# Real constants and functions

Real constants and functions
You are encouraged to solve this task according to the task description, using any language you may know.

Show how to use the following math constants and functions in your language   (if not available, note it):

•   e   (base of the natural logarithm)
•   ${\displaystyle \pi }$
•   square root
•   logarithm   (any base allowed)
•   exponential   (ex )
•   absolute value   (a.k.a. "magnitude")
•   floor   (largest integer less than or equal to this number--not the same as truncate or int)
•   ceiling   (smallest integer not less than this number--not the same as round up)
•   power   (xy )

## 11l

Translation of: Python
math:e   // e
math:pi  // pi
sqrt(x)  // square root
log(x)   // natural logarithm
log10(x) // base 10 logarithm
exp(x)   // e raised to the power of x
abs(x)   // absolute value
floor(x) // floor
ceil(x)  // ceiling
x ^ y    // exponentiation

## 6502 Assembly

None of these are built-in, irrational constants are best implemented with lookup tables. Absolute value can be handled like so:

GetAbs: ;assumes value we want to abs() is loaded into accumulator
eor #$ff clc adc #1 rts ## ACL2 Only the last three are available as built in functions. (floor 15 2) ;; This is the floor of 15/2 (ceiling 15 2) (expt 15 2) ;; 15 squared  ==ACL2== Only the last three are available as built in functions. loor and ceiling are not provided, one can define them using integer part: define floor(x); if x < 0 then -intof(x); else intof(x); endif; enddefine; define ceiling(x); -floor(-x); enddefine; ## Action! Part of the solution can be find in REALMATH.ACT. INCLUDE "H6:REALMATH.ACT" PROC Euler(REAL POINTER e) REAL x IntToReal(1,x) Exp(x,e) RETURN PROC Main() REAL a,b,c INT i Put(125) PutE() ;clear screen MathInit() Euler(a) Print("e=") PrintR(a) PrintE(" by Exp(1)") ValR("2",a) Sqrt(a,b) Print("Sqrt(") PrintR(a) Print(")=") PrintR(b) Print(" by Power(") PrintR(a) PrintE(",0.5)") ValR("2.5",a) Ln(a,b) Print("Ln(") PrintR(a) Print(")=") PrintRE(b) ValR("14.2",a) Log10(a,b) Print("Log10(") PrintR(a) Print(")=") PrintRE(b) ValR("-3.7",a) Exp(a,b) Print("Exp(") PrintR(a) Print(")=") PrintRE(b) ValR("2.6",a) Exp10(a,b) Print("Exp10(") PrintR(a) Print(")=") PrintRE(b) ValR("25.3",a) ValR("1.3",b) Power(a,b,c) Print("Power(") PrintR(a) Print(",") PrintR(b) Print(")=") PrintRE(c) ValR("-32.5",a) RealAbs(a,b) Print("Abs(") PrintR(a) Print(")=") PrintR(b) PrintE(" by bit manipulation") ValR("23.15",a) i=Floor(a) Print("Floor(") PrintR(a) PrintF(")=%I by own function%E",i) ValR("-23.15",a) i=Floor(a) Print("Floor(") PrintR(a) PrintF(")=%I by own function%E",i) ValR("23.15",a) i=Ceiling(a) Print("Ceiling(") PrintR(a) PrintF(")=%I by own function%E",i) ValR("-23.15",a) i=Ceiling(a) Print("Ceiling(") PrintR(a) PrintF(")=%I by own function%E",i) PutE() PrintE("There is no support in Action! for pi.") RETURN Output: e=2.71828179 by Exp(1) Sqrt(2)=1.41421355 by Power(2,0.5) Ln(2.5)=.9162907319 Log10(14.2)=1.15228834 Exp(-3.7)=.0247235365 Exp10(2.6)=398.106988 Power(25.3,1.3)=66.6893784 Abs(-32.5)=32.5 by bit manipulation Floor(23.15)=23 by own function Floor(-23.15)=-24 by own function Ceiling(23.15)=24 by own function Ceiling(-23.15)=-23 by own function There is no support in Action! for pi.  ## ActionScript Actionscript has all the functions and constants mentioned in the task, available in the Math class. Math.E; //e Math.PI; //pi Math.sqrt(u); //square root of u Math.log(u); //natural logarithm of u Math.exp(u); //e to the power of u Math.abs(u); //absolute value of u Math.floor(u);//floor of u Math.ceil(u); //ceiling of u Math.pow(u,v);//u to the power of v  The Math class also contains several other constants. Math.LN10; // natural logarithm of 10 Math.LN2; // natural logarithm of 2 Math.LOG10E; // base-10 logarithm of e Math.LOG2E; // base-2 logarithm of e Math.SQRT1_2;// square root of 1/2 Math.SQRT2; //square root of 2  ## Ada Most of the constants and functions used in this task are defined in the pre-defined Ada package Ada.Numerics.Elementary_Functions. Ada.Numerics.e -- Euler's number Ada.Numerics.pi -- pi sqrt(x) -- square root log(x, base) -- logarithm to any specified base exp(x) -- exponential abs(x) -- absolute value S'floor(x) -- Produces the floor of an instance of subtype S S'ceiling(x) -- Produces the ceiling of an instance of subtype S x**y -- x raised to the y power  ## Aime # e exp(1); # pi 2 * asin(1); sqrt(x); log(x); exp(x); fabs(x); floor(x); ceil(x); pow(x, y); ## ALGOL 68 REAL x:=exp(1), y:=4*atan(1); printf(($g(-8,5)"; "$, exp(1), # e # pi, # pi # sqrt(x), # square root # log(x), # logarithm base 10 # ln(x), # natural logarithm # exp(x), # exponential # ABS x, # absolute value # ENTIER x, # floor # -ENTIER -x, # ceiling # x ** y # power # )) Output:  2.71828; 3.14159; 1.64872; 0.43429; 1.00000; 15.15426; 2.71828; 2.00000; 3.00000; 23.14069;  ALGOL 68 also includes assorted long, short and complex versions of the above, eg: long exp, long long exp, short exp, complex exp etc. And assorted trig functions: sin(x), arcsin(x), cos(x), arccos(x), tan(x), arctan(x), arctan2(x,y), sinh(x), arcsinh(x), cosh(x), arccosh(x), tanh(x) AND arctanh(x). ## ALGOL W begin real t, u; t := 10; u := -2.3; i_w := 4; s_w := 0; r_format := "A"; r_d := 4; r_w := 9; % set output format % write( " e: ", exp( 1 ) ); % e % write( " pi: ", pi ); % pi % write( " root t: ", sqrt( t ) ); % square root % write( " log t: ", log( t ) ); % log base 10 % write( " ln t: ", ln( t ) ); % log base e % write( " exp u: ", exp( u ) ); % exponential % write( " abs u: ", abs u ); % absolute value % write( " floor pi: ", entier( pi ) ); % floor % write( "ceiling pi: ", - entier( - pi ) ); % ceiling % % the raise-to-the-power operator is "**" - it only allows integers for the power % write( " pi cubed: ", pi ** 3 ) % use exp( ln( x ) * y ) for general x^y % end. ## ARM Assembly /* functions not availables */  ## Arturo print ["Euler:" e] print ["Pi:" pi] print ["sqrt 2.0:" sqrt 2.0] print ["ln 100:" ln 100] print ["log(10) 100:" log 100 10] print ["exp 3:" exp 3] print ["abs -1:" abs neg 1] print ["floor 23.536:" floor 23.536] print ["ceil 23.536:" ceil 23.536] print ["2 ^ 8:" 2 ^ 8]  Output: Euler: 2.718281828459045 Pi: 3.141592653589793 sqrt 2.0: 1.414213562373095 ln 100: 4.605170185988092 log(10) 100: 2.0 exp 3: 20.08553692318767 abs -1: 1 floor 23.536: 23 ceil 23.536: 24 2 ^ 8: 256 ## Asymptote real