String case

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Task
String case
You are encouraged to solve this task according to the task description, using any language you may know.
Take the string "alphaBETA", and demonstrate how to convert it to UPPER-CASE and lower-case. Use the default encoding of a string literal or plain ASCII if there is no string literal in your language. Show any additional case conversion functions (e.g. swapping case, capitalizing the first letter, etc.) that may be included in the library of your language.

Contents

[edit] 4D

$string:="alphaBETA"
$uppercase:=Uppercase($string)
$lowercase:=Lowercase($string)

[edit] 6502 Assembly

	.lf  case6502.lst	
.cr 6502
.tf case6502.obj,ap1
;------------------------------------------------------
; String Case for the 6502 by barrym95838 2013.04.07
; Thanks to sbprojects.com for a very nice assembler!
; The target for this assembly is an Apple II with
; mixed-case output capabilities. Apple IIs like to
; work in '+128' ascii, so this version leaves bit 7
; alone, and can be used with either flavor.
; 6502s work best with data structures < 256 bytes;
; several instructions would have to be added to
; properly deal with longer strings.
; Tested and verified on AppleWin 1.20.0.0
;------------------------------------------------------
; Constant Section
;
StrPtr = $6 ;0-page temp pointer (2 bytes)
Low = $8 ;0-page temp low bound
High = $9 ;0-page temp high bound
CharOut = $fded ;Specific to the Apple II
BigA = "A" ;'A' for normal ascii
BigZ = "Z" ;'Z' " " "
LittleA = "a" ;'a' " " "
LittleZ = "z" ;'z' " " "
;======================================================
.or $0f00
;------------------------------------------------------
; The main program
;
main ldx #sTest ;Point to the test string
lda /sTest
jsr puts ;print it to stdout
jsr toUpper ;convert to UPPER-case
jsr puts ;print it
jsr toLower ;convert to lower-case
jmp puts ;print it and return to caller
;------------------------------------------------------
toUpper ldy #LittleA
sty Low ;set up the flip range
ldy #LittleZ
bne toLow2 ;return via toLower's tail
;------------------------------------------------------
toLower ldy #BigA
sty Low ;set up the flip range
ldy #BigZ
toLow2 sty High
; ;return via fall-thru to flip
;------------------------------------------------------
; Given a NUL-terminated string at A:X, flip the case
; of any chars in the range [Low..High], inclusive;
; only works on the first 256 bytes of a long string
; Uses: StrPtr, Low, High
; Preserves: A, X
; Trashes: Y
;
flip stx StrPtr ;init string pointer
sta StrPtr+1
ldy #0
pha ;save A
flip2 lda (StrPtr),y ;get string char
beq flip5 ;done if NUL
cmp Low
bcc flip4 ;if Low <= char <= High
cmp High
beq flip3
bcs flip4
flip3 eor #$20 ; then flip the case
sta (StrPtr),y
flip4 iny ;point to next char
bne flip2 ;loop up to 255 times
flip5 pla ;restore A
rts ;return
;------------------------------------------------------
; Output NUL-terminated string @ A:X; strings longer
; than 256 bytes are truncated there
; Uses: StrPtr
; Preserves: A, X
; Trashes: Y
;
puts stx StrPtr ;init string pointer
sta StrPtr+1
ldy #0
pha ;save A
puts2 lda (StrPtr),y ;get string char
beq puts3 ;done if NUL
jsr CharOut ;output the char
iny ;point to next char
bne puts2 ;loop up to 255 times
puts3 pla ;restore A
rts ;return
;------------------------------------------------------
; Test String (in '+128' ascii, Apple II style)
;
sTest .as -"Alpha, BETA, gamma, {[(<123@_>)]}."
.az -#13
;------------------------------------------------------
.en

Output:

Alpha, BETA, gamma, {[(<123@_>)]}.
ALPHA, BETA, GAMMA, {[(<123@_>)]}.
alpha, beta, gamma, {[(<123@_>)]}.

[edit] ActionScript

var string:String = 'alphaBETA';
var upper:String = string.toUpperCase();
var lower:String = string.toLowerCase();

[edit] Ada

with Ada.Characters.Handling; use Ada.Characters.Handling;
with Ada.Text_Io; use Ada.Text_Io;
 
procedure Upper_Case_String is
S : String := "alphaBETA";
begin
Put_Line(To_Upper(S));
Put_Line(To_Lower(S));
end Upper_Case_String;

[edit] ALGOL 68

Translation of: C
Note: This specimen retains the original C coding style.
Works with: ALGOL 68 version Revision 1 - no extensions to language used.
Works with: ALGOL 68G version Any - tested with release 1.18.0-9h.tiny.
#!/usr/local/bin/a68g --script #
 
# Demonstrate toupper and tolower for standard ALGOL 68
strings. This does not work for multibyte character sets. #

 
INT l2u = ABS "A" - ABS "a";
 
PROC to upper = (CHAR c)CHAR:
(ABS "a" > ABS c | c |: ABS c > ABS "z" | c | REPR ( ABS c + l2u ));
 
PROC to lower = (CHAR c)CHAR:
(ABS "A" > ABS c | c |: ABS c > ABS "Z" | c | REPR ( ABS c - l2u ));
 
# Operators can be defined in ALGOL 68 #
OP (CHAR)CHAR TOLOWER = to lower, TOUPPER = to upper;
 
# upper-cases s in place #
PROC string to upper = (REF STRING s)VOID:
FOR i FROM LWB s TO UPB s DO s[i] := to upper(s[i]) OD;
 
# lower-cases s in place #
PROC string to lower = (REF STRING s)VOID:
FOR i FROM LWB s TO UPB s DO s[i] := to lower(s[i]) OD;
 
main: (
STRING t := "alphaBETA";
string to upper(t);
printf(($"uppercase: "gl$, t));
string to lower(t);
printf(($"lowercase: "gl$, t))
)

Output:

uppercase: ALPHABETA
lowercase: alphabeta

[edit] APL

Works with: APL2
      a←'abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz'
      A←'ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ'
      
      X←'alphaBETA'
      
      (a,⎕AV)[(A,⎕AV)⍳'alphaBETA']
alphabeta
      (A,⎕AV)[(a,⎕AV)⍳'alphaBETA']
ALPHABETA
Works with: APL

In the following example, puntuation is not covered. It is substituted by '*'.

