# Category:PL/I

**PL/I**

This

**programming language**may be used to instruct a computer to perform a task.

Execution method: | Compiled (machine code) |
---|---|

Garbage collected: | No |

Parameter passing methods: | By reference, By value |

Type safety: | Safe |

Type strength: | Strong |

Type compatibility: | Nominative |

Type expression: | Explicit |

Type checking: | Static |

Lang tag(s): | pli |

See Also: |

PL/I is a general purpose programming language suitable for commercial, scientific, non-scientific, and system programming.

It provides the following data types:

- Floating-point,
- Decimal integer,
- Binary integer,
- Fixed-point decimal (with a fractional part),
- Fixed-point binary (that is, with a fractional part),
- Pointers,
- Character strings of two kinds:

- fixed-length, and
- varying-length.

- Bit strings of two kinds:

- fixed-length, and
- varying length.

The float, integer, and fixed-point types can be real or complex.

Multiple precisions are available for binary fixed-point:

- 8 bits,
- 16 bits,
- 32 bits, and
- 64 bits.

Multiple precisions are available for floating point:

- 32 bits,
- 64 bits, and
- 80 bits.

The language provides for static and dynamic arrays. Of the latter, there are automatic, controlled, and based.

Controlled can be applied to any data type, including scalar, structure, as well as arrays. With controlled, a push-down and pop-up stack is automatically used.

PL/I has four kinds of I/O:

- For simple I/O commands, list-directed input and output requires only the names of the variables. Default format is used, based on the variable's declaration.
- For simple I/O commands, data-directed input and output requires only the names of the variables. For this form, both the names of the variables and their values are transmitted.
- When precise layouts of input and output data is required, edit-directed I/O is used. A format is specified by the user. The format is flexible, and permits the number of digits, and the number of places after the decimal point to be specified dynamically. The format may also be specified in picture form.
- For files held on storage media, record-oriented transmission is often used, either for sequential or random access.

PL/I has built-in checking for such programmer conditions including

- subscript-range checking,
- floating-point overflow,
- fixed-point overflow,
- division by zero,
- sub-string range checking, and
- string-size checking.

Any of those may be enabled or disabled by the user.

When any of those conditions occurs, the user/programmer may trap them and recover from them and continue execution.

PL/I has a unique and powerful pre-processor which is a subset of the full PL/I language so it can be used to perform (among other things):

- source file inclusion,
- conditional compilation, and
- macro expansion.

The pre-processor keywords are prefixed with a % (percent symbol).

## See Also

## Pages in category "PL/I"

The following 200 pages are in this category, out of 446 total.

(previous page) (next page)### 2

### A

- A+B
- ABC problem
- ABC words
- Abundant, deficient and perfect number classifications
- Ackermann function
- Additive primes
- Address of a variable
- AKS test for primes
- Align columns
- Almost prime
- Amb
- Amicable pairs
- Anagrams
- Anti-primes
- Apply a callback to an array
- Arena storage pool
- Arithmetic-geometric mean
- Arithmetic/Complex
- Arithmetic/Integer
- Arithmetic/Rational
- Array concatenation
- Array length
- Arrays
- Assertions
- Associative array/Creation
- Attractive numbers
- Averages/Arithmetic mean
- Averages/Mean angle
- Averages/Mean time of day
- Averages/Median
- Averages/Mode
- Averages/Pythagorean means
- Averages/Root mean square
- Averages/Simple moving average

### B

- Babbage problem
- Balanced brackets
- Benford's law
- Bernoulli numbers
- Best shuffle
- Binary digits
- Binary search
- Binary strings
- Birthday problem
- Bitmap
- Bitmap/Bresenham's line algorithm
- Bitmap/Flood fill
- Bitmap/Midpoint circle algorithm
- Bitmap/Read a PPM file
- Bitmap/Write a PPM file
- Bitwise IO
- Bitwise operations
- Boolean values

### C

- Caesar cipher
- Calendar
- Calendar - for "REAL" programmers
- Call a foreign-language function
- Carmichael 3 strong pseudoprimes
- Case-sensitivity of identifiers
- Catalan numbers
- Character codes
- Check that file exists
- Cholesky decomposition
- Circles of given radius through two points
- Closest-pair problem
- Collections
- Comma quibbling
- Command-line arguments
- Comments
- Compare a list of strings
- Compare length of two strings
- Compile-time calculation
- Compound data type
- Conditional structures
- Conjugate transpose
- Constrained random points on a circle
- Continued fraction
- Convert decimal number to rational
- Convert seconds to compound duration
- Conway's Game of Life
- Copy a string
- Count in factors
- Count in octal
- Count occurrences of a substring
- CRC-32
- Create a file
- Create a two-dimensional array at runtime
- Create an HTML table
- CSV data manipulation
- Cumulative standard deviation

### D

- Date format
- Date manipulation
- Day of the week
- Day of the week of Christmas and New Year
- Detect division by zero
- Determine if a string is numeric
- Dice game probabilities
- Digital root
- Digital root/Multiplicative digital root
- Documentation
- Dot product
- Doubly-linked list/Definition
- Doubly-linked list/Element definition
- Doubly-linked list/Element insertion
- Doubly-linked list/Traversal
- Dragon curve
- Duffinian numbers

### E

### F

- Factorial
- Factors of an integer
- Fast Fourier transform
- Fibonacci n-step number sequences
- Fibonacci sequence
- Fibonacci word
- File input/output
- File size
- Filter
- Find limit of recursion
- Find prime n such that reversed n is also prime
- Find words which contains all the vowels
- Find words which contains more than 3 e vowels
- Find words whose first and last three letters are equal
- Five weekends
- FizzBuzz
- Flatten a list
- Flipping bits game
- Flow-control structures
- Floyd's triangle
- Fork
- Formatted numeric output
- Forward difference
- Four bit adder
- Function definition
- Function prototype

### G

### H

- Hailstone sequence
- Hamming numbers
- Handle a signal
- Happy numbers
- Harshad or Niven series
- Haversine formula
- Hello world/Line printer
- Hello world/Newline omission
- Hello world/Standard error
- Hello world/Text
- Hickerson series of almost integers
- Higher-order functions
- History variables
- Hofstadter Figure-Figure sequences
- Hofstadter Q sequence
- Hofstadter-Conway $10,000 sequence
- Holidays related to Easter
- Horner's rule for polynomial evaluation
- Host introspection
- Huffman coding
- Humble numbers