e = exp(1); // e not available write("e = ", e); write("pi = ", pi); real x = 12.345; real y = 1.23; write("sqrt = ", sqrt(2)); // square root write("ln = ", log(e)); // natural logarithm base e write("log = ", log10(x)); // base 10 logarithm write("log1p = ", log1p(x)); // log (1+x) write("exp = ", exp(e)); // exponential write("abs = ", abs(-1)); // absolute value write("fabs = ", fabs(-1)); // absolute value write("floor = ", floor(-e)); // floor write("ceil = ", ceil(-e)); // ceiling write("power = ", x ^ y); // power write("power = ", x ** y); // power  Output: e = 2.71828182845905 pi = 3.14159265358979 sqrt = 1.4142135623731 ln = 1 log = 1.09149109426795 log1p = 2.59114178285649 exp = 15.1542622414793 abs = 1 fabs = 1 floor = -3 ceil = -2 power = 22.0056421323763 power = 22.0056421323763 ## AutoHotkey The following math functions are built into AutoHotkey: Sqrt(Number) ; square root Log(Number) ; logarithm (base 10) Ln(Number) ; natural logarithm (base e) Exp(N) ; e to the power N Abs(Number) ; absolute value Floor(Number) ; floor Ceil(Number) ; ceiling x**y ; x to the power y  No mathematical constants are built-in, but they can all be calculated: e:=exp(1) pi:=2*asin(1)  The following are additional trigonometric functions that are built into the AutoHotkey language: Sin(Number) ; sine Cos(Number) ; cosine Tan(Number) ; tangent ASin(Number) ; arcsine ACos(Number) ; arccosine ATan(Number) ; arctangent  ## AWK Awk has square root, logarithm, exponential and power. BEGIN { print sqrt(2) # square root print log(2) # logarithm base e print exp(2) # exponential print 2 ^ -3.4 # power } # outputs 1.41421, 0.693147, 7.38906, 0.0947323  Power's note: With nawk or gawk, 2 ** -3.4 acts like 2 ^ -3.4. With mawk, 2 ** -3.4 is a syntax error. Nawk allows **, but its manual page only has ^. Gawk's manual warns, "The POSIX standard only specifies the use of ^' for exponentiation. For maximum portability, do not use the **' operator." Awk misses e, pi, absolute value, floor and ceiling; but these are all easy to implement: BEGIN { E = exp(1) PI = atan2(0, -1) } function abs(x) { return x < 0 ? -x : x } function floor(x) { y = int(x) return y > x ? y - 1 : y } function ceil(x) { y = int(x) return y < x ? y + 1 : y } BEGIN { print E print PI print abs(-3.4) # absolute value print floor(-3.4) # floor print ceil(-3.4) # ceiling } # outputs 2.71828, 3.14159, 3.4, -4, -3  ## Axe In general, Axe does not support many operations on real numbers. However, there are a few special cases that it does support. To take the square root of an integer X: √(X) To take the square root of an 8.8 fixed-point number Y: √(Y)ʳ To take the base-2 logarithm of an integer X: ln(X) To take 2 raised to an integer X: (Note that the base is not Euler's number) e^(X) To take the absolute value of a signed integer X: abs(X) ## BASIC ### ANSI BASIC Translation of: True BASIC – In fact, True BASIC implements ANSI BASIC, but adds some other features. Works with: Decimal BASIC 100 REM Real constants and functions 110 DECLARE EXTERNAL FUNCTION Floor 120 PRINT "e = "; EXP(1) ! e not available 130 PRINT "PI = "; PI 140 LET X = 12.345 150 LET Y = 1.23 160 PRINT "sqrt = "; SQR(X), X ^ 0.5 ! square root- NB the unusual name 170 PRINT "ln = "; LOG(X) ! natural logarithm base e 180 PRINT "log2 = "; LOG2(X) ! base 2 logarithm 190 PRINT "log10 = "; LOG10(X) ! base 10 logarithm 200 PRINT "log = "; LOG(X) / LOG(Y) ! arbitrary base logarithm 210 PRINT "exp = "; EXP(X) ! exponential 220 PRINT "abs = "; ABS(-1) ! absolute value 230 PRINT "floor = "; Floor(X) ! floor easily implemented as functions 240 PRINT "ceil = "; CEIL(X) ! ceiling 250 PRINT "power = "; X ^ Y ! power 260 END 270 REM ** 280 EXTERNAL FUNCTION Floor(X) 290 IF X > 0 THEN 300 LET Floor = INT(X) 310 ELSE 320 IF X <> INT(X) THEN LET Floor = INT(X) - 1 ELSE LET Floor = INT(X) 330 END IF 340 END FUNCTION  ### Applesoft BASIC Works with: Chipmunk Basic Works with: GW-BASIC Works with: MSX Basic Works with: QBasic 100 HOME : REM 10 CLS for GW-BASIC or MSX Basic or QBasic 110 PRINT "e = ";EXP(1) :REM e not available 120 PRINT "PI = ";4 * ATN(1) :REM pi not available 130 X = 12.345 140 Y = 1.23 150 PRINT "sqrt = ";SQR(X) :REM square root 160 PRINT "ln = ";LOG(X) :REM natural logarithm base e 170 PRINT "log10 = ";LOG(X)/LOG(10) :REM base 10 logarithm 180 PRINT "log = ";LOG(X)/LOG(Y) :REM arbitrary base logarithm 190 PRINT "exp = ";EXP(X) :REM exponential 200 PRINT "abs = ";ABS(-X) :REM absolute value 210 PRINT "floor = "; :REM floor not available 220 IF X > 0 THEN PRINT INT(X) 230 IF X <= 0 AND X <> INT(X) THEN PRINT INT(X)-1 240 IF X <= 0 AND X = INT(X) THEN PRINT INT(X) 250 PRINT "ceil = "; :REM ceil not available 260 IF X < 0 THEN PRINT INT(X) 270 IF X >= 0 THEN PRINT INT(X)+1 280 PRINT "power = ";X^Y :REM power 290 END  ### BASIC256 e = exp(1) # e not available print "e = "; e print "PI = "; PI x = 12.345 y = 1.23 print "sqrt = "; sqr(x) # square root print "ln = "; log(e) # natural logarithm base e print "log10 = "; log10(e) # base 10 logarithm print "log = "; log(x)/log(y) # arbitrary base logarithm print "exp = "; exp(e) # exponential print "abs = "; abs(-1) # absolute value print "floor = "; floor(-e) # floor print "ceil = "; ceil(-e) # ceiling print "power = "; x ^ y # power Output: e = 2.71828182846 PI = 3.14159265359 sqrt = 3.51354521815 ln = 1.0 log10 = 0.4342944819 log = 12.1404787425 exp = 15.1542622415 abs = 1 floor = -3 ceil = -2 power = 22.0056421324 ### BBC BASIC  e = EXP(1) Pi = PI Sqr2 = SQR(2) Ln2 = LN(2) Log2 = LOG(2) : REM Base 10 Exp2 = EXP(2) Abs2 = ABS(-2) Floor = INT(1.234) Ceil = FNceil(1.234) Power = 1.23^4 END DEF FNceil(n) = INT(n) - (INT(n) <> n)  ### Chipmunk Basic Works with: Chipmunk Basic version 3.6.4 100 cls 110 print "e = ";exp(1)' e not available 120 print "PI = ";4*arctan(1)' pi not available 130 x = 12.345 140 y = 1.23 150 print "sqrt = ";sqr(x)' square root 160 print "ln = ";log(x)' natural logarithm base e 170 print "log10 = ";log(x)/log(10)' base 10 logarithm 180 print "log = ";log(x)/log(y)' arbitrary base logarithm 190 print "exp = ";exp(x)' exponential 200 print "abs = ";abs(-x)' absolute value 210 print "floor = ";floor(x)' floor 220 print "ceil = "; : ceil(x)' ceil easily implemented as function 230 print "power = ";x^y ' power 240 end 250 sub ceil(x) 260 if x < 0 then print int(x) else print int(x)+1 270 end sub  ### FreeBASIC ' FB 1.05.0 Win64 #Include "crt/math.bi" Print M_E '' constant "e" from C runtime library Print M_PI '' constant "pi" from C runtime library Print Sqr(2) '' square root function built into FB Print Log(M_E) '' log to base "e" built into FB Print log10(10) '' log to base 10 from C runtime library Print Exp(1) '' exponential function built into FB Print Abs(-1) '' absolute value function (integers or floats) built into FB Print Int(-2.5) '' floor function built into FB Print ceil(-2.5) '' ceiling function from C runtime library Print 2.5 ^ 3.5 '' exponentiation operator built into FB Sleep Output:  2.718281828459045 3.141592653589793 1.414213562373095 1 1 2.718281828459045 1 -3 -2 24.70529422006547  ### FutureBasic window 1 text ,,,,, 60// set tab width print @"exp:", exp(1) print @"pi:", pi print @"sqr:", sqr(2) print @"log:", log(2) print @"log2:", log2(2) print @"log10", log10(2) print @"abs:", abs(-2) print @"floor:", int(1.534) print @"ceil:", val( using"###"; 1.534 ) print @"power:", 1.23 ^ 4 HandleEvents Output: exp: 2.7182818285 pi: 3.1415926536 sqr: 1.4142135624 log: 0.6931471806 log2: 1 log10 0.3010299957 abs: 2 floor: 2 ceil: 2 power: 2.28886641  ### Gambas Public Sub Main() Dim e As Float = Exp(1) Print "e = "; e ' e not available Print "π = "; Pi ' pi Dim x As Float = 12.345 Dim y As Float = 1.23 Print "sqrt = "; Sqr(x)' square root Print "ln = "; Log(x)' natural logarithm base e Print "log10 = "; Log(x) / Log(10) ' base 10 logarithm Print "log = "; Log(x) / Log(y)' arbitrary base logarithm Print "exp = "; Exp(x) ' exponential Print "abs = "; Abs(-x)' absolute value Print "floor = "; Floor(x)' floor Print "ceil = "; Ceil(x)' ceil Print "power = "; x ^ y ' power End  ### GW-BASIC Works with: BASICA Works with: Chipmunk Basic Works with: MSX_BASIC Works with: QBasic Works with: PC-BASIC version any 100 CLS 110 PRINT "e = "; EXP(1) ' e not available 120 PRINT "PI = "; 4 * ATN(1) ' pi not available 130 X = 12.345 140 Y = 1.23 150 PRINT "sqrt = "; SQR(X) ' square root 160 PRINT "ln = "; LOG(X) ' natural logarithm base e 170 PRINT "log10 = "; LOG(X)/LOG(10) ' base 10 logarithm 180 PRINT "log = "; LOG(X)/LOG(Y) ' arbitrary base logarithm 190 PRINT "exp = "; EXP(X) ' exponential 200 PRINT "abs = "; ABS(-X) ' absolute value 210 PRINT "floor = "; floor(X) ' floor 220 PRINT "ceil = "; : ' ceil not available 230 IF X < 0 THEN PRINT INT(X) ELSE PRINT INT(X)+1 240 PRINT "power = "; X ^Y ' power 250 END  ### IS-BASIC 100 LET X=2:LET Y=5 110 PRINT EXP(1) ! value of e 120 PRINT PI ! value of Pi 130 PRINT ROUND(PI,3) ! rounds Pi to 3 decimal places 140 PRINT TRUNCATE(PI,3) ! cuts 3 decimal places from Pi 150 PRINT SQR(X) ! square root of x 160 PRINT LOG(X) ! the natural logarithm of number x 170 PRINT LOG2(X) ! logarithm of x to base 2 180 PRINT LOG10(X) ! logarithm of x to base 10 190 PRINT EXP(X) ! exponential 200 PRINT ABS(X) ! the absolute value of a number 210 PRINT INT(X) ! the largest whole number not bigger than x 220 PRINT IP(X) ! the integer part of x 230 PRINT FP(X) ! stands for fractorial part 240 PRINT CEIL(X) ! ceiling: gives the smallest whole number not less than x 250 PRINT X^Y ! power 260 PRINT MIN(X,Y) ! the smaller number of x and y 270 PRINT MAX(X,Y) ! the bigger number of x and y 280 PRINT EPS(X) ! the smallest quantity that can be added to or subtracted from x to make the interpreter register a change in the value of x 290 PRINT INF ! The largest positive number the tinterpreter can handle. This number is 9.999999999*10^62 ### Liberty BASIC Works with: Just BASIC Ceiling and floor easily implemented as functions. sqr( is the LB function for square root. e & pi not available- calculate as shown. print exp(1) ' e not available print 4 *atn(1) ' pi not available x =12.345: y =1.23 print sqr(x), x^0.5 ' square root- NB the unusual name print log(x) ' natural logarithm base e print log(x) /2.303 ' base 10 logarithm print log(x) / log(y) ' arbitrary base logarithm print exp(x) ' exponential print abs(x) ' absolute value print floor(x) ' floor print ceiling(x) ' ceiling print x^y ' power end function floor(x) if x >0 then floor =int(x) else if x <>int(x) then floor =int(x) -1 else floor =int(x) end if end function function ceiling(x) if x <0 then ceiling =int(x) else ceiling =int(x) +1 end if end function ### MSX Basic Works with: MSX Basic version any Works with: Chipmunk Basic 100 CLS 110 E = EXP(1) 120 PRINT "e = "; E ' e not available 130 PI = 4 * ATN(1) 140 PRINT "PI = "; PI ' pi not available 150 X = 12.345 160 Y = 1.23 170 PRINT "sqrt = "; SQR(X) ' square root 180 PRINT "ln = "; LOG(X) ' natural logarithm base e 190 PRINT "log10 = "; LOG(X)/LOG(10) ' base 10 logarithm 200 PRINT "log = "; LOG(X)/LOG(Y) ' arbitrary base logarithm 210 PRINT "exp = "; EXP(X) ' exponential 220 PRINT "abs = "; ABS(-X) ' absolute value 230 PRINT "floor = "; floor(X) ' floor 240 PRINT "ceil = "; : ' ceil not available 250 IF X < 0 THEN PRINT INT(X) ELSE PRINT INT(X)+1 260 PRINT "power = "; X ^Y ' power 270 END  ### PureBasic Debug #E Debug #PI Debug Sqr(f) Debug Log(f) Debug Exp(f) Debug Log10(f) Debug Abs(f) Debug Pow(f,f) ### QBasic Works with: QBasic version 1.1 Works with: QuickBasic version 4.5 'ceiling and floor easily implemented as functions. 'e & pi not available- calculate as shown. FUNCTION ceiling (x) IF x < 0 THEN ceiling = INT(x) ELSE ceiling = INT(x) + 1 END FUNCTION FUNCTION floor (x) IF x > 0 THEN floor = INT(x) ELSE IF x <> INT(x) THEN floor = INT(x) - 1 ELSE floor = INT(x) END IF END FUNCTION PRINT "e = "; EXP(1) ' e not available PRINT "PI = "; 4 * ATN(1) ' pi not available x = 12.345: y = 1.23 PRINT "sqrt = "; SQR(x), x ^ .5 ' square root- NB the unusual name PRINT "ln = "; LOG(x) ' natural logarithm base e PRINT "log10 = "; LOG(x) / 2.303 ' base 10 logarithm PRINT "log = "; LOG(x) / LOG(y) ' arbitrary base logarithm PRINT "exp = "; EXP(x) ' exponential PRINT "abs = "; ABS(-x) ' absolute value PRINT "floor = "; floor(x) ' floor PRINT "ceil = "; ceiling(x) ' ceiling PRINT "power = "; x ^ y ' power END  ### Run BASIC Works with: Just BASIC print "exp:";chr$(9);   EXP(1)
print "PI:";chr$(9); 4 * ATN(1) print "Sqr2:";chr$(9);  SQR(2)
print "Log2:";chr$(9); LOG(2) : REM Base 10 print "Exp2:";chr$(9);  EXP(2)
print "Abs2:";chr$(9); ABS(-2) print "Floor:";chr$(9); INT(1.534)
print "ceil:";chr$(9); val(using("###",1.534)) print "Power:";chr$(9); 1.23^4
exp:	2.71828183
PI:	3.14285707
Sqr2:	1.41421356
Log2:	0.693147181
Exp2:	7.3890561
Abs2:	2
Floor:	1
ceil:	2
Power:	2.28886641