 
AlphLower←'abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ'
AlphUpper←'ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ*'
AlphUpper[AlphLower⍳'I'm using APL!']
I*M USING APL*
 
AlphLower←'abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ*'
AlphUpper←'ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ'
AlphLower[AlphUpper⍳'I'm using APL!']
i*m using apl*
 

[edit] Arbre

main():
uppercase('alphaBETA') + '\n' + lowercase('alphaBETA') + '\n' -> io

Output:

ALPHABETA
alphabeta

[edit] AutoHotkey

a := "alphaBETA"
StringLower, b, a ; alphabeta
StringUpper, c, a ; ALPHABETA
 
StringUpper, d, a, T ; Alphabeta (T = title case) eg "alpha beta gamma" would become "Alpha Beta Gamma"

[edit] AutoIt

$sString = "alphaBETA"
$sUppercase = StringUpper($sString) ;"ALPHABETA"
$sLowercase = StringLower($sString) ;"alphabeta"

[edit] AWK

BEGIN {
a = "alphaBETA";
print toupper(a), tolower(a)
}

Capitalize:

BEGIN {
a = "alphaBETA";
print toupper(substr(a, 1, 1)) tolower(substr(a, 2))
}

[edit] BASIC

Works with: QBasic
s$ = "alphaBETA"
PRINT UCASE$(s$)
PRINT LCASE$(s$)

[edit] Applesoft BASIC

S$ = "alphaBETA"
 
UP$ = "" : FOR I = 1 TO LEN(S$) : C = ASC(MID$(S$, I, 1)) : UP$ = UP$ + CHR$(C - (C > 96 AND C < 123) * 32) : NEXT I : ? UP$
 
LO$ = "" : FOR I = 1 TO LEN(S$) : C = ASC(MID$(S$, I, 1)) : LO$ = LO$ + CHR$(C + (C > 64 AND C < 91) * 32) : NEXT I : ? LO$

[edit] BBC BASIC

      INSTALL @lib$+"STRINGLIB"
 
original$ = "alphaBETA"
PRINT "Original: " original$
PRINT "Lower case: " FN_lower(original$)
PRINT "Upper case: " FN_upper(original$)
PRINT "Title case: " FN_title(original$)

Output:

Original:   alphaBETA
Lower case: alphabeta
Upper case: ALPHABETA
Title case: AlphaBETA

[edit] Liberty BASIC

input$ ="alphaBETA"
 
print input$
print upper$( input$)
print lower$( input$)
 
end

[edit] OxygenBasic

 
string s="alphaBETA"
 
print lcase(s) " "+
ucase(s) " "+
ucase(left(s,1))+mid(s,2) 'capitalised
 

[edit] PureBasic

s$ = "alphaBETA"
upper$ = UCase(s$) ;uppercase
lower$ = LCase(s$) ;lowercase

[edit] Run BASIC

a$ ="alphaBETA"
 
print a$ '=> alphaBETA
print upper$(a$) '=> ALPHABETA
print lower$(a$) '=> alphabeta

[edit] TI-83 BASIC

Note: While lowercase letters are built in to every TI-83/4/+/SE calculator, typing in lowercase is disabled by default and you have to hack the calculator to type in lowercase. However, the calculator does not have to be hacked to simply display lowercase output from a program, so on non-hacked calculators this program will only be useful one-way. To get lowercase letters, you have to create a new program with "AsmPrgmFDCB24DEC9" as the text, and then execute it on the homescreen with Asm(prgmYOURPROGRAMNAME). Then press [ALPHA] twice.

[edit] Visual Basic .NET

Works with: Visual Basic version 2008
' Define 's'
Dim s AS String = "alphaBETA"
 
' Change 's' to Upper Case.
s = s.ToUpper()
 
' Change 's' to Lower Case.
s = s.ToLower()
:"ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ"→Str9
:"abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz"→Str0
:Input ">",Str1
:":"+Str1+":"→Str1
:Prompt U
:If U:Then
:For(I,2,length(Str1))
:If inString(Str0,sub(Str1,I,1)) and sub(Str1,I,1)≠":"
:sub(Str1,1,I-1)+sub(Str9,inString(Str0,sub(Str1,I,1)),1)+sub(Str1,I+1,length(Str1)-I)→Str1
:End
:Else
:For(I,2,length(Str1))
:If inString(Str9,sub(Str1,I,1)) and sub(Str1,I,1)≠":"
:sub(Str1,1,I-1)+sub(Str0,inString(Str9,sub(Str1,I,1)),1)+sub(Str1,I+1,length(Str1)-I)→Str1
:End
:End
:sub(Str1,2,length(Str1)-2)→Str1
:Pause Str1

[edit] Befunge

Works with: befungee

Converts to uppercase only; lowercase is done in a similar way so I chose not to add it.

"ATEBahpla" > : #v_ 25* , @         >48*-v
> :: "`"` \"{"\` * | > , v
> ^
^ <

[edit] Bracmat

The functions upp$ and low$ assume that strings are UTF-8 encoded, but if a string is not valid UTF-8, it is assumed the string is ISO-8859-1. Case conversion is not restricted to the Latin alphabet, but extends to all alphabets that have upper and lower case characters.

  "alphaBETA":?s
& out$str$(upp$!s \n low$!s)

Output:

ALPHABETA
alphabeta

[edit] Burlesque

 
blsq ) "alphaBETA"^^zz\/ZZ
"ALPHABETA"
"alphabeta"
 

[edit] C

The tolower and toupper functions are locale-aware.

/* Demonstrate toupper and tolower for 
standard C strings.
This does not work for multibyte character sets. */

#include <ctype.h>
#include <stdio.h>
 
/* upper-cases s in place */
void str_toupper(char *s)
{
while(*s)
{
*s=toupper(*s);
s++;
}
}
 
 
/* lower-cases s in place */
void str_tolower(char *s)
{
while(*s)
{
*s=tolower(*s);
s++;
}
}
 
int main(int argc, char *argv[])
{
char t[255]="alphaBETA";
str_toupper(t);
printf("uppercase: %s\n", t);
str_tolower(t);
printf("lowercase: %s\n", t);
return 0;
}

[edit] C++

Works with: g++ version 3.4.4 (cygming special)
Library: STL

This method does the transform in-place. Alternate methods might return a new copy or use a stream manipulator.

#include <algorithm>
#include <string>
#include <cctype>
 
/// \brief in-place convert string to upper case
/// \return ref to transformed string
void str_toupper(std::string &str) {
std::transform(str.begin(),
str.end(),
str.begin(),
(int(*)(int)) std::toupper);
}
 
/// \brief in-place convert string to lower case
/// \return ref to transformed string
void str_tolower(std::string &str) {
std::transform(str.begin(),
str.end(),
str.begin(),
(int(*)(int)) std::tolower);
}

Here is sample usage code:

#include <iostream>
#include <string>
 
using namespace std;
int main() {
string foo("_upperCas3Me!!");
str_toupper(foo);
cout << foo << endl;
str_tolower(foo);
cout << foo << endl;
return 0;
}

[edit] C#

 
class Program
{
static void Main(string[] args)
{
string input;
Console.Write("Enter a series of letters: ");
input = Console.ReadLine();
stringCase(input);
}
 
private static void stringCase(string str)
{
char[] chars = str.ToCharArray();
string newStr = "";
 
foreach (char i in chars)
if (char.IsLower(i))
newStr += char.ToUpper(i);
else
newStr += char.ToLower(i);
Console.WriteLine("Converted: {0}", newStr);
}
}

Title case is a little different:

System.Console.WriteLine(System.Globalization.CultureInfo.CurrentCulture.TextInfo.ToTitleCase("exAmpLe sTrinG"));

[edit] Clojure

(def string "alphaBETA")
(println (.toUpperCase string))
(println (.toLowerCase string))

[edit] CMake

string(TOUPPER alphaBETA s)
message(STATUS "Uppercase: ${s}")
string(TOLOWER alphaBETA s)
message(STATUS "Lowercase: ${s}")
-- Uppercase: ALPHABETA
-- Lowercase: alphabeta

[edit] COBOL

[edit] Standard-compliant Methods

       IDENTIFICATION DIVISION.
PROGRAM-ID. string-case-85.
 
