# Suffixation of decimal numbers

Suffixation of decimal numbers
You are encouraged to solve this task according to the task description, using any language you may know.

Suffixation:   a letter or a group of letters added to the end of a word to change its meaning.

─────   or, as used herein   ─────

Suffixation:   the addition of a metric or "binary" metric suffix to a number, with/without rounding.

Write a function(s) to append (if possible)   a metric   or   a "binary" metric   suffix to a number   (displayed in decimal).

The number may be rounded   (as per user specification)   (via shortening of the number when the number of digits past the decimal point are to be used).

•   write a function (or functions) to add   (if possible)   a suffix to a number
•   the function(s) should be able to express the number (possibly with a suffix) in as many decimal digits as specified
•   the sign should be preserved   (if present)
•   the number may have commas within the number   (the commas need not be preserved)
•   the number may have a decimal point and/or an exponent as in:   -123.7e-01
•   the suffix that might be appended should be in uppercase;   however, the   i   should be in lowercase
•   support:
•   the            metric suffixes:   K  M  G  T  P  E  Z  Y  X  W  V  U
•   the binary metric suffixes:   Ki Mi Gi Ti Pi Ei Zi Yi Xi Wi Vi Ui
•   the (full name) suffix:   googol   (lowercase)   (equal to 1e100)     (optional)
•   a number of decimal digits past the decimal point   (with rounding).   The default is to display all significant digits
•   validation of the (supplied/specified) arguments is optional but recommended
•   display   (with identifying text):
•   the original number   (with identifying text)
•   the number of digits past the decimal point being used   (or none, if not specified)
•   the type of suffix being used   (metric or "binary" metric)
•   the (new) number with the appropriate   (if any)   suffix
•   all output here on this page

Metric suffixes to be supported   (whether or not they're officially sanctioned)
```     K     multiply the number by  10^3              kilo      (1,000)
M     multiply the number by  10^6              mega      (1,000,000)
G     multiply the number by  10^9              giga      (1,000,000,000)
T     multiply the number by  10^12             tera      (1,000,000,000,000)
P     multiply the number by  10^15             peta      (1,000,000,000,000,000)
E     multiply the number by  10^18             exa       (1,000,000,000,000,000,000)
Z     multiply the number by  10^21             zetta     (1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000)
Y     multiply the number by  10^24             yotta     (1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000)
X     multiply the number by  10^27             xenta     (1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000)
W     multiply the number by  10^30             wekta     (1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000)
V     multiply the number by  10^33             vendeka   (1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000)
U     multiply the number by  10^36             udekta    (1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000)
```

"Binary" suffixes to be supported   (whether or not they're officially sanctioned)
```     Ki    multiply the number by  2^10              kibi      (1,024)
Mi    multiply the number by  2^20              mebi      (1,048,576)
Gi    multiply the number by  2^30              gibi      (1,073,741,824)
Ti    multiply the number by  2^40              tebi      (1,099,571,627,776)
Pi    multiply the number by  2^50              pebi      (1,125,899,906,884,629)
Ei    multiply the number by  2^60              exbi      (1,152,921,504,606,846,976)
Zi    multiply the number by  2^70              zebi      (1,180,591,620,717,411,303,424)
Yi    multiply the number by  2^80              yobi      (1,208,925,819,614,629,174,706,176)
Xi    multiply the number by  2^90              xebi      (1,237,940,039,285,380,274,899,124,224)
Wi    multiply the number by  2^100             webi      (1,267,650,600,228,229,401,496,703,205,376)
Vi    multiply the number by  2^110             vebi      (1,298,074,214,633,706,907,132,624,082,305,024)
Ui    multiply the number by  2^120             uebi      (1,329,227,995,784,915,872,903,807,060,280,344,576)
```

For instance, with this pseudo─code
```                                 /* 1st arg: the number to be transformed.*/
/* 2nd arg: # digits past the dec. point.*/
/* 3rd arg: the type of suffix to use.   */
/*         2   indicates "binary" suffix.*/
/*        10   indicates  decimal suffix.*/
a = '456,789,100,000,000'   /* "A"  has  eight  trailing zeros.      */
say ' aa=' suffize(a)       /* Display a suffized number to terminal.*/
/* The  "1"   below shows one decimal ···*/
/*         digit past the decimal point. */
n = suffize(a, 1)           /* SUFFIZE  is the function name.        */
n = suffize(a, 1, 10)       /* (identical to the above statement.)   */
say '  n=' n                /* Display value of  N  to terminal.     */
/* Note the rounding that occurs.        */
f = suffize(a, 1,  2)       /* SUFFIZE  with one fractional digit    */
say '  f=' f                /* Display value of  F  to terminal.     */
/* Display value in "binary" metric.     */
bin = suffize(a, 5, 2)      /* SUFFIZE with binary metric suffix.    */
say 'bin=' bin              /* Display value of  BIN  to terminal.   */
win = suffize(a, 0, 2)      /* SUFFIZE with binary metric suffix.    */
say 'win=' win              /* Display value of  WIN  to terminal.   */
xvi = ' +16777216 '         /* this used to be a big computer ···    */
big = suffize(xvi, , 2)     /* SUFFIZE with binary metric suffix.    */
say 'big=' big              /* Display value of  BIG  to terminal.   */
```

would display:

```      aa= 456.7891T
n= 456.8T
f= 415.4Ti
bin= 415.44727Ti
win= 415Ti
big= 16Mi
```