### Sinclair ZX81 BASIC

Arguments to built-in functions may be placed in parentheses, but are not required to be.

Base of the natural logarithm:

EXP 1


${\displaystyle \pi }$:

PI


Square root:

SQR X


Natural logarithm:

LN X


Exponential:

EXP X


Absolute value:

ABS X


Floor:

INT X


(NB. Although this function is called INT, it corresponds to floor: e.g. INT -3.1 returns -4 not -3.)

Ceiling:
not provided as a built-in function.

Power:

X**Y


NB. Both ${\displaystyle x}$ and ${\displaystyle y}$ can be real numbers.

### TI-89 BASIC

Mathematical TI-89 Notes
${\displaystyle e}$ ℯ  (U+212F SCRIPT SMALL E)
${\displaystyle \pi }$ π  (U+03C0 GREEK SMALL LETTER PI)
${\displaystyle {\sqrt {x}}}$ √(x)  (U+221A SQUARE ROOT)
${\displaystyle \log _{e}(x)}$ ln(x)
${\displaystyle \log _{10}(x)}$ log(x)
${\displaystyle \log _{b}(x)}$ log(b, x)  The optional base argument comes first
${\displaystyle \lfloor x\rfloor }$ floor(x)
${\displaystyle \lceil x\rceil }$ ceiling(x)
${\displaystyle x^{y}}$ x^y

### True BASIC

Works with: Decimal BASIC
FUNCTION floor(x)
IF x > 0 THEN
LET floor = INT(x)
ELSE
IF x <> INT(x) THEN LET floor = INT(x) - 1 ELSE LET floor = INT(x)
END IF
END FUNCTION

PRINT "e     = "; exp(1)          ! e  not available
PRINT "PI    = "; PI

LET x = 12.345
LET y = 1.23

PRINT "sqrt  = "; SQR(x), x^0.5   ! square root- NB the unusual name
PRINT "ln    = "; LOG(x)          ! natural logarithm base e
PRINT "log2  = "; LOG2(x)         ! base 2 logarithm
PRINT "log10 = "; LOG10(x)        ! base 10 logarithm
PRINT "log   = "; LOG(x)/LOG(y)   ! arbitrary base logarithm
PRINT "exp   = "; EXP(x)          ! exponential
PRINT "abs   = "; ABS(-1)         ! absolute value
PRINT "floor = "; floor(x)        ! floor easily implemented as functions
PRINT "ceil  = "; CEIL(x)         ! ceiling
PRINT "power = "; x ^ y           ! power
END


### XBasic

Works with: Windows XBasic
PROGRAM	"realcaf"
VERSION  "0.0000"

IMPORT	"xma"

DECLARE FUNCTION Entry ()
DECLARE FUNCTION Ceil (x)
DECLARE FUNCTION Floor (x)

FUNCTION  Entry ()
DOUBLE e, pi, x, y
e = EXP(1)
PRINT "e     = "; e          ' e  not available
pi = 4 * ATAN(1)
PRINT "pi    = "; pi         ' pi not available
x = 12.345
y = 1.23
PRINT "sqrt  = "; SQRT (x)   ' square root
PRINT "ln    = "; LOG (x)    ' natural logarithm base e
PRINT "log10 = "; LOG10 (x)  ' base 10 logarithm
PRINT "log   = "; LOG (x) / LOG (y)   ' arbitrary base logarithm
PRINT "exp   = "; EXP (x)    ' exponential
PRINT "abs   = "; ABS (-x)   ' absolute value
PRINT "Floor = "; Floor (x)  ' Floor easily implemented as functions
PRINT "Ceil  = "; Ceil (x)   ' Ceil easily implemented as functions
PRINT "power = "; x ** y     ' power
END FUNCTION

FUNCTION Ceil (x)
IF x < 0 THEN RETURN INT(x) ELSE RETURN INT(x) + 1
END FUNCTION

FUNCTION Floor (x)
IF x > 0 THEN
RETURN INT(x)
ELSE
IF x <> INT(x) THEN RETURN INT(x) - 1 ELSE RETURN INT(x)
END IF
END FUNCTION
END PROGRAM


### Yabasic

print "e     = ", euler
print "pi    = ", pi

x = 12.345
y = 1.23

print "sqrt  = ", sqrt(2)              // square root
print "ln    = ", log(euler)           // natural logarithm base e
print "log   = ", log(x, y)	       // arbitrary base y logarithm
print "exp   = ", exp(euler)           // exponential
print "abs   = ", abs(-1)              // absolute value
print "floor = ", floor(-euler)        // floor
print "ceil  = ", ceil(-euler)         // ceiling
print "power = ", x ^ y, "  ", x ** y  // power
end
Output:
e     = 2.71828
pi    = 3.14159
sqrt  = 1.41421
ln    = 1
log   = 12.1405
exp   = 15.1543
abs   = 1
floor = -3
ceil  = -2
power = 22.0056  22.0056

## bc

The language has square root and power, but power only works if the exponent is an integer.

scale = 6
sqrt(2)		/* 1.414213	square root */
4.3 ^ -2	/* .054083	power (integer exponent) */


The standard library has natural logarithm and exponential functions. It can calculate e and pi: e comes from the exponential function, while pi is four times the arctangent of one. The usual formulas can calculate the powers with fractional exponents, and the logarithms with any base.

Library: bc -l
scale = 6
l(2)		/* .693147	natural logarithm */
e(2)		/* 7.389056	exponential */

p = 4 * a(1)
e = e(1)
p		/* 3.141592	pi to 6 fractional digits */
e		/* 2.178281	e to 6 fractional digits */

e(l(2) * -3.4)	/* .094734	2 to the power of -3.4 */
l(1024) / l(2)	/* 10.000001	logarithm base 2 of 1024 */


The missing functions are absolute value, floor and ceiling. You can implement these functions, if you know what to do.

Translation of: AWK
/* absolute value */
define v(x) {
if (x < 0) return (-x)
return (x)
}

/* floor */
define f(x) {
auto s, y

s = scale
scale = 0
y = x / 1
scale = s

if (y > x) return (y - 1)
return (y)
}

/* ceiling */
define g(x) {
auto s, y

s = scale
scale = 0
y = x / 1
scale = s

if (y < x) return (y + 1)
return (y)
}

v(-3.4)		/* 3.4		absolute value */
f(-3.4)		/* -4		floor */
g(-3.4)		/* -3		ceiling */


## blz

The constant e

{e}

The constant pi

{pi}

Square root

x ** 0.5

Logarithm (base n)

x __ n

Exponential

{e} ** x

Absolute Value

abs(x)

Floor

floor(x)

Ceiling

ceil(x)

Power x to the y

x ** y

## BQN

BQN has all the required constants, either within functions or available as single symbols:

   ⋆1    # e and e^x
2.718281828459045
π     # pi
3.141592653589793
√2    # square root
1.414213562373095
2⋆⁼10 # logarithm base n (inverse power)
3.321928094887363
|-1   # absolute value
1
⌊3.2  # floor
3
⌈3.2  # ceiling
4
3⋆4   # power
81


## Bracmat

Bracmat has no real number type, but the constants e and pi, together with i can be used as symbols with the intended mathematical meaning in exponential functions. For example, differentiation 10^x to x

x \D (10^x) { \D is the differentiation operator }

has the result

10^x*e\L10 { \L is the logarithm operator }

Likewise e^(i*pi) evaluates to -1 and e^(1/2*i*pi) evaluates to i.

When taking the square root of a (rational) number, and nominator and denominator are not too big (convertible to 32 or 64 bit integers, depending on platform), Bracmat resolves the number in prime factors and halves the exponents of each of the prime factors.

Bracmat handles logarithms in any base, except real numbers that are not rational. Example: 24/7 \L 119/9 evaluates to 2+24/7\L5831/5184.

Bracmat does not attempt to compute the numerical value of the exponential function, except for a the special case where the result is a rational number. Thus e^0 evaluates to 1.

Bracmat has no built-in functions for computing the absolute value, floor or ceiling. For real numbers that are rational such functions can be written.

If the result of taking the power of a rational number to another rational number is rational, Bracmat can in many compute it, if needed using prime factorization. See root above. Example:  243/1024^2/5 evaluates to 9/16.

## C

Most of the following functions take a double.

#include <math.h>

M_E; /* e - not standard but offered by most implementations */
M_PI; /* pi - not standard but offered by most implementations */
sqrt(x); /* square root--cube root also available in C99 (cbrt) */
log(x); /* natural logarithm--log base 10 also available (log10) */
exp(x); /* exponential */
abs(x); /* absolute value (for integers) */
fabs(x); /* absolute value (for doubles) */
floor(x); /* floor */
ceil(x); /* ceiling */
pow(x,y); /* power */


To access the M_PI, etc. constants in Visual Studio, you may need to add the line #define _USE_MATH_DEFINES before the #include <math.h>.

