# Sorting algorithms/Cycle sort

Sorting algorithms/Cycle sort is a draft programming task. It is not yet considered ready to be promoted as a complete task, for reasons that should be found in its talk page.

Sorting Algorithm
This is a sorting algorithm.   It may be applied to a set of data in order to sort it.     For comparing various sorts, see compare sorts.   For other sorting algorithms,   see sorting algorithms,   or:

O(n logn) sorts

O(n log2n) sorts
Shell Sort

 This page uses content from Wikipedia. The original article was at Cycle_sort. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with Rosetta Code, the text of Wikipedia is available under the GNU FDL. (See links for details on variance)

From the the Wikipedia entry on cycle sorting:

Cycle sort is an in-place, unstable sorting algorithm, a comparison sort that is theoretically optimal in terms of the total number of writes to the original array, unlike any other in-place sorting algorithm.
It is based on the idea that the permutation to be sorted can be factored into cycles, which can individually be rotated to give a sorted result.
Unlike nearly every other sort, items are never written elsewhere in the array simply to push them out of the way of the action.
Each value is either written zero times, if it's already in its correct position, or written one time to its correct position.
This matches the minimal number of overwrites required for a completed in-place sort.
Minimizing the number of writes is useful when making writes to some huge data set is very expensive, such as with EEPROMs like Flash memory where each write reduces the lifespan of the memory.
• Youtube Visualization and audibilization of Cycle Sort algorithm.

## 11l

Translation of: Python
```F cycleSort(&vector)
V writes = 0

L(=item) vector
V cycleStart = L.index
V pos = cycleStart
L(item2) vector[cycleStart+1..]
I item2 < item
pos++

I pos == cycleStart
L.continue

L item == vector[pos]
pos++
swap(&vector[pos], &item)
writes++

L pos != cycleStart
pos = cycleStart
L(item2) vector[cycleStart+1..]
I item2 < item
pos++

L item == vector[pos]
pos++
swap(&vector[pos], &item)
writes++

R writes

V x = [Float(0), 1, 2, 2, 2, 2, 1, 9, 3.5, 5, 8, 4, 7, 0, 6]
V xcopy = copy(x)
V writes = cycleSort(&xcopy)
I xcopy != sorted(x)
print(‘Wrong order!’)
E
print("#.\nIs correctly sorted using cycleSort to".format(x))
print("#.\nUsing #. writes.".format(xcopy, writes))```
Output:
```[0, 1, 2, 2, 2, 2, 1, 9, 3.5, 5, 8, 4, 7, 0, 6]
Is correctly sorted using cycleSort to
[0, 0, 1, 1, 2, 2, 2, 2, 3.5, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9]
Using 10 writes.
```

## 360 Assembly

Translation of: NetRexx

The program uses ASM structured macros and two ASSIST macros to keep the code as short as possible.

```*        Cycle sort                26/06/2016
CYCLESRT CSECT
USING  CYCLESRT,R13       base register
B      72(R15)            skip savearea
DC     17F'0'             savearea
STM    R14,R12,12(R13)    prolog
ST     R13,4(R15)         "
ST     R15,8(R13)         "
LR     R13,R15            "
LA     RJ,1               jcycle=1
L      R2,N               n
BCTR   R2,0               n-1
ST     R2,NM1             nm1=n-1
DO WHILE=(C,RJ,LE,NM1)    do jcycle=1 to n-1
LR     R1,RJ              jcycle
SLA    R1,2               .
L      RM,A-4(R1)         item=a(jcycle)
LR     RK,RJ              kpos=jcycle       /*find{*/
LA     RI,1(RJ)           i=jcycle+1
DO WHILE=(C,RI,LE,N)      do i=jcycle+1 to n
LR     R1,RI                i
SLA    R1,2                 .
L      R2,A-4(R1)           a(i)
IF     CR,R2,LT,RM THEN     if a(i)<item then
LA     RK,1(RK)               kpos=kpos+1
ENDIF  ,                    end if
LA     RI,1(RI)             i=i+1
ENDDO  ,                  end do            /*}*/
IF     CR,RK,NE,RJ THEN   if kpos^=jcycle then    ======
LR     R1,RK              kpos              /*put{*/
SLA    R1,2               .
LA     R2,A-4(R1)         @a(kpos)
DO WHILE=(C,RM,EQ,0(R2))  do while item=a(kpos)
LA     RK,1(RK)             kpos=kpos+1
LA     R2,4(R2)             @a(kpos)=@a(kpos)+4
ENDDO  ,                  end do
LR     R1,RK              kpos
SLA    R1,2               .
LA     R2,A-4(R1)         @a(kpos)
L      RT,0(R2)           temp=a(kpos)
ST     RM,0(R2)           a(kpos)=item
LR     RM,RT              item=temp
L      R2,WRITES          writes
LA     R2,1(R2)           writes+1
ST     R2,WRITES          writes=writes+1   /*}*/
DO WHILE=(CR,RK,NE,RJ)    do while(kpos^=jcycle)   -----
LR     RK,RJ                kpos=jcycle       /*find{*/
LA     RI,1(RJ)             i=jcycle+1
DO WHILE=(C,RI,LE,N)        do i=jcycle+1 to n
LR     R1,RI                  i
SLA    R1,2                   .
L      R2,A-4(R1)             a(i)
IF     CR,R2,LT,RM THEN       if a(i)<item then
LA     RK,1(RK)                 kpos=kpos+1
ENDIF  ,                       end if
LA     RI,1(RI)               i=i+1
ENDDO  ,                    end do            /*}*/
LR     R1,RK                kpos              /*put{*/
SLA    R1,2                 .
LA     R2,A-4(R1)           @a(kpos)
DO WHILE=(C,RM,EQ,0(R2))    do while item=a(kpos)
LA     RK,1(RK)               kpos=kpos+1
LA     R2,4(R2)               @a(kpos)=@a(kpos)+4
ENDDO  ,                    end do
LR     R1,RK                kpos
SLA    R1,2                 .
LA     R2,A-4(R1)           @a(kpos)
L      RT,0(R2)             temp=a(kpos)
ST     RM,0(R2)             a(kpos)=item
LR     RM,RT                item=temp
L      R2,WRITES            writes
LA     R2,1(R2)             writes+1
ST     R2,WRITES            writes=writes+1   /*}*/
ENDDO  ,                  end while   ------------------
ENDIF  ,                  end if   =====================
LA     RJ,1(RJ)           jcycle=jcycle+1
ENDDO  ,                  end do jcycle
LA     R3,PG              pgi=0
LA     RI,1               i=1
DO     WHILE=(C,RI,LE,N)  do i=1 to n
LR     R1,RI                i
SLA    R1,2                 .
L      R2,A-4(R1)           a(i)
XDECO  R2,XDEC              edit a(i)
MVC    0(4,R3),XDEC+8       output a(i)
LA     R3,4(R3)             pgi=pgi+4
LA     RI,1(RI)             i=i+1
ENDDO  ,                  end do
XPRNT  PG,L'PG            print buffer
L      R1,WRITES          writes
XDECO  R1,XDEC            edit writes
MVC    XDEC(7),=CL7'writes='
XPRNT  XDEC,L'XDEC        print buffer
L      R13,4(0,R13)       epilog
LM     R14,R12,12(R13)    "
XR     R15,R15            "
BR     R14                exit
A     DC F'4',F'65',F'2',F'-31',F'0',F'99',F'2',F'83',F'782',F'1'
DC F'45',F'82',F'69',F'82',F'104',F'58',F'88',F'112',F'89',F'74'
N        DC     A((N-A)/L'A)       number of items of a
NM1      DS     F                  n-1
PG       DC     CL80' '            buffer
XDEC     DS     CL12               temp for xdeco
WRITES   DC     F'0'               number of writes
YREGS
RI       EQU    6                  i
RJ       EQU    7                  jcycle
RK       EQU    8                  kpos
RT       EQU    9                  temp
RM       EQU    10                 item
END    CYCLESRT```
Output:
``` -31   0   1   2   2   4  45  58  65  69  74  82  82  83  88  89  99 104 112 782
```

## Action!

```PROC PrintArray(INT ARRAY a INT size)
INT i

Put('[)
FOR i=0 TO size-1
DO
IF i>0 THEN Put(' ) FI
PrintI(a(i))
OD
Put(']) PutE()
RETURN

PROC CycleSort(INT ARRAY a INT size)
BYTE start,i,pos
INT item,tmp

FOR start=0 TO size-2
DO
item=a(start)
pos=start
FOR i=start+1 TO size-1
DO
IF a(i)<item THEN
pos==+1
FI
OD
IF pos#start THEN
tmp=a(pos) a(pos)=item item=tmp

WHILE pos#start
DO
pos=start
FOR i=start+1 TO size-1
DO
IF a(i)<item THEN
pos==+1
FI
OD
WHILE item=a(pos)
DO
pos==+1
OD
tmp=a(pos) a(pos)=item item=tmp
OD
FI
OD
RETURN

PROC Test(INT ARRAY a INT size)
PrintE("Array before sort:")
PrintArray(a,size)
CycleSort(a,size)
PrintE("Array after sort:")
PrintArray(a,size)
PutE()
RETURN

PROC Main()
INT ARRAY
a(10)=[1 4 65535 0 3 7 4 8 20 65530],
b(21)=[10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
65535 65534 65533 65532 65531
65530 65529 65528 65527 65526],
c(8)=[101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108],
d(12)=[1 65535 1 65535 1 65535 1
65535 1 65535 1 65535]

Test(a,10)
Test(b,21)
Test(c,8)
Test(d,12)
RETURN```
Output:
```Array before sort:
[1 4 -1 0 3 7 4 8 20 -6]
Array after sort:
[-6 -1 0 1 3 4 4 7 8 20]

Array before sort:
[10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 -9 -10]
Array after sort:
[-10 -9 -8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10]

Array before sort:
[101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108]
Array after sort:
[101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108]

Array before sort:
[1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1]
Array after sort:
[-1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 1 1 1 1 1 1]
```

## ALGOL 68

Translation of: Action!
```BEGIN # cycle sort - translated from the Action! sample                      #

# prints the elements of a                                               #
OP   SHOW = ( REF[]INT a )VOID:
BEGIN
print( ( "[" ) );
FOR i FROM LWB a TO UPB a DO
print( ( " ", whole( a[ i ], 0 ) ) )
OD;
print( " ]" )
END # SHOW # ;

# swaps a and b                                                          #
PRIO =:= = 1;
OP   =:= = ( REF INT a, b )VOID: BEGIN INT t := a; a := b; b := t END;

# cycle sorts a                                                          #
PROC cycle sort = ( REF[]INT a )VOID:
FOR start FROM LWB a TO UPB a - 1 DO
INT item := a[ start ];
INT pos  := start;
FOR i FROM start + 1 TO UPB a DO
IF a[ i ] < item THEN
pos +:= 1
FI
OD;
IF pos /= start THEN
item =:= a[ pos ];
WHILE pos /= start DO
pos := start;
FOR i FROM start + 1 TO UPB a DO
IF a[ i ] < item THEN
pos +:= 1
FI
OD;
WHILE item = a[ pos ] DO
pos +:= 1
OD;
a[ pos ] =:= item
OD
FI
OD # cycle sort # ;

PROC test = ( REF[]INT a )VOID:
BEGIN
print( ( "Array before sort: " ) ); SHOW a; print( ( newline ) );
cycle sort( a );
print( ( "Array after  sort: " ) ); SHOW a; print( ( newline ) );
END # test # ;

BEGIN # tests                                                            #
[ 10 ]INT a := []INT( 1, 4, -1, 0, 3, 7, 4, 8, 20, -6 );
[ 21 ]INT b := []INT( 10, 9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, 0
, -1, -2, -3, -4, -5, -6, -7, -8, -9, -10
);
[  8 ]INT c := []INT( 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108 );
[ 12 ]INT d := []INT( 1 ,-1, 1,-1, 1, -1, 1, -1, 1, -1, 1, -1 );

test( a );
test( b );
test( c );
test( d )
END
END```
Output:
```Array before sort: [ 1 4 -1 0 3 7 4 8 20 -6 ]
Array after  sort: [ -6 -1 0 1 3 4 4 7 8 20 ]
Array before sort: [ 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 -9 -10 ]
Array after  sort: [ -10 -9 -8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 ]
Array before sort: [ 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 ]
Array after  sort: [ 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 ]
Array before sort: [ 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 ]
Array after  sort: [ -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ]
```

## ALGOL W

Translation of: Lua
```begin % cycle sort                                                                  %

% cycle sorts a, the bounds of a must be specified in lb and ub                 %
integer procedure cycleSort ( integer array a ( * ); integer value lb, ub ) ;
begin
% swaps a and b                                                             %
procedure swap ( integer value result a, b ) ;
begin integer t;
t := a; a := b; b := t;
swaps := swaps + 1
end swap ;
integer swaps, cycleStart, cycleEnd, val, pos;
swaps      := 0;
cycleStart := lb - 1;
while cycleStart < ub do begin
val := a( cycleStart + 1 );
% count the number of values that are smaller than val since cycleStart %
pos := cycleStart;
for i := cycleStart + 1 until ub - 1 do begin
if a( i + 1 ) < val then pos := pos + 1
end for_i ;
if pos not = cycleStart then begin                       % there aren't any %
while val = a( pos + 1 ) do pos := pos + 1;
swap( a( pos + 1 ), val );                 %  put val in final position %
% repeat as long as we can find values to swap                      %
% otherwise start new cycle                                         %
while pos not = cycleStart do begin
pos := cycleStart;
for i := cycleStart + 1 until ub- 1 do begin
if a( i + 1 ) < val then pos := pos + 1;
end for_i ;
while val = a( pos + 1 ) do pos := pos + 1;
swap( a( pos + 1 ), val );
end while_pos_ne_cycleStart
end if_pos_ne_cycleStart ;
cycleStart := cycleStart + 1
end while_cycleStart_lt_ub ;
swaps
end cycleSort ;

% prints the elements of a from lb to ub                                        %
procedure writeonArray( integer array a ( * ); integer value lb, ub ) ;
begin
writeon( "(" );
for i := lb until ub do writeon( i_w := 1, s_w := 0, " ", a( i ) );
writeon( " )" )
end writeonArray ;

begin % tests                                                                   %
integer array arr ( 1 :: 16 );
integer aPos, swaps;
aPos := 1;
for v := 5, 0, 1, 2, 2, 3, 5, 1, 1, 0, 5, 6, 9, 8, 0, 1 do begin
arr( aPos ) := v;
aPos        := aPos + 1
end for_v ;
writeonArray(       arr, 1, 16 );
writeon( " -> " );
swaps := cycleSort( arr, 1, 16 );
writeonArray(       arr, 1, 16 );
write( i_w := 1, s_w := 0, "swaps: ", swaps )
end
end.```
Output:
```( 5 0 1 2 2 3 5 1 1 0 5 6 9 8 0 1 ) -> ( 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 2 2 3 5 5 5 6 8 9 )
swaps: 14
```

## Arturo

```cycleSort: function [items][
a: new items
position: 0
loop 0..dec dec size a 'cycleStart [
item: a\[cycleStart]
position: cycleStart
loop (cycleStart+1)..dec size a 'i [
if (get a i) < item -> position: position + 1
]
if position = cycleStart -> continue
while [item = a\[position]] -> position: position + 1

tmp: a\[position]
a\[position]: item
item: tmp

while [position <> cycleStart][
position: cycleStart
loop (cycleStart+1)..dec size a 'i [
if a\[i] < item -> position: position + 1
]
while [item = a\[position]] -> position: position + 1

tmp: a\[position]
a\[position]: item
item: tmp
]
]
return a
]

print cycleSort [3 1 2 8 5 7 9 4 6]
```
Output:
`1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9`

## BCPL

```get "libhdr"

// Sort an array in place and return the number of writes
let cyclesort(v, len) = valof
\$(  let writes, temp = 0, ?

// Loop through the array to find cycles to rotate
for start = 0 to len-1
\$(  let item = v!start

// Find where to put the item
let pos = start
for i = start+1 to len-1
if v!i < item then pos := pos + 1

// If the item is already there, this is not a cycle
if pos = start loop

// Otherwise, put the item there or right after any duplicates
while item = v!pos do pos := pos + 1

temp := v!pos
v!pos := item
item := temp
writes := writes + 1

// Rotate the rest of the cycle
until pos = start
\$(  // Find where to put the item
pos := start
for i = start+1 to len-1
if v!i < item then pos := pos + 1

// Put the item there or right after any duplicates
while item = v!pos do pos := pos + 1
temp := v!pos
v!pos := item
item := temp
writes := writes + 1
\$)
\$)
resultis writes
\$)

let writevec(v, len) be
\$(  for i = 0 to len-1 do
writef("%N ", v!i)
wrch('*N')
\$)

let start() be
\$(  let v = table 0,1,2,2,2,2,1,9,3,5,5,8,4,7,0,6
let l = 16
let w = ?
writes("Before: ") ; writevec(v, l)
w := cyclesort(v)
writes("After:  ") ; writevec(v, l)
writef("Writes: %N*N", w)
\$)```
Output:
```Before: 0 1 2 2 2 2 1 9 3 5 5 8 4 7 0 6
After:  0 0 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 4 5 5 6 7 8 9
Writes: 10```

## C

Translation of: NetRexx
```#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>

int cycleSort(int * list, size_t l_len);
void show_array(int * array, size_t a_len);

/*
* Sort an array in place and return the number of writes.
*/
int cycleSort(int * list, size_t l_len)
{
int writes = 0;

/* Loop through the array to find cycles to rotate. */
for (int cycleStart = 0; cycleStart < l_len - 1; ++cycleStart)
{
int item = list[cycleStart];
int swap_tmp;

/* Find where to put the item. */
int pos = cycleStart;
for (int i = cycleStart + 1; i < l_len; ++i)
{
if (list[i] < item)
{
++pos;
}
}

/* If the item is already there, this is not a cycle. */
if (pos == cycleStart)
{
continue;
}

/* Otherwise, put the item there or right after any duplicates. */
while (item == list[pos])
{
++pos;
}
swap_tmp = list[pos];
list[pos] = item;
item = swap_tmp;
++writes;

/* Rotate the rest of the cycle. */
while (pos != cycleStart)
{
/* Find where to put the item. */
pos = cycleStart;
for (int i = cycleStart + 1; i < l_len; ++i)
{
if (list[i] < item)
{
++pos;
}
}

/* Put the item there or right after any duplicates. */
while (item == list[pos])
{
++pos;
}
swap_tmp = list[pos];
list[pos] = item;
item = swap_tmp;
++writes;
}
}

return writes;
}

int main(int argc, char ** argv)
{
int arr[] = { 0, 1, 2, 2, 2, 2, 1, 9, 3, 5, 5, 8, 4, 7, 0, 6, };
int arr_k = sizeof(arr) / sizeof(arr[0]);
int writes;

show_array(arr, arr_k);
writes = cycleSort(arr, arr_k);
show_array(arr, arr_k);
printf("writes: %d\n", writes);

return 0;
}

void show_array(int * array, size_t a_len)
{
for (int ix = 0; ix < a_len; ++ix)
{
printf("%d ", array[ix]);
}
putchar('\n');

return;
}
```
Output:
```0 1 2 2 2 2 1 9 3 5 5 8 4 7 0 6
0 0 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 4 5 5 6 7 8 9
writes: 10
```

## C++

Based on example code on Wikipedia