DATA DIVISION.
WORKING-STORAGE SECTION.
01 example PIC X(9) VALUE "alphaBETA".
 
01 result PIC X(9).
 
PROCEDURE DIVISION.
DISPLAY "Example: " example
 
*> Using the intrinsic functions.
DISPLAY "Lower-case: " FUNCTION LOWER-CASE(example)
 
DISPLAY "Upper-case: " FUNCTION UPPER-CASE(example)
 
*> Using INSPECT
MOVE example TO result
INSPECT result CONVERTING "ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ"
TO "abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz"
DISPLAY "Lower-case: " result
 
MOVE example TO result
INSPECT result CONVERTING "abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz"
TO "ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ"
DISPLAY "Upper-case: " result
 
GOBACK
.

[edit] Compiler Extensions

       IDENTIFICATION DIVISION.
PROGRAM-ID. string-case-extensions.
 
DATA DIVISION.
WORKING-STORAGE SECTION.
78 example VALUE "alphaBETA".
 
01 result PIC X(9).
 
PROCEDURE DIVISION.
DISPLAY "Example: " example
 
*> ACUCOBOL-GT
MOVE example TO result
CALL "C$TOLOWER" USING result, BY VALUE 9
DISPLAY "Lower-case: " result
 
MOVE example TO result
CALL "C$TOUPPER" USING result, BY VALUE 9
DISPLAY "Upper-case: " result
 
*> Visual COBOL
MOVE example TO result
CALL "CBL_TOLOWER" USING result, BY VALUE 9
DISPLAY "Lower-case: " result
 
MOVE example TO result
CALL "CBL_TOUPPER" USING result BY VALUE 9
DISPLAY "Upper-case: " result
 
GOBACK
.

[edit] ColdFusion

converting a string literal

<cfset upper = UCase("alphaBETA")>
<cfset lower = LCase("alphaBETA")>

converting the value of a variable

<cfset string = "alphaBETA">
<cfset upper = UCase(string)>
<cfset lower = LCase(string)>

[edit] Common Lisp

You can use the string-upcase function to perform upper casing:

CL-USER> (string-upcase "alphaBETA")
"ALPHABETA"

and you can do lower casing by using string-downcase:

CL-USER> (string-downcase "alphaBETA")
"alphabeta"

[edit] Component Pascal

BlackBox Component Builder

 
MODULE AlphaBeta;
IMPORT StdLog,Strings;
 
PROCEDURE Do*;
VAR
str,res: ARRAY 128 OF CHAR;
BEGIN
str := "alphaBETA";
Strings.ToUpper(str,res);
StdLog.String("Uppercase:> ");StdLog.String(res);StdLog.Ln;
Strings.ToLower(str,res);
StdLog.String("Lowercase:> ");StdLog.String(res);StdLog.Ln
END Do;
 
END AlphaBeta.
 

Execute: ^Q AlphaBeta.Do
Output:

Uppercase:> ALPHABETA
Lowercase:> alphabeta

[edit] D

void main() {
import std.stdio, std.string;
 
immutable s = "alphaBETA";
s.toUpper.writeln;
s.toLower.writeln;
}
Output:
ALPHABETA
alphabeta

[edit] Delphi

writeln(uppercase('alphaBETA'));
writeln(lowercase('alphaBETA'));

[edit] DWScript

PrintLn(UpperCase('alphaBETA'));
PrintLn(LowerCase('alphaBETA'));

[edit] E

["alphaBETA".toUpperCase(),
"alphaBETA".toLowerCase()]

[edit] ECL

IMPORT STD; //Imports the Standard Library
 
STRING MyBaseString := 'alphaBETA';
 
UpperCased := STD.str.toUpperCase(MyBaseString);
LowerCased := STD.str.ToLowerCase(MyBaseString);
TitleCased := STD.str.ToTitleCase(MyBaseString);
 
OUTPUT (UpperCased);
OUTPUT (LowerCased);
OUTPUT (TitleCased);

[edit] Elixir

The String module provides the following functions:

 
String.downcase("alphaBETA")
# => alphabeta
String.upcase("alphaBETA")
# => ALPHABETA
String.capitalize("alphaBETA")
# => Alphabeta
 

As with most String functions in Elixir, these are fully compatible with Unicode.

 
String.downcase("αΒ")
# => αβ
String.upcase("αΒ")
# => ΑΒ
String.capitalize("αΒ")
# => Αβ
 

[edit] Erlang

string:to_upper("alphaBETA").
string:to_lower("alphaBETA").

[edit] Excel

Take 3 cells, say A1,B1 and C1. In B1 type :

 
=LOWER(A1)
 

and in C1 :

 
=UPPER(A1)
 

For the stated input in A1, the result will be :

 
alphaBETA alphabeta ALPHABETA
 

[edit] F#

 
let s = "alphaBETA"
let upper = s.ToUpper()
let lower = s.ToLower()
 

[edit] Factor

"alphaBETA" >lower  ! "alphabeta"
"alphaBETA" >upper  ! "ALPHABETA"
"alphaBETA" >title  ! "Alphabeta"
"ß" >case-fold  ! "ss"


[edit] Falcon

printl("alphaBETA".lower())
printl("alphaBETA".upper())

[edit] Fantom

 
fansh> a := "alphaBETA"
alphaBETA
fansh> a.upper // convert whole string to upper case
ALPHABETA
fansh> a.lower // convert whole string to lower case
alphabeta
fansh> a.capitalize // make sure first letter is capital
AlphaBETA
fansh> "BETAalpha".decapitalize // make sure first letter is not capital
bETAalpha
 

[edit] Forth

ANS Forth does not have words to convert case for either strings or characters. For known alpha-numeric ASCII characters, the following can be used:

: tolower ( C -- c ) 32 or ;
: toupper ( c -- C ) 32 invert and ;
: lower ( addr len -- ) over + swap  do i c@ tolower i c!  loop ;
: upper ( addr len -- ) over + swap  do i c@ toupper i c!  loop ;

If the character range is unknown, these definitions are better:

: tolower ( C -- c ) dup [char] A [char] Z 1+ within if 32 + then ;
: toupper ( c -- C ) dup [char] a [char] z 1+ within if 32 - then ;
Works with: Win32Forth version 4.2
create s ," alphaBETA"
s count type
s count 2dup upper type
s count 2dup lower type