## C#

using System;

class Program {
static void Main(string[] args) {
Console.WriteLine(Math.E); //E
Console.WriteLine(Math.PI); //PI
Console.WriteLine(Math.Sqrt(10)); //Square Root
Console.WriteLine(Math.Log(10)); // Logarithm
Console.WriteLine(Math.Log10(10)); // Base 10 Logarithm
Console.WriteLine(Math.Exp(10)); // Exponential
Console.WriteLine(Math.Abs(10)); //Absolute value
Console.WriteLine(Math.Floor(10.0)); //Floor
Console.WriteLine(Math.Ceiling(10.0)); //Ceiling
Console.WriteLine(Math.Pow(2, 5)); // Exponentiation
}
}


## C++

### using Math macros

#include <iostream>
#include <cmath>

#ifdef M_E
static double euler_e = M_E;
#else
static double euler_e = std::exp(1); // standard fallback
#endif

#ifdef M_PI
static double pi = M_PI;
#else
static double pi = std::acos(-1);
#endif

int main()
{
std::cout << "e = " << euler_e
<< "\npi = " << pi
<< "\nsqrt(2) = " << std::sqrt(2.0)
<< "\nln(e) = " << std::log(euler_e)
<< "\nlg(100) = " << std::log10(100.0)
<< "\nexp(3) = " << std::exp(3.0)
<< "\n|-4.5| = " << std::abs(-4.5)   // or std::fabs(-4.5); both work in C++
<< "\nfloor(4.5) = " << std::floor(4.5)
<< "\nceiling(4.5) = " << std::ceil(4.5)
<< "\npi^2 = " << std::pow(pi,2.0) << std::endl;
}


### using Boost

Library: Boost
#include <iostream>
#include <iomanip>
#include <cmath>
#include <boost/math/constants/constants.hpp>

int main()
{
using namespace boost::math::double_constants;
std::cout << "e = " << std::setprecision(18) << e
<< "\ne³ = " << std::exp(3.0)
<< "\nπ = " << pi
<< "\nπ² = " << pi_sqr
<< "\n√2 = " << root_two
<< "\nln(e) = " << std::log(e)
<< "\nlg(100) = " << std::log10(100.0)
<< "\n|-4.5| = " << std::abs(-4.5)
<< "\nfloor(4.5) = " << std::floor(4.5)
<< "\nceiling(4.5) = " << std::ceil(4.5) << std::endl;
}

Output:
e = 2.71828182845904509
e³ = 20.0855369231876679
π = 3.14159265358979312
π² = 9.86960440108935799
√2 = 1.41421356237309515
ln(e) = 1
lg(100) = 2
|-4.5| = 4.5
floor(4.5) = 4
ceiling(4.5) = 5

## Chef

See Basic integer arithmetic#Chef for powers.

## Clojure

Translation of: Java

which is directly available.

(Math/E); //e
(Math/PI); //pi
(Math/sqrt x); //square root--cube root also available (cbrt)
(Math/log x); //natural logarithm--log base 10 also available (log10)
(Math/exp x); //exponential
(Math/abs x); //absolute value
(Math/floor x); //floor
(Math/ceil x); //ceiling
(Math/pow x y); //power


Clojure does provide arbitrary precision versions as well:

(ns user (:require [clojure.contrib.math :as math]))
(math/sqrt x)
(math/abs x)
(math/floor x)
(math/ceil x)
(math/expt x y)


.. and as multimethods that can be defined for any type (e.g. complex numbers).

(ns user (:require [clojure.contrib.generic.math-functions :as generic]))
(generic/sqrt x)
(generic/log x)
(generic/exp x)
(generic/abs x)
(generic/floor x)
(generic/ceil x)
(generic/pow x y)


## COBOL

Everything that follows can take any number (except for SQRT which expects a non-negative number). The task constants and (intrinsic) functions:

E          *> e
PI         *> Pi
SQRT(n)    *> Sqaure root
LOG(n)     *> Natural logarithm
LOG10(n)   *> Logarithm (base 10)
EXP(n)     *> e to the nth power
ABS(n)     *> Absolute value
INTEGER(n) *> While not a proper floor function, it is implemented in the same way.
*> There is no ceiling function. However, it could be implemented like so:
MOVE INTEGER(N) TO Result
*> There is no pow function, although the COMPUTE verb does have an exponention operator.
COMPUTE Result = N ** 2


COBOL also has the following extra mathematical functions:

FACTORIAL(n) *> Factorial
EXP10(n)     *> 10 to the nth power
*> Trigonometric functions, including inverse ones, named as would be expected.


## Common Lisp

In Lisp we should really be talking about numbers rather than the type real. The types real and complex are subtypes of number. Math operations that accept or produce complex numbers generally do.

(exp 1)     ; e (Euler's number)
pi          ; pi constant
(sqrt x)    ; square root: works for negative reals and complex
(log x)     ; natural logarithm: works for negative reals and complex
(log x 10)  ; logarithm base 10
(exp x)     ; exponential
(abs x)     ; absolute value: result exact if input exact: (abs -1/3) -> 1/3.
(floor x)   ; floor: restricted to real, two valued (second value gives residue)
(ceiling x) ; ceiling: restricted to real, two valued (second value gives residue)
(expt x y)  ; power


## Crystal

x = 3.25
y = 4

puts x.abs       # absolute value
puts x.floor     # floor
puts x.ceil      # ceiling
puts x ** y      # power
puts

include Math     # without including

puts E           # puts Math::E        -- exponential constant
puts PI          # puts Math::PI       -- Archimedes  circle constant
puts TAU         # puts Math::TAU      -- the correct circle constant, >= version 0.36
puts sqrt(x)     # puts Math.sqrt(x)   -- real square root
puts log(x)      # puts Math.log(x)    -- natural logarithm
puts log10(x)    # puts Math.log10(x)  -- base 10 logarithm
puts log(x, y)   # puts Math.log(x, y) -- logarithm x base y
puts exp(x)      # puts Math.exp(x)    -- exponential
puts E**x        # puts Math::E**x     -- same


Template:0ut

3.25
3.0
4.0
111.56640625

2.718281828459045
3.141592653589793
6.283185307179586
1.8027756377319946
1.1786549963416462
0.5118833609788744
0.8502198590705461
25.790339917193062
25.79033991719306


## D

import std.math ; // need to import this module
E        // Euler's number
PI       // pi constant
sqrt(x)  // square root
log(x)   // natural logarithm
log10(x) // logarithm base 10
log2(x)  // logarithm base 2
exp(x)   // exponential
abs(x)   // absolute value (= magnitude for complex)
floor(x) // floor
ceil(x)  // ceiling
pow(x,y) // power


## Delphi

Delphi supports all basic Standard Pascal (ISO 7185) functions shown in § Pascal. Furthermore, the following is possible, too:

Pi;             // π (Pi)
LogN(BASE, x)   // log of x for a specified base
Log2(x)         // log of x for base 2
Log10(x)        // log of x for base 10
Floor(x);       // floor
Ceil(x);        // ceiling
Power(x, y);    // power


Note, Log, Floor, Ceil and Power are from the Math unit, which needs to be listed in the uses-clauses.

See Delphi.

## E

? 1.0.exp()
# value: 2.7182818284590455

? 0.0.acos() * 2
# value: 3.141592653589793

? 2.0.sqrt()
# value: 1.4142135623730951

? 2.0.log()
# value: 0.6931471805599453

? 5.0.exp()
# value: 148.4131591025766

? (-5).abs()
# value: 5

? 1.2.floor()
# value: 1

? 1.2.ceil()
# value: 2

? 10 ** 6
# value: 1000000

## EasyLang

# e is not available
# pi
print pi
# square root
print sqrt 2
# logarithm base 10
print log10 1000
# exponential is not available
# absolute value
print abs -20
# floor
print floor 1.5
# ceiling is not available
# power
print pow 2 10

## Elena

ELENA 4.x :

import system'math;
import extensions;

public program()
{
console.printLine(E_value);       //E
console.printLine(Pi_value);      //PI
console.printLine(10.sqrt());     //Square Root
console.printLine(10.ln());       //Logarithm
console.printLine(10.log10());    // Base 10 Logarithm
console.printLine(10.exp());      //Exponential
console.printLine(10.Absolute); //Absolute value
console.printLine(10.0r.floor()); //Floor
console.printLine(10.0r.ceil());  //Ceiling
console.printLine(2.power(5));    //Exponentiation
}