```#include <time.h>
#include <iostream>
#include <vector>

using namespace std;

class cSort
{
public:
void doIt( vector<unsigned> s )
{
sq = s; display(); c_sort();
cout << "writes: " << wr << endl; display();
}
private:
void display()
{
copy( sq.begin(), sq.end(), ostream_iterator<unsigned>( std::cout, " " ) );
cout << endl;
}
void c_sort()
{
wr = 0;
unsigned it, p, vlen = static_cast<unsigned>( sq.size() );
for( unsigned c = 0; c < vlen - 1; c++ )
{
it = sq[c];
p = c;
for( unsigned d = c + 1; d < vlen; d++ )
if( sq[d] < it ) p++;

if( c == p ) continue;

doSwap( p, it );

while( c != p )
{
p = c;
for( unsigned e = c + 1; e < vlen; e++ )
if( sq[e] < it ) p++;

doSwap( p, it );
}
}
}
void doSwap( unsigned& p, unsigned& it )
{
while( sq[p] == it ) p++;
swap( it, sq[p] );
wr++;
}
vector<unsigned> sq;
unsigned wr;
};

int main(int argc, char ** argv)
{
srand( static_cast<unsigned>( time( NULL ) ) );
vector<unsigned> s;
for( int x = 0; x < 20; x++ )
s.push_back( rand() % 100 + 21 );

cSort c; c.doIt( s );
return 0;
}
```
Output:
```38 119 38 33 33 28 24 101 108 120 99 59 69 24 117 22 90 94 78 75
writes: 19
22 24 24 28 33 33 38 38 59 69 75 78 90 94 99 101 108 117 119 120
```

## D

This version doesn't use Phobos algorithms beside 'swap'. Algorithms can be used to find where to put the item1 and elsewhere.

Translation of: Python
```import std.stdio, std.algorithm;

/// Sort an array in place and return the number of writes.
uint cycleSort(T)(T[] data) pure nothrow @safe @nogc {
typeof(return) nWrites = 0;

// Loop through the data to find cycles to rotate.
foreach (immutable cycleStart, item1; data) {
// Find where to put the item1.
size_t pos = cycleStart;
foreach (item2; data[cycleStart + 1 .. \$])
if (item2 < item1)
pos++;

// If the item1 is already there, this is not a cycle.
if (pos == cycleStart)
continue;

// Otherwise, put the item1 there or right after any duplicates.
while (item1 == data[pos])
pos++;
data[pos].swap(item1);
nWrites++;

// Rotate the rest of the cycle.
while (pos != cycleStart) {
// Find where to put the item1.
pos = cycleStart;
foreach (item2; data[cycleStart + 1 .. \$])
if (item2 < item1)
pos++;

// Put the item1 there or right after any duplicates.
while (item1 == data[pos])
pos++;
data[pos].swap(item1);
nWrites++;
}
}

return nWrites;
}

void main() {
immutable x = [0, 1, 2, 2, 2, 2, 1, 9, 3.5, 5, 8, 4, 7, 0, 6];
auto xs = x.dup;
immutable nWrites = xs.cycleSort;

if (!xs.isSorted) {
"Wrong order!".writeln;
} else {
writeln(x, "\nIs correctly sorted using cycleSort to:");
writefln("%s\nusing %d writes.", xs, nWrites);
}
}
```
Output:
```[0, 1, 2, 2, 2, 2, 1, 9, 3.5, 5, 8, 4, 7, 0, 6]
Is correctly sorted using cycleSort to:
[0, 0, 1, 1, 2, 2, 2, 2, 3.5, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9]
using 10 writes.```

## EasyLang

```proc cyclesort . a[] .
for cs = 1 to len a[] - 1
item = a[cs]
pos = cs
for i = cs + 1 to len a[]
if a[i] < item
pos += 1
.
.
if pos <> cs
while item = a[pos]
pos += 1
.
t = a[pos]
a[pos] = item
item = t
while pos <> cs
pos = cs
for i = cs + 1 to len a[]
if a[i] < item
pos += 1
.
.
while item = a[pos]
pos += 1
.
t = a[pos]
a[pos] = item
item = t
.
.
.
.
d[] = [ 88 18 31 44 4 0 8 81 14 78 20 76 84 33 73 75 82 5 62 70 ]
cyclesort d[]
print d[]
```
Output:
```[ 0 4 5 8 14 18 20 31 33 44 62 70 73 75 76 78 81 82 84 88 ]
```

## Elixir

Translation of: Ruby
```defmodule Sort do
def cycleSort(list) do
tuple = List.to_tuple(list)
# Loop through the array to find cycles to rotate.
{data,writes} = Enum.reduce(0 .. tuple_size(tuple)-2, {tuple,0}, fn cycleStart,{data,writes} ->
item = elem(data, cycleStart)
pos = find_pos(data, cycleStart, item)
if pos == cycleStart do
# If the item is already there, this is not a cycle.
{data, writes}
else
# Otherwise, put the item there or right after any duplicates.
{data, item} = swap(data, pos, item)
rotate(data, cycleStart, item, writes+1)
end
end)
{Tuple.to_list(data), writes}
end

# Rotate the rest of the cycle.
defp rotate(data, cycleStart, item, writes) do
pos = find_pos(data, cycleStart, item)
{data, item} = swap(data, pos, item)
if pos==cycleStart, do: {data, writes+1},
else: rotate(data, cycleStart, item, writes+1)
end

# Find where to put the item.
defp find_pos(data, cycleStart, item) do
cycleStart + Enum.count(cycleStart+1..tuple_size(data)-1, &elem(data, &1) < item)
end

# Put the item there or right after any duplicates.
defp swap(data, pos, item) when elem(data, pos)==item, do: swap(data, pos+1, item)
defp swap(data, pos, item) do
{put_elem(data, pos, item), elem(data, pos)}
end
end

IO.inspect a = [0, 1, 2, 2, 2, 2, 1, 9, 3.5, 5, 8, 4, 7, 0, 6]
{b, writes} = Sort.cycleSort(a)
IO.puts "writes : #{writes}"
IO.inspect b
```
Output:
```[0, 1, 2, 2, 2, 2, 1, 9, 3.5, 5, 8, 4, 7, 0, 6]
writes : 10
[0, 0, 1, 1, 2, 2, 2, 2, 3.5, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9]
```

## FreeBASIC

Uses algorithm in Wikipedia article:

```' FB 1.05.0 Win64

' sort an array in place and return the number of writes
Function cycleSort(array() As Integer) As Integer
Dim length As Integer = UBound(array) - LBound(array) + 1
If Length = 0 Then Return 0
Dim As Integer item, position, writes = 0

' loop through the array to find cycles to rotate
For cycleStart As Integer = LBound(array) To UBound(array) - 1
item = array(cycleStart)

' find where to put the item
position = cycleStart
For i As Integer = cycleStart + 1 To UBound(array)
If array(i) < item Then position += 1
Next i

' If the item is already there, this is not a cycle
If position = cycleStart Then Continue For

' Otherwise, put the item there or right after any duplicates
While item = array(position)
position += 1
Wend
Swap array(position), item
writes += 1

'rotate the rest of the cycle
While position <> cycleStart
' Find where to put the item
position = cycleStart
For i As Integer = cycleStart + 1 To UBound(array)
If array(i) < item Then position += 1
Next i

' Put the item there or right after any duplicates
While item = array(position)
position += 1
Wend
Swap array(position), item
writes +=1
Wend
Next cycleStart

Return writes
End Function

Sub printArray(array() As Integer)
For i As Integer = LBound(array) To UBound(array)
Print Str(array(i)); " ";
Next
Print
End Sub

Dim array(1 To 16) As Integer = {0, 1, 2, 2, 2, 2, 1, 9, 3, 5, 5, 8, 4, 7, 0, 6}
printArray(array())
Dim writes As Integer = cycleSort(array())
Print "After sorting with"; writes; " writes :"
printArray(array())
Print
Dim array2(1 To 20) As Integer = {38, 119, 38, 33, 33, 28, 24, 101, 108, 120, 99, 59, 69, 24, 117, 22, 90, 94, 78, 75}
printArray(array2())
writes = cycleSort(array2())
Print "After sorting with"; writes; " writes :"
printArray(array2())
Print
Print "Press any key to quit"
Sleep
```
Output:
```0 1 2 2 2 2 1 9 3 5 5 8 4 7 0 6
After sorting with 10 writes :
0 0 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 4 5 5 6 7 8 9

38 119 38 33 33 28 24 101 108 120 99 59 69 24 117 22 90 94 78 75
After sorting with 19 writes :
22 24 24 28 33 33 38 38 59 69 75 78 90 94 99 101 108 117 119 120
```

## Go

This implementation was translated from the example code on Wikipedia.

```package main

import (
"fmt"
"math/rand"
"time"
)

func cyclesort(ints []int) int {
writes := 0

for cyclestart := 0; cyclestart < len(ints)-1; cyclestart++ {
item := ints[cyclestart]

pos := cyclestart

for i := cyclestart + 1; i < len(ints); i++ {
if ints[i] < item {
pos++
}
}

if pos == cyclestart {
continue
}

for item == ints[pos] {
pos++
}

ints[pos], item = item, ints[pos]

writes++

for pos != cyclestart {
pos = cyclestart
for i := cyclestart + 1; i < len(ints); i++ {
if ints[i] < item {
pos++
}
}

for item == ints[pos] {
pos++
}

ints[pos], item = item, ints[pos]
writes++
}
}

return writes
}

func main() {
rand.Seed(time.Now().Unix())

ints := rand.Perm(10)

fmt.Println(ints)
fmt.Printf("writes %d\n", cyclesort(ints))
fmt.Println(ints)
}
```
Output:
```[1 9 3 5 8 4 7 0 6 2]
writes 10
[0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9]
```

Note: output may be different due to the random numbers used.