Use these test cases
```               87,654,321
-998,877,665,544,332,211,000      3
+112,233                          0
16,777,216                       1
456,789,100,000,000              2
456,789,100,000,000              2      10
456,789,100,000,000              5       2
456,789,100,000.000e+00          0      10
+16777216                         ,       2
1.2e101
(your primary disk free space)   1                  ◄■■■■■■■ optional
```

Use whatever parameterizing your computer language supports,   and it's permitted to create as many separate functions as are needed   (if needed)   if   function arguments aren't allowed to be omitted or varied.

## Go

As go doesn't support either function overloading or optional arguments, we just pass a single string to the suffize function and then split out what we need.

`package main import (    "fmt"    "math/big"    "strconv"    "strings") var suffixes = " KMGTPEZYXWVU"var ggl = googol() func googol() *big.Float {    g1 := new(big.Float).SetPrec(500)    g1.SetInt64(10000000000)    g := new(big.Float)    g.Set(g1)    for i := 2; i <= 10; i++ {        g.Mul(g, g1)    }    return g} func suffize(arg string) {    fields := strings.Fields(arg)    a := fields[0]    if a == "" {        a = "0"    }    var places, base int    var frac, radix string    switch len(fields) {    case 1:        places = -1        base = 10    case 2:        places, _ = strconv.Atoi(fields[1])        base = 10        frac = strconv.Itoa(places)    case 3:        if fields[1] == "," {            places = 0            frac = ","        } else {            places, _ = strconv.Atoi(fields[1])            frac = strconv.Itoa(places)        }        base, _ = strconv.Atoi(fields[2])        if base != 2 && base != 10 {            base = 10        }        radix = strconv.Itoa(base)    }    a = strings.Replace(a, ",", "", -1) // get rid of any commas    sign := ""    if a[0] == '+' || a[0] == '-' {        sign = string(a[0])        a = a[1:] // remove any sign after storing it    }    b := new(big.Float).SetPrec(500)    d := new(big.Float).SetPrec(500)    b.SetString(a)    g := false    if b.Cmp(ggl) >= 0 {        g = true    }    if !g && base == 2 {        d.SetUint64(1024)    } else if !g && base == 10 {        d.SetUint64(1000)    } else {        d.Set(ggl)    }    c := 0    for b.Cmp(d) >= 0 && c < 12 { // allow b >= 1K if c would otherwise exceed 12        b.Quo(b, d)        c++    }    var suffix string    if !g {        suffix = string(suffixes[c])    } else {        suffix = "googol"    }    if base == 2 {        suffix += "i"    }    fmt.Println("   input number =", fields[0])    fmt.Println("  fraction digs =", frac)    fmt.Println("specified radix =", radix)    fmt.Print("     new number = ")    if places >= 0 {        fmt.Printf("%s%.*f%s\n", sign, places, b, suffix)    } else {        fmt.Printf("%s%s%s\n", sign, b.Text('g', 50), suffix)    }    fmt.Println()} func main() {    tests := []string{        "87,654,321",        "-998,877,665,544,332,211,000      3",        "+112,233                          0",        "16,777,216                        1",        "456,789,100,000,000",        "456,789,100,000,000               2      10",        "456,789,100,000,000               5       2",        "456,789,100,000.000e+00           0      10",        "+16777216                         ,       2",        "1.2e101",        "446,835,273,728                   1",        "1e36",        "1e39", // there isn't a big enough suffix for this one but it's less than googol    }    for _, test := range tests {        suffize(test)    }}`
Output:
```   input number = 87,654,321
fraction digs =
new number = 87.654321M

input number = -998,877,665,544,332,211,000
fraction digs = 3
new number = -998.878E

input number = +112,233
fraction digs = 0
new number = +112K

input number = 16,777,216
fraction digs = 1
new number = 16.8M

input number = 456,789,100,000,000
fraction digs =
new number = 456.7891T

input number = 456,789,100,000,000
fraction digs = 2
specified radix = 10
new number = 456.79T

input number = 456,789,100,000,000
fraction digs = 5
specified radix = 2
new number = 415.44727Ti

input number = 456,789,100,000.000e+00
fraction digs = 0
specified radix = 10
new number = 457G

input number = +16777216
fraction digs = ,
specified radix = 2
new number = +16Mi

input number = 1.2e101
fraction digs =
new number = 12googol

input number = 446,835,273,728
fraction digs = 1
new number = 446.8G

input number = 1e36
fraction digs =
new number = 1U

input number = 1e39
fraction digs =
new number = 1000U
```