## Elixir

defmodule Real_constants_and_functions do
def main do
IO.puts :math.exp(1)                # e
IO.puts :math.pi                    # pi
IO.puts :math.sqrt(16)              # square root
IO.puts :math.log(10)               # natural logarithm
IO.puts :math.log10(10)             # base 10 logarithm
IO.puts :math.exp(2)                # e raised to the power of x
IO.puts abs(-2.24)                  # absolute value
IO.puts Float.floor(3.1423)         # floor
IO.puts Float.ceil(20.125)          # ceiling
IO.puts :math.pow(3,2)              # exponentiation
end
end

Real_constants_and_functions.main


## Elm

The following are all in the Basics module, which is imported by default:

e           -- e
pi          -- pi
sqrt x      -- square root
logBase 3 9 -- logarithm (any base)
e^x         -- exponential
abs x       -- absolute value
floor x     -- floor
ceiling x   -- ceiling
2 ^ 3       -- power


## Erlang

% Implemented by Arjun Sunel
-module(math_constants).
-export([main/0]).
main() ->
io:format("~p~n",	[math:exp(1)]		),		% e
io:format("~p~n",	[math:pi()]		),		% pi
io:format("~p~n",	[math:sqrt(16)]		),		% square root
io:format("~p~n",	[math:log(10)]		),		% natural logarithm
io:format("~p~n",	[math:log10(10)]	),		% base 10 logarithm
io:format("~p~n",	[math:exp(2)]		),		% e raised to the power of x
io:format("~p~n",	[abs(-2.24)]		),		% absolute value
io:format("~p~n",	[floor(3.1423)]		),		% floor
io:format("~p~n",	[ceil(20.125)]		),		% ceiling
io:format("~p~n",	[math:pow(3,2)]	        ).		% exponentiation

floor(X) when X < 0 ->
T = trunc(X),
case X - T == 0 of
true -> T;
false -> T - 1
end;

floor(X) ->
trunc(X).

ceil(X) when X < 0 ->
trunc(X);

ceil(X) ->
T = trunc(X),
case X - T == 0 of
true -> T;
false -> T + 1
end.

Output:
2.718281828459045
3.141592653589793
4.0
2.302585092994046
1.0
7.38905609893065
2.24
3
21
9.0
ok



## ERRE

PROGRAM R_C_F

FUNCTION CEILING(X)
CEILING=INT(X)-(X-INT(X)>0)
END FUNCTION

FUNCTION FLOOR(X)
FLOOR=INT(X)
END FUNCTION

BEGIN
PRINT(EXP(1))           ! e  not available
PRINT(π)                ! pi is available or ....
PRINT(4*ATN(1))         ! .... equal to

X=12.345
Y=1.23

PRINT(SQR(X),X^0.5)     ! square root
PRINT(LOG(X))           ! natural logarithm base e
PRINT(LOG(X)/LOG(10))   ! base 10 logarithm
PRINT(LOG(X)/LOG(Y))    ! arbitrary base logarithm (y>0)
PRINT(EXP(X))           ! exponential
PRINT(ABS(X))           ! absolute value
PRINT(FLOOR(X))         ! floor
PRINT(CEILING(X))       ! ceiling
PRINT(X^Y)              ! power
END PROGRAM
Output:
 2.718282
3.141592653589793
3.141593
3.513545      3.513545
2.513251
1.091491
12.14048
229808.1
12.345
12
13
22.00564

## F#

Translation of: C# – C sharp
open System

let main _ =
Console.WriteLine(Math.E);             // e
Console.WriteLine(Math.PI);            // Pi
Console.WriteLine(Math.Sqrt(10.0));    // Square Root
Console.WriteLine(Math.Log(10.0));     // Logarithm
Console.WriteLine(Math.Log10(10.0));   // Base 10 Logarithm
Console.WriteLine(Math.Exp(10.0));     // Exponential
Console.WriteLine(Math.Abs(10));       // Absolute value
Console.WriteLine(Math.Floor(10.0));   // Floor
Console.WriteLine(Math.Ceiling(10.0)); // Ceiling
Console.WriteLine(Math.Pow(2.0, 5.0)); // Exponentiation

0


## Factor

e          ! e
pi         ! π
sqrt       ! square root
log        ! natural logarithm
exp        ! exponentiation
abs        ! absolute value
floor      ! greatest whole number smaller than or equal
ceiling    ! smallest whole number greater than or equal
truncate   ! remove the fractional part (i.e. round towards 0)
round      ! round to next whole number
^          ! power


## Fantom

The Float class holds 64-bit floating point numbers, and contains most of the useful mathematical functions. A floating point number must be specified when entered with the suffix 'f', e.g. 9f

Float.e
Float.pi
9f.sqrt
9f.log      // natural logarithm
9f.log10    // logarithm to base 10
9f.exp      // exponentiation
(-3f).abs   // absolute value, note bracket
3.2f.floor  // nearest Int smaller than this number
3.2f.ceil   // nearest Int bigger than this number
3.2f.round  // nearest Int
3f.pow(2f)  // power

Note, . binds more tightly than -, so use brackets around negative numbers:

> -3f.pow(2f)
-9
> (-3f).pow(2f)
9


## Forth

1e fexp fconstant e
0e facos 2e f* fconstant pi  \ predefined in gforth
fsqrt ( f -- f )
fln ( f -- f )   \ flog for base 10
fexp ( f -- f )
fabs ( f -- f )
floor ( f -- f )  \ round towards -inf
: ceil ( f -- f ) fnegate floor fnegate ; \ not standard, though fround is available
f** ( f e -- f^e )


## Fortran

 e          ! Not available. Can be calculated EXP(1.0)
pi         ! Not available. Can be calculated 4.0*ATAN(1.0)
SQRT(x)    ! square root
LOG(x)     ! natural logarithm
LOG10(x)   ! logarithm to base 10
EXP(x)     ! exponential
ABS(x)     ! absolute value
FLOOR(x)   ! floor - Fortran 90 or later only
CEILING(x) ! ceiling - Fortran 90 or later only
x**y       ! x raised to the y power


4*ATAN(1.0) will be calculated in single precision, likewise EXP(1.0) (not EXP(1), because 1 is an integer) and although double precision functions can be named explicitly, 4*DATAN(1.0) will be rejected because 1.0 is in single precision and DATAN expects double. Thus, 4*DATAN(1.0D0) or 4*DATAN(1D0) will do, as the D in the exponent form specifies double precision. Whereupon, the generic names can be returned to: 4*ATAN(1D0). Some systems go further and offer quadruple precision. Others allow that all constants will be deemed double precision as a compiler option.

The 4 need not be named as 4.0, or 4D0, as 4 the integer will be converted by the compiler to double precision, because it is to meet a known double precision value in simple multiplication and so will be promoted. Hopefully, at compile time.

See Delphi

## Frink

All of the following operations work for any numerical type, including rational numbers, complex numbers and intervals of real numbers.

e
pi, π   // Unicode can also be written in ASCII programs as \u03C0
sqrt[x]
ln[x]   // Natural log
log[x]  // Log to base 10
exp[x], e^x
abs[x]
floor[x] // Except for complex numbers where there's no good interpretation.
ceil[x]  // Except for complex numbers where there's no good interpretation.
x^y

## Go

package main

import (
"fmt"
"math"
"math/big"
)

func main() {
// e and pi defined as constants.
// In Go, that means they are not of a specific data type and can be used
// as float32 or float64.  Println takes the float64 values.
fmt.Println("float64 values:")
fmt.Println("e:", math.E)
fmt.Println("π:", math.Pi)

// The following functions all take and return the float64 data type.