## Groovy

Translation of: Java
```class CycleSort {
static void main(String[] args) {
int[] arr = [5, 0, 1, 2, 2, 3, 5, 1, 1, 0, 5, 6, 9, 8, 0, 1]

println(Arrays.toString(arr))

int writes = cycleSort(arr)
println(Arrays.toString(arr))
println("writes: " + writes)
}

static int cycleSort(int[] a) {
int writes = 0

for (int cycleStart = 0; cycleStart < a.length - 1; cycleStart++) {
int val = a[cycleStart]

// count the number of values that are smaller than val
// since cycleStart
int pos = cycleStart
for (int i = cycleStart + 1; i < a.length; i++) {
if (a[i] < val) {
pos++
}
}

// there aren't any
if (pos == cycleStart) {
continue
}

// skip duplicates
while (val == a[pos]) {
pos++
}

// put val into final position
int tmp = a[pos]
a[pos] = val
val = tmp
writes++

// repeat as long as we can find values to swap
// otherwise start new cycle
while (pos != cycleStart) {
pos = cycleStart
for (int i = cycleStart + 1; i < a.length; i++) {
if (a[i] < val) {
pos++
}
}

while (val == a[pos]) {
pos++
}

tmp = a[pos]
a[pos] = val
val = tmp
writes++
}
}
return writes
}
}
```
Output:
```[5, 0, 1, 2, 2, 3, 5, 1, 1, 0, 5, 6, 9, 8, 0, 1]
[0, 0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 2, 3, 5, 5, 5, 6, 8, 9]
writes: 14```

## J

J's sort is natively a single write sort, but it assigns the whole array at once. It would be trivial do the writes one at a time, and to avoid updating values which are not changed:

```noncyc=:3 :0
writes=. 0
for_item. /:~y do.
if. item ~: item_index{y do.
writes=. writes+1
y=.item item_index} y
end.
end.
smoutput (":writes),' writes'
y
)
```
Example use:
```   noncyc 9 8 15 17 4 0 1 2 17 9 3 12 11 12 19 15 3 9 16 9
17 writes
0 1 2 3 3 4 8 9 9 9 9 11 12 12 15 15 16 17 17 19
```

Meanwhile, if we just wanted the "value at a time swapping" mechanism, an idiomatic approach might look something like this:

```cyc0=:3 :0
c=. (#~ 1 < #@>)C./:/: y
writes=. 0
for_box. c do.
inds=. >box
v=. ({:inds) { y
for_ind. inds do.
writes=. writes+1
t=. ind{ y
y=. v ind} y
v=. t
end.
end.
smoutput (":writes),' writes'
y
)
```
Example use:
```   cyc0 9 8 15 17 4 0 1 2 17 9 3 12 11 12 19 15 3 9 16 9
18 writes
0 1 2 3 3 4 8 9 9 9 9 11 12 12 15 15 16 17 17 19
```

This gives us an extra write, because we're using a generic cycle abstraction.

Also that's still a bit different from the wikipedia algorithm. We might model the wikipedia algorithm like this:

```cyc1=:3 :0
writes=. 0
for_index. i.(#y)-1 do.
item=. index{y
while. item=pos{y do. pos=.pos+1 end.
writes=. writes+1
t=. pos{y
y=. item pos} y
item=. t
while. pos ~: index do.
pos=. index+item+/ .>(1+index)}.y
while. item=pos{y do. pos=.pos+1 end.
writes=. writes+1
t=. pos{y
y=. item pos} y
item=. t
end.
end.
end.
smoutput (":writes),' writes'
y
)
```
Example use:
```   cyc1 9 8 15 17 4 0 1 2 17 9 3 12 11 12 19 15 3 9 16 9
17 writes
0 1 2 3 3 4 8 9 9 9 9 11 12 12 15 15 16 17 17 19
```

Note that we've saved a write in this case, by following the wikipedia algorithm.

## Java

```import java.util.Arrays;

public class CycleSort {

public static void main(String[] args) {
int[] arr = {5, 0, 1, 2, 2, 3, 5, 1, 1, 0, 5, 6, 9, 8, 0, 1};

System.out.println(Arrays.toString(arr));

int writes = cycleSort(arr);
System.out.println(Arrays.toString(arr));
System.out.println("writes: " + writes);
}

static int cycleSort(int[] a) {
int writes = 0;

for (int cycleStart = 0; cycleStart < a.length - 1; cycleStart++) {
int val = a[cycleStart];

// count the number of values that are smaller than val
// since cycleStart
int pos = cycleStart;
for (int i = cycleStart + 1; i < a.length; i++)
if (a[i] < val)
pos++;

// there aren't any
if (pos == cycleStart)
continue;

// skip duplicates
while (val == a[pos])
pos++;

// put val into final position
int tmp = a[pos];
a[pos] = val;
val = tmp;
writes++;

// repeat as long as we can find values to swap
// otherwise start new cycle
while (pos != cycleStart) {
pos = cycleStart;
for (int i = cycleStart + 1; i < a.length; i++)
if (a[i] < val)
pos++;

while (val == a[pos])
pos++;

tmp = a[pos];
a[pos] = val;
val = tmp;
writes++;
}
}
return writes;
}
}
```
Output:
```[5, 0, 1, 2, 2, 3, 5, 1, 1, 0, 5, 6, 9, 8, 0, 1]
[0, 0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 2, 3, 5, 5, 5, 6, 8, 9]
writes: 14```

## jq

Translation of: Wren
Works with: jq

Works with gojq, the Go implementation of jq

The following implementation is based on the Wren entry except for the use of `swap`, which exposes a bug in the Wren version (as of 2021.09.12) regarding `writes`.

```# Output: {a: sortedInput, write: numberOfSwaps}
def cycleSort:
def swap(f;g): g as \$t | g = f | f = \$t | .writes += 1;

{ a: ., writes: 0, len: length }
| reduce range(0; .len - 1) as \$cs (.;
.item = .a[\$cs]
| .pos = \$cs
| reduce range(\$cs+1; .len) as \$i (.;
if .a[\$i] < .item then .pos += 1 else . end )
| if .pos != \$cs
then until (.item != .a[.pos]; .pos += 1)
| swap(.a[.pos]; .item)
| until (.pos == \$cs;
.pos = \$cs
| reduce range(\$cs+1; .len) as \$i (.;
if .a[\$i] < .item then .pos += 1 else . end)
| until (.item != .a[.pos]; .pos += 1)
| swap(.a[.pos]; .item) )
else .
end )
| {a, writes} ;```

```[0, 1, 2, 2, 2, 2, 1, 9, 3.5, 5, 8, 4, 7, 0, 6],
[4, 65, 2, -31, 0, 99, 2, 83, 782, 1],
[7, 5, 2, 6, 1, 4, 2, 6, 3]
| "Before : \(.)",
(cycleSort
| "After  : \(.a)",
"Writes : \(.writes)",
"")```
Output:
```Before : [0,1,2,2,2,2,1,9,3.5,5,8,4,7,0,6]
After  : [0,0,1,1,2,2,2,2,3.5,4,5,6,7,8,9]
Writes : 10

Before : [4,65,2,-31,0,99,2,83,782,1]
After  : [-31,0,1,2,2,4,65,83,99,782]
Writes : 9

Before : [7,5,2,6,1,4,2,6,3]
After  : [1,2,2,3,4,5,6,6,7]
Writes : 7
```

## Julia

Works with: Julia version 0.6
```function cyclesort!(v::Vector)
writes = 0
for (cyclestart, item) in enumerate(v)
pos = cyclestart
for item2 in v[cyclestart + 1:end]
if item2 < item pos += 1 end
end

if pos == cyclestart continue end
while item == v[pos]
pos += 1
end
v[pos], item = item, v[pos]
writes += 1

while pos != cyclestart
pos = cyclestart
for item2 in v[cyclestart + 1:end]
if item2 < item pos += 1 end
end
while item == v[pos]
pos += 1
end

v[pos], item = item, v[pos]
writes += 1
end
end
return v
end

v = rand(-10:10, 10)
println("# unordered: \$v\n -> ordered: ", cyclesort!(v))
```
Output:
```# unordered: [-2, -2, -5, -9, 8, 7, 2, -1, 3, -6]
-> ordered: [-9, -6, -5, -2, -2, -1, 2, 3, 7, 8]```

## Kotlin

Translation of the algorithm in the Wikipedia article:

```// version 1.1.0

/** Sort an array in place and return the number of writes */
fun <T : Comparable<T>> cycleSort(array: Array<T>): Int {
var writes = 0

// Loop through the array to find cycles to rotate.
for (cycleStart in 0 until array.size - 1) {
var item = array[cycleStart]

// Find where to put the item.
var pos = cycleStart
for (i in cycleStart + 1 until array.size) if (array[i] < item) pos++

// If the item is already there, this is not a cycle.
if (pos == cycleStart) continue

// Otherwise, put the item there or right after any duplicates.
while (item == array[pos]) pos++
val temp = array[pos]
array[pos] = item
item = temp
writes++

// Rotate the rest of the cycle.
while (pos != cycleStart) {
// Find where to put the item.
pos = cycleStart
for (i in cycleStart + 1 until array.size) if (array[i] < item) pos++

// Otherwise, put the item there or right after any duplicates.
while (item == array[pos]) pos++
val temp2 = array[pos]
array[pos] = item
item = temp2
writes++
}
}
return writes
}

fun <T : Comparable<T>> printResults(array: Array<T>) {
println(array.asList())
val writes = cycleSort(array)
println("After sorting with \$writes writes:")
println(array.asList())
println()
}

fun main(args: Array<String>) {
val array = arrayOf(0, 1, 2, 2, 2, 2, 1, 9, 3, 5, 5, 8, 4, 7, 0, 6)
printResults(array)
val array2 = arrayOf(5, 0, 1, 2, 2, 3, 5, 1, 1, 0, 5, 6, 9, 8, 0, 1)
printResults(array2)
val array3 = "the quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog".split(' ').toTypedArray()
printResults(array3)
val array4 = "sphinx of black quartz judge my vow".replace(" ", "").toCharArray().distinct().toTypedArray()
printResults(array4)
}
```
Output:
```[0, 1, 2, 2, 2, 2, 1, 9, 3, 5, 5, 8, 4, 7, 0, 6]
After sorting with 10 writes:
[0, 0, 1, 1, 2, 2, 2, 2, 3, 4, 5, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9]

[5, 0, 1, 2, 2, 3, 5, 1, 1, 0, 5, 6, 9, 8, 0, 1]
After sorting with 14 writes:
[0, 0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 2, 3, 5, 5, 5, 6, 8, 9]

[the, quick, brown, fox, jumps, over, the, lazy, dog]
After sorting with 8 writes:
[brown, dog, fox, jumps, lazy, over, quick, the, the]