## Julia

`using Printf const suf = Dict{BigInt, String}(BigInt(1) => "", BigInt(10)^100 => "googol",    BigInt(10)^3 => "K", BigInt(10)^6 => "M", BigInt(10)^9 => "G", BigInt(10)^12 => "T",    BigInt(10)^15 => "P", BigInt(10)^18 => "E", BigInt(10)^21 => "Z", BigInt(10)^24 => "Y",    BigInt(10)^27 => "X", BigInt(10)^30 => "W", BigInt(10)^33 => "V", BigInt(10)^36 => "U")const binsuf = Dict{BigInt, String}(BigInt(1) => "", BigInt(10)^100 => "googol",    BigInt(2)^10 => "Ki", BigInt(2)^20 => "Mi", BigInt(2)^30 => "Gi", BigInt(2)^40 => "Ti",    BigInt(2)^50 => "Pi", BigInt(2)^60 => "Ei", BigInt(2)^70 => "Zi", BigInt(2)^80 => "Yi",    BigInt(2)^90 => "Xi", BigInt(2)^100 => "Wi", BigInt(2)^110 => "Vi", BigInt(2)^120 => "Ui")const googol = BigInt(10)^100 function choosedivisor(n, base10=true)    if n > 10 * googol        return googol    end    s = base10 ? sort(collect(keys(suf))) : sort(collect(keys(binsuf)))    (i = findfirst(x -> x > 0.001 * n, s)) == nothing ? s[end] : s[i]end pretty(x) = (floor(x) == x) ? string(BigInt(x)) : replace(@sprintf("%f", x), r"0+\$" => "") function suffize(val::String, rounddigits=-1, suffixbase=10)    if val[1] == '-'        isneg = true        val = val[2:end]    else        isneg = false        if val[1] == '+'            val = val[2:end]        end    end    val = replace(val, r"," => "")    nval = (b = tryparse(BigInt, val)) == nothing ? parse(BigFloat, val) : b    b = choosedivisor(nval, suffixbase != 2)    mantissa = nval / b    if rounddigits >= 0        mantissa = round(mantissa, digits=rounddigits)    end    (isneg ? "-" : "") * pretty(mantissa) * (suffixbase == 10 ? suf[b] : binsuf[b])endsuffize(val::Number, rounddigits=-1, suffixbase=10) = suffize(string(val), rounddigits, suffixbase) testnumbers = [   ["87,654,321"],   ["-998,877,665,544,332,211,000", 3],   ["+112,233", 0],   ["16,777,216", 1],   ["456,789,100,000,000"],   ["456,789,100,000,000", 2, 10],   ["456,789,100,000,000", 5, 2],   ["456,789,100,000.000e+00", 0],   ["+16777216", 0, 2],   ["1.2e101"]] for l in testnumbers    n = length(l)    s = (n == 1) ? suffize(l[1]) : (n == 2) ? suffize(l[1], l[2]) : suffize(l[1], l[2], l[3])    println(lpad(l[1], 30), (n > 1) ? lpad(l[2], 3) : "   ",                            (n > 2) ? lpad(l[3], 3) : "   ", " : ", s)end `
Output:
```                    87,654,321       : 87.654321M
-998,877,665,544,332,211,000  3    : -998.878E
+112,233  0    : 112K
16,777,216  1    : 16.8M
456,789,100,000,000       : 456.7891T
456,789,100,000,000  2 10 : 456.79T
456,789,100,000,000  5  2 : 415.44727Ti
456,789,100,000.000e+00  0    : 457G
+16777216  0  2 : 16Mi
1.2e101       : 12googol
```