// square root.  cube root also available (math.Cbrt)
fmt.Println("square root(1.44):", math.Sqrt(1.44))
// natural logarithm--log base 10, 2 also available (math.Log10, math.Log2)
// also available is log1p, the log of 1+x.  (using log1p can be more
// accurate when x is near zero.)
fmt.Println("ln(e):", math.Log(math.E))
// exponential.  also available are exp base 10, 2 (math.Pow10, math.Exp2)
fmt.Println("exponential(1):", math.Exp(1))
fmt.Println("absolute value(-1.2):", math.Abs(-1.2))
fmt.Println("floor(-1.2):", math.Floor(-1.2))
fmt.Println("ceiling(-1.2):", math.Ceil(-1.2))
fmt.Println("power(1.44, .5):", math.Pow(1.44, .5))

// Equivalent functions for the float32 type are not in the standard
// library.  Here are the constants e and π as float32s however.
fmt.Println("\nfloat32 values:")
fmt.Println("e:", float32(math.E))
fmt.Println("π:", float32(math.Pi))

// The standard library has an arbitrary precision floating point type but
// provides only the most basic methods.  Also while the constants math.E
// and math.Pi are provided to over 80 decimal places, there is no
// into a big.Float.  A hack is cutting and pasting into a string, but
// of course if you're going to do that you are free to cut and paste from
// any other source.  (The documentation cites OEIS as its source.)
pi := "3.141592653589793238462643383279502884197169399375105820974944"
π, _, _ := big.ParseFloat(pi, 10, 200, 0)
fmt.Println("\nbig.Float values:")
fmt.Println("π:", π)
// Of functions requested by the task, only absolute value is provided.
x := new(big.Float).Neg(π)
y := new(big.Float)
fmt.Println("x:", x)
fmt.Println("abs(x):", y.Abs(x))
}

Output:
float64 values:
e: 2.718281828459045
π: 3.141592653589793
square root(1.44): 1.2
ln(e): 1
exponential(1): 2.718281828459045
absolute value(-1.2): 1.2
floor(-1.2): -2
ceiling(-1.2): -1
power(1.44, .5): 1.2

float32 values:
e: 2.7182817
π: 3.1415927

big.Float values:
π: 3.141592653589793238462643383279502884197169399375105820974944
x: -3.141592653589793238462643383279502884197169399375105820974944
abs(x): 3.141592653589793238462643383279502884197169399375105820974944


## Groovy

Math constants and functions are as outlined in the Java example, except as follows:

Absolute Value

In addition to the java.lang.Math.abs() method, each numeric type has an abs() method, which can be invoked directly on the number:

println ((-22).abs())

Output:
22

Power

In addition to the java.lang.Math.pow() method, each numeric type works with the power operator (**), which can be invoked as an in-fix operator between two numbers:

println 22**3.5

Output:
49943.547010599876

Power results are not defined for all possible pairs of operands. Any power operation that does not have a result returns a 64-bit IEEE NaN (Not a Number) value.

println ((-22)**3.5)

Output:
NaN

Also note that at the moment (07:00, 19 March 2011 (UTC)) Groovy (1.7.7) gives a mathematically incorrect result for "0**0". The correct result should be "NaN", but the Groovy operation result is "1".

The operations are defined for the various numeric typeclasses, as defined in their type signature.

exp 1     -- Euler number
pi        -- pi
sqrt x    -- square root
log x     -- natural logarithm
exp x     -- exponential
abs x     -- absolute value
floor x   -- floor
ceiling x -- ceiling
x ** y    -- power (e.g. floating-point exponentiation)
x ^ y     -- power (e.g. integer exponentiation, nonnegative y only)
x ^^ y    -- power (e.g. integer exponentiation of rationals, also negative y)


## HicEst

Except for x^y, this is identical to Fortran:

e          ! Not available. Can be calculated EXP(1)
pi         ! Not available. Can be calculated 4.0*ATAN(1.0)
x^0.5      ! square root
LOG(x)     ! natural logarithm
LOG(x, 10) ! logarithm to base 10
EXP(x)     ! exponential
ABS(x)     ! absolute value
FLOOR(x)   ! floor
CEILING(x) ! ceiling
x**y       ! x raised to the y power
x^y        ! same as x**y

## Icon and Unicon

link numbers  # for floor and ceil

procedure main()
write("e=",&e)
write("pi=",&pi)
write("phi=",&phi)
write("sqrt(2)=",sqrt(2.0))
write("log(e)=",log(&e))
write("log(100.,10)=",log(100,10))
write("exp(1)=",exp(1.0))
write("abs(-2)=",abs(-2))
write("floor(-2.2)=",floor(-2.2))
write("ceil(-2.2)=",ceil(-2.2))
write("power: 3^3=",3^3)
end

Output:
e=2.718281828459045
pi=3.141592653589793
phi=1.618033988749895
sqrt(2)=1.414213562373095
log(e)=1.0
log(100.,10)=2.0
exp(1)=2.718281828459045
abs(-2)=2
floor(-2.2)=-2
ceil(-2.2)=-3

## J

The examples below require arguments (x and y) to be numeric nouns.

e =. 1x1   NB. Euler's number, specified as a numeric literal.
e =. ^ 1   NB. Euler's number, computed by exponentiation.
pi=. 1p1   NB. pi, specified as a numeric literal.
pi=. o.1   NB. pi, computed trigonometrically.
magnitude_of_x   =. |x
floor_of_x       =. <.x
ceiling_of_x     =. >.x
natural_log_of_x =. ^.x
base_x_log_of_y  =. x^.y
x_squared        =. *:x     NB. special form
x_squared        =. x^2     NB. exponential form
square_root_of_x =. %:x     NB. special form
square_root_of_x =. x^0.5   NB. exponential form
x_to_the_y_power =. x^y


## Java

All of these functions are in Java's Math class which, does not require any imports:

Math.E; //e
Math.PI; //pi
Math.sqrt(x); //square root--cube root also available (cbrt)
Math.log(x); //natural logarithm--log base 10 also available (log10)
Math.exp(x); //exponential
Math.abs(x); //absolute value
Math.floor(x); //floor
Math.ceil(x); //ceiling
Math.pow(x,y); //power


## JavaScript

Math.E
Math.PI
Math.sqrt(x)
Math.log(x)
Math.exp(x)
Math.abs(x)
Math.floor(x)
Math.ceil(x)
Math.pow(x,y)


## jq

The mathematical functions available in jq are defined as 0-arity filters, so to evaluate the sqrt of 4, one writes 4|sqrt. In jq, "." refers to the output coming from the left in the pipeline.

In the following, comments appear after the "#":

1 | exp                      # i.e. e
1 | atan * 4                 # i.e. π
sqrt
log                          # Naperian log
exp
length                       # absolute value if the argument is numeric
floor
ceil                         # requires jq >= 1.5
pow(x; y)                    # requires jq >= 1.5

## Jsish

/* real constants and functions, in JSI */
var x, y;

;Math.E;
;Math.PI;

;x = 100.0;
;Math.sqrt(x);
;Math.log(x);

;x = 2.0;
;Math.exp(x);

;x = -x;
;Math.abs(x);

;x = 42.42;
;Math.floor(x);
;Math.ceil(x);

;x = 10.0;
;y = 5;
;Math.pow(x,y);

/*
=!EXPECTSTART!=
Math.E ==> 2.718281828459045
Math.PI ==> 3.141592653589793
x = 100.0 ==> 100
Math.sqrt(x) ==> 10
Math.log(x) ==> 4.605170185988092
x = 2.0 ==> 2
Math.exp(x) ==> 7.38905609893065
x = -x ==> -2
Math.abs(x) ==> 2
x = 42.42 ==> 42.42
Math.floor(x) ==> 42
Math.ceil(x) ==> 43
x = 10.0 ==> 10
y = 5 ==> 5
Math.pow(x,y) ==> 100000
=!EXPECTEND!=
*/

Output:
prompt$jsish --U real-constants.jsi Math.E ==> 2.718281828459045 Math.PI ==> 3.141592653589793 x = 100.0 ==> 100 Math.sqrt(x) ==> 10 Math.log(x) ==> 4.605170185988092 x = 2.0 ==> 2 Math.exp(x) ==> 7.38905609893065 x = -x ==> -2 Math.abs(x) ==> 2 x = 42.42 ==> 42.42 Math.floor(x) ==> 42 Math.ceil(x) ==> 43 x = 10.0 ==> 10 y = 5 ==> 5 Math.pow(x,y) ==> 100000 # Run the unit tests prompt$ jsish -u real-constants.jsi
[PASS] real-constants.jsi

## Julia

e
π, pi
sqrt(x)
log(x)
exp(x)
abs(x)
floor(x)
ceil(x)
x^y


Note that Julia supports Unicode identifiers, and allows either π or pi for that constant.

Also, mathematical constants like e and π in Julia are of a special type that is automatically converted to the correct precision when used in aritmetic operations. So, for example, BigFloat(2) * π computes 2π in arbitrary precision arithmetic.