[s, p, h, i, n, x, o, f, b, l, a, c, k, q, u, r, t, z, j, d, g, e, m, y, v, w]
After sorting with 26 writes:
[a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n, o, p, q, r, s, t, u, v, w, x, y, z]
```

## Lua

Translation of: Java
```function printa(a)
io.write("[")
for i,v in ipairs(a) do
if i > 1 then
io.write(", ")
end
io.write(v)
end
io.write("]")
end

function cycle_sort(a)
local writes = 0

local cycle_start = 0
while cycle_start < #a - 1 do
local val = a[cycle_start + 1]

-- count the number of values that are smaller than val since cycle_start
local pos = cycle_start
local i = cycle_start + 1
while i < #a do
if a[i + 1] < val then
pos = pos + 1
end
i = i + 1
end

-- there aren't any
if pos ~= cycle_start then
-- skip duplicates
while val == a[pos + 1] do
pos = pos + 1
end

-- put val in final position
a[pos + 1], val = val, a[pos + 1]
writes = writes + 1

-- repeat as long as we can find values to swap
-- otherwise start new cycle
while pos ~= cycle_start do
pos = cycle_start
local i = cycle_start + 1
while i < #a do
if a[i + 1] < val then
pos = pos + 1
end
i = i + 1
end

while val == a[pos + 1] do
pos = pos + 1
end

a[pos + 1], val = val, a[pos + 1]
writes = writes + 1
end
end
cycle_start = cycle_start + 1
end

return writes
end

arr = {5, 0, 1, 2, 2, 3, 5, 1, 1, 0, 5, 6, 9, 8, 0, 1}

printa(arr)
print()

writes = cycle_sort(arr)
printa(arr)
print()
print("writes: " .. writes)
```
Output:
```[5, 0, 1, 2, 2, 3, 5, 1, 1, 0, 5, 6, 9, 8, 0, 1]
[0, 0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 2, 3, 5, 5, 5, 6, 8, 9]
writes: 14```

## NetRexx

Direct translation of the Wikipedia entry example

```/* Rexx */
options replace format comments java crossref symbols nobinary

runSample(arg)
return

-- ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
-- Sort an array in place and return the number of writes.
method cycleSort(array = Rexx[]) public static
writes = 0

-- Loop through the array to find cycles to rotate.
loop cycleStart = 0 to array.length - 1 - 1
item = array[cycleStart]

-- Find where to put the item.
pos = cycleStart
loop i = cycleStart + 1 to array.length - 1
if array[i] < item then
pos = pos + 1
end i

-- If the item is already there, this is not a cycle.
if pos == cycleStart then
iterate

-- Otherwise, put the item there or right after any duplicates.
loop while item == array[pos]
pos = pos + 1
end
swap_tmp = array[pos]
array[pos] = item
item = swap_tmp
writes = writes + 1

-- Rotate the rest of the cycle.
loop while pos \= cycleStart

-- Find where to put the item.
pos = cycleStart
loop i = cycleStart + 1 to array.length - 1
if array[i] < item then
pos = pos + 1
end i

-- Put the item there or right after any duplicates.
loop while item == array[pos]
pos = pos + 1
end
swap_tmp = array[pos]
array[pos] = item
item = swap_tmp
writes = writes + 1

end

end cycleStart
return writes

-- ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
method runSample(arg) public static
samples = ArrayList()
samples.add([1, 9, 3, 5, 8, 4, 7, 0, 6, 2])
samples.add([0, 1, 2, 2, 2, 2, 1, 9, 3.5, 5, 8, 4, 7, 0, 6])
samples.add(['Greygill Hole', 'Ogof Draenen', 'Ogof Ffynnon Ddu', 'Malham Tarn Pot'])
samples.add([-3.14 ,3, 1, 4, 1, 5, 9, 2, 6, 5, 3, 5, 8, 9, 7, 9, 3, 2, 3, 8, 4, 6, 2, 6, 4, 3, 3, 8, 3, 2, 7, 9, 5, 0, 2, 8, 8, 4])
samples.add(['George Washington: Virginia', 'John Adams: Massachusetts', 'Thomas Jefferson: Virginia', 'James Madison: Virginia', 'James Monroe: Virginia'])

list = Rexx[]
loop i_ = 0 to samples.size() - 1
list = Rexx[] samples.get(i_)
say 'Input list ' Arrays.asList(list)
writes = cycleSort(list)
say 'Sorted list' Arrays.asList(list)
say 'Total number of writes:' writes
say
end i_
return
```
Output:
```Input list  [1, 9, 3, 5, 8, 4, 7, 0, 6, 2]
Sorted list [0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9]
Total number of writes: 10

Input list  [0, 1, 2, 2, 2, 2, 1, 9, 3.5, 5, 8, 4, 7, 0, 6]
Sorted list [0, 0, 1, 1, 2, 2, 2, 2, 3.5, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9]
Total number of writes: 10

Input list  [Greygill Hole, Ogof Draenen, Ogof Ffynnon Ddu, Malham Tarn Pot]
Sorted list [Greygill Hole, Malham Tarn Pot, Ogof Draenen, Ogof Ffynnon Ddu]
Total number of writes: 3

Input list  [-3.14, 3, 1, 4, 1, 5, 9, 2, 6, 5, 3, 5, 8, 9, 7, 9, 3, 2, 3, 8, 4, 6, 2, 6, 4, 3, 3, 8, 3, 2, 7, 9, 5, 0, 2, 8, 8, 4]
Sorted list [-3.14, 0, 1, 1, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 4, 4, 4, 4, 5, 5, 5, 5, 6, 6, 6, 7, 7, 8, 8, 8, 8, 8, 9, 9, 9, 9]
Total number of writes: 34

Input list  [George Washington: Virginia, John Adams: Massachusetts, Thomas Jefferson: Virginia, James Madison: Virginia, James Monroe: Virginia]
Sorted list [George Washington: Virginia, James Madison: Virginia, James Monroe: Virginia, John Adams: Massachusetts, Thomas Jefferson: Virginia]
Total number of writes: 4```

## Nim

```proc cycleSort[T](a: var openArray[T]): int =
var position, writes: int = 0
var item: T
for cycleStart in a.low..a.high - 1:
item = a[cycleStart]
position = cycleStart
for i in cycleStart + 1..a.high:
if a[i] < item:
inc position
if position == cycleStart:
continue
while item == a[position]:
inc position
swap a[position], item
inc writes
while position != cycleStart:
position = cycleStart
for i in cycleStart + 1..a.high:
if a[i] < item:
inc position
while item == a[position]:
inc position
swap a[position], item
inc writes
result = writes

var array1 = @[1, 9, 3, 5, 8, 4, 7, 0, 6, 2]
var array2 = @[0'f64, 1, 2, 2, 2, 2, 1, 9, 3.5, 5, 8, 4, 7, 0, 6]
var array3 = @["Greygill Hole", "Ogof Draenen", "Ogof Ffynnon Ddu", "Malham Tarn Pot"]
var array4 = @[-3.14 ,3, 1, 4, 1, 5, 9, 2, 6, 5, 3, 5, 8, 9, 7, 9, 3, 2, 3, 8, 4, 6, 2, 6, 4, 3, 3, 8, 3, 2, 7, 9, 5, 0, 2, 8, 8, 4]
var array5 = @["George Washington: Virginia", "John Adams: Massachusetts", "Thomas Jefferson: Virginia", "James Madison: Virginia", "James Monroe: Virginia"]
var writes = 0

echo "Original: ", \$array1
writes = array1.cycleSort()
echo "Sorted:   ", \$array1
echo "Total number of writes: ", writes, "\n"

echo "Original: ", \$array2
writes = array2.cycleSort()
echo "Sorted:   ", \$array2
echo "Total number of writes: ", writes, "\n"

echo "Original: ", \$array3
writes = array3.cycleSort()
echo "Sorted:   ", \$array3
echo "Total number of writes: ", writes, "\n"

echo "Original: ", \$array4
writes = array4.cycleSort()
echo "Sorted:   ", \$array4
echo "Total number of writes: ", writes, "\n"

echo "Original: ", \$array5
writes = array5.cycleSort()
echo "Sorted:   ", \$array5
echo "Total number of writes: ", writes
```
Output:
```Original: @[1, 9, 3, 5, 8, 4, 7, 0, 6, 2]
Sorted:   @[0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9]
Total number of writes: 10

Original: @[0.0, 1.0, 2.0, 2.0, 2.0, 2.0, 1.0, 9.0, 3.5, 5.0, 8.0, 4.0, 7.0, 0.0, 6.0]
Sorted:   @[0.0, 0.0, 1.0, 1.0, 2.0, 2.0, 2.0, 2.0, 3.5, 4.0, 5.0, 6.0, 7.0, 8.0, 9.0]
Total number of writes: 10

Original: @["Greygill Hole", "Ogof Draenen", "Ogof Ffynnon Ddu", "Malham Tarn Pot"]
Sorted:   @["Greygill Hole", "Malham Tarn Pot", "Ogof Draenen", "Ogof Ffynnon Ddu"]
Total number of writes: 3

Original: @[-3.14, 3.0, 1.0, 4.0, 1.0, 5.0, 9.0, 2.0, 6.0, 5.0, 3.0, 5.0, 8.0, 9.0, 7.0, 9.0, 3.0, 2.0, 3.0, 8.0, 4.0, 6.0, 2.0, 6.0, 4.0, 3.0, 3.0, 8.0, 3.0, 2.0, 7.0, 9.0, 5.0, 0.0, 2.0, 8.0, 8.0, 4.0]
Sorted:   @[-3.14, 0.0, 1.0, 1.0, 2.0, 2.0, 2.0, 2.0, 2.0, 3.0, 3.0, 3.0, 3.0, 3.0, 3.0, 3.0, 4.0, 4.0, 4.0, 4.0, 5.0, 5.0, 5.0, 5.0, 6.0, 6.0, 6.0, 7.0, 7.0, 8.0, 8.0, 8.0, 8.0, 8.0, 9.0, 9.0, 9.0, 9.0]
Total number of writes: 34

Original: @["George Washington: Virginia", "John Adams: Massachusetts", "Thomas Jefferson: Virginia", "James Madison: Virginia", "James Monroe: Virginia"]
Sorted:   @["George Washington: Virginia", "James Madison: Virginia", "James Monroe: Virginia", "John Adams: Massachusetts", "Thomas Jefferson: Virginia"]
Total number of writes: 4```

## Objeck

Translation of: Java
```class Test {
function : Main(args : String[]) ~ Nil {
arr := [5, 0, 1, 2, 2, 3, 5, 1, 1, 0, 5, 6, 9, 8, 0, 1];
arr->ToString()->PrintLine();
writes := CycleSort(arr);
"writes: {\$writes}"->PrintLine();
arr->ToString()->PrintLine();
}

function : CycleSort(a : Int[]) ~ Int {
writes := 0;

for(cycleStart := 0; cycleStart < a->Size() - 1; cycleStart+=1;) {
val := a[cycleStart];

pos := cycleStart;
for(i := cycleStart + 1; i < a->Size(); i+=1;) {
if(a[i] < val) {
pos++;
};
};

if(pos <> cycleStart) {
while(val = a[pos]) {
pos+=1;
};

tmp := a[pos];
a[pos] := val;
val := tmp;
writes+=1;

while(pos <> cycleStart) {
pos := cycleStart;
for(i := cycleStart + 1; i < a->Size(); i+=1;) {
if(a[i] < val) {
pos+=1;
};
};

while(val = a[pos]) {
pos++;
};

tmp := a[pos];
a[pos] := val;
val := tmp;
writes++;
};
};
};

return writes;
}
}```
```[5,0,1,2,2,3,5,1,1,0,5,6,9,8,0,1]
writes: 14
[0,0,0,1,1,1,1,2,2,3,5,5,5,6,8,9]
```

## ooRexx

```/*REXX program demonstrates a cycle sort on a list of numbers**********
* 13.06.2014 Walter Pachl
* Modified from Rexx Version 2
* ooRexx allows to pass a stemmed variable by reference
* swapping variables uses a temporary instead of the parse.
**********************************************************************/
a.1='George Washington  Virginia'
a.3='Thomas Jefferson  Virginia'
a.5='James Monroe  Virginia'
n=5
Call show 'Unsorted list: '
w=sortcycle(a.,n)
Say 'sorted'
Call show 'Sorted list'
Say ' '
Say 'This took' w 'writes.'
Exit

sortcycle: Procedure
Use Arg a.,n
writes=0
Do c=1 For n
x=a.c
p=c
x=a.c
Do j=c+1 To n
If a.j<x Then
p=p+1
End
If p==c Then
Iterate
Do While x==a.p
p=p+1
End
t=x
x=a.p
a.p=t
writes=writes+1
Do While p\==c
p=c
Do k=c+1 To n
If a.k<x Then
p=p+1
End
Do While x==a.p
p=p+1
End
t=x
x=a.p
a.p=t
writes=writes+1
End
End
Return writes

show:
Parse Arg hdr
Say ' '
Say hdr
Do i=1 To n
Say format(i,2) a.i
End
Return
```
Output:
```Unsorted list:
1 George Washington  Virginia
2 John Adams  Massachusetts
3 Thomas Jefferson  Virginia
4 James Madison  Virginia
5 James Monroe  Virginia
sorted

Sorted list
1 George Washington  Virginia
2 James Madison  Virginia
3 James Monroe  Virginia
4 John Adams  Massachusetts
5 Thomas Jefferson  Virginia

This took 4 writes.```

## Perl

This is based on the Wikipedia pseudocode.

```use strict;
use warnings;

sub cycleSort :prototype(@) {
my (\$array) = @_;
my \$writes = 0;

# For each index except the last:
for my \$start ( 0 .. \$#\$array - 1 ) {
my \$item = \$array->[\$start];
# If there are N items less than \$item, then we
# must move \$item N items rightward.
my \$pos = \$start + grep \$array->[\$_] lt \$item, \$start + 1 .. \$#\$array;
# If the item is where it should be, continue.
next if \$pos == \$start;
# If \$item is one of several repetitions, move it to the right
# of the last repeat.
++\$pos while \$item eq \$array->[ \$pos ];
# Store \$item at \$pos, where it belongs, and fetch the
# value that had been at \$pos, and put it in \$item.
(\$array->[ \$pos ], \$item) = (\$item, \$array->[ \$pos ]);
++\$writes;

# Whatever \$item is now, it certainly doesn't belong at \$pos;
do {
# Find the correct \$pos,
\$pos = \$start + grep \$array->[\$_] lt \$item, \$start+1 .. \$#\$array;
++\$pos while \$item eq \$array->[ \$pos ];
# Swap the value there with \$item,
(\$array->[ \$pos ] , \$item ) = (\$item, \$array->[ \$pos ]);
# And mark \$pos as having the correct value in it..
\$alreadysorted[ \$pos ] = 1;
++\$writes;
# The loop ends after we have just written an item to \$start
} while \$pos != \$start;
}
\$writes;
}

use List::Util 'shuffle';
my @test = shuffle( ('a'..'z') x 2 );
print "Before sorting: @test\n";
print "There were ", cycleSort( \@test ), " writes\n";
print "After  sorting: @test\n";
```
Output:
```Before sorting: a t d b f g y l t p w c r r x i y j k i z q e v a f o q j u x k m h s u v z g m b o l e n h p n c s w d
There were 50 writes
After  sorting: a a b b c c d d e e f f g g h h i i j j k k l l m m n n o o p p q q r r s s t t u u v v w w x x y y z z```

## Phix

Translation of: NetRexx

plus some factoring out of common code

```with javascript_semantics

sequence array
object item
integer pos, writes

procedure find_item(integer cycle_start)
-- Find where to put the item.
pos = cycle_start
for i=cycle_start+1 to length(array) do
if array[i] < item then
pos = pos + 1
end if
end for
end procedure

procedure put_item()
-- Put the item there or right after any duplicates.
while item == array[pos] do
pos = pos + 1
end while
object ap = array[pos]
array[pos] = item
item = ap
writes += 1
end procedure

-- Sort an array in place and return the number of writes.
procedure cycleSort()
writes = 0
array = deep_copy(array)
-- Loop through the array to find cycles to rotate.
for cycle_start=1 to length(array)-1 do
item = array[cycle_start]
find_item(cycle_start)
-- If the item is already there, this is not a cycle.
if pos!=cycle_start then
put_item()
-- Rotate the rest of the cycle.
while pos!=cycle_start do
find_item(cycle_start)
put_item()
end while
end if
end for
end procedure

constant samples = {{1, 9, 3, 5, 8, 4, 7, 0, 6, 2},
{0, 1, 2, 2, 2, 2, 1, 9, 3.5, 5, 8, 4, 7, 0, 6},
{"Greygill Hole", "Ogof Draenen", "Ogof Ffynnon Ddu", "Malham Tarn Pot"},
{-3.14 ,3, 1, 4, 1, 5, 9, 2, 6, 5, 3, 5, 8, 9, 7, 9, 3, 2, 3, 8, 4, 6, 2, 6, 4, 3, 3, 8, 3, 2, 7, 9, 5, 0, 2, 8, 8, 4},
{5,0,1,2,2,3,5,1,1,0,5,6,9,8,0,1},
{1,1,1,1,1,1}}

for i=1 to length(samples) do
array = samples[i]
puts(1,"Input list  ") ?array
cycleSort()
puts(1,"Sorted list ") ?array
printf(1,"Total number of writes: %d (out of %d)\n", {writes,length(array)})
end for
```
Output:
```Input list  {1,9,3,5,8,4,7,0,6,2}
Sorted list {0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9}
Total number of writes: 10 (out of 10)
Input list  {0,1,2,2,2,2,1,9,3.5,5,8,4,7,0,6}
Sorted list {0,0,1,1,2,2,2,2,3.5,4,5,6,7,8,9}
Total number of writes: 10 (out of 15)
Input list  {"Greygill Hole","Ogof Draenen","Ogof Ffynnon Ddu","Malham Tarn Pot"}
Sorted list {"Greygill Hole","Malham Tarn Pot","Ogof Draenen","Ogof Ffynnon Ddu"}
Total number of writes: 3 (out of 4)
Input list  {-3.14,3,1,4,1,5,9,2,6,5,3,5,8,9,7,9,3,2,3,8,4,6,2,6,4,3,3,8,3,2,7,9,5,0,2,8,8,4}
Sorted list {-3.14,0,1,1,2,2,2,2,2,3,3,3,3,3,3,3,4,4,4,4,5,5,5,5,6,6,6,7,7,8,8,8,8,8,9,9,9,9}
Total number of writes: 34 (out of 38)
Input list  {5,0,1,2,2,3,5,1,1,0,5,6,9,8,0,1}
Sorted list {0,0,0,1,1,1,1,2,2,3,5,5,5,6,8,9}
Total number of writes: 14 (out of 16)
Input list  {1,1,1,1,1,1}
Sorted list {1,1,1,1,1,1}
Total number of writes: 0 (out of 6)
```

## Python

The Wikipedia algorithm pseudocode is very nearly Python. The main changes needed were to change the name array to vector to stop it obscuring a built-in name, and iterating over an enumerated collection rather than using explicit indices.

```def cycleSort(vector):
"Sort a vector in place and return the number of writes."
writes = 0

# Loop through the vector to find cycles to rotate.
for cycleStart, item in enumerate(vector):

# Find where to put the item.
pos = cycleStart
for item2 in vector[cycleStart + 1:]:
if item2 < item:
pos += 1

# If the item is already there, this is not a cycle.
if pos == cycleStart:
continue

# Otherwise, put the item there or right after any duplicates.
while item == vector[pos]:
pos += 1
vector[pos], item = item, vector[pos]
writes += 1

# Rotate the rest of the cycle.
while pos != cycleStart:

# Find where to put the item.
pos = cycleStart
for item2 in vector[cycleStart + 1:]:
if item2 < item:
pos += 1

# Put the item there or right after any duplicates.
while item == vector[pos]:
pos += 1
vector[pos], item = item, vector[pos]
writes += 1

return writes

if __name__ == '__main__':
x = [0, 1, 2, 2, 2, 2, 1, 9, 3.5, 5, 8, 4, 7, 0, 6]
xcopy = x[::]
writes = cycleSort(xcopy)
if xcopy != sorted(x):
print('Wrong order!')
else:
print('%r\nIs correctly sorted using cycleSort to'
'\n%r\nUsing %i writes.' % (x, xcopy, writes))
```
Output:
```[0, 1, 2, 2, 2, 2, 1, 9, 3.5, 5, 8, 4, 7, 0, 6]
Is correctly sorted using cycleSort to
[0, 0, 1, 1, 2, 2, 2, 2, 3.5, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9]
Using 10 writes.```

## Racket

```#lang racket/base
(require racket/match)

;; Sort an array in place and return the number of writes.
(define (cycle-sort! v < =?)
(define v-len (vector-length v))
(for/sum ; Loop through the array to find cycles to rotate.
((cycle-start (in-range 0 (sub1 v-len))))
(define item (vector-ref v cycle-start))
(define (find-insertion-point) ; Find where to put the item.
(+ cycle-start
(for/sum
((i (in-range (add1 cycle-start) v-len))
#:when (< (vector-ref v i) item)) 1)))
;; Put the item there or right after any duplicates
(define (insert-after-duplicates pos)
(match (vector-ref v pos)
[(== item =?) (insert-after-duplicates (add1 pos))]
[tmp (vector-set! v pos item) ; / swap
(set! item tmp)          ; \ [this is my only write point]
pos]))

(define i-p (find-insertion-point))
(if (= i-p cycle-start)
0 ; If the item is already there, this is not a cycle.
(let loop ; Rotate the rest of the cycle.
((e-p (insert-after-duplicates i-p))
(W 1 #| we've already written once |#))
(if (= e-p cycle-start)
W
(loop (insert-after-duplicates (find-insertion-point))
(add1 W))))))) ; we've written again!

(module+ main
;; This will be random with duplicates
(define A (list->vector (build-list 30 (λ (i) (random 20)))))
A
(cycle-sort! A < =)
A
(define B #(1 1 1 1 1 1))
B
(cycle-sort! B < =))
```
Output:
```'#(7 17 5 16 14 9 18 10 1 4 10 1 9 3 3 0 1 18 16 12 9 14 14 12 19 2 12 15 16 8)
28
'#(0 1 1 1 2 3 3 4 5 7 8 9 9 9 10 10 12 12 12 14 14 14 15 16 16 16 17 18 18 19)
'#(1 1 1 1 1 1)
0```

## Raku

(formerly Perl 6)

```sub cycle_sort ( @nums ) {
my \$writes = 0;

# Loop through the array to find cycles to rotate.
for @nums.kv -> \$cycle_start, \$item is copy {

# Find where to put the item.
my \$pos = \$cycle_start
+ @nums[ \$cycle_start ^.. * ].grep: * < \$item;

# If the item is already there, this is not a cycle.
next if \$pos == \$cycle_start;

# Otherwise, put the item there or right after any duplicates.
\$pos++ while \$item == @nums[\$pos];
( @nums[\$pos], \$item ) .= reverse;
\$writes++;

# Rotate the rest of the cycle.
while \$pos != \$cycle_start {

# Find where to put the item.
\$pos = \$cycle_start
+ @nums[ \$cycle_start ^.. * ].grep: * < \$item;

# Put the item there or right after any duplicates.
\$pos++ while \$item == @nums[\$pos];
( @nums[\$pos], \$item ) .= reverse;
\$writes++;
}
}

return \$writes;
}

my @a = <0 1 2 2 2 2 1 9 3.5 5 8 4 7 0 6>;

say @a;
say 'writes ', cycle_sort(@a);
say @a;
```
Output:
```0 1 2 2 2 2 1 9 3.5 5 8 4 7 0 6
writes 10
0 0 1 1 2 2 2 2 3.5 4 5 6 7 8 9
```

## REXX

### version 1

```/* REXX ***************************************************************
* 12.06.2014 Walter Pachl translated from Wikipedia's code
* 20.06.2014 WP corrected (courtesy Alan Sampson)
* 30.05.2017 WP fixed for Classic Rexx (courtesy GS)
**********************************************************************/
list='1 9 3 5 8 4 7 0 6 2'
n=words(list)
Do i=0 To n-1
array.i=word(list,i+1)
End
Say list
writes=cyclesort()
Say 'writes='writes
ol=''
Do i=0 To n-1
ol=ol array.i
End
Say strip(ol)
Exit

cycleSort: procedure expose array. n
writes = 0
/* Loop through the array to find cycles to rotate. */
do cycleStart=0 to n-2
item = array.cycleStart

/* Find where to put the item. */
pos = cycleStart
Do i=cycleStart+1 to n-1
if array.i < item Then
pos=pos+1
End

/* If the item is already there, this is not a cycle. */
if pos == cycleStart Then
Iterate

/* Otherwise, put the item there or right after any duplicates. */
Do while item == array.pos
pos=pos+1
End
Parse Value array.pos item With item array.pos
writes=writes+1

/* Rotate the rest of the cycle. */
Do while pos <> cycleStart

/* Find where to put the item. */
pos = cycleStart
Do i=cycleStart + 1 to n-1
if array.i < item Then
pos=pos+1
End

/* Put the item there or right after any duplicates. */
Do while item == array.pos
pos=pos+1
End
Parse Value array.pos item With item array.pos
writes=writes+1
End
End
return writes
```
Output:
```1 9 3 5 8 4 7 0 6 2
writes=10
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9```

### version 2

This REXX version demonstrates the use of negative numbers and also non─integer values in the list.

As a default, the program uses (for the input list) some digits of pi, which for practical purposes, appear random.

```/*REXX program performs a   cycle sort   on a list of items  (could be numbers or text).*/
parse arg z                                      /*obtain optional arguments from the CL*/
if z='' then z= -3.14 3 1 4 1 5 9 2 6 5 3 5 8 9 7 9 3 2 3 8 4 6 2 6 4 3 3 8 3 2 7 9 5 0 2 8 8 4
say 'unsorted list: '  z                         /*show the original unsorted numbers.  */
w= sortCycle(z)                                  /*W:  the number of writes done in sort*/
say '  sorted list: '  y                         /*show the original unsorted numbers.  */
say 'and required '    w       " writes."        /*show number of writes done in sort.  */
exit                                             /*stick a fork in it,  we're all done. */
/*──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────*/
sortCycle: procedure expose y; parse arg y;  #= words(y);  mv= 0   /*MV: moves or writes*/
do i=1  for #;   @.i= word(y,i)    /*put each of the items ───► @.  array.*/
end   /*i*/                        /* [↓]  find a  "cycle"  to rotate.    */
do    c=1   for #;    x=@.c;         p= c      /*X  is the  item  being sorted.       */
do j=c+1  to #;    if @.j<x  then p= p + 1  /*determine where to put X into array @*/
end   /*j*/
if p==c  then  iterate                         /*Is it there?  No, this ain't a cycle.*/
call .putX                                     /*put  X  right after any dups;  swap. */
do while p\==c;    p= c                     /*rotate the rest of the "cycle".      */
do k=c+1  to #;  if @.k<x  then p= p+1  /*determine where to put this element. */
end   /*k*/
call .putX                                  /*put  X  right after any dups;  swap. */
end    /*while p\==c*/
end       /*c*/
y=@.1;  do m=2  for #-1; y=y @.m; end; return mv /*put the array back into the  Y  list.*/
/*──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────*/
.putX: mv= mv+1;   do p=p  while x==@.p;  end;    parse value @.p x  with  x @.p;   return
```
output   when using the default input:
```unsorted list:  -3.14 3 1 4 1 5 9 2 6 5 3 5 8 9 7 9 3 2 3 8 4 6 2 6 4 3 3 8 3 2 7 9 5 0 2 8 8 4
sorted list:  -3.14 0 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9
and required  34  writes.
```
output   when using the input of:     FM Stereo has been around since 1961.
```unsorted list:  FM Stereo has been around since 1961.
sorted list:  1961. FM Stereo around been has since
and required  7  writes.
```

Note (for the above output).   This REXX program was executed on an ASCII machine.
On an   ASCII   machine, the order of sorting is numbers, uppercase letters, lowercase letters.
On an EBCDIC machine, the order of sorting is lowercase letters, uppercase letters, numbers.
Other (special) characters may also be in a different order.

## Ring

```# Project : Sorting algorithms/Cycle sort

array = [0, 1, 2, 2, 2, 2, 1, 9, 3, 5, 5, 8, 4, 7, 0, 6]
seearray(array)
writes = cyclesort(array)
see "after sorting with " + writes + " writes :" + nl
seearray(array)
see nl
array2 = [38, 119, 38, 33, 33, 28, 24, 101, 108, 120, 99, 59, 69, 24, 117, 22, 90, 94, 78, 75]
seearray(array2)
writes = cyclesort(array2)
see "after sorting with " + writes  + " writes :" + nl
seearray(array2)

func cyclesort(array)
length = len(array)
if length = 0
return 0
ok
writes = 0
for cyclestart = 1 to len(array) - 1
item = array[cyclestart]
position = cyclestart
for i = cyclestart + 1 to len(array)
if array[i] < item
position = position +  1
ok
next
if position = cyclestart
loop
ok
while item = array[position]
position = position+ 1
end
temp = item
item = array[position]
array[position] = temp
writes = writes + 1
while position != cyclestart
position = cyclestart
for i = cyclestart + 1 to len(array)
if array[i] < item
position = position + 1
ok
next
while item = array[position]
position = position + 1
end
temp = item
item = array[position]
array[position] = temp
writes = writes + 1
end
next
return writes

func seearray(array)
for i = 1 to len(array)
see string(array[i]) + " "
next
see nl```

Output:

```0 1 2 2 2 2 1 9 3 5 5 8 4 7 0 6
after sorting with 10 writes :
0 0 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 4 5 5 6 7 8 9

38 119 38 33 33 28 24 101 108 120 99 59 69 24 117 22 90 94 78 75
after sorting with 19 writes :
22 24 24 28 33 33 38 38 59 69 75 78 90 94 99 101 108 117 119 120
```

## Ruby

Direct translation of the pseudocode on the Wikipedia.

```def cycleSort!(array)
writes = 0

# Loop through the array to find cycles to rotate.
for cycleStart in 0 .. array.size-2
item = array[cycleStart]

# Find where to put the item.
pos = cycleStart
for i in cycleStart+1 ... array.size
pos += 1  if array[i] < item
end

# If the item is already there, this is not a cycle.
next  if pos == cycleStart

# Otherwise, put the item there or right after any duplicates.
pos += 1  while item == array[pos]
array[pos], item = item, array[pos]
writes += 1

# Rotate the rest of the cycle.
while pos != cycleStart

# Find where to put the item.
pos = cycleStart
for i in cycleStart+1 ... array.size
pos += 1  if array[i] < item
end

# Put the item there or right after any duplicates.
pos += 1  while item == array[pos]
array[pos], item = item, array[pos]
writes += 1
end
end
writes
end

p a = [0, 1, 2, 2, 2, 2, 1, 9, 3.5, 5, 8, 4, 7, 0, 6]
puts "writes : #{cycleSort!(a)}"
p a
```
Output:
```[0, 1, 2, 2, 2, 2, 1, 9, 3.5, 5, 8, 4, 7, 0, 6]
writes : 10
[0, 0, 1, 1, 2, 2, 2, 2, 3.5, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9]
```

## Scala

Translation of Java version

```  def cycleSort(a: Array[Int]): (Array[Int], Int) = {
var writes = 0

for (cycleStart <- 0 until a.length - 1) {
var value = a(cycleStart)

// count the number of values that are smaller than value since cycleStart
var pos = cycleStart

for (i <- cycleStart + 1 until a.length)
if (a(i) < value) pos += 1

// skip if there aren't any
if (pos != cycleStart) {

// skip duplicates
while (a(pos) == value) pos += 1

// put val into final position
val tmp = a(pos)
a(pos) = value
value = tmp
writes += 1

// repeat as long as we can find values to swap
// otherwise start new cycle
while (pos != cycleStart) {
pos = cycleStart
for (i <- cycleStart + 1 until a.length)
if (a(i) < value) pos += 1

while (a(pos) == value) pos += 1

val tmp = a(pos)
a(pos) = value
value = tmp
writes += 1
}
}
}
(a, writes)
}
```

## Sidef

```func cycle_sort (array) {
var (writes=0, pos=0)

func f(i, Ref item, bool=false) {
pos = (i + array.slice(i+1).count{ _ < *item })
return(false) if (bool && pos==i)
while (*item == array[pos]) { ++pos }
(array[pos], *item) = (*item, array[pos])
++writes
return true
}

array.each_kv { |i, item|
f(i, \item, true) || next
while (pos != i) {
f(i, \item)
}
}

return writes
}

var a = %n(0 1 2 2 2 2 1 9 3.5 5 8 4 7 0 6)

say a.join(' ')
say ('writes ', cycle_sort(a))
say a.join(' ')
```
Output:
```0 1 2 2 2 2 1 9 3.5 5 8 4 7 0 6
writes 10
0 0 1 1 2 2 2 2 3.5 4 5 6 7 8 9
```

## Tcl

Direct translation of the pseudocode on the Wikipedia page

```proc cycleSort {listVar} {
upvar 1 \$listVar array
set writes 0

# Loop through the array to find cycles to rotate.
for {set cycleStart 0} {\$cycleStart < [llength \$array]} {incr cycleStart} {
set item [lindex \$array \$cycleStart]

# Find where to put the item.
set pos \$cycleStart
for {set i [expr {\$pos + 1}]} {\$i < [llength \$array]} {incr i} {
incr pos [expr {[lindex \$array \$i] < \$item}]
}

# If the item is already there, this is not a cycle.
if {\$pos == \$cycleStart} continue

# Otherwise, put the item there or right after any duplicates.
while {\$item == [lindex \$array \$pos]} {
incr pos
}
set tmp [lindex \$array \$pos]
lset array \$pos \$item
set item \$tmp
incr writes

# Rotate the rest of the cycle.
while {\$pos != \$cycleStart} {
# Find where to put the item.
set pos \$cycleStart

for {set i [expr {\$cycleStart + 1}]} {\$i < [llength \$array]} {incr i} {
incr pos [expr {[lindex \$array \$i] < \$item}]
}

# Put the item there or right after any duplicates.
while {\$item == [lindex \$array \$pos]} {
incr pos
}
set tmp [lindex \$array \$pos]
lset array \$pos \$item
set item \$tmp
incr writes
}
}

return \$writes
}
```

Demonstrating:

```set example {0 1 2 2 2 2 1 9 3.5 5 8 4 7 0 6}
puts "Data was: \$example"
set writes [cycleSort example]
puts "Data is now: \$example"
if {\$example eq [lsort -real \$example]} {
puts "\twhich is correctly sorted"
} else {
puts "\twhich is the wrong order!"
}
puts "Writes required: \$writes"
```
Output:
```Data was: 0 1 2 2 2 2 1 9 3.5 5 8 4 7 0 6
Data is now: 0 0 1 1 2 2 2 2 3.5 4 5 6 7 8 9
which is correctly sorted
Writes required: 10
```

## Wren

Translation of the Python code in the Wikipedia article.

```var cycleSort = Fn.new { |a|
var writes = 0
var len = a.count
for (cs in 0...len-1) {
var item = a[cs]
var pos = cs
for (i in cs+1...len) {
if (a[i] < item) pos = pos + 1
}
if (pos != cs) {
while (item == a[pos]) pos = pos + 1
var t = a[pos]
a[pos] = item
item = t
while (pos != cs) {
pos = cs
for (i in cs+1...len) {
if (a[i] < item) pos = pos + 1
}
while (item == a[pos]) pos = pos + 1
var t = a[pos]
a[pos] = item
item = t
writes = writes + 1
}
}
}
return writes
}

var array = [ [4, 65, 2, -31, 0, 99, 2, 83, 782, 1], [7, 5, 2, 6, 1, 4, 2, 6, 3] ]
for (a in array) {
System.print("Before : %(a)")
var w = cycleSort.call(a)
System.print("After  : %(a)")
System.print("Writes : %(w)")
System.print()
}
```
Output:
```Before : [4, 65, 2, -31, 0, 99, 2, 83, 782, 1]
After  : [-31, 0, 1, 2, 2, 4, 65, 83, 99, 782]
Writes : 7

Before : [7, 5, 2, 6, 1, 4, 2, 6, 3]
After  : [1, 2, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 6, 7]
Writes : 6
```

## XPL0

Translation of: Wren
```func CycleSort(A, Len);
int  A, Len;
int  Writes, I, J, Item, Pos, T;
[Writes:= 0;
for J:= 0 to Len-2 do
[Item:= A(J);
Pos:= J;
for I:= J+1 to Len-1 do
if A(I) < Item then Pos:= Pos+1;
if Pos # J then
[while Item = A(Pos) do Pos:= Pos+1;
T:= A(Pos);  A(Pos):= Item;  Item:= T;
while Pos # J do
[Pos:= J;
for I:= J+1 to Len-1 do
if A(I) < Item then Pos:= Pos+1;
while Item = A(Pos) do Pos:= Pos+1;
T:= A(Pos);  A(Pos):= Item;  Item:= T;
Writes:= Writes+1;
];
];
];
return Writes;
];

int As, Lens, A, W, I;
[As:= [ [4, 65, 2, -31, 0, 99, 2, 83, 782, 1],
[7, 5, 2, 6, 1, 4, 2, 6, 3] ];
Lens:= [10, 9];
for A:= 0 to 2-1 do
[Text(0, "Before : [");
for I:= 0 to Lens(A)-1 do
[IntOut(0, As(A,I));
Text(0, if I = Lens(A)-1 then "]^m^j" else ", ");
];
W:= CycleSort(As(A), Lens(A));
Text(0, "After  : [");
for I:= 0 to Lens(A)-1 do
[IntOut(0, As(A,I));
Text(0, if I = Lens(A)-1 then "]^m^j" else ", ");
];
Text(0, "Writes : ");  IntOut(0, W);  CrLf(0);  CrLf(0);
];
]```
Output:
```Before : [4, 65, 2, -31, 0, 99, 2, 83, 782, 1]
After  : [-31, 0, 1, 2, 2, 4, 65, 83, 99, 782]
Writes : 7

Before : [7, 5, 2, 6, 1, 4, 2, 6, 3]
After  : [1, 2, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 6, 7]
Writes : 6

```

## Yabasic

Translation of: FreeBASIC
```// Rosetta Code problem: http://rosettacode.org/wiki/Cycle_sort
// by Galileo, 04/2022

sub cyclesort(array())
local writes, lenarray, item, pos, i, prov

lenarray = arraysize(array(), 1)

for cyclestart = 1 to lenarray
item = array(cyclestart)
pos = cyclestart

for i = cyclestart + 1 to lenarray
if array(i) < item pos = pos + 1
next

if pos = cyclestart continue

while item = array(pos)
pos = pos + 1
wend

prov = array(pos) : array(pos) = item : item = prov

writes = writes + 1

while pos != cyclestart
pos = cyclestart
for i = cyclestart + 1 to lenarray
if array(i) < item pos = pos + 1
next

while item = array(pos)
pos = pos + 1
wend

prov = array(pos) : array(pos) = item : item = prov
writes = writes + 1
wend
next

return writes

end sub

sub printArray(array())
local i

for i = 1 to arraysize(array(), 1)
print array(i), " ";
next
print
end sub

dim ints(10)

for i = 1 to 10
ints(i) = int(ran(10))
next

printArray(ints())
print "writes ", cyclesort(ints())
printArray(ints())```
Output:
```9 9 9 6 8 1 9 7 3 4
writes 8
1 3 4 6 7 8 9 9 9 9
---Program done, press RETURN---```