file
global LastCustomerId=100, ReportId=80
class person {
	name$, address$, phone$, id
	module person (.name$, .address$, .phone$) {

class customer as person {
	Inventory sales
	Class bill {
		day$, time$, id
		\\ read only property (is a group inside group)
		Property euro {value}
		Function Key$ {$+"/"+.time$+"#"+str$(.id,"")
		Module bill (.day$, .time$, .id, .[euro]) {
	Module CustomerData {
		Print "Report date:"; Date$(Today)
		Print "ReportId:";ReportId
		Print "Customer:";.id
		Print "Name",.name$
		Print "Address",.address$
		Print "Phone", .phone$
		Print "Transactions:";len(.sales)
		While m {
		Print "Total Euro:";sum
	Module InsertBill (bill as bill) {
		try {
			Print "New bill:";bill.key$();" for customer ";.id
			Append .sales, bill.key$():=bill
	Module customer (Where, m as person) {
		append where, .id:=This

Inventory Customers
Pen 15 {Print "Adding to Customers"}
For This {
	\\ this is a block for temporary definitions
	K=Customer(Customers, person("George","Athens","0912399"))
	\\ after that group K deleted
Pen 15 {Print "Using key to customers to add bills"}
For Customers(LastCustomerId) {
	.InsertBill .bill("20200522", "18:33", 1023, 100)
	.InsertBill .bill("20200526", "09:10", 3129, 150)
	.InsertBill .bill("20200530", "13:20", 5418, 25)
Pen 15 {Print "Using Iterator 1 - working at original data"}
While M {
	\\ we extract key using eval$(M!)
	\\ so we can work from original data
	For Customers(eval$(M!)) {
Pen 15 {Print "Using Iterator 2  - working at a copy of data"}
While M {
	\\ or using a copy of data
	For K  {

Until now we see modules/functions/subs for procedural programming, Groups for OOP, Groups as lambda functions and lambda functions for functional programming. We can use events for groups and for COM objects, including GUI objects.

Module Beta {
      Group WithEvents Alpha {
            Event "One"
            Module DoIt (x) {
                  \\ if no service function founded, no error happen
                  Call Event "One", x
      Alpha.Doit 50
      \\  nothing because we didn't define yet the service function
      Function Alpha_One (New X){
            \\ Event functions called "local", with scope on module
            Print M+X
      \\ Now function Alpha_One() exist
      Alpha.Doit 20 ' 30
      Print X=5 ' delete New, in event service function to get 20
      Print M=11
      \\In M2000 we can change definitions
      Function Alpha_One (New X){
            \\ Event functions called "local", with scope on module
            Print M+X
      Alpha.Doit 20 ' 31
      Print M=111

Until now we see that programming with events can be used in M2000. There is an Event object among the light events in Groups using WithEvents, and we can use COM Events to handle objects like MS Word.

Modules may have Threads, part of modules that can be executed in intervals, can be halted, or can be released, and can be erased. Each thread has own stack and may have own static variables (Modules and Functions also may have static variables), but can use modules variables and functions/modules/subs. Threads can run concurrent (thread return to task manager after execution of a statement or a block of statements) or sequential (a thread has to exit from interval to start other thread)

Module Zeta {
      Thread {
      } As M interval 50
      \\ This is the main task (a thread)
      Main.Task 100 {
            Print k
            Refresh // new versions do not insert automatic refresh for output in threads, we have to include it to code
            If keypress(32) then Exit

M2000 Interpreter can work with Structures and Buffers. Buffer is a memory block and Structure can define types of memory, and a buffer can hold arrays of structures. Each structure can be made from other structures or arrays of structures, and may have unions. We can use buffers for code execution (writing machine code), using standard buffers (not executable), for data holder. Also we can use Buffers calling external dll and passing by address.

Module Kappa {
      Function Theta(x) {
             Structure Points_single {
                  x as single
                  y as single
            Buffer Clear Points as Points_single*x
      Print Len(P)=800 ' 2x4x100 bytes
      \\ return to buffer multiple values using index!offset
      Return P, 0!x:=1212.12, 0!y:=21.1212
      Print Eval(P, 0!x)=1212.12~, Eval(P, 0!y)=21.1212~

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