Output:

alphaBETA
ALPHABETA
alphabeta

[edit] Fortran

Works with: Fortran version 90 and later
 program example
 
implicit none
 
character(9) :: teststring = "alphaBETA"
 
call To_upper(teststring)
write(*,*) teststring
call To_lower(teststring)
write(*,*) teststring
 
contains
 
subroutine To_upper(str)
character(*), intent(in out) :: str
integer :: i
 
do i = 1, len(str)
select case(str(i:i))
case("a":"z")
str(i:i) = achar(iachar(str(i:i))-32)
end select
end do
end subroutine To_upper
 
subroutine To_lower(str)
character(*), intent(in out) :: str
integer :: i
 
do i = 1, len(str)
select case(str(i:i))
case("A":"Z")
str(i:i) = achar(iachar(str(i:i))+32)
end select
end do
end subroutine To_Lower
 
end program example

[edit] Frink

 
a = "alphaBETA"
println[lc[a]]
println[uc[a]]
 

These functions use Unicode single- and multiple-character mapping tables and thus try to do the right thing with Unicode, possibly making the string longer in some cases:

uc["Imbiß"] // Last char is \u00df

Produces:

IMBISS

As the Unicode standard for casing states, "it is important to note that no casing operations on strings are reversible:"

lc[ uc["Imbiß"] ]
imbiss

[edit] GAP

LowercaseString("alphaBETA");
UppercaseString("alphaBETA");

[edit] GML

#define cases
{
x = 'alphaBETA';
y = string_upper(x); // returns ALPHABETA
z = string_lower(x); // returns alphabeta
show_message(y);
show_message(z);
}

[edit] Go

"Title case" in Go's Unicode package does not mean capitalize the first letter of each word, but rather capitalize each letter as if it were the first letter of a word. The distinction matters in languages such as Croatian with digraphs with a capitialized form that is different from the all-caps form. ToTitle() converts a string to all title case.

It is Title() on the other hand, that capitalizes the first letter of each word. It identifies word boundaries and capitalizes first letters, leaving other letters unmodified. As of Go 1.2 though, the word breaking algorithm is not Unicode compliant.

package main
 
import (
"fmt"
"strings"
"unicode"
"unicode/utf8"
)
 
func main() {
show("alphaBETA")
show("alpha BETA")
// Three digraphs that should render similar to DZ, Lj, and nj.
show("DŽLjnj")
// Unicode apostrophe in third word.
show("o'hare O'HARE o’hare don't")
}
 
func show(s string) {
fmt.Println("\nstring: ",
s, " len:", utf8.RuneCountInString(s), "runes") // DZLjnj
fmt.Println("All upper case: ", strings.ToUpper(s)) // DZLJNJ
fmt.Println("All lower case: ", strings.ToLower(s)) // dzljnj
fmt.Println("All title case: ", strings.ToTitle(s)) // DzLjNj
fmt.Println("Title words: ", strings.Title(s)) // Dzljnj
fmt.Println("Swapping case: ", // DzLjNJ
strings.Map(unicode.SimpleFold, s))
}

Output:

string:          alphaBETA  len: 9 runes
All upper case:  ALPHABETA
All lower case:  alphabeta
All title case:  ALPHABETA
Title words:     AlphaBETA
Swapping case:   ALPHAbeta

string:          alpha BETA  len: 10 runes
All upper case:  ALPHA BETA
All lower case:  alpha beta
All title case:  ALPHA BETA
Title words:     Alpha BETA
Swapping case:   ALPHA beta

string:          DŽLjnj  len: 3 runes
All upper case:  DŽLJNJ
All lower case:  džljnj
All title case:  DžLjNj
Title words:     DžLjnj
Swapping case:   DžljNJ

string:          o'hare O'HARE o’hare don't  len: 26 runes
All upper case:  O'HARE O'HARE O’HARE DON'T
All lower case:  o'hare o'hare o’hare don't
All title case:  O'HARE O'HARE O’HARE DON'T
Title words:     O'Hare O'HARE O’hare Don'T
Swapping case:   O'HARE o'hare O’HARE DON'T

[edit] Groovy

def str = 'alphaBETA'
 
println str.toUpperCase()
println str.toLowerCase()

Output:

ALPHABETA
alphabeta

[edit] Haskell

import Data.Char
 
s = "alphaBETA"
 
lower = map toLower s
upper = map toUpper s

[edit] HicEst

CHARACTER str = "alphaBETA"
EDIT(Text=str, UpperCase=LEN(str))
EDIT(Text=str, LowerCase=LEN(str))
EDIT(Text=str, UpperCase=1)

[edit] Icon and Unicon

procedure main()
write(map("alphaBETA"))
write(map("alphaBETA",&lcase,&ucase))
end

[edit] IDL

str = "alphaBETA"
print, str
print, strupcase(str) 
print, strlowcase(str)

[edit] J

Use standard utilities:

   toupper 'alphaBETA'
ALPHABETA
tolower 'alphaBETA'
alphabeta

or alternative definitions:

upper=: {&((65+i.26) +&32@[} i.256)&.(a.&i.)
lower=: {&((97+i.26) -&32@[} i.256)&.(a.&i.)

For example:

   upper 'alphaBETA'
ALPHABETA
lower 'alphaBETA'
alphabeta

[edit] Java

String str = "alphaBETA";
System.out.println(str.toUpperCase());
System.out.println(str.toLowerCase());
//Also works with non-English characters with no modification
System.out.println("äàâáçñßæεбế".toUpperCase());
System.out.println("ÄÀÂÁÇÑSSÆΕБẾ".toLowerCase()); //does not transalate "SS" to "ß"

You could also easily create a swapCase method using Character.isLowerCase(), Character.isUpperCase(), and Character.isLetter().

[edit] JavaScript

alert( "alphaBETA".toUpperCase() );
alert( "alphaBETA".toLowerCase() );

Output:

ALPHABETA
alphabeta
Works with: NJS version 0.2.5
var string = "alphaBETA";
var uppercase = string.toUpperCase();
var lowercase = string.toLowerCase();

[edit] Julia

julia> uppercase("alphaBETA")
"ALPHABETA"
 
julia> lowercase("alphaBETA")
"alphabeta"


[edit] Lasso

// Direct string return
'alphaBETA'->uppercase&
'alphaBETA'->lowercase&
 
// Assignment and manipulation of variables
local(toupper = 'alphaBETA')
#toupper->uppercase
#toupper
 
local(tolower = 'alphaBETA')
#tolower->lowercase
#tolower

[edit]

print uppercase "alphaBETA  ; ALPHABETA
print lowercase "alphaBETA  ; alphabeta

[edit] Lua

str = "alphaBETA"
print( string.upper(str) )
print( string.lower(str) )

[edit] M4

define(`upcase', `translit(`$*', `a-z', `A-Z')')
define(`downcase', `translit(`$*', `A-Z', `a-z')')
 
define(`x',`alphaBETA')
upcase(x)
downcase(x)

[edit] Maple

str := "alphaBETA";
StringTools:-UpperCase(str);
StringTools:-LowerCase(str);

produces

     alphabeta
     ALPHABETA

[edit] Mathematica

str="alphaBETA";
ToUpperCase[str]
ToLowerCase[str]

gives:

 ALPHABETA
 alphabeta

[edit] MATLAB

>> upper('alphaBETA')
 
ans =
 
ALPHABETA
 
>> lower('alphaBETA')
 
ans =
 
alphabeta

[edit] Maxima

supcase('alphaBETA');
sdowncase('alphaBETA');

[edit] MAXScript

Requires MAX 2008

str = "alphaBETA"
print (toUpper str)
print (toLower str)

[edit] Mercury

The functions to_upper/1, to_lower/1, capitalize_first/1 and uncapitalize_first/1 only affect unaccented Latin characters.

:- module string_case.
:- interface.
 
:- import_module io.
:- pred main(io::di, io::uo) is det.
 
:- implementation.
:- import_module list, string.
 
main(!IO) :-
S = "alphaBETA",
io.format("uppercase  : %s\n", [s(to_upper(S))], !IO),
io.format("lowercase  : %s\n", [s(to_lower(S))], !IO),
io.format("capitalize first: %s\n", [s(capitalize_first(S))], !IO).
 % We can use uncaptitalize_first/1 to ensure the first character in a
 % string is lower-case.

[edit] Metafont

We need to implement it, since it is not already given; the following code works only for ASCII or ASCII based encodings. (It could work anyway also for single byte encodings where letters are contiguous).

vardef isbetween(expr a, i, f) =
if string a:
if (ASCII(a) >= ASCII(i)) and (ASCII(a) <= ASCII(f)):
true
else:
false
fi
else:
false
fi enddef;
 
vardef toupper(expr s) =
save ?; string ?; ? := ""; d := ASCII"A" - ASCII"a";
for i = 0 upto length(s)-1:
if isbetween(substring(i, i+1) of s, "a", "z"):
 ? := ? & char(ASCII(substring(i,i+1) of s) + d)
else:
 ? := ? & substring(i, i+1) of s
fi;
endfor
 ?
enddef;
 
vardef tolower(expr s) =
save ?; string ?; ? := ""; d := ASCII"a" - ASCII"A";
for i = 0 upto length(s)-1:
if isbetween(substring(i, i+1) of s, "A", "Z"):
 ? := ? & char(ASCII(substring(i,i+1) of s) + d)
else:
 ? := ? & substring(i, i+1) of s
fi;
endfor
 ?
enddef;
message toupper("alphaBETA");
message tolower("alphaBETA");
 
end

[edit] mIRC Scripting Language

echo -ag $upper(alphaBETA)
echo -ag $lower(alphaBETA)

[edit] Modula-3

MODULE TextCase EXPORTS Main;
 
IMPORT IO, Text, ASCII;
 
PROCEDURE Upper(txt: TEXT): TEXT =
VAR
len := Text.Length(txt);
res := "";
BEGIN
FOR i := 0 TO len - 1 DO
res := Text.Cat(res, Text.FromChar(ASCII.Upper[Text.GetChar(txt, i)]));
END;
RETURN res;
END Upper;
 
PROCEDURE Lower(txt: TEXT): TEXT =
VAR
len := Text.Length(txt);
res := "";
BEGIN
FOR i := 0 TO len - 1 DO
res := Text.Cat(res, Text.FromChar(ASCII.Lower[Text.GetChar(txt, i)]));
END;
RETURN res;
END Lower;
 
BEGIN
IO.Put(Upper("alphaBETA\n"));
IO.Put(Lower("alphaBETA\n"));
END TextCase.

Output:

ALPHABETA
alphabeta

[edit] MUMPS

 
STRCASE(S)
SET UP="ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ"
SET LO="abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz"
WRITE !,"Given: "_S
WRITE !,"Upper: "_$TRANSLATE(S,LO,UP)
WRITE !,"Lower: "_$TRANSLATE(S,UP,LO)
QUIT
 
Output:
USER>DO STRCASE^ROSETTA("alphaBETA")
 
Given: alphaBETA
Upper: ALPHABETA
Lower: alphabeta

[edit] Nemerle

using System.Console;
using System.Globalization;
 
module StringCase
{
Main() : void
{
def alpha = "alphaBETA";
WriteLine(alpha.ToUpper());
WriteLine(alpha.ToLower());
 
WriteLine(CultureInfo.CurrentCulture.TextInfo.ToTitleCase("exAmpLe sTrinG"));
 
}
}

[edit] NetRexx

/* NetRexx */
 
options replace format comments java crossref savelog symbols
 
abc = 'alphaBETA'
 
say abc.upper
say abc.lower
say abc.upper(1, 1) -- capitalize 1st character
 

[edit] NewLISP

 
(upper-case "alphaBETA")
(lower-case "alphaBETA")
 

[edit] Nial

toupper 'alphaBETA'
=ALPHABETA
tolower 'alphaBETA'
=alphabeta

[edit] Nimrod

import strutils
 
var s: string = "alphaBETA_123"
echo s," as upper case: ", toUpper(s)
echo s," as lower case: ", toLower(s)
echo s," as Capitalized: ", capitalize(s)
echo s," as normal case: ", normalize(s) # remove underscores, toLower
Output:
alphaBETA_123 as upper case: ALPHABETA_123
alphaBETA_123 as lower case: alphabeta_123
alphaBETA_123 as Capitalized: AlphaBETA_123
alphaBETA_123 as normal case: alphabeta123

[edit] Objeck

 
string := "alphaBETA";
string->ToUpper()->PrintLine();
string->ToLower()->PrintLine();
 

[edit] Objective-C

Works with: GNUstep
Works with: Cocoa
NSLog(@"%@", [@"alphaBETA" uppercaseString]);
NSLog(@"%@", [@"alphaBETA" lowercaseString]);
 
NSLog(@"%@", [@"foO BAr" capitalizedString]); // "Foo Bar"

[edit] OCaml

let () =
let str = "alphaBETA" in
print_endline (String.uppercase str); (* ALPHABETA *)
print_endline (String.lowercase str); (* alphabeta *)
 
print_endline (String.capitalize str); (* AlphaBETA *)
;;

[edit] Octave

s = "alphaBETA";
slc = tolower(s);
suc = toupper(s);
disp(slc);
disp(suc);

[edit] OpenEdge/Progress

CAPS("alphaBETA") 
LC("alphaBETA")
 

[edit] Oz

Convert to upper/lower-case:

declare
Str = "alphaBETA"
in
{System.showInfo {Map Str Char.toUpper}}
{System.showInfo {Map Str Char.toLower}}

Capitalize:

declare
[StringX] = {Link ['x-oz://system/String.ozf']}
in
{System.showInfo {StringX.capitalize "alphaBETA"}} %% prints "AlphaBETA"

[edit] Pascal

 
// Uppercase and Lowercase functions for a minimal standard Pascal
// where no library routines for these operations exist
PROGRAM upperlower;
 
// convert a character to uppercase
FUNCTION uch(ch: CHAR): CHAR;
BEGIN
uch := ch;
IF ch IN ['a'..'z'] THEN
uch := chr(ord(ch) AND $5F);
END;
 
// convert a character to lowercase
FUNCTION lch(ch: CHAR): CHAR;
BEGIN
lch := ch;
IF ch IN ['A'..'Z'] THEN
lch := chr(ord(ch) OR $20);
END;
 
// toggle uper/lower case character
FUNCTION ulch(ch: CHAR): CHAR;
BEGIN
ulch := ch;
IF ch IN ['a'..'z'] THEN ulch := uch(ch);
IF ch IN ['A'..'Z'] THEN ulch := lch(ch);
END;
 
// convert a string to uppercase
FUNCTION ucase(str: STRING): STRING;
var i: Integer;
BEGIN
ucase := '';
FOR i := 1 TO Length(str) DO
ucase := ucase + uch(str[i]);
END;
 
// convert a string to lowercase
FUNCTION lcase(str: STRING): STRING;
var i: Integer;
BEGIN
lcase := '';
FOR i := 1 TO Length(str) DO
lcase := lcase + lch(str[i]);
END;
 
// reverse cases in a given string
FUNCTION ulcase(str: STRING): STRING;
var i: Integer;
BEGIN
ulcase := '';
FOR i := 1 TO Length(str) DO
ulcase := ulcase + ulch(str[i]);
END;
 
VAR
ab : STRING = 'alphaBETA';
 
BEGIN
// demonstration
Writeln('Original string : ',ab);
Writeln('Reversed case  : ',ulcase(ab));
Writeln('Upper case  : ',ucase(ab));
Writeln('Lower case  : ',lcase(ab));
END.
 

Demonstration:

Original string : alphaBETA
Reversed case   : ALPHAbeta
Upper case      : ALPHABETA
Lower case      : alphabeta

[edit] Perl

Works with: Perl version 5.x
my $string = "alphaBETA";
print uc($string), "\n"; # => "ALPHABETA"
print lc($string), "\n"; # => "alphabeta"
$string =~ tr/[a-z][A-Z]/[A-Z][a-z]/; print "$string\n"; # => ALPHAbeta
 
print ucfirst($string), "\n"; # => "AlphaBETA"
print lcfirst("FOObar"), "\n"; # => "fOObar"

Also works in Perl 4 if the my is removed.

[edit] Perl 6

In Perl 6, case modification is implemented as builtin subroutine or method:

my $word = "alpha BETA" ;
say uc $word; # all uppercase (subroutine call)
say $word.uc; # all uppercase (method call)
# from now on we use only method calls as examples
say $word.lc; # all lowercase
say $word.tc; # first letter titlecase
say $word.tclc; # first letter titlecase, rest lowercase
say $word.tcuc; # first letter titlecase, rest uppercase
say $word.wordcase; # capitalize each word
 

Output:

ALPHA BETA
alpha beta
Alpha BETA
Alpha beta
ALPHA BETA
Alpha Beta

[edit] PHP

$str = "alphaBETA";
echo strtoupper($str), "\n"; // ALPHABETA
echo strtolower($str), "\n"; // alphabeta
 
echo ucfirst($str), "\n"; // AlphaBETA
echo lcfirst("FOObar"), "\n"; // fOObar
echo ucwords("foO baR baZ"), "\n"; // FoO BaR BaZ
echo lcwords("FOo BAr BAz"), "\n"; // fOo bAr bAz

[edit] PicoLisp

(let Str "alphaBETA"
(prinl (uppc Str))
(prinl (lowc Str)) )

[edit] PL/I

 
declare s character (20) varying initial ('alphaBETA');
 
put skip list (uppercase(s));
put skip list (lowercase(s));
 
 
/* An alternative to the above, which might be used if some */
/* non-standard conversion is required, is shown for */
/* converting to upper case: */
put skip list ( translate(s, 'abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz',
'ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ') );
 

[edit] PL/SQL

DECLARE
vc VARCHAR2(40) := 'alphaBETA';
ivc VARCHAR2(40);
lvc VARCHAR2(40);
uvc VARCHAR2(40);
BEGIN
ivc := INITCAP(vc); -- 'Alphabeta'
lvc := LOWER(vc); -- 'alphabeta'
uvc := UPPER(vc); -- 'ALPHABETA'
END;

[edit] Pop11

lvars str = 'alphaBETA';
lowertoupper(str) =>
uppertolower(str) =>

[edit] Powerbuilder

string ls_string
ls_string = 'alphaBETA'
ls_string = Upper(ls_string)
ls_string = Lower(ls_string)

[edit] PowerShell

$string = 'alphaBETA'
$lower = $string.ToLower()
$upper = $string.ToUpper()

[edit] Protium

Iterating through the peerset

<@ ENU$$$LSTPSTLITLIT>UPP|
[<@ SAYELTLST>...</@>] <@ SAYHLPELTLST>...</@><@ DEFKEYELTLST>__SuperMacro|...</@>
<@ SAY&&&LIT>alphaBETA</@>
 
</@>

Same code in padded-out, variable-length English dialect

<# ENUMERATION LAMBDA LIST PEERSET LITERAL LITERAL>UPP|
[<# SAY ELEMENT LIST>...</#>] <# SAY HELP ELEMENT LIST>...</#><# DEFINE KEYWORD ELEMENT LIST>__SuperMacro|...</#>
<# SAY SUPERMACRO LITERAL>alphaBETA</#>
 
</#>

Output.

[FLC] 410400001 Flip case (410400001)  [Transformers^Abstract type transforms^Text transformers^Platform relative encoding and encrypting]
ALPHAbeta

[LOW] 410400002 Lower case (410400002)  [Transformers^Abstract type transforms^Text transformers^Platform relative encoding and encrypting]
alphabeta

[PRP] 410400003 Proper Case (410400003)  [Transformers^Abstract type transforms^Text transformers^Platform relative encoding and encrypting]
Alphabeta

[SNT] 410400004 Sentence case (410400004)  [Transformers^Abstract type transforms^Text transformers^Platform relative encoding and encrypting]
Alphabeta

[UPP] 410400005 Upper case (410400005)  [Transformers^Abstract type transforms^Text transformers^Platform relative encoding and encrypting]
ALPHABETA

[edit] Python

s = "alphaBETA"
print s.upper() # => "ALPHABETA"
print s.lower() # => "alphabeta"
 
print s.swapcase() # => "ALPHAbeta"
 
print "fOo bAR".capitalize() # => "Foo bar"
print "fOo bAR".title() # => "Foo Bar"
 
import string
print string.capwords("fOo bAR") # => "Foo Bar"

string.capwords() allows the user to define word separators, and by default behaves slightly differently than title().

print "foo's bar".title()          # => "Foo'S Bar"
print string.capwords("foo's bar") # => "Foo's Bar"

[edit] R

 str <- "alphaBETA"
toupper(str)
tolower(str)

[edit] Racket

#lang racket
(define example "alphaBETA")
 
(string-upcase example)
;"ALPHABETA"
(string-downcase example)
;"alphabeta"
(string-titlecase example)
;"Alphabeta"

[edit] Raven

'alphaBETA' upper
'alhpaBETA' lower

[edit] REBOL

print ["Original: " original: "alphaBETA"]
print ["Uppercase:" uppercase original]
print ["Lowercase:" lowercase original]

Output:

Original:  alphaBETA
Uppercase: ALPHABETA
Lowercase: alphabeta

[edit] Retro

with strings'
"alphaBETA" toUpper puts
"alphaBETA" toLower puts

[edit] REXX

[edit] version with TRANSLATE BIF

The following code will execute correctly in   ASCII   and   EBCDIC.

abc = "abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz"    /*define all the lowercase letters*/
abcU = translate(abc) /* " " " uppercase " */
 
x = 'alphaBETA' /*define string to a REXX variable*/
y = translate(x) /*uppercase X and store it───► Y*/
z = translate(x, abc, abcU) /*tran uppercase──►lowercase chars*/

[edit] version with PARSE UPPER & PARSE LOWER statements

The following code will execute correctly in   ASCII   and   EBCDIC.

x = "alphaBETA"                       /*define string to a REXX variable*/
parse upper var x y /*uppercase X and store it───► Y*/
parse lower var x z /*lowercase X " " " ───► Z*/
 
/*Some REXXes don't support the LOWER option for the PARSE command.*/

[edit] version with UPPER & LOWER BIFs

The following code will execute correctly in   ASCII   and   EBCDIC.

x = 'alphaBETA'                       /*define string to a REXX variable*/
y = upper(x) /*uppercase X and store it───► Y*/
z = lower(x) /*lowercase X " " " ───► Z*/
 
/*Some REXXes don't support the UPPER and */
/* LOWER BIFs (built-in functions). */

[edit] version with UPPER statement

The following code will execute correctly in   ASCII   and   EBCDIC.

x = "alphaBETA"                       /*define string to a REXX variable*/
y=x; upper y /*uppercase X and store it───► Y*/
parse lower var x z /*lowercase Y " " " ───► Z*/
 
/*Some REXXes don't support the LOWER option for the PARSE command.*/

[edit] version with capitalized words

The following code will execute correctly in   ASCII   and   EBCDIC.

/*REXX pgm  capitalizes  each word in string, maintains imbedded blanks.*/
x= "alef bet gimel dalet he vav zayin het tet yod kaf lamed mem nun samekh",
"ayin pe tzadi qof resh shin tav." /*"old" spelling Hebrew letters. */
y= capitalize(x) /*capitalize each word in string.*/
say x /*show original string of words. */
say y /*show the capitalized words. */
exit /*stick a fork in it, we're done.*/
/*───────────────────────────────────CAPITALIZE subroutine──────────────*/
capitalize: procedure; parse arg z; $=' 'z /*prefix with a blank.*/
abc = "abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz" /*define all lowercase letters. */
 
do j=1 for 26 /*process each letter in alphabet*/
_=' 'substr(abc,j,1); _U=_; upper _U /*get a lower and upper letter. */
$ = changestr(_, $, _U) /*maybe capitalize some word(s). */
end /*j*/
 
return substr($,2) /*capitalized words, -1st blank.*/

Some older REXXes don't have a   changestr   BIF, so one is included here ──►   CHANGESTR.REX.

output

alef bet gimel dalet he vav zayin het tet yod kaf lamed mem nun samekh ayin pe tzadi qof resh shin  tav.
Alef Bet Gimel Dalet He Vav Zayin Het Tet Yod Kaf Lamed Mem Nun Samekh Ayin Pe Tzadi Qof Resh Shin  Tav.

Note:   there are many variant spellings of the Hebrew alphabet.

[edit] version with case swap

The following code will execute correctly in   ASCII   and   EBCDIC.

/*REXX pgm swaps letter case of a string: lower──►upper & upper──►lower.*/
abc = "abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz" /*define all the lowercase letters*/
abcU = translate(abc) /* " " " uppercase " */
 
x = 'alphaBETA' /*define string to a REXX variable*/
y = translate(x,abc||abcU,abcU||abc) /*swap case of X store it ───► Y*/
say x
say y
/*stick a fork in it, we're done.*/

output

alphaBETA
ALPHAbeta

[edit] version 2

 
x='alphaBETA'; Say ' x='||x
Say 'three ways to uppercase'
u1=translate(x); Say ' u1='u1
u2=upper(x); Say ' u2='u2
parse upper var x u3; Say ' u3='u3
 
abc ='abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz'
abcu=translate(abc); Say 'three ways to lowercase'
l1=translate(x,abc,abcu); Say ' l1='l1
l2=lower(x); Say ' l2='l2
parse lower var x l3; Say ' l3='l3
 
Note: Parse options upper and lower not available in every Rexx
Builtin functions upper and lower not available in every Rexx
Upper instruction not available in ooRexx

For German input (considering umlaute) these will uppercase them:

 
uppercase: /*courtesy Gerard Schildberger */
return translate(changestr("ß",translate(arg(1),'ÄÖÜ',"äöü"),'SS'))
 
uppercase2: Procedure
Parse Arg a
a=translate(arg(1),'ÄÖÜ',"äöü") /* translate lowercase umlaute */
a=changestr("ß",a,'SS') /* replace ß with SS */
return translate(a) /* translate lowercase letters */
 

Translation to lowercase is not similarly possible because of 'SS'->'ß' or -> 'ss' ??

[edit] Ruby

Works with: Ruby version 1.8
"alphaBETA".downcase # => "alphabeta"
"alphaBETA".upcase # => "ALPHABETA"
 
"alphaBETA".swapcase # => "ALPHAbeta"
"alphaBETA".capitalize # => "Alphabeta"

These methods only affect ASCII letters A-Z and a-z. They ignore any non-ASCII characters.

[edit] Rust

// Rust 0.9
use std::ascii::StrAsciiExt;
 
"alphaBeta".to_ascii_upper();
"alphaBeta".to_ascii_lower();

[edit] Scala

val s="alphaBETA"
println(s.toUpperCase) //-> ALPHABETA
println(s.toLowerCase) //-> alphabeta
println(s.capitalize) //-> AlphaBETA
println(s.reverse) //-> ATEBahpla

[edit] Scheme

(define s "alphaBETA")
(list->string (map char-upcase (string->list s)))
(list->string (map char-downcase (string->list s)))

Using SRFI-13:

 
> (define s "alphaBETA gammaDELTA")
> (string-upcase s) ;; turn all into upper case
"ALPHABETA GAMMADELTA"
> (string-downcase s) ;; turn all into lower case
"alphabeta gammadelta"
> (string-titlecase s) ;; capitalise start of each word
"Alphabeta Gammadelta"
 

[edit] Sed

Piping through sed in bash:

echo "alphaBETA" | sed 'y/abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz/ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ/'
echo "alphaBETA" | sed 'y/ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ/abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz/'

Other functions:

# Invert case
echo "alphaBETA" | sed 'y/ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz/abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyzABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ/'

GNU sed supports special sequences to change case:

 
# to uppercase
$ echo alphaBETA | sed 's/.*/\U&/'
ALPHABETA
# to lowercase
$ echo alphaBETA | sed 's/.*/\L&/'
alphabeta
 

[edit] Seed7

writeln(upper("alphaBETA"));
writeln(lower("alphaBETA"));

[edit] Slate

'alphaBETA' toLowercase.
'alphaBETA' toUppercase.

[edit] Smalltalk

'ALPHAbeta' asUppercase  "->'ALPHABETA' "
'ALPHAbeta' asLowercase "-> 'alphabeta' "
Works with: Smalltalk/X
'alphabeta' asUppercaseFirst "-> 'Alphabeta' "

Unicode (notice, that this cannot be done simply with a straight forward "ch := ch -$a + $A" loop):

Works with: Smalltalk/X
(may with others too, but I have not verified)
'ĥåçýджк' asUppercase "->  'ĤÅÇÝДЖК'

[edit] SNOBOL4

There are no standard Snobol libraries or case conversion built-ins. But case functions are easy to roll using the character class keywords. Native charset only.

        define('uc(str)') :(uc_end)
uc uc = replace(str,&lcase,&ucase) :(return)
uc_end
 
define('lc(str)') :(lc_end)
lc lc = replace(str,&ucase,&lcase) :(return)
lc_end
 
define('ucfirst(str)ch') :(ucfirst_end)
ucfirst str len(1) . ch = uc(ch)
ucfirst = str :(return)
ucfirst_end
 
define('swapc(str)') :(swapc_end)
swapc str = replace(str,&ucase &lcase, &lcase &ucase)
swapc = str :(return)
swapc_end
 
* # Test and display
str = 'alphaBETA'
output = str
output = lc(str)
output = uc(str)
output = ucfirst(str)
output = swapc(str)
end

Output:

alphaBETA
alphabeta
ALPHABETA
AlphaBETA
ALPHAbeta

[edit] SQL

Works with: MS SQL version 2005
DECLARE @s VARCHAR(10)
SET @s = 'alphaBETA'
print UPPER(@s)
print LOWER(@s)

[edit] Standard ML

val strupr = String.map Char.toUpper;
val strlwr = String.map Char.toLower;

Test

- strupr "alphaBETA";
val it = "ALPHABETA" : string
- strlwr "alphaBETA";
val it = "alphabeta" : string

[edit] Swift

import Foundation
 
println("alphaBETA".uppercaseString)
println("alphaBETA".lowercaseString)
println("foO BAr".capitalizedString)
Output:
ALPHABETA
alphabeta
Foo Bar

[edit] Tcl

set string alphaBETA
 
# three built-in case conversion commands
string toupper $string ;# ==> ALPHABETA
string tolower $string ;# ==> alphabeta
string totitle $string ;# ==> Alphabeta
 
# not built-in
proc swapcase {s} {
foreach char [split $s ""] {
if {$char eq [set CHAR [string toupper $char]]} {
append new [string tolower $char]
} else {
append new $CHAR
}
}
return $new
}
swapcase $string ;# ==> ALPHAbeta
 
# better performance, but English alphabet only
proc swapcase_en {s} {
string map {
a A b B c C d D e E f F g G h H i I j J k K l L m M n N o O p P q Q r R s S t T u U v V w W x X y Y z Z
A a B b C c D d E e F f G g H h I i J j K k L l M m N n O o P p Q q R r S s T t U u V v W w X x Y y Z z
} $s
}
 
swapcase Père ;# ==> pÈRE
swapcase_en Père ;# ==> pèRE

[edit] Toka

 needs ctype
 
 [ i 1 - ] is i
 [ string.getLength 0 [ dup i + c@ toupper over i + c! ] countedLoop ] is string.toUpper
 [ string.getLength 0 [ dup i + c@ tolower over i + c! ] countedLoop ] is string.toLower
 
 " alphaBETA" string.toUpper type cr
 " alphaBETA" string.toLower type cr

[edit] TorqueScript

 $string = "alphaBETA";
 $upperCase = strUpr($string);
 $lowerCase = strLwr($string);

[edit] TUSCRIPT

 
$$ MODE TUSCRIPT,{}
string="alphaBETA"
lowercase =EXCHANGE(string," {&a} {-0-} ")
uppercase1=EXCHANGE(string," {&a} {-0+} ")
uppercase2=CAPS (string)
PRINT lowercase
PRINT uppercase1
PRINT uppercase2
 

Output:

alphabeta
ALPHABETA
ALPHABETA

[edit] UNIX Shell

Works with: Bourne Shell

For System V tr:

echo alphaBETA | tr '[a-z]' '[A-Z]'     # => ALPHABETA
echo alphaBETA | tr '[A-Z]' '[a-z]' # => alphabeta

For BSD tr, GNU tr, or any POSIX system:

echo alphaBETA | tr a-z A-Z             # => ALPHABETA
echo alphaBETA | tr A-Z a-z # => alphabeta

System V has a different syntax, and requires square brackets around ranges. Portable scripts can use System V syntax; the other systems handle square brackets as literal characters, translating [ to [ and ] to ], which is harmless.

[edit] Bash

Works with: bash
s="alphaBETA"
echo ${s^^} # => ALPHABETA
echo ${s,,} # => alphabeta
echo ${s^} # => AlphaBETA

[edit] Z Shell

Works with: zsh
s="alphaBETA"
echo ${s:u} # => ALPHABETA
echo ${s:l} # => alphabeta

[edit] Ursala

Case conversion functions aren't built in but can be defined using the reification operator (-:) to construct a function from a list of pairs.

#import std
 
to_upper = * -:~& ~=`A-~p letters
to_lower = * -:~& ~=`A-~rlp letters
 
#show+
 
examples = <to_upper 'alphaBETA',to_lower 'alphaBETA'>

output:

ALPHABETA
alphabeta

[edit] Vala

 
string s = "alphaBeta";
// stores ALPHABETA to string
string s_upper = s.up();
// stores alphabeta to string
string s_lower = s.down();
 

[edit] VBA

Function StringCase()
Dim s As String
s = "alphaBETA"
Debug.Print UCase(s)
Debug.Print LCase(s)
Debug.Print WorksheetFunction.Proper(s)
End Function

Output:

ALPHABETA
alphabeta
Alphabeta

[edit] VBScript

Dim MyWord
MyWord = UCase("alphaBETA") ' Returns "ALPHABETA"
MyWord = LCase("alphaBETA") ' Returns "alphabeta"

[edit] Vedit macro language

#1 = CP
IT("alphaBETA")
Case_Upper_Block(#1, CP)
Case_Lower_Block(#1, CP)

[edit] XPL0

string 0;                       \use zero-terminated string convention
include c:\cxpl\stdlib; \ToUpper, ToLower, and 'code' declarations
 
proc StrToUpper(S); \Convert string to uppercase characters
char S;
while S(0) do [S(0):= ToUpper(S(0)); S:=S+1];
 
proc StrToLower(S); \Convert string to lowercase characters
char S;
while S(0) do [S(0):= ToLower(S(0)); S:=S+1];
 
char Str;
[Str:= "alphaBETA";
StrToUpper(Str);
Text(0, Str); CrLf(0);
StrToLower(Str);
Text(0, Str); CrLf(0);
]

Output:

ALPHABETA
alphabeta

[edit] zkl

s:="alphaBETA";
s.toLower(); //--> "alphabeta"
s.toUpper(); //--> "ALPHABETA"
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