## Perl

Translation of: Perl 6
`use List::Util qw(min max first); sub sufficate {    my(\$val, \$type, \$round) = @_;    \$type //= 'M';   if (\$type =~ /^\d\$/) { \$round = \$type; \$type = 'M' }     my \$s = '';    if (substr(\$val,0,1) eq '-') { \$s = '-'; \$val = substr \$val, 1 }    \$val =~ s/,//g;    if (\$val =~ m/e/i) {        my (\$m,\$e) = split /[eE]/, \$val;        \$val = (\$e < 0) ? \$m * 10**-\$e : \$m * 10**\$e;    }     my %s;    if (\$type eq 'M') {        my @x = qw<K M G T P E Z Y X W V U>;        \$s{\$x[\$_]} = 1000 * 10 ** (\$_*3) for 0..\$#x    } elsif (\$type eq 'B') {        my @x = qw<Ki Mi Gi Ti Pi Ei Zi Yi Xi Wi Vi Ui>;        \$s{\$x[\$_]} = 2 ** (10*(\$_+1)) for 0..\$#x    } elsif (\$type eq 'G') {        \$s{'googol'} = 10**100    } else {        return 'What we have here is a failure to communicate...'    }     my \$k;    if (abs(\$val) < (my \$m = min values %s)) {        \$k = first { \$s{\$_} == \$m } keys %s;    } elsif (abs(\$val) > (my \$x = max values %s)) {        \$k = first { \$s{\$_} == \$x } keys %s;    } else {        for my \$key (sort { \$s{\$a} <=> \$s{\$b} } keys %s) {            next unless abs(\$val)/\$s{\$key} < min values %s;            \$k = \$key;            last;        }    }     my \$final = abs(\$val)/\$s{\$k};    \$final = round(\$final,\$round) if defined \$round;    \$s . \$final . \$k} sub round {    my(\$num,\$dig) = @_;    if    (\$dig == 0) { int 0.5 + \$num }    elsif (\$dig  < 0) { 10**-\$dig * int(0.5 + \$num/10**-\$dig) }    else              { my \$fmt = '%.' . \$dig . 'f'; sprintf \$fmt, \$num }} sub comma {    my(\$i) = @_;    my (\$whole, \$frac) = split /\./, \$i;    (my \$s = reverse \$whole) =~ s/(.{3})/\$1,/g;    (\$s = reverse \$s) =~ s/^,//;    \$frac = \$frac.defined ? ".\$frac" : '';    return "\$s\$frac";} my @tests = (   '87,654,321',   '-998,877,665,544,332,211,000 3',   '+112,233 0',   '16,777,216 1',   '456,789,100,000,000',   '456,789,100,000,000 M 2',   '456,789,100,000,000 B 5',   '456,789,100,000.000e+00 M 0',   '+16777216 B',   '1.2e101 G',   '347,344 M -2', # round to -2 past the decimal   '1122334455 Q', # bad unit type example); printf "%33s : %s\n", \$_, sufficate(split ' ', \$_) for @tests;`
Output:
```                       87,654,321 : 87.654321M
-998,877,665,544,332,211,000 3 : -998.878E
+112,233 0 : 112K
16,777,216 1 : 16.8M
456,789,100,000,000 : 456.7891T
456,789,100,000,000 M 2 : 456.79T
456,789,100,000,000 B 5 : 415.44727Ti
456,789,100,000.000e+00 M 0 : 457G
+16777216 B : 16Mi
1.2e101 G : 12googol
347,344 M -2 : 300K
1122334455 Q : What we have here is a failure to communicate...```

## Perl 6

Works with: Rakudo version 2018.09

Pass in a number string, optionally a type, and optionally the number of digits to round to.

The types supported are B, M & G for binary, metric or gigantic. (At this point, the only gigantic unit is googol, so maybe it stands for googol. ¯\_(ツ)_/¯ )

If no type is specified, M (metric) is assumed.

If you desire the number to be rounded, pass in a number representing the placed past the decimal to round to. If you pass in a negative number for rounding, it will round to a negative number of places past the decimal.

`sub sufficate (\$val is copy, \$type is copy = 'M', \$round is copy = Any) {   if +\$type ~~ Int { \$round = \$type; \$type = 'M' }   my \$s = '';   if \$val.substr(0,1) eq '-' { \$s = '-'; \$val.=substr(1) }   \$val.=subst(',', '', :g);   if \$val ~~ m:i/'e'/ {       my (\$m,\$e) = \$val.split(/<[eE]>/);       \$val = (\$e < 0)           ?? \$m * FatRat.new(1,10**-\$e)           !! \$m * 10**\$e;   }   my %s = do given \$type {       when 'M' { <K M G T P E Z Y X W V U> Z=> (1000, * * 1000 … *) }       when 'B' { <Ki Mi Gi Ti Pi Ei Zi Yi Xi Wi Vi Ui> Z=> (1024, * * 1024 … *) }       when 'G' { googol => 10**100 }       default { return 'What we have here is a failure to communicate...' }   }   my \$k = do given \$val {       when .abs < (my \$m = min %s.values) { %s.first( *.value == \$m ).key };       when .abs > (my \$x = max %s.values) { %s.first( *.value == \$x ).key };       default { %s.sort(*.value).first({\$val.abs/%s{\$_.key} < min %s.values}).key}   }   \$round.defined       ?? \$s ~ comma((\$val.abs/%s{\$k}).round(10**-\$round)) ~ \$k       !! \$s ~ comma(\$val.abs/%s{\$k}) ~ \$k} sub comma (\$i is copy) {    my \$s = \$i < 0 ?? '-' !! '';    my (\$whole, \$frac) = \$i.split('.');    \$frac = \$frac.defined ?? ".\$frac" !! '';    \$s ~ \$whole.abs.flip.comb(3).join(',').flip ~ \$frac} ## TESTING my @tests =   '87,654,321',   '-998,877,665,544,332,211,000 3',   '+112,233 0',   '16,777,216 1',   '456,789,100,000,000',   '456,789,100,000,000 M 2',   '456,789,100,000,000 B 5',   '456,789,100,000.000e+00 M 0',   '+16777216 B',   '1.2e101 G',   "{run('df', '/', :out).out.slurp.words[10] * 1024} B 2", # Linux df returns Kilobytes by default   '347,344 M -2', # round to -2 past the decimal   '1122334455 Q', # bad unit type example; printf "%33s : %s\n", \$_, sufficate(|.words) for @tests;`
Output:
```                       87,654,321 : 87.654321M
-998,877,665,544,332,211,000 3 : -998.878E
+112,233 0 : 112K
16,777,216 1 : 16.8M
456,789,100,000,000 : 456.7891T
456,789,100,000,000 M 2 : 456.79T
456,789,100,000,000 B 5 : 415.44727Ti
456,789,100,000.000e+00 M 0 : 457G
+16777216 B : 16Mi
1.2e101 G : 12googol
703674818560 B 2 : 655.35Gi
347,344 M -2 : 300K
1122334455 Q : What we have here is a failure to communicate...```

## Phix

The builtin routine file_size_k() handles KB/MB/GB/TB suffixes.

Note that you simply cannot "display all significant digits" when using IEEE-754, at least with any fraction that is not an exact sum of half, quarter, etc, so for that reason this uses bigatom, since that can hold numbers with absolute accuracy.

`include builtins/bigatom.e constant suffixes = "KMGTPEZYXWVU",         anydp = 100 -- the "any dp" value (prevents nearest 1e-100, though) function suffize(sequence args)    bigatom size = ba_abs(args[1])    integer sgn = iff(ba_compare(args[1],0)<0?-1:+1),            la = length(args),            dp = iff(la>=2?args[2]:anydp),  -- decimal places            bd = iff(la>=3?args[3]:10)      -- 2 or 10    atom ip = power(10,dp) -- (inverted precision)    if dp<0 then size = ba_round(size,ip) end if    string suffix    if ba_compare(size,1e100)>0 then        size = ba_div(size,1e100)        suffix = "googol"    else        integer factor = iff(bd=2?1024:1000), fdx = 0        while fdx<length(suffixes) do            bigatom rsize = ba_div(size,factor)            if dp<0 then rsize = ba_round(rsize,ip) end if            if ba_compare(rsize,1)<0 then exit end if            size = rsize            fdx += 1        end while        suffix = iff(fdx=0?"":suffixes[fdx]&iff(bd=2?"i":""))    end if    string fmt = iff(dp<0 or dp=anydp?"%0B":sprintf("%%0.%dB",dp))    string res = ba_sprintf(fmt, ba_mul(size,sgn))    res &= suffix    return resend function constant test_text = """ 87,654,321-998,877,665,544,332,211,000 3+112,233 0 16,777,216 1456,789,100,000,000456,789,100,000,000 2 10456,789,100,000,000 5 2456,789,100,000.000e+00 0 10 16777216 , 21.2e101347,344 -210""",        test_cases = split(test_text,'\n',no_empty:=true) for i=1 to length(test_cases) do    string ti = test_cases[i]    sequence args = split(ti,no_empty:=true)    args[1] = ba_new(substitute(args[1],",",""))    for a=2 to length(args) do        sequence sa = scanf(args[a],"%f")        args[a] = iff(length(sa)=1?sa[1][1]:anydp)    end for    string res = suffize(args)    printf(1,"%30s : %s\n",{ti,res})end for`
Output:
```                    87,654,321 :  87.654321M
-998,877,665,544,332,211,000 3 : -998.878E
+112,233 0 :  112K
16,777,216 1 :  16.8M
456,789,100,000,000 :  456.7891T
456,789,100,000,000 2 10 :  456.79T
456,789,100,000,000 5 2 :  415.44727Ti
456,789,100,000.000e+00 0 10 :  457G
16777216 , 2 :  16Mi
1.2e101 :  12googol
347,344 -2 :  300K
10 :  10
```

## REXX

`/*REXX program to add a  (either metric or "binary" metric)  suffix to a decimal number.*/@.=                                              /*default value for the stemmed array. */parse arg @.1                                    /*obtain optional arguments from the CL*/if @.1==''  then do;   @.1=   '   87,654,321                              '                       @.2=   '  -998,877,665,544,332,211,000    3        '                       @.3=   '  +112,233                        0        '                       @.4=   '   16,777,216                     1        '                        @.5=   '   456,789,100,000,000            2        '                       @.5=   '   456,789,100,000,000                     '                        @.6=   '   456,789,100,000,000            2    10  '                       @.7=   '   456,789,100,000,000            5     2  '                       @.8=   '   456,789,100,000.000e+00        0    10  '                       @.9=   '   +16777216                      ,     2  '                       @.10=  '   1.2e101                                 '                       @.11=  '   134,112,411,648                1        '    /*via DIR*/                 end                             /*@.11≡  amount of free space on my C: */      do i=1  while @.i\==''; say copies("─", 60) /*display a separator betweenst values.*/     parse var  @.i  x  f  r  .                  /*get optional arguments from the list.*/     say '     input number='          x         /*show original number     to the term.*/     say '    fraction digs='             f      /*  "  specified fracDigs   "  "    "  */     say '  specified radix='                r   /*  "  specified radix      "  "    "  */     say '       new number='  suffize(x, f, r)  /*maybe append an "alphabetic" suffix. */     end   /*i*/exit                                             /*stick a fork in it,  we're all done. *//*──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────*/suffize: procedure; arg s 2 1 n,  f,  b          /*obtain:  sign, N, fractionDigs, base.*/         if digits()<99  then numeric digits 500 /*use enough dec. digs for arithmetic. */         @err = '***error*** (from SUFFIZE)  '   /*literal used when returning err msg. */         if b==''  then b= 10;              o= b /*assume a base  (ten)  if omitted.    */         n= space( translate(n,,','), 0);   m= n /*elide commas from the  1st  argument.*/         f= space( translate(f,,','), 0)         /*elide commas from the  2nd  argument.*/         if \datatype(n, 'N')  then return @err "1st argument isn't numeric."         if f==''  then f= length(space(translate(n,,.), 0)) /*F omitted?  Use full len.*/         if \datatype(f, 'W')  then return @err "2nd argument isn't an integer: "     f         if f<0                then return @err "2nd argument can't be negative. "    f         if \datatype(b, 'W')  then return @err "3rd argument isn't an integer. "     b         if b\==10  &  b\==2   then return @err "3rd argument isn't a  10  or  2."    b         if arg()>3            then return @err "too many arguments were specified."         @=  ' KMGTPEZYXWVU'                     /*metric uppercase suffixes, with blank*/         !.=;    !.2= 'i'                        /*set default suffix;  "binary" suffix.*/         i= 3;   b= abs(b);  if b==2  then i= 10 /*a power of ten; or a power of  2**10 */         if \datatype(n, 'N') | pos('E', n/1)\==0  then return m   /* ¬num or has an "E"*/         sig=;    if s=='-' | s=="+"  then sig=s /*preserve the number's sign if present*/         n= abs(n)                               /*possibly round number, & remove sign.*/            do while n>=1e100 & b==10;  x=n/1e100 /*is N ≥ googol and base=10?  A googol?*/           if pos(., x)\==0 & o<0  then leave    /*does # have a dec. point  or is B<0? */           return sig  ||  x'googol'             /*maybe prepend the sign,  add GOOGOL. */           end   /*while*/            do j=length(@)-1  to 1  by -1  while n>0  /*see if #  is a multiple of 1024. */           \$= b ** (i*j)                             /*compute base raised to a power.  */           if n<\$  then iterate                      /*N not big enough?   Keep trying. */           n= format(n/\$, , min( digits(), f) ) / 1  /*reformat number with a fraction. */           if pos(., n)\==0 & o<0  then return m     /*has a decimal point  or  is B<0? */           leave                                     /*leave this DO loop at this point.*/           end   /*j*/          if n=0  then j=0                            /*N = 0?    Don't use any suffix.  */         return sig||strip(n||substr(@, j+1,1))!.b   /*add sign, suffixes, strip blanks.*/`
output   when using the internal default inputs:

(Shown at three-quarter size.)

```────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
input number= 87,654,321
fraction digs=
new number= 87.654321M
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
input number= -998,877,665,544,332,211,000
fraction digs= 3
new number= -998.878E
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
input number= +112,233
fraction digs= 0
new number= +112K
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
input number= 16,777,216
fraction digs= 1
new number= 16.8M
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
input number= 456,789,100,000,000
fraction digs=
new number= 456.7891T
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
input number= 456,789,100,000,000
fraction digs= 2
new number= 456.79T
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
input number= 456,789,100,000,000
fraction digs= 5
new number= 415.44727Ti
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
input number= 456,789,100,000.000e+00
fraction digs= 0
new number= 457G
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
input number= +16777216
fraction digs= ,
new number= +16Mi
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
input number= 1.2e101
fraction digs=
new number= 12googol
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
input number= 134,112,411,648
fraction digs= 1
new number= 134.1G
```

## VBA

VBA has support for 64 bit integers on 64 bit platforms. The program below was developed on a 32 bit platform.

`Private Function suffize(number As String, Optional sfractiondigits As String, Optional base As String) As String    Dim suffix As String, parts() As String, exponent As String    Dim fractiondigits As Integer, nsuffix As Integer, flag As Boolean    flag = False    fractiondigits = Val(sfractiondigits)    suffixes = " KMGTPEZYXWVU"    number = Replace(number, ",", "", 1)    Dim c As Currency    Dim sign As Integer    'separate leading sign    If Left(number, 1) = "-" Then        number = Right(number, Len(number) - 1)        outstring = "-"    End If    If Left(number, 1) = "+" Then        number = Right(number, Len(number) - 1)        outstring = "+"    End If    'split exponent    parts = Split(number, "e")    number = parts(0)    If UBound(parts) > 0 Then exponent = parts(1)    'split fraction    parts = Split(number, ".")    number = parts(0)    If UBound(parts) > 0 Then frac = parts(1)    If base = "2" Then        Dim cnumber As Currency        cnumber = Val(number)        nsuffix = 0        Dim dnumber As Double        If cnumber > 1023 Then            cnumber = cnumber / [email protected]            nsuffix = nsuffix + 1            dnumber = cnumber            Do While dnumber > 1023                dnumber = dnumber / [email protected] 'caveat: currency has only 4 fractional digits ...                nsuffix = nsuffix + 1            Loop            number = CStr(dnumber)        Else            number = CStr(cnumber)        End If        leadingstring = Int(number)        number = Replace(number, ",", "")         leading = Len(leadingstring)        suffix = Mid(suffixes, nsuffix + 1, 1)    Else        'which suffix        nsuffix = (Len(number) + Val(exponent) - 1) \ 3        If nsuffix < 13 Then            suffix = Mid(suffixes, nsuffix + 1, 1)            leading = (Len(number) - 1) Mod 3 + 1            leadingstring = Left(number, leading)        Else            flag = True            If nsuffix > 32 Then                suffix = "googol"                leading = Len(number) + Val(exponent) - 99                leadingstring = number & frac & String\$(Val(exponent) - 100 - Len(frac), "0")            Else                suffix = "U"                leading = Len(number) + Val(exponent) - 35                If Val(exponent) > 36 Then                    leadingstring = number & String\$(Val(exponent) - 36, "0")                Else                    leadingstring = Left(number, (Len(number) - 36 + Val(exponent)))                End If            End If        End If    End If    'round up if necessary    If fractiondigits > 0 Then        If Val(Mid(number, leading + fractiondigits + 1, 1)) >= 5 Then            fraction = Mid(number, leading + 1, fractiondigits - 1) & _                CStr(Val(Mid(number, leading + fractiondigits, 1)) + 1)        Else            fraction = Mid(number, leading + 1, fractiondigits)        End If    Else        If Val(Mid(number, leading + 1, 1)) >= 5 And sfractiondigits <> "" And sfractiondigits <> "," Then            leadingstring = Mid(number, 1, leading - 1) & _                CStr(Val(Mid(number, leading, 1)) + 1)        End If    End If    If flag Then        If sfractiondigits = "" Or sfractiondigits = "," Then            fraction = ""        End If    Else        If sfractiondigits = "" Or sfractiondigits = "," Then            fraction = Right(number, Len(number) - leading)        End If    End If    outstring = outstring & leadingstring    If Len(fraction) > 0 Then        outstring = outstring & "." & fraction    End If    If base = "2" Then        outstring = outstring & suffix & "i"    Else        outstring = outstring & suffix    End If    suffize = outstringEnd FunctionSub program()    Dim s(10) As String, t As String, f As String, r As String    Dim tt() As String, temp As String    s(0) = "               87,654,321"    s(1) = "          -998,877,665,544,332,211,000      3"    s(2) = "          +112,233                          0"    s(3) = "           16,777,216                       1"    s(4) = "           456,789,100,000,000              2"    s(5) = "           456,789,100,000,000              2      10"    s(6) = "           456,789,100,000,000              5       2"    s(7) = "           456,789,100,000.000e+00          0      10"    s(8) = "          +16777216                         ,       2"    s(9) = "           1.2e101"    For i = 0 To 9        ReDim tt(0)        t = Trim(s(i))        Do            temp = t            t = Replace(t, "  ", " ")        Loop Until temp = t        tt = Split(t, " ")        If UBound(tt) > 0 Then f = tt(1) Else f = ""        If UBound(tt) > 1 Then r = tt(2) Else r = ""        Debug.Print String\$(48, "-")        Debug.Print "     input number = "; tt(0)        Debug.Print "    fraction digs = "; f        Debug.Print "  specified radix = "; r        Debug.Print "       new number = "; suffize(tt(0), f, r)    Next iEnd Sub`
output   when using the internal default inputs:
```------------------------------------------------
input number = 87,654,321
fraction digs =
new number = 87.654321M
------------------------------------------------
input number = -998,877,665,544,332,211,000
fraction digs = 3
new number = -998.878E
------------------------------------------------
input number = +112,233
fraction digs = 0
new number = +112K
------------------------------------------------
input number = 16,777,216
fraction digs = 1
new number = 16.8M
------------------------------------------------
input number = 456,789,100,000,000
fraction digs = 2
new number = 456.79T
------------------------------------------------
input number = 456,789,100,000,000
fraction digs = 2
specified radix = 10
new number = 456.79T
------------------------------------------------
input number = 456,789,100,000,000
fraction digs = 5
specified radix = 2
new number = 415.44727Ti
------------------------------------------------
input number = 456,789,100,000.000e+00
fraction digs = 0
specified radix = 10
new number = 457G
------------------------------------------------
input number = +16777216
fraction digs = ,
specified radix = 2
new number = +16Mi
------------------------------------------------
input number = 1.2e101
fraction digs =
new number = 12googol```

## zkl

Library: GMP
GNU Multiple Precision Arithmetic Library (big ints)

Error checking is nonexistent.

`var [const] BI=Import.lib("zklBigNum");  // GMPvar metric, binary, googol=BI("1e100");metric,binary = metricBin();    // suffix: "2" (binary), "10" (metric)   // For this task, we'll assume BF numbers and treat everything as a big intfcn sufficate(numStr, fracDigits=",", suffix="10"){   var [const] numRE=RegExp(0'^\+*(([+-]*\.*\d+)[.]*(\d*)(e*[+-]*\d*))^);    numRE.search((numStr - " ,").toLower());   r:=numRE.matched[1];   if(not r.find(".")) r=BI(r); // else ((((0,7),"1.2e101","1","2","e101")   else  // convert float ("1.2" or "1.2e10") to big int      r=BI(numRE.matched[2,*].concat())/(10).pow(numRE.matched[3].len());    if(fracDigits==",") fracDigits=0; # "digits past decimal or none, if not specified"   else                fracDigits=fracDigits.toInt();    suffix=suffix.strip().toInt();   if(suffix==2) nms,szs :=binary;   else if(suffix==10)   nms,szs :=metric;   else //throw(Exception.ValueError("Invalid suffix: %s".fmt(suffix)));     return("Invalid suffix");    ar:=r.abs();   if(ar<szs[0]) return(r.toString());	// little bitty number   i,sz,nm := szs.filter1n('>(ar)) - 1, szs[i], nms[i];  // False - 1 == True   if(i==True)  // r > biggest unit      if(r>=googol) sz,nm = googol, "googol";   // get out the big hammer      else          sz,nm = szs[-1], nms[-1];   //    even if they want n^2   fd,m := fracDigits + 4, BI(10).pow(fd);      // int --> float w/extra digits   a,f,a := r*m/sz, (a%m).toFloat()/m, f + a/m; // to float for rounding   fmt:="%%,.%df%%s".fmt(fracDigits).fmt;	// eg "%,.5f%s"   return(fmt(a,nm));}    //-->Metric:(("K", "M",..), (1000,1000000,..))   //   Bin:   (("Ki","Mi",..),(1024,1048576,..))fcn metricBin{   ss,m,b := "K M G T P E Z Y X W V U".split(), List(),List();   ss.zipWith(m.append,[3..3*(ss.len()),3].apply(BI(10).pow)); // Metric   ss.apply("append","i")      .zipWith(b.append,[10..10*(ss.len()),10].apply(BI(2).pow)); // Binary   return(m.filter22("".isType), b.filter22("".isType)); # split to ((strings),(nums))}`
`testCases:=T(   "87,654,321",   "-998,877,665,544,332,211,000      3",   "+112,233                          0",   "16,777,216                        1",   "456,789,100,000,000",   "456,789,100,000,000               2      10",   "456,789,100,000,000               5       2",   "456,789,100,000.000e+00           0      10",   "+16777216                         ,       2",   "1.2e101",   "446,835,273,728                   1",   "1e36",   "1e39", // there isn't a big enough suffix for this one but it's less than googol   		# Linux df returns Kilobytes by default   (1024*System.popen("df /","r").read().text.split()[10]).toString() + " 1 2 \"df /\"",   "1122334455 , 666", # bad unit type example   "10",  // don't suffix this);foreach test in (testCases){   test=test.split();   "%33s : %s".fmt(test.concat(" "),sufficate(test.xplode())).println();}`
Output:
```                       87,654,321 : 88M
-998,877,665,544,332,211,000 3 : -997.878E
+112,233 0 : 112K
16,777,216 1 : 16.8M
456,789,100,000,000 : 457T
456,789,100,000,000 2 10 : 456.79T
456,789,100,000,000 5 2 : 415.44727Ti
456,789,100,000.000e+00 0 10 : 457G
+16777216 , 2 : 16Mi
1.2e101 : 12googol
446,835,273,728 1 : 446.8G
1e36 : 1U
1e39 : 1,000U
17221619712 1 2 "df /" : 16.0Gi
1122334455 , 666 : Invalid suffix
10 : 10
```