## Kotlin

All math constants are in kotlin.math.

import kotlin.math.*

fun main() {
println(E)
println(PI)
println(sqrt(2.0))
println(ln(E))
println(log10(10.0))
println(log(4.0, 2.0)) // log base 2 of 4
println(exp(1.0))
println(abs(-1))
println(floor(-2.5))
println(ceil(-2.5))
println(2.5.pow(3.5)) // 2.5^3.5
}

Output:
2.718281828459045
3.141592653589793
1.4142135623730951
1.0
1.0
2.0
2.718281828459045
1
-3.0
-2.0
24.705294220065465


## Lambdatalk

{E}           -> 2.718281828459045
{PI}          -> 3.141592653589793
{sqrt 2}      -> 1.4142135623730951
{log {E}}     -> 1
{exp 1}       -> 2.718281828459045
{abs -1}      -> 1
{floor -2.5}  -> -3
{ceil -2.5}   -> -2
{pow 2.5 3.5} -> 24.705294220065465


## Lasso

//e
define e => 2.7182818284590452

//π
define pi => 3.141592653589793

e
pi
9.0->sqrt
1.64->log
1.64->log10
1.64->exp
1.64->abs
1.64->floor
1.64->ceil
1.64->pow(10.0)


## Lingo

the floatPrecision = 8

-- e (base of the natural logarithm)
put exp(1)
-- 2.71828183

-- pi
put PI
-- 3.14159265

-- square root
put sqrt(2.0)
-- 1.41421356

-- logarithm (any base allowed)
x = 100

put log(x) -- calculate log for base e
-- 4.60517019

put log(x)/log(10) -- calculate log for base 10
-- 2.00000000

-- exponential (ex)
put exp(3)
-- 20.08553692

-- absolute value (a.k.a. "magnitude")
put abs(-1)
-- 1

-- floor (largest integer less than or equal to this number--not the same as truncate or int)
n = 23.536
put bitOr(n, 0) -- calculates floor
-- 23

-- ceiling (smallest integer not less than this number--not the same as round up)
n = 23.536
-- calculates ceil
floor = bitOr(n, 0)
if (floor >= n) then put floor
else put floor+1
-- 24

-- power
put power(2, 8)
-- 256.00000000

## LiveCode

LC 7.1+, prior to this floor & ceil were not built-in.

e‬: exp(1)
pi: pi
square root: sqrt(x)
logarithm: log(x)
exponential (‪ex‬): exp(x)
absolute value: abs(x)
floor: floor(x)
ceiling: ceil(x)
power: x^y

## Logo

Works with: UCB Logo
make "e exp 1
sqrt :x
ln :x
exp :x
; there is no standard abs, floor, or ceiling; only INT and ROUND.
power :x :y

## Logtalk

:- object(constants_and_functions).

:- public(show/0).
show :-
write('e = '), E is e, write(E), nl,
write('pi = '), PI is pi, write(PI), nl,
write('sqrt(2) = '), SQRT is sqrt(2), write(SQRT), nl,
% only base e logorithm is avaialable as a standard built-in function
write('log(2) = '), LOG is log(2), write(LOG), nl,
write('exp(2) = '), EXP is exp(2), write(EXP), nl,
write('abs(-1) = '), ABS is abs(-1), write(ABS), nl,
write('floor(-3.4) = '), FLOOR is floor(-3.4), write(FLOOR), nl,
write('ceiling(-3.4) = '), CEILING is ceiling(-3.4), write(CEILING), nl,
write('2 ** -3.4 = '), POWER is 2 ** -3.4, write(POWER), nl.

:- end_object.

Output:
| ?- constants_and_functions::show.
e = 2.718281828459045
pi = 3.141592653589793
sqrt(2) = 1.4142135623730951
log(2) = 0.6931471805599453
exp(2) = 7.38905609893065
abs(-1) = 1
floor(-3.4) = -4
ceiling(-3.4) = -3
2 ** -3.4 = 0.09473228540689989
yes


## Lua

math.exp(1)
math.pi
math.sqrt(x)
math.log(x)
math.log10(x)
math.exp(x)
math.abs(x)
math.floor(x)
math.ceil(x)
x^y


## M2000 Interpreter

Module Checkit {
Def exp(x)= 2.71828182845905^x
Print Ln(exp(1))==1
Print Log(10^5)==5
Print Sgn(-5)=-1
Print Abs(-2.10#)=2.1#
Def exptype$(x)=type$(x)
Print exptype$(Abs(-2.1#))="Currency" Print exptype$(Abs(-2.1~))="Single"
Print exptype$(Abs(-2.1@))="Decimal" Print exptype$(Abs(-2&))="Long"
Print exptype$(Abs(-2%))="Integer" Print exptype$(Abs(-2.212e34))="Double"

Print exptype$(Sgn(-2.1#))="Integer" \\ Sgn return integer type Print exptype$(Sgn(-2.212e34))="Integer"
\\ Log, Len return double
Print exptype$(Log(1000))="Double" Print exptype$(exp(1%))="Double"
Print exptype$(Ln(1212%))="Double" \\ power return type Double ^ and ** (are the same) Print exptype$(2&^2&)="Long"  ' for Version <=11 is "Double"
Print exptype$(2&**2&)="Long" ' for Version <=11 is "Double" Print exptype$(2&*2&)="Long"
\\ 64bit Long Long (from Version 12)
Print exptype$(2&&^2&&)="Long Long" Print exptype$(2&&**2&&)="Long Long"
Print exptype$(2&&*2&)="Long Long" Print 2**2=4, 2^2=4, 2^2^2=16, 2**2**2=16 \\ floor() and Int() is the same Print Int(-2.7)=-3, Int(2.7)=2 Print Floor(-2.7)=-3, Floor(2.7)=2 Print Ceil(-2.7)=-2, Ceil(2.7)=3 Print round(-2.7, 0)=-3, round(2.7, 0)=3 Print round(-2.2, 0)=-2, round(2.2, 0)=2 Print Sqrt(4)=2 } Checkit ## Maple > abs(ceil(floor(ln(exp(1)^sqrt(exp(Pi*I)+1))))); 0 ## Mathematica/Wolfram Language E Pi Sqrt[x] Log[x] Log[b,x] Exp[x] Abs[x] Floor[x] Ceiling[x] Power[x, y]  Where x is the number, and b the base. Exp[x] can also be inputted as E^x or Ex and Power[x,y] can be also inputted as x^y or xy. All functions work with symbols, integers, floats and can be complex. Abs giving the modulus (|x|) if the argument is a complex number. Constant like E and Pi are kep unevaluated until someone explicitly tells it to give a numerical approximation: N[Pi,n] gives Pi to n-digit precision. Functions given an exact argument will be kept unevaluated if the answer can't be written more compact, approximate arguments will always be evaluated: Log[1.23] => 0.207014 Log[10] => Log[10] Log[10,100] => 2 Log[E^4] => 4 Log[1 + I] => Log[1+I] Log[1. + I] => 0.346574 + 0.785398 I Ceiling[Pi] => 4 Floor[Pi] => 3 Sqrt[2] => Sqrt[2] Sqrt[4] => 2 Sqrt[9/2] => 3/Sqrt[2] Sqrt[3.5] => 1.87083 Sqrt[-5 + 12 I] => 2 + 3 I Sqrt[-4] => 2I Exp[2] => E^2 Exp[Log[4]] => 4  ## MATLAB / Octave exp(1) % e pi % pi sqrt(x) % square root log(x) % natural logarithm log2(x) % logarithm base 2 log10(x) % logarithm base 10 exp(x) % exponential abs(-x) % absolute value floor(x) % floor ceil(x) % ceiling x^y % power  ## MAXScript e -- Euler's number pi -- pi log x -- natural logarithm log10 x -- log base 10 exp x -- exponantial abs x -- absolute value floor x -- floor ceil x -- ceiling pow x y -- power ## Mercury math.pi % Pi. math.e % Euler's number. math.sqrt(X) % Square root of X. math.ln(X) % Natural logarithm of X. math.log10(X) % Logarithm to the base 10 of X. math.log2(X) % Logarithm to the base 2 of X. math.log(B, X) % Logarithm to the base B of X. math.exp(X) % e raised to the power of X. float.abs(X) % Absolute value of X. math.floor(X) % Floor of X. math.ceiling(X) % Ceiling of X. math.pow(X, Y) % X raