# Sorting algorithms/Stooge sort

Sorting algorithms/Stooge sort
You are encouraged to solve this task according to the task description, using any language you may know.

Sorting Algorithm
This is a sorting algorithm.   It may be applied to a set of data in order to sort it.     For comparing various sorts, see compare sorts.   For other sorting algorithms,   see sorting algorithms,   or:

O(n logn) sorts

O(n log2n) sorts
Shell Sort

 This page uses content from Wikipedia. The original article was at Stooge sort. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with Rosetta Code, the text of Wikipedia is available under the GNU FDL. (See links for details on variance)

Show the   Stooge Sort   for an array of integers.

The Stooge Sort algorithm is as follows:

```algorithm stoogesort(array L, i = 0, j = length(L)-1)
if L[j] < L[i] then
L[i] ↔ L[j]
if j - i > 1 then
t := (j - i + 1)/3
stoogesort(L, i  , j-t)
stoogesort(L, i+t, j  )
stoogesort(L, i  , j-t)
return L
```

## 11l

Translation of: Python

<lang 11l>F stoogesort(&l, i, j) -> N

```  I l[j] < l[i]
swap(&l[i], &l[j])
I j - i > 1
V t = (j - i + 1) I/ 3
stoogesort(&l, i, j - t)
stoogesort(&l, i + t, j)
stoogesort(&l, i, j - t)
```

F stooge(&l)

```  R stoogesort(&l, 0, l.len - 1)
```

V data = [1, 4, 5, 3, -6, 3, 7, 10, -2, -5, 7, 5, 9, -3, 7] stooge(&data) print(data)</lang>

Output:
```[-6, -5, -3, -2, 1, 3, 3, 4, 5, 5, 7, 7, 7, 9, 10]
```

## Action!

Action! language does not support recursion. Therefore an iterative approach with a stack has been proposed. <lang Action!>DEFINE MAX_COUNT="100" INT ARRAY stack(MAX_COUNT) INT stackSize

PROC PrintArray(INT ARRAY a INT size)

``` INT i
```
``` Put('[)
FOR i=0 TO size-1
DO
IF i>0 THEN Put(' ) FI
PrintI(a(i))
OD
Put(']) PutE()
```

RETURN

PROC InitStack()

``` stackSize=0
```

RETURN

BYTE FUNC IsEmpty()

``` IF stackSize=0 THEN
RETURN (1)
FI
```

RETURN (0)

PROC Push(INT low,high)

``` stack(stackSize)=low  stackSize==+1
stack(stackSize)=high stackSize==+1
```

RETURN

PROC Pop(INT POINTER low,high)

``` stackSize==-1 high^=stack(stackSize)
stackSize==-1 low^=stack(stackSize)
```

RETURN

PROC StoogeSort(INT ARRAY a INT size)

``` INT l,h,t,tmp
```
``` InitStack()
Push(0,size-1)
WHILE IsEmpty()=0
DO
Pop(@l,@h)
IF a(l)>a(h) THEN
tmp=a(l) a(l)=a(h) a(h)=tmp
FI
IF h-l>1 THEN
t=(h-l+1)/3
Push(l,h-t)
Push(l+t,h)
Push(l,h-t)
FI
OD
```

RETURN

PROC Test(INT ARRAY a INT size)

``` PrintE("Array before sort:")
PrintArray(a,size)
StoogeSort(a,size)
PrintE("Array after sort:")
PrintArray(a,size)
PutE()
```

RETURN

PROC Main()

``` INT ARRAY
a(10)=[1 4 65535 0 3 7 4 8 20 65530],
b(21)=[10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
65535 65534 65533 65532 65531
65530 65529 65528 65527 65526],
c(8)=[101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108],
d(12)=[1 65535 1 65535 1 65535 1
65535 1 65535 1 65535]

Test(a,10)
Test(b,21)
Test(c,8)
Test(d,12)
```

RETURN</lang>

Output:
```Array before sort:
[1 4 -1 0 3 7 4 8 20 -6]
Array after sort:
[-6 -1 0 1 3 4 4 7 8 20]

Array before sort:
[10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 -9 -10]
Array after sort:
[-10 -9 -8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10]

Array before sort:
[101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108]
Array after sort:
[101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108]

Array before sort:
[1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1]
Array after sort:
[-1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 1 1 1 1 1 1]
```

Using slices and 'First / 'Last removes the need for I / J parameters.

```  type Integer_Array is array (Positive range <>) of Integer;
procedure Swap (Left, Right : in out Integer) is
Temp : Integer := Left;
begin
Left  := Right;
Right := Temp;
end Swap;
procedure Stooge_Sort (List : in out Integer_Array) is
T : Natural := List'Length / 3;
begin
if List (List'Last) < List (List'First) then
Swap (List (List'Last), List (List'First));
end if;
if List'Length > 2 then
Stooge_Sort (List (List'First     .. List'Last - T));
Stooge_Sort (List (List'First + T .. List'Last));
Stooge_Sort (List (List'First     .. List'Last - T));
end if;
end Stooge_Sort;
Test_Array : Integer_Array := (1, 4, 5, 3, -6, 3, 7, 10, -2, -5, 7, 5, 9, -3, 7);
```

begin

```  Stooge_Sort (Test_Array);
for I in Test_Array'Range loop
if I /= Test_Array'Last then
end if;
end loop;
```

end Stooge;</lang>

Output:
`-6, -5, -3, -2,  1,  3,  3,  4,  5,  5,  7,  7,  7,  9,  10`

## ALGOL 68

Works with: ALGOL 68G version Any - tested with release 2.8.win32

<lang algol68># swaps the values of the two REF INTs # PRIO =:= = 1; OP =:= = ( REF INT a, b )VOID: ( INT t := a; a := b; b := t );

1. returns the array of INTs sorted via the stooge sort algorithm #

PROC stooge sort = ( []INT array )[]INT:

```    BEGIN
PROC stooge sort segment = ( REF[]INT l, INT i, j )VOID:
BEGIN
IF l[j] < l[i] THEN l[ i ] =:= l[ j ] FI;
IF j - i > 1
THEN
INT t := (j - i + 1) OVER 3;
stooge sort segment( l, i,     j - t );
stooge sort segment( l, i + t, j     );
stooge sort segment( l, i,     j - t )
FI
END # stooge sort segment # ;
```
```        [ LWB array : UPB array ]INT result := array;
stooge sort segment( result, LWB result, UPB result );
result
END # stooge sort # ;
```
1. test the stooge sort #

[]INT data = ( 67, -201, 0, 9, 9, 231, 4 ); print( ( "before: ", data, newline, "after: ", stooge sort( data ), newline ) )</lang>

Output:
```before:         +67       -201         +0         +9         +9       +231         +4
after:         -201         +0         +4         +9         +9        +67       +231
```

## AutoHotkey

<lang AutoHotkey>StoogeSort(L, i:=1, j:=""){ if !j j := L.MaxIndex() if (L[j] < L[i]){ temp := L[i] L[i] := L[j] L[j] := temp } if (j - i > 1){ t := floor((j - i + 1)/3) StoogeSort(L, i, j-t) StoogeSort(L, i+t, j) StoogeSort(L, i, j-t) } return L }</lang> Examples:<lang AutoHotkey>MsgBox % map(StoogeSort([123,51,6,73,3,-12,0])) return

map(obj){ for k, v in obj res .= v "," return trim(res, ",") }</lang>

Outputs:

`-12,0,3,6,51,73,123`

## BASIC

Works with: QuickBASIC version 7.1

This might work with older versions of QB, but that is untested. It definitely does not work with QBasic.

<lang qbasic>DECLARE SUB stoogesort (L() AS LONG, i AS LONG, j AS LONG)

RANDOMIZE TIMER

CONST arraysize = 10

DIM x(arraysize) AS LONG DIM i AS LONG

PRINT "Before: "; FOR i = 0 TO arraysize

```   x(i) = INT(RND * 100)
PRINT x(i); " ";
```

NEXT PRINT

stoogesort x(), 0, arraysize

PRINT "After: "; FOR i = 0 TO arraysize

```   PRINT x(i); " ";
```

NEXT PRINT

SUB stoogesort (L() AS LONG, i AS LONG, j AS LONG)

```   IF L(j) < L(i) THEN SWAP L(i), L(j)
IF (j - i) > 1 THEN
DIM t AS LONG
t = (j - i + 1) / 3
stoogesort L(), i, j - t
stoogesort L(), i + t, j
stoogesort L(), i, j - t
END IF
```

END SUB</lang>

Output:
```Before:  15   42   21   50   33   65   40   43   20   25   19
After:  15   19   20   21   33   25   40   42   43   50   65
Before:  99   21   84   55   32   26   86   27   8   45   11
After:  8   11   21   26   27   32   45   55   84   86   99
Before:  11   50   11   37   97   94   92   70   92   57   88
After:  11   11   37   50   57   70   88   92   92   94   97
```

## BBC BASIC

<lang bbcbasic> DIM test%(9)

```     test%() = 4, 65, 2, -31, 0, 99, 2, 83, 782, 1
PROCstoogesort(test%(), 0, DIM(test%(),1))
FOR i% = 0 TO 9
PRINT test%(i%) ;
NEXT
PRINT
END

DEF PROCstoogesort(l%(), i%, j%)
LOCAL t%
IF l%(j%) < l%(i%) SWAP l%(i%), l%(j%)
IF j% - i% > 1 THEN
t% = (j% - i% + 1)/3
PROCstoogesort(l%(), i%, j%-t%)
PROCstoogesort(l%(), i%+t%, j%)
PROCstoogesort(l%(), i%, j%-t%)
ENDIF
ENDPROC</lang>
```
Output:
```       -31         0         1         2         2         4        65        83        99       782
```

## BCPL

<lang bcpl>get "libhdr"

let stoogesort(L, i, j) be \$( if L!j < L!i then

```   \$(  let x = L!i
L!i := L!j
L!j := x
\$)
if j-i>1 then
\$(  let t = (j - i + 1)/3
stoogesort(L, i, j-t)
stoogesort(L, i+t, j)
stoogesort(L, i, j-t)
\$)
```

\$)

let write(s, A, len) be \$( writes(s)

```   for i=0 to len-1 do writed(A!i, 4)
wrch('*N')
```

\$)

let start() be \$( let array = table 4,65,2,-31,0,99,2,83,782,1

```   let length = 10
write("Before: ", array, length)
stoogesort(array, 0, length-1)
write("After:  ", array, length)
```

\$)</lang>

Output:
```Before:    4  65   2 -31   0  99   2  83 782   1
After:   -31   0   1   2   2   4  65  83  99 782```

## C

<lang c>#include <stdio.h>

1. define SWAP(r,s) do{ t=r; r=s; s=t; } while(0)

void StoogeSort(int a[], int i, int j) {

```  int t;

if (a[j] < a[i]) SWAP(a[i], a[j]);
if (j - i > 1)
{
t = (j - i + 1) / 3;
StoogeSort(a, i, j - t);
StoogeSort(a, i + t, j);
StoogeSort(a, i, j - t);
}
```

}

int main(int argc, char *argv[]) {

```  int nums[] = {1, 4, 5, 3, -6, 3, 7, 10, -2, -5, 7, 5, 9, -3, 7};
int i, n;

n = sizeof(nums)/sizeof(int);
StoogeSort(nums, 0, n-1);

for(i = 0; i <= n-1; i++)
printf("%5d", nums[i]);

return 0;
```

}</lang>

## C#

<lang C sharp|C#> public static void Sort<T>(List<T> list) where T : IComparable {

```       if (list.Count > 1) {
StoogeSort(list, 0, list.Count - 1);
}
}
private static void StoogeSort<T>(List<T> L, int i, int j) where T : IComparable {
if (L[j].CompareTo(L[i])<0) {
T tmp = L[i];
L[i] = L[j];
L[j] = tmp;
}
if (j - i > 1) {
int t = (j - i + 1) / 3;
StoogeSort(L, i, j - t);
StoogeSort(L, i + t, j);
StoogeSort(L, i, j - t);
}
}</lang>
```

## C++

<lang Cpp>

1. include <iostream>
2. include <time.h>

//------------------------------------------------------------------------------ using namespace std;

//------------------------------------------------------------------------------ class stooge { public:

```   void sort( int* arr, int start, int end )
{
if( arr[start] > arr[end - 1] ) swap( arr[start], arr[end - 1] );
```

int n = end - start; if( n > 2 ) { n /= 3; sort( arr, start, end - n ); sort( arr, start + n, end ); sort( arr, start, end - n );

```       }
}
```

}; //------------------------------------------------------------------------------ int main( int argc, char* argv[] ) {

```   srand( static_cast<unsigned int>( time( NULL ) ) ); stooge s; int a[80], m = 80;
cout << "before:\n";
for( int x = 0; x < m; x++ ) { a[x] = rand() % 40 - 20;  cout << a[x] << " "; }
s.sort( a, 0, m ); cout << "\n\nafter:\n";
for( int x = 0; x < m; x++ ) cout << a[x] << " "; cout << "\n\n";
return system( "pause" );
```

} </lang>

Output:
```before:
5 -15 11 18 -14 -20 6 -4 -1 -8 12 -18 -12 -4 -10 -8 13 4 0 16 7 -13 -13 -1 11 -9
13 -14 9 -19 -1 14 6 -4 7 -8 -15 -11 -9 3 10 3 -2 -5 12 -8 -2 10 -10 9 14 9 -12
19 -16 -6 -13 -18 -3 -13 -12 8 -8 -10 -16 5 8 -10 -10 6 -14 -20 -16 7 15 11 -19
-18 10 -15

after:
-20 -20 -19 -19 -18 -18 -18 -16 -16 -16 -15 -15 -15 -14 -14 -14 -13 -13 -13 -13
-12 -12 -12 -11 -10 -10 -10 -10 -10 -9 -9 -8 -8 -8 -8 -8 -6 -5 -4 -4 -4 -3 -2 -2
-1 -1 -1 0 3 3 4 5 5 6 6 6 7 7 7 8 8 9 9 9 10 10 10 11 11 11 12 12 13 13 14 14
15 16 18 19
```

## Clojure

<lang clojure>(defn swap [v x y]

```  (assoc! v y (v x) x (v y)))
```

(defn stooge-sort

``` ([v] (persistent! (stooge-sort (transient v) 0 (dec (count v)))))
([v i j]
(if (> (v i) (v j)) (swap v i j) v)
(if (> (- j i) 1)
(let [t (int (Math/floor (/ (inc (- j i)) 3)))]
(stooge-sort v i (- j t))
(stooge-sort v (+ i t) j)
(stooge-sort v i (- j t))))
v))</lang>
```

## COBOL

Works with: GNU Cobol

<lang cobol> >>SOURCE FREE IDENTIFICATION DIVISION. PROGRAM-ID. stooge-sort-test.

DATA DIVISION. WORKING-STORAGE SECTION. 01 Arr-Len CONSTANT 7.

01 arr-area VALUE "00004001000020000005000230000000000".

```   03  arr-elt                         PIC 9(5) OCCURS Arr-Len TIMES
INDEXED BY arr-idx.
```

PROCEDURE DIVISION.

```   DISPLAY "Unsorted: " NO ADVANCING
PERFORM VARYING arr-idx FROM 1 BY 1 UNTIL Arr-Len < arr-idx
DISPLAY arr-elt (arr-idx) " " NO ADVANCING
END-PERFORM
DISPLAY SPACE
```
```   CALL "stooge-sort" USING arr-area, OMITTED, OMITTED
```
```   DISPLAY "Sorted:   " NO ADVANCING
PERFORM VARYING arr-idx FROM 1 BY 1 UNTIL Arr-Len < arr-idx
DISPLAY arr-elt (arr-idx) " " NO ADVANCING
END-PERFORM
DISPLAY SPACE
.
```

END PROGRAM stooge-sort-test.

IDENTIFICATION DIVISION. PROGRAM-ID. stooge-sort RECURSIVE.

DATA DIVISION. LOCAL-STORAGE SECTION. 01 Arr-Len CONSTANT 7.

01 i PIC 99 COMP. 01 j PIC 99 COMP.

01 temp PIC 9(5).

01 t PIC 99 COMP.

```   03  arr-elt                         PIC 9(5) OCCURS Arr-Len TIMES.
```

01 i-val PIC 99 COMP. 01 j-val PIC 99 COMP.

PROCEDURE DIVISION USING arr-area, OPTIONAL i-val, OPTIONAL j-val.

```   IF i-val IS OMITTED
MOVE 1 TO i
ELSE
MOVE i-val TO i
END-IF
IF j-val IS OMITTED
MOVE Arr-Len TO j
ELSE
MOVE j-val TO j
END-IF

IF arr-elt (j) < arr-elt (i)
MOVE arr-elt (i) TO temp
MOVE arr-elt (j) TO arr-elt (i)
MOVE temp TO arr-elt (j)
END-IF

IF j - i + 1 >= 3
COMPUTE t = (j - i + 1) / 3
SUBTRACT t FROM j
CALL "stooge-sort" USING arr-area, CONTENT i, j
CALL "stooge-sort" USING arr-area, CONTENT i, j
SUBTRACT t FROM i, j
CALL "stooge-sort" USING arr-area, CONTENT i, j
END-IF
.
```

END PROGRAM stooge-sort.</lang>

Output:
```Unsorted: 00004 00100 00200 00005 00023 00000 00000
Sorted:   00000 00000 00004 00005 00023 00100 00200
```

## Common Lisp

<lang lisp>(defun stooge-sort (vector &optional (i 0) (j (1- (length vector))))

``` (when (> (aref vector i) (aref vector j))
(rotatef (aref vector i) (aref vector j)))
(when (> (- j i) 1)
(let ((third (floor (1+ (- j i)) 3)))
(stooge-sort vector i (- j third))
(stooge-sort vector (+ i third) j)
(stooge-sort vector i (- j third))))
vector)</lang>
```

## D

<lang d>import std.stdio, std.algorithm, std.array;

void stoogeSort(T)(T[] seq) pure nothrow {

```   if (seq.back < seq.front)
swap(seq.front, seq.back);
```
```   if (seq.length > 2) {
immutable m = seq.length / 3;
seq[0 .. \$ - m].stoogeSort();
seq[m .. \$].stoogeSort();
seq[0 .. \$ - m].stoogeSort();
}
```

}

void main() {

```   auto data = [1, 4, 5, 3, -6, 3, 7, 10, -2, -5];
data.stoogeSort();
writeln(data);
```

}</lang>

Output:
```[-6, -5, -2, 1, 3, 3, 4, 5, 7, 10]
```

## Eiffel

<lang Eiffel> class STOOGE_SORT feature stoogesort (ar: ARRAY[INTEGER]; i,j: INTEGER)

```               -- Sorted array in ascending order.
```

require ar_not_empty: ar.count >= 0 i_in_range: i>=1 j_in_range: j <= ar.count boundary_set: i<=j local t: REAL_64 third: INTEGER swap: INTEGER do if ar[j]< ar[i] then swap:= ar[i] ar[i]:=ar[j] ar[j]:= swap end if j-i >1 then t:= (j-i+1)/3 third:= t.floor stoogesort(ar, i, j-third) stoogesort(ar, i+third, j) stoogesort(ar, i, j-third) end end end </lang> Test: <lang Eiffel> class APPLICATION

create make

feature

make do test := <<2, 5, 66, -2, 0, 7>> io.put_string ("%Nunsorted:%N") across test as ar loop io.put_string (ar.item.out + "%T") end create stoogesort stoogesort.stoogesort (test, 1, test.count) io.put_string ("%Nsorted:%N") across test as ar loop io.put_string (ar.item.out + "%T") end end

test: ARRAY [INTEGER]

stoogesort: STOOGE_SORT

end </lang>

Output:
```unsorted:
2 5 66 -2 0 7
sorted:
-2 0 2 5 7 66
```

## Elena

ELENA 4.x : <lang elena>import extensions; import system'routines;

extension op {

```   stoogeSort()
= self.stoogeSort(0, self.Length - 1);

stoogeSort(IntNumber i, IntNumber j)
{
if(self[j]<self[i])
{
self.exchange(i,j)
};
if (j - i > 1)
{
int t := (j - i + 1) / 3;
self.stoogeSort(i,j-t);
self.stoogeSort(i+t,j);
self.stoogeSort(i,j-t)
}
}
```

}

public program() {

```   var list := new Range(0, 15).selectBy:(n => randomGenerator.eval(20)).toArray();

console.printLine("before:", list.asEnumerable());
console.printLine("after:", list.stoogeSort().asEnumerable())
```

}</lang>

Output:
```before:0,1,18,17,4,13,18,8,2,10,15,17,11,1,17
after:0,1,1,2,4,8,10,11,13,15,17,17,17,18,18
```

## Elixir

<lang elixir>defmodule Sort do

``` def stooge_sort(list) do
stooge_sort(List.to_tuple(list), 0, length(list)-1) |> Tuple.to_list
end

defp stooge_sort(tuple, i, j) do
if (vj = elem(tuple, j)) < (vi = elem(tuple, i)) do
tuple = put_elem(tuple,i,vj) |> put_elem(j,vi)
end
if j - i > 1 do
t = div(j - i + 1, 3)
tuple
|> stooge_sort(i, j-t)
|> stooge_sort(i+t, j)
|> stooge_sort(i, j-t)
else
tuple
end
end
```

end

(for _ <- 1..20, do: :rand.uniform(20)) |> IO.inspect |> Sort.stooge_sort |> IO.inspect</lang>

Output:
```[18, 8, 19, 19, 17, 17, 1, 5, 17, 9, 13, 6, 7, 19, 1, 6, 11, 20, 17, 12]
[1, 1, 5, 6, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12, 13, 17, 17, 17, 17, 18, 19, 19, 19, 20]
```

## Euphoria

<lang euphoria>function stooge(sequence s, integer i, integer j)

```   object temp
integer t
if compare(s[j], s[i]) < 0 then
temp = s[i]
s[i] = s[j]
s[j] = temp
end if
if j - i > 1 then
t = floor((j - i + 1)/3)
s = stooge(s, i  , j-t)
s = stooge(s, i+t, j  )
s = stooge(s, i  , j-t)
end if
return s
```

end function

function stoogesort(sequence s)

```   return stooge(s,1,length(s))
```

end function

constant s = rand(repeat(1000,10))

? s ? stoogesort(s)</lang>

Output:
```{875,616,725,922,463,740,949,476,697,455}
{455,463,476,616,697,725,740,875,922,949}
```

## Factor

<lang factor>USING: kernel locals math prettyprint sequences ; IN: rosetta-code.stooge-sort

<PRIVATE

(stooge-sort) ( seq i j -- )
```   j i [ seq nth ] bi@ < [
j i seq exchange
] when
j i - 1 > [
j i - 1 + 3 /i :> t
seq i j t - (stooge-sort)
seq i t + j (stooge-sort)
seq i j t - (stooge-sort)
] when ;
```

PRIVATE>

stooge-sort ( seq -- sortedseq )
```   [ clone dup ] [ drop 0 ] [ length 1 - ] tri (stooge-sort) ;
```
stooge-sort-demo ( -- )
```   { 1 4 5 3 -6 3 7 10 -2 -5 } stooge-sort . ;
```

MAIN: stooge-sort-demo</lang>

Output:
```{ -6 -5 -2 1 3 3 4 5 7 10 }
```

## Fortran

Works with: Fortran version 90 and later

<lang fortran>program Stooge

``` implicit none
```
``` integer :: i
integer :: array(50) = (/ (i, i = 50, 1, -1) /) ! Reverse sorted array

call Stoogesort(array)
write(*,"(10i5)") array
```

contains

recursive subroutine Stoogesort(a)

``` integer, intent(in out) :: a(:)
integer :: j, t, temp

j = size(a)
if(a(j) < a(1)) then
temp = a(j)
a(j) = a(1)
a(1) = temp
end if
```
``` if(j > 2) then
t = j / 3
call Stoogesort(a(1:j-t))
call Stoogesort(a(1+t:j))
call Stoogesort(a(1:j-t))
end if
```

end subroutine end program</lang>

## FreeBASIC

<lang freebasic>' version 23-10-2016 ' compile with: fbc -s console

Sub stoogesort(s() As Long, l As Long, r As Long)

```   If s(r) < s(l) Then
Swap s(r), s(l)
End If
```
```   If r - l > 1 Then
Var t = (r - l +1) \ 3
stoogesort(s(), l    , r - t)
stoogesort(s(), l + t, r    )
stoogesort(s(), l    , r - t)
End If
```

End Sub

' ------=< MAIN >=------

Dim As Long i, array(-7 To 7) Dim As Long a = LBound(array), b = UBound(array)

Randomize Timer For i = a To b : array(i) = i  : Next For i = a To b ' little shuffle

```   Swap array(i), array(Int(Rnd * (b - a +1)) + a)
```

Next

Print "unsorted "; For i = a To b : Print Using "####"; array(i); : Next : Print

stoogesort(array(), LBound(array), UBound(array))

Print " sorted "; For i = a To b : Print Using "####"; array(i); : Next : Print

' empty keyboard buffer While Inkey <> "" : Wend Print : Print "hit any key to end program" Sleep End</lang>

Output:
```Unsorted
0   3  -6   2   1  -4   7   5   6  -3   4  -7  -1  -5  -2

After heapsort
-7  -6  -5  -4  -3  -2  -1   0   1   2   3   4   5   6   7```

## Go

<lang go>package main

import "fmt"

var a = []int{170, 45, 75, -90, -802, 24, 2, 66}

func main() {

```   fmt.Println("before:", a)
stoogesort(a)
fmt.Println("after: ", a)
fmt.Println("nyuk nyuk nyuk")
```

}

func stoogesort(a []int) {

```   last := len(a) - 1
if a[last] < a[0] {
a[0], a[last] = a[last], a[0]
}
if last > 1 {
t := len(a) / 3
stoogesort(a[:len(a)-t])
stoogesort(a[t:])
stoogesort(a[:len(a)-t])
}
```

}</lang>

insertAt e k = uncurry(++).second ((e:).drop 1). splitAt k

swapElems :: [a] -> Int -> Int -> [a] swapElems xs i j = insertAt (xs!!j) i \$ insertAt (xs!!i) j xs

stoogeSort [] = [] stoogeSort [x] = [x] stoogeSort xs = doss 0 (length xs - 1) xs doss :: (Ord a) => Int -> Int -> [a] -> [a] doss i j xs

```     | j-i>1 = doss i (j-t) \$ doss (i+t) j \$ doss i (j-t) xs'
| otherwise = xs'
where t = (j-i+1)`div`3
```

xs' | xs!!j < xs!!i = swapElems xs i j | otherwise = xs</lang> Example: <lang haskell>*Main> stoogeSort [1, 4, 5, 3, -6, 3, 7, 10, -2, -5, 7, 5, 9, -3, 7] [-6,-5,-3,-2,1,3,3,4,5,5,7,7,7,9,10]</lang>

## Icon and Unicon

<lang Icon>procedure main() #: demonstrate various ways to sort a list and string

```  demosort(stoogesort,[3, 14, 1, 5, 9, 2, 6, 3],"qwerty")
```

end

procedure stoogesort(X,op,i,j) #: return sorted list ascending(or descending) local t

```  if /i := 0 then {
j := *X
op := sortop(op,X)                 # select how and what we sort
}
```
```  if op(X[j],X[i]) then
X[i] :=: X[j]
if j - i > 1 then {
t := (j - i + 1) / 3
X := stoogesort(X,op,i,j-t)
X := stoogesort(X,op,i+t,j)
X := stoogesort(X,op,i,j-t)
}
return X                              # X must be returned and assigned to sort a string
```

end</lang>

Note: This example relies on the supporting procedures 'sortop', and 'demosort' in Bubble Sort. The full demosort exercises the named sort of a list with op = "numeric", "string", ">>" (lexically gt, descending), ">" (numerically gt, descending), a custom comparator, and also a string.

Output:

Abbreviated sample

```Sorting Demo using procedure stoogesort
on list : [ 3 14 1 5 9 2 6 3 ]
with op = &null:         [ 1 2 3 3 5 6 9 14 ]   (0 ms)
...
on string : "qwerty"
with op = &null:         "eqrtwy"   (0 ms)```

## IS-BASIC

<lang IS-BASIC>100 PROGRAM "StoogSrt.bas" 110 RANDOMIZE 120 NUMERIC ARRAY(5 TO 16) 130 CALL INIT(ARRAY) 140 CALL WRITE(ARRAY) 150 CALL STOOGESORT(ARRAY,LBOUND(ARRAY),UBOUND(ARRAY)) 160 CALL WRITE(ARRAY) 170 DEF INIT(REF A) 180 FOR I=LBOUND(A) TO UBOUND(A) 190 LET A(I)=RND(99)+1 200 NEXT 210 END DEF 220 DEF WRITE(REF A) 230 FOR I=LBOUND(A) TO UBOUND(A) 240 PRINT A(I); 250 NEXT 260 PRINT 270 END DEF 280 DEF STOOGESORT(REF A,I,J) 290 NUMERIC T 300 IF A(J)<A(I) THEN LET T=A(J):LET A(J)=A(I):LET A(I)=T 310 IF J-I>1 THEN 320 LET T=IP((J-I+1)/3) 330 CALL STOOGESORT(A,I,J-T) 340 CALL STOOGESORT(A,I+T,J) 350 CALL STOOGESORT(A,I,J-T) 360 END IF 370 END DEF</lang>

## J

<lang j>swapElems=: |.@:{`[`]}

stoogeSort=: 3 : 0

``` (0,<:#y) stoogeSort y
```
``` if. >/x{y do. y=.x swapElems y end.
if. 1<-~/x do.
t=. <.3%~1+-~/x
(x-0,t) stoogeSort (x+t,0) stoogeSort (x-0,t) stoogeSort y
else. y end.
```

)</lang> Example: <lang j> (,: stoogeSort) ?~13 3 10 8 4 7 12 1 2 11 6 5 9 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 </lang>

## Java

<lang java>import java.util.Arrays;

public class Stooge {

```   public static void main(String[] args) {
int[] nums = {1, 4, 5, 3, -6, 3, 7, 10, -2, -5};
stoogeSort(nums);
System.out.println(Arrays.toString(nums));
}
```
```   public static void stoogeSort(int[] L) {
stoogeSort(L, 0, L.length - 1);
}
```
```   public static void stoogeSort(int[] L, int i, int j) {
if (L[j] < L[i]) {
int tmp = L[i];
L[i] = L[j];
L[j] = tmp;
}
if (j - i > 1) {
int t = (j - i + 1) / 3;
stoogeSort(L, i, j - t);
stoogeSort(L, i + t, j);
stoogeSort(L, i, j - t);
}
}
```

}</lang>

Output:
`[-6, -5, -2, 1, 3, 3, 4, 5, 7, 10]`

## JavaScript

<lang javascript>function stoogeSort (array, i, j) {

```   if (j === undefined) {
j = array.length - 1;
}
```
```   if (i === undefined) {
i = 0;
}
```
```   if (array[j] < array[i]) {
var aux = array[i];
array[i] = array[j];
array[j] = aux;
}
```
```   if (j - i > 1) {
var t = Math.floor((j - i + 1) / 3);
stoogeSort(array, i, j-t);
stoogeSort(array, i+t, j);
stoogeSort(array, i, j-t);
}
```

};</lang> Example: <lang javascript>arr = [9,1,3,10,13,4,2]; stoogeSort(arr); console.log(arr);</lang>

Output:
`[1, 2, 3, 4, 9, 10, 13]`

## jq

Works with: jq version 1.4

<lang jq>def stoogesort:

``` def swap(i;j): .[i] as \$t | .[i] = .[j] | .[j] = \$t;

# for efficiency, define an auxiliary function
# that takes as input [L, i, j]
def ss: .[1] as \$i | .[2] as \$j
| .[0]
| if .[\$j] < .[\$i] then swap(\$i;\$j) else . end
| if \$j - \$i > 1 then
((\$j - \$i + 1) / 3 | floor) as \$t
| [., \$i, \$j-\$t] | ss
```

| [., \$i+\$t, \$j] | ss | [., \$i, \$j-\$t] | ss

```      else .
end;
```
``` [., 0, length-1] | ss;</lang>
```

Example <lang jq>([],

```[1],
[1,2],
[1,3,2,4],
[1,4,5,3,-6,3,7,10,-2,-5]
```

) | stoogesort</lang>

Output:

<lang sh>\$ jq -c -n -f stooge_sort.jq [] [1] [1,2] [1,2,3,4] [-6,-5,-2,1,3,3,4,5,7,10]</lang>

## Julia

Works with: Julia version 0.6
Translation of: Matlab

<lang julia>function stoogesort!(a::Array, i::Int=1, j::Int=length(a))

```   if a[j] < a[i]
ai, j = aj, i;
end
```
```   if (j - i) > 1
t = round(Int, (j - i + 1) / 3)
a = stoogesort!(a, i,     j - t)
a = stoogesort!(a, i + t, j)
a = stoogesort!(a, i,     j - t)
end
```
```   return a
```

end

x = randn(10) @show x stoogesort!(x)</lang>

Output:
```x = [0.222881, -1.06902, -1.07703, 0.466872, 1.52261, -0.25279, -1.72147, -0.217577, -0.556917, 2.13601]
stoogesort!(x) = [-1.72147, -1.07703, -1.06902, -0.556917, -0.25279, -0.217577, 0.222881, 0.466872, 1.52261, 2.13601]```

## Kotlin

<lang scala>// version 1.1.0

fun stoogeSort(a: IntArray, i: Int, j: Int) {

```   if (a[j] < a[i]) {
val temp = a[j]
a[j] = a[i]
a[i] = temp
}
if (j - i > 1) {
val t = (j - i + 1) / 3
stoogeSort(a, i, j - t)
stoogeSort(a, i + t, j)
stoogeSort(a, i, j - t)
}
```

}

fun main(args: Array<String>) {

```   val a = intArrayOf(100, 2, 56, 200, -52, 3, 99, 33, 177, -199)
println("Original : \${a.asList()}")
stoogeSort(a, 0, a.size - 1)
println("Sorted   : \${a.asList()}")
```

}</lang>

Output:
```Original : [100, 2, 56, 200, -52, 3, 99, 33, 177, -199]
Sorted   : [-199, -52, 2, 3, 33, 56, 99, 100, 177, 200]
```

## Lua

An example using a Y combinator for anonymous recursion and made generic with an optional predicate parameter.

<lang lua> local Y = function (f)

``` return (function(x) return x(x) end)(function(x) return f(function(...) return x(x)(...) end) end)
```

end

function stoogesort(L, pred)

``` pred = pred or function(a,b) return a < b end
```
``` Y(function(recurse)
return function(i,j)
if pred(L[j], L[i]) then
L[j],L[i] = L[i],L[j]
end
if j - i > 1 then
local t = math.floor((j - i + 1)/3)
recurse(i,j-t)
recurse(i+t,j)
recurse(i,j-t)
end
end
end)(1,#L)

return L
```

end

print(unpack(stoogesort{9,7,8,5,6,3,4,2,1,0}))

</lang>

## Maple

<lang Maple>swap := proc(arr, a, b) local temp := arr[a]; arr[a] := arr[b]; arr[b] := temp; end proc:

stoogesort:= proc(arr, start_index, end_index) local cur; if (arr[end_index] < arr[start_index]) then swap(arr, start_index, end_index); end if;

if end_index - start_index > 1 then cur := trunc((end_index - start_index + 1)/3); stoogesort(arr, start_index, end_index - cur); stoogesort(arr, start_index + cur, end_index); stoogesort(arr, start_index, end_index - cur); end if;

return arr; end proc:

arr := Array([4, 2, 6, 1, 3, 7, 9, 5, 8]): stoogesort(arr, 1, numelems(arr));</lang>

Output:
```[1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9]
```

## Mathematica/Wolfram Language

<lang Mathematica>stoogeSort[lst_, I_, J_] := Module[{i = I, j = J, list = lst},

```If[listj < listi, list[[{i,j}]] = list[[{j,i}]];]
If[(j-i) > 1, t = Round[(j-i+1)/3];
list=stoogeSort[list,i,j-t];
list=stoogeSort[list,i+t,j];
list=stoogeSort[list,i,j-t];];
list
```

]</lang>

Output:
```stoogeSort[{3,2,9,6,8},1,5]
{2,3,6,8,9}```

## MATLAB / Octave

<lang MATLAB>%Required inputs: %i = 1 %j = length(list) % function list = stoogeSort(list,i,j)

```   if list(j) < list(i)
list([i j]) = list([j i]);
end

if (j - i) > 1
t = round((j-i+1)/3);
list = stoogeSort(list,i,j-t);
list = stoogeSort(list,i+t,j);
list = stoogeSort(list,i,j-t);
end
```

end</lang>

Output:

<lang MATLAB>>> stoogeSort([1 -6 4 -9],1,4)

ans =

```   -9    -6     1     4</lang>
```

## MAXScript

<lang MAXScript>fn stoogeSort arr i: j: = ( if i == unsupplied do i = 1 if j == unsupplied do j = arr.count

if arr[j] < arr[i] do ( swap arr[j] arr[i] ) if j - i > 1 do ( local t = (j - i+1)/3 arr = stoogeSort arr i:i j:(j-t) arr = stoogeSort arr i:(i+t) j:j arr = stoogeSort arr i:i j:(j-t) ) return arr )</lang>

Output:

<lang MAXScript>a = for i in 1 to 15 collect random 1 20

1. (10, 2, 1, 19, 18, 20, 18, 5, 13, 2, 13, 9, 7, 10, 6)

stoogeSort a

1. (1, 2, 2, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 10, 13, 13, 18, 18, 19, 20)

</lang>

## NetRexx

<lang NetRexx>/* NetRexx */ options replace format comments java crossref savelog symbols binary

iList = [int 1, 4, 5, 3, -6, 3, 7, 10, -2, -5, 7, 5, 9, -3, 7] sList = Arrays.copyOf(iList, iList.length)

sList = stoogeSort(sList)

lists = [iList, sList] loop ln = 0 to lists.length - 1

``` cl = lists[ln]
rpt = Rexx()
loop ct = 0 to cl.length - 1
rpt = rpt cl[ct]
end ct
say '['rpt.strip().changestr(' ', ',')']'
end ln
```

return

method stoogeSort(L_ = int[], i_ = 0, j_ = L_.length - 1) public static returns int[]

``` if L_[j_] < L_[i_] then do
Lt     = L_[i_]
L_[i_] = L_[j_]
L_[j_] = Lt
end
if j_ - i_ > 1 then do
t_ = (j_ - i_ + 1) % 3
L_ = stoogeSort(L_, i_, j_ - t_)
L_ = stoogeSort(L_, i_ + t_, j_)
L_ = stoogeSort(L_, i_, j_ - t_)
end
```
``` return L_
```

</lang>

Output:
```[1,4,5,3,-6,3,7,10,-2,-5,7,5,9,-3,7]
[-6,-5,-3,-2,1,3,3,4,5,5,7,7,7,9,10]
```

## Nim

<lang nim>proc stoogeSort[T](a: var openarray[T], i, j: int) =

``` if a[j] < a[i]: swap a[i], a[j]
if j - i > 1:
let t = (j - i + 1) div 3
stoogeSort(a, i, j - t)
stoogeSort(a, i + t, j)
stoogeSort(a, i, j - t)
```

var a = @[4, 65, 2, -31, 0, 99, 2, 83, 782] stoogeSort a, 0, a.high echo a</lang>

Output:
`@[-31, 0, 2, 2, 4, 65, 83, 99, 782]`

## Objeck

<lang objeck> bundle Default {

``` class Stooge {
function : Main(args : String[]) ~ Nil {
nums := [1, 4, 5, 3, -6, 3, 7, 10, -2, -5];
StoogeSort(nums);
each(i : nums) {
IO.Console->Print(nums[i])->Print(",");
};
IO.Console->PrintLine();
}

function : native : StoogeSort(l : Int[]) ~ Nil {
StoogeSort(l, 0, l->Size() - 1);
}

function : native : StoogeSort(l : Int[], i : Int, j : Int) ~ Nil {
if(l[j] < l[i]) {
tmp := l[i];
l[i] := l[j];
l[j] := tmp;
};

if(j - i > 1) {
t := (j - i + 1) / 3;
StoogeSort(l, i, j - t);
StoogeSort(l, i + t, j);
StoogeSort(l, i, j - t);
};
}
}
```

} </lang>

## OCaml

<lang ocaml>let swap ar i j =

``` let tmp = ar.(i) in
ar.(i) <- ar.(j);
ar.(j) <- tmp
```

let stoogesort ar =

``` let rec aux i j =
if ar.(j) < ar.(i) then
swap ar i j
else if j - i > 1 then begin
let t = (j - i + 1) / 3 in
aux (i) (j-t);
aux (i+t) (j);
aux (i) (j-t);
end
in
aux 0 (Array.length ar - 1)</lang>
```

testing: <lang ocaml>let () =

``` let ar = [| 3; 1; 7; 2; 6; 5; 4; 9; 8 |] in
stoogesort ar;
Array.iter (Printf.printf " %d") ar;
print_newline()</lang>
```

## ooRexx

Translation of: NetRexx

<lang ooRexx>/* Rexx */

call demo return exit

-- ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- -- Stooge sort implementation -- -----------------------------------------------------------------------------

routine stoogeSort
``` use arg rL_, i_ = 0, j_ = .nil
if j_ = .nil then j_ = rL_~items() - 1
```
``` if rL_~get(j_) < rL_~get(i_) then do
Lt = rL_~get(i_)
rL_~set(i_, rL_~get(j_))
rL_~set(j_, Lt)
end
if j_ - i_ > 1 then do
t_ = (j_ - i_ + 1) % 3
rL_ = stoogeSort(rL_, i_, j_ - t_)
rL_ = stoogeSort(rL_, i_ + t_, j_)
rL_ = stoogeSort(rL_, i_, j_ - t_)
end
```
``` return rL_
```

-- ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- -- Demonstrate the implementation -- -----------------------------------------------------------------------------

routine demo
``` iList = .nlist~of(1, 4, 5, 3, -6, 3, 7, 10, -2, -5, 7, 5, 9, -3, 7)
sList = iList~copy()
```
``` placesList = .nlist~of( -
"UK  London",     "US  New York",   "US  Boston",     "US  Washington" -
, "UK  Washington", "US  Birmingham", "UK  Birmingham", "UK  Boston"     -
)
```
``` sList = stoogeSort(sList)
sortedList = stoogeSort(placesList~copy())
```
``` iLists = .list~of(iList, sList)
loop ln = 0 to iLists~items() - 1
icl = iLists[ln]
rpt =
loop ct = 0 to icl~items() - 1
rpt = rpt icl[ct]
end ct
say '['rpt~strip()~changestr(' ', ',')']'
end ln
```
``` say
sLists = .list~of(placesList, sortedList)
loop ln = 0 to sLists~items() - 1
scl = sLists[ln]
loop ct = 0 to scl~items() - 1
say right(ct + 1, 3)':' scl[ct]
end ct
say
end ln
```
``` return
```

-- ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- -- Helper class. Map get and set methods for easier conversion from java.util.List -- -----------------------------------------------------------------------------

class NList mixinclass List public

-- Map get() to at()

method get
``` use arg ix
return self~at(ix)
```

-- Map set() to put()

method set
``` use arg ix, item
self~put(item, ix)
return
```

</lang>

Output:
```[1,4,5,3,-6,3,7,10,-2,-5,7,5,9,-3,7]
[-6,-5,-3,-2,1,3,3,4,5,5,7,7,7,9,10]

1: UK  London
2: US  New York
3: US  Boston
4: US  Washington
5: UK  Washington
6: US  Birmingham
7: UK  Birmingham
8: UK  Boston

1: UK  Birmingham
2: UK  Boston
3: UK  London
4: UK  Washington
5: US  Birmingham
6: US  Boston
7: US  New York
8: US  Washington
```

## Oz

<lang oz>declare

``` proc {StoogeSort Arr}
proc {Swap I J}
Tmp = Arr.I
in
Arr.I := Arr.J
Arr.J := Tmp
end

proc {Sort I J}
Size = J-I+1
in
if Arr.J < Arr.I then
{Swap I J}
end
if Size >= 3 then
Third = Size div 3
in
{Sort I J-Third}
{Sort I+Third J}
{Sort I J-Third}
end
end
in
{Sort {Array.low Arr} {Array.high Arr}}
end
```
``` Arr = {Tuple.toArray unit(1 4 5 3 ~6 3 7 10 ~2 ~5 7 5 9 ~3 7)}
```

in

``` {System.printInfo "\nUnsorted: "}
for I in {Array.low Arr}..{Array.high Arr} do
{System.printInfo Arr.I#", "}
end
```
``` {StoogeSort Arr}
```
``` {System.printInfo "\nSorted  : "}
for I in {Array.low Arr}..{Array.high Arr} do
{System.printInfo Arr.I#", "}
end</lang>
```
Output:
```Unsorted: 1, 4, 5, 3, -6, 3, 7, 10, -2, -5, 7, 5, 9, -3, 7,
Sorted  : -6, -5, -3, -2, 1, 3, 3, 4, 5, 5, 7, 7, 7, 9, 10,```

## PARI/GP

<lang parigp>stoogeSort(v)={

``` local(v=v); \\ Give children access to v
ss(1,#v);   \\ Sort
v
```

}

ss(i,j)={

``` my(t);
if(v[j]<v[i],
t=v[i];
v[i]=v[j];
v[j]=t
);
if(j-i > 1,
t=(1+j-i)\3;
ss(i,j-t);
ss(i+t,j);
ss(i,j-t)
)
```

};</lang>

## Pascal

<lang pascal>program StoogeSortDemo;

type

``` TIntArray = array of integer;
```

procedure stoogeSort(var m: TIntArray; i, j: integer);

``` var
t, temp: integer;
begin
if m[j] < m[i] then
begin
temp := m[j];
m[j] := m[i];
m[i] := temp;
end;
if j - i > 1 then
begin
t := (j - i + 1) div 3;
stoogesort(m, i, j-t);
stoogesort(m, i+t, j);
stoogesort(m, i, j-t);
end;
end;
```

var

``` data: TIntArray;
i: integer;
```

begin

``` setlength(data, 8);
Randomize;
writeln('The data before sorting:');
for i := low(data) to high(data) do
begin
data[i] := Random(high(data));
write(data[i]:4);
end;
writeln;
stoogeSort(data, low(data), high(data));
writeln('The data after sorting:');
for i := low(data) to high(data) do
begin
write(data[i]:4);
end;
writeln;
```

end.</lang>

Output:
```./StoogeSort
The data before sorting:
6   1   2   1   5   2   1   5
The data after sorting:
1   1   1   2   2   5   5   6
```

## Perl

<lang perl>sub stooge {

```       use integer;
my (\$x, \$i, \$j) = @_;
```
```       \$i //= 0;
\$j //= \$#\$x;
```
```       if ( \$x->[\$j] < \$x->[\$i] ) {
@\$x[\$i, \$j] = @\$x[\$j, \$i];
}
if ( \$j - \$i > 1 ) {
my \$t = (\$j - \$i + 1) / 3;
stooge( \$x, \$i,      \$j - \$t );
stooge( \$x, \$i + \$t, \$j      );
stooge( \$x, \$i,      \$j - \$t );
}
```

}

my @a = map (int rand(100), 1 .. 10); print "Before @a\n"; stooge(\@a); print "After @a\n"; </lang>

## Phix

```with javascript_semantics

function stoogesort(sequence s, integer i=1, j=length(s))
if s[j]<s[i] then
{s[i],s[j]} = {s[j],s[i]}
end if
if j-i>1 then
integer t = floor((j-i+1)/3)
s = stoogesort(s,i,  j-t)
s = stoogesort(s,i+t,j  )
s = stoogesort(s,i,  j-t)
end if
return s
end function

?stoogesort(shuffle(tagset(10)))
```
Output:
```{1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10}
```

## PHP

<lang php> function stoogeSort(&\$arr, \$i, \$j) { if(\$arr[\$j] < \$arr[\$i]) { list(\$arr[\$j],\$arr[\$i]) = array(\$arr[\$i], \$arr[\$j]); } if((\$j - \$i) > 1) { \$t = (\$j - \$i + 1) / 3; stoogesort(\$arr, \$i, \$j - \$t); stoogesort(\$arr, \$i + \$t, \$j); stoogesort(\$arr, \$i, \$j - \$t); } } </lang>

## PicoLisp

<lang PicoLisp>(de stoogeSort (L N)

```  (default N (length L))
(let P (nth L N)
(when (> (car L) (car P))
(xchg L P) ) )
(when (> N 2)
(let D (/ N 3)
(stoogeSort L (- N D))
(stoogeSort (nth L (inc D)) (- N D))
(stoogeSort L (- N D)) ) )
L )</lang>
```

Test:

```: (apply < (stoogeSort (make (do 100 (link (rand))))))
-> T```

## PL/I

<lang pli>stoogesort: procedure (L) recursive; /* 16 August 2010 */

```  declare L(*) fixed binary;
declare (i, j, t, temp) fixed binary;
```
```  j = hbound(L,1);
do i = lbound(L, 1) to j;
if L(j) < L(i) then
do; temp = L(i); L(i) = L(j); L(j) = temp; end;
if j - i > 1 then
do;
t = (j - i + 1)/3;
call stoogesort(L, i  , j-t);
call stoogesort(L, i+t, j  );
call stoogesort(L, i  , j-t);
end;
end;
```

end stoogesort;</lang>

## PowerBASIC

PowerBASIC for DOS can use the BASIC code above, by removing `CONST` and changing all instances of `arraysize` to `%arraysize` (note the percent sign).

This version is closely based on the BASIC code above.

<lang powerbasic>%arraysize = 10

SUB stoogesort (L() AS LONG, i AS LONG, j AS LONG)

```   IF L(j) < L(i) THEN SWAP L(i), L(j)
IF (j - i) > 1 THEN
DIM t AS LONG
t = (j - i + 1) / 3
stoogesort L(), i, j - t
stoogesort L(), i + t, j
stoogesort L(), i, j - t
END IF
```

END SUB

FUNCTION PBMAIN () AS LONG

```   RANDOMIZE TIMER
```
```   DIM x(%arraysize) AS LONG
DIM i AS LONG, s AS STRING
```
```   s = "Before: "
FOR i = 0 TO %arraysize
x(i) = INT(RND * 100)
s = s & STR\$(x(i)) & " "
NEXT
```
```   stoogesort x(), 0, %arraysize
```
```   #IF %DEF(%PB_CC32)
PRINT s
s = ""
#ELSE
s = s & \$CRLF
#ENDIF
```
```   s = s & "After: "
FOR i = 0 TO %arraysize
s = s & STR\$(x(i)) & " "
NEXT
```
```   ? s
```

END FUNCTION</lang>

Output:
```Before:  88  32  82  88  0  82  65  87  40  1  69
After:  0  1  32  40  65  69  82  82  87  88  88
Before:  60  64  95  11  52  26  7  4  51  67  47
After:  4  7  11  26  47  51  52  60  64  67  95
Before:  47  88  67  76  60  66  69  86  92  41  6
After:  6  41  47  60  66  67  69  76  88  86  92
```

## PowerShell

<lang PowerShell>Function StoogeSort( [Int32[]] \$L ) { \$i = 0 \$j = \$L.length-1 if( \$L[\$j] -lt \$L[\$i] ) { \$L[\$i] = \$L[\$i] -bxor \$L[\$j] \$L[\$j] = \$L[\$i] -bxor \$L[\$j] \$L[\$i] = \$L[\$i] -bxor \$L[\$j] } if( \$j -gt 1 ) { \$t = [int] ( ( \$j + 1 ) / 3 ) \$k = \$j - \$t + 1 [Array]::Copy( [Int32[]] ( StoogeSort( \$L[0..( \$j - \$t ) ] ) ), \$L, \$k ) [Array]::ConstrainedCopy( [Int32[]] ( StoogeSort( \$L[\$t..\$j ] ) ), 0, \$L, \$t, \$k ) [Array]::Copy( [Int32[]] ( StoogeSort( \$L[0..( \$j - \$t ) ] ) ), \$L, \$k ) } \$L }

StoogeSort 9, 7, 5, 3, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8</lang>

## PureBasic

<lang PureBasic>Procedure Stooge_Sort(Array L.i(1), i=0 , j=0)

``` If j=0
j=ArraySize(L())
EndIf
If L(i)>L(j)
Swap L(i), L(j)
EndIf
If j-i>1
Protected t=(j-i+1)/3
Stooge_Sort(L(), i,   j-t)
Stooge_Sort(L(), i+t, j )
Stooge_Sort(L(), i,   j-t)
EndIf
```

EndProcedure</lang> Implementation may be as<lang PureBasic>Define AmountOfPosts=(?Stop_Data-?Start_data)/SizeOf(Integer) Dim Xyz.i(AmountOfPosts) CopyMemory(?Start_data, @Xyz(), ?Stop_Data-?Start_data)

Stooge_Sort(Xyz())

For i=0 To ArraySize(Xyz())

``` Debug Xyz(i)
```

Next i

DataSection

``` Start_data:
Data.i  1, 4, 5, 3, -6, 3, 7, 10, -2, -5, 7, 5, 9, -3, 7
Stop_Data:
```

EndDataSection</lang>

## Python

<lang python>>>> data = [1, 4, 5, 3, -6, 3, 7, 10, -2, -5, 7, 5, 9, -3, 7] >>> def stoogesort(L, i=0, j=None): if j is None: j = len(L) - 1 if L[j] < L[i]: L[i], L[j] = L[j], L[i] if j - i > 1: t = (j - i + 1) // 3 stoogesort(L, i , j-t) stoogesort(L, i+t, j ) stoogesort(L, i , j-t) return L

>>> stoogesort(data) [-6, -5, -3, -2, 1, 3, 3, 4, 5, 5, 7, 7, 7, 9, 10]</lang>

This alternate solution uses a wrapper function to compute the initial value of j rather than detecting the sentinel value None. <lang python>>>> def stoogesort(L, i, j): if L[j] < L[i]: L[i], L[j] = L[j], L[i] if j - i > 1: t = (j - i + 1) // 3 stoogesort(L, i , j-t) stoogesort(L, i+t, j ) stoogesort(L, i , j-t) return L

>>> def stooge(L): return stoogesort(L, 0, len(L) - 1)

>>> data = [1, 4, 5, 3, -6, 3, 7, 10, -2, -5, 7, 5, 9, -3, 7] >>> stooge(data) [-6, -5, -3, -2, 1, 3, 3, 4, 5, 5, 7, 7, 7, 9, 10]</lang>

## Quackery

<lang Quackery> [ 2 * 3 /mod 0 > + ] is twothirds ( n --> n )

``` [ dup 0 peek over -1 peek
2dup > iff
[ rot 0 poke -1 poke ]
else 2drop ]             is swapends   ( [ --> [ )
```
``` [ swapends
dup size 3 < if done
dup size twothirds split
swap recurse swap join
dup size 3 / split
recurse join
dup size twothirds split
swap recurse swap join ] is stoogesort ( [ --> [ )
```
``` [] 33 times [ 90 random 10 + join ]
dup echo cr
stoogesort echo</lang>
```
Output:
```[ 32 45 68 88 88 89 45 20 86 74 31 91 24 77 87 91 89 76 41 76 84 14 99 72 98 73 79 11 22 75 66 27 34 ]
[ 11 14 20 22 24 27 31 32 34 41 45 45 66 68 72 73 74 75 76 76 77 79 84 86 87 88 88 89 89 91 91 98 99 ]
```

## R

<lang R>stoogesort = function(vect) { i = 1 j = length(vect) if(vect[j] < vect[i]) vect[c(j, i)] = vect[c(i, j)] if(j - i > 1) { t = (j - i + 1) %/% 3 vect[i:(j - t)] = stoogesort(vect[i:(j - t)]) vect[(i + t):j] = stoogesort(vect[(i + t):j]) vect[i:(j - t)] = stoogesort(vect[i:(j - t)]) } vect }

v = sample(21, 20) k = stoogesort(v) v k</lang>

Output:
``` [1] 13  5 20 16 11 19 17  7  9 14 21 18  2 10  1  6  8  4 15 12
[1]  1  2  4  5  6  7  8  9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21
```

## Racket

<lang racket>

1. lang racket

(define (stooge-sort xs [i 0] [j (- (vector-length xs) 1)])

``` (define (x i) (vector-ref xs i))
(define (x! i v) (vector-set! xs i v))
(define (swap! i j) (define t (x i)) (x! i (x j)) (x! j t))
(when (> (x i) (x j)) (swap! i j))
(when (> (- j i) 1)
(define t (quotient (+ j (- i) 1) 3))
(stooge-sort xs i (- j t))
(stooge-sort xs (+ i t) j)
(stooge-sort xs i (- j t)))
xs)
```

</lang>

## Raku

(formerly Perl 6) <lang perl6>sub stoogesort( @L, \$i = 0, \$j = @L.end ) {

```   @L[\$j,\$i] = @L[\$i,\$j] if @L[\$i] > @L[\$j];
```
```   my \$interval = \$j - \$i;

if \$interval > 1 {
my \$t = ( \$interval + 1 ) div 3;
stoogesort( @L, \$i   , \$j-\$t );
stoogesort( @L, \$i+\$t, \$j    );
stoogesort( @L, \$i   , \$j-\$t );
}
return @L;
```

}

my @L = 1, 4, 5, 3, -6, 3, 7, 10, -2, -5;

stoogesort(@L).Str.say; </lang>

## REXX

This REXX example starts an array at element zero   (but any integer could be used);   a zero-
based index was used because the algorithm shown in the Rosetta Code task used zero. <lang REXX>/*REXX program sorts an integer array @. [the first element starts at index zero].*/ parse arg N . /*obtain an optional argument from C.L.*/ if N== | N=="," then N=19 /*Not specified? Then use the default.*/ call gen@ /*generate a type of scattered array. */ call show 'before sort' /*show the before array elements. */ say copies('▒', wN+wV+ 50) /*show a separator line (between shows)*/ call stoogeSort 0, N /*invoke the Stooge Sort. */ call show ' after sort' /*show the after array elements. */ exit /*stick a fork in it, we're all done. */ /*──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────*/ gen@: wV= 0; do k=0 to N; @.k= k*2 + k*-1**k; if @.k//7==0 then @.k= -100 - k

```              wV= max(wV, length(@.k) );  end;        wN=length(N);                return
```

/*──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────*/ show: do j=0 to N; say right('element',22) right(j,wN) arg(1)":" right(@.j,wV); end;return /*──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────*/ stoogeSort: procedure expose @.; parse arg i,j /*sort from I ───► J. */

```           if @.j<@.i  then parse value @.i @.j  with  @.j @.i  /*swap  @.i  with  @.j */
if j-i>1    then do;   t=(j-i+1) % 3                 /*%:  integer division.*/
call stoogeSort  i  ,  j-t    /*invoke recursively.  */
call stoogeSort  i+t,  j      /*   "        "        */
call stoogeSort  i  ,  j-t    /*   "        "        */
end
return</lang>
```
output   when using the default (internal generated) inputs:

(Shown at three-quarter size.)

```               element  0 before sort: -100
element  1 before sort:    1
element  2 before sort:    6
element  3 before sort:    3
element  4 before sort:   12
element  5 before sort:    5
element  6 before sort:   18
element  7 before sort: -107
element  8 before sort:   24
element  9 before sort:    9
element 10 before sort:   30
element 11 before sort:   11
element 12 before sort:   36
element 13 before sort:   13
element 14 before sort: -114
element 15 before sort:   15
element 16 before sort:   48
element 17 before sort:   17
element 18 before sort:   54
element 19 before sort:   19
▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒
element  0  after sort: -114
element  1  after sort: -107
element  2  after sort: -100
element  3  after sort:    1
element  4  after sort:    3
element  5  after sort:    5
element  6  after sort:    6
element  7  after sort:    9
element  8  after sort:   11
element  9  after sort:   12
element 10  after sort:   13
element 11  after sort:   15
element 12  after sort:   17
element 13  after sort:   18
element 14  after sort:   19
element 15  after sort:   24
element 16  after sort:   30
element 17  after sort:   36
element 18  after sort:   48
element 19  after sort:   54
```

## Ring

<lang ring> test = [4, 65, 2, -31, 0, 99, 2, 83, 782, 1] stoogeSort(test, 1, len(test)) for i = 1 to 10

```   see "" + test[i] + " "
```

next see nl

func stoogeSort list, i, j

```    if list[j] < list[i]
temp = list[i]
list[i] = list[j]
list[j] = temp ok
if j - i > 1
t = (j - i + 1)/3
stoogeSort(list, i, j-t)
stoogeSort(list, i+t, j)
stoogeSort(list, i, j-t) ok
return list
</lang>
```

Output:

```-31 0 1 2 2 4 65 83 99 782
```

## Ruby

<lang ruby>class Array

``` def stoogesort
self.dup.stoogesort!
end
```
``` def stoogesort!(i = 0, j = self.length-1)
if self[j] < self[i]
self[i], self[j] = self[j], self[i]
end
if j - i > 1
t = (j - i + 1)/3
stoogesort!(i, j-t)
stoogesort!(i+t, j)
stoogesort!(i, j-t)
end
self
end
```

end

p [1,4,5,3,-6,3,7,10,-2,-5].stoogesort </lang>

Output:
`[-6, -5, -2, 1, 3, 3, 4, 5, 7, 10]`

## Rust

<lang rust>fn stoogesort<E>(a: &mut [E])

```   where E: PartialOrd
```

{

```   let len = a.len();
```
```   if a.first().unwrap() > a.last().unwrap() {
a.swap(0, len - 1);
}
if len - 1 > 1 {
let t = len / 3;
stoogesort(&mut a[..len - 1]);
stoogesort(&mut a[t..]);
stoogesort(&mut a[..len - 1]);
}
```

}

fn main() {

```   let mut numbers = vec![1_i32, 9, 4, 7, 6, 5, 3, 2, 8];
println!("Before: {:?}", &numbers);
stoogesort(&mut numbers);
println!("After: {:?}", &numbers);
```

}</lang>

## Scala

<lang Scala>object StoogeSort extends App {

``` def stoogeSort(a: Array[Int], i: Int, j: Int) {
if (a(j) < a(i)) {
val temp = a(j)
a(j) = a(i)
a(i) = temp
}
if (j - i > 1) {
val t = (j - i + 1) / 3
stoogeSort(a, i, j - t)
stoogeSort(a, i + t, j)
stoogeSort(a, i, j - t)
}
}
```
``` val a = Array(100, 2, 56, 200, -52, 3, 99, 33, 177, -199)
println(s"Original : \${a.mkString(", ")}")
stoogeSort(a, 0, a.length - 1)
println(s"Sorted   : \${a.mkString(", ")}")
```

}</lang>

See it running in your browser by Scastie (JVM).

## Sidef

<lang ruby>func stooge(x, i, j) {

```   if (x[j] < x[i]) {
x.swap(i, j)
}
```
```   if (j-i > 1) {
var t = ((j - i + 1) / 3)
stooge(x, i,     j - t)
stooge(x, i + t, j    )
stooge(x, i,     j - t)
}
```

}

var a = 10.of { 100.irand }

say "Before #{a}" stooge(a, 0, a.end) say "After #{a}"</lang>

## Smalltalk

Works with: GNU Smalltalk

<lang smalltalk>OrderedCollection extend [

```   stoogeSortFrom: i to: j [
```

(self at: j) < (self at: i) ifTrue: [ self swapElement: i with: j ]. j - i > 1

```         ifTrue: [
```

|t| t := (j - i + 1)//3. self stoogeSortFrom: i to: (j-t). self stoogeSortFrom: (i+t) to: j. self stoogeSortFrom: i to: (j-t)

```         ]
]
stoogeSort [ self stoogeSortFrom: 1 to: (self size) ]
swapElement: i with: j [
```

|t| t := self at: i.

```       self at: i put: (self at: j).
```

self at: j put: t

```   ]
```

].

|test| test := #( 1 4 5 3 -6 3 7 10 -2 -5) asOrderedCollection. test stoogeSort. test printNl.</lang>

Here is a "functional" variation (a 1:1 adaption of the original algorithm): <lang smalltalk>stoogesort := [:L :i :j |

```    (L at:i) > (L at:j) ifTrue:[
L swap:i with:j
].
(j - i + 1) > 2 ifTrue:[
t := ((j - i + 1) / 3) floor.
stoogesort value:L value:i value:j-t.
stoogesort value:L value:i+t value:j.
stoogesort value:L value:i value:j-t.
].
```

].

a := #(1 4 5 3 -6 3 7 10 -2 -5 7 5 9 -3 7) copy. stoogesort value:a value:1 value:a size. Transcript showCR:a</lang>

Output:

```#(-6 -5 -3 -2 1 3 3 4 5 5 7 7 7 9 10)
```

## Swift

<lang Swift>func stoogeSort(inout arr:[Int], _ i:Int = 0, var _ j:Int = -1) {

```   if j == -1 {
j = arr.count - 1
}

if arr[i] > arr[j] {
swap(&arr[i], &arr[j])
}

if j - i > 1 {
let t = (j - i + 1) / 3
stoogeSort(&arr, i, j - t)
stoogeSort(&arr, i + t, j)
stoogeSort(&arr, i, j - t)
}
```

}

var a = [-4, 2, 5, 2, 3, -2, 1, 100, 20]

stoogeSort(&a)

println(a)</lang>

Output:
```[-4, -2, 1, 2, 2, 3, 5, 20, 100]
```

## Tcl

Works with: Tcl version 8.5

<lang tcl>package require Tcl 8.5

proc stoogesort {L {i 0} {j -42}} {

```  if {\$j == -42} {# Magic marker
set j [expr {[llength \$L]-1}]
}
set Li [lindex \$L \$i]
set Lj [lindex \$L \$j]
if {\$Lj < \$Li} {
lset L \$i \$Lj
lset L \$j \$Li
}
if {\$j-\$i > 1} {
set t [expr {(\$j-\$i+1)/3}]
set L [stoogesort \$L \$i [expr {\$j-\$t}]]
set L [stoogesort \$L [expr {\$i+\$t}] \$j]
set L [stoogesort \$L \$i [expr {\$j-\$t}]]
}
return \$L
```

}

stoogesort {1 4 5 3 -6 3 7 10 -2 -5}</lang>

Output:
`-6 -5 -2 1 3 3 4 5 7 10`

## uBasic/4tH

Translation of: BBC BASIC

<lang>PRINT "Stooge sort:"

``` n = FUNC (_InitArray)
PROC _ShowArray (n)
PROC _Stoogesort (n)
PROC _ShowArray (n)
```

PRINT

END

_InnerStooge PARAM(2) ' Stoogesort

``` LOCAL(1)
```
``` IF @(b@) < @(a@) Then Proc _Swap (a@, b@)
IF b@ - a@ > 1 THEN
c@ = (b@ - a@ + 1)/3
PROC _InnerStooge (a@, b@-c@)
PROC _InnerStooge (a@+c@, b@)
PROC _InnerStooge (a@, b@-c@)
ENDIF
```

RETURN

_Stoogesort PARAM(1)

``` PROC _InnerStooge (0, a@ -  1)
```

RETURN

_Swap PARAM(2) ' Swap two array elements

``` PUSH @(a@)
@(a@) = @(b@)
@(b@) = POP()
```

RETURN

_InitArray ' Init example array

``` PUSH 4, 65, 2, -31, 0, 99, 2, 83, 782, 1

FOR i = 0 TO 9
@(i) = POP()
NEXT

```

RETURN (i)

_ShowArray PARAM (1) ' Show array subroutine

``` FOR i = 0 TO a@-1
PRINT @(i),
NEXT

PRINT
```

RETURN</lang>

## Wren

<lang ecmascript>var stoogeSort // recursive stoogeSort = Fn.new { |a, i, j|

```   if (a[j] < a[i]) {
var t = a[i]
a[i] = a[j]
a[j] = t
}
if (j - i > 1) {
var t = ((j - i + 1)/3).floor
stoogeSort.call(a, i, j - t)
stoogeSort.call(a, i + t, j)
stoogeSort.call(a, i, j - t)
}
```

}

var as = [ [4, 65, 2, -31, 0, 99, 2, 83, 782, 1], [7, 5, 2, 6, 1, 4, 2, 6, 3] ] for (a in as) {

```   System.print("Before: %(a)")
stoogeSort.call(a, 0, a.count-1)
System.print("After : %(a)")
System.print()
```

}</lang>

Output:
```Before: [4, 65, 2, -31, 0, 99, 2, 83, 782, 1]
After : [-31, 0, 1, 2, 2, 4, 65, 83, 99, 782]

Before: [7, 5, 2, 6, 1, 4, 2, 6, 3]
After : [1, 2, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 6, 7]
```

## XPL0

<lang XPL0>code ChOut=8, IntOut=11; \intrinsic routines

proc StoogeSort(L, I, J); \Sort array L int L, I, J; int T; [if L(J) < L(I) then

```   [T:= L(I);  L(I):= L(J);  L(J):= T]; \swap
```

if J-I > 1 then

```   [T:= (J-I+1)/3;
StoogeSort(L, I, J-T);
StoogeSort(L, I+T, J);
StoogeSort(L, I, J-T);
];
```

];

int A, I; [A:= [3, 1, 4, 1, -5, 9, 2, 6, 5, 4]; StoogeSort(A, 0, 10-1); for I:= 0 to 10-1 do [IntOut(0, A(I)); ChOut(0, ^ )]; ]</lang>

Output:
```-5 1 1 2 3 4 4 5 6 9
```

## Yorick

Based on pseudocode, except using Yorick's 1-based arrays. Sorts in place. <lang yorick>func stoogesort(&L, i, j) {

``` if(is_void(i)) i = 1;
if(is_void(j)) j = numberof(L);
if(L(j) < L(i))
L([i,j]) = L([j,i]);
if(j - i > 1) {
t = (j - i + 1)/3;
stoogesort, L, i, j-t;
stoogesort, L, i+t, j;
stoogesort, L, i, j-t;
}
```

}</lang>

Example interactive use:

```> foo = [1,4,5,3,-6,3,7,10,-2,-5]
> stoogesort, foo
> foo
[-6,-5,-2,1,3,3,4,5,7,10]```

## zkl

<lang zkl>fcn stoogeSort(list,i=0,j=Void){ if(Void==j) j=list.len() - 1; // default parameters set before call

```  if(list[j]<list[i]) list.swap(i,j);
if(j - i >1){
t:=(j - i + 1)/3;
stoogeSort(list,i  , j-t);
stoogeSort(list,i+t, j  );
stoogeSort(list,i  , j-t);
}
list
```

}</lang> <lang zkl>stoogeSort(List(67,-201,0,9,9,231,4)).println();</lang>

Output:
```L(-201,0,4,9,9,67,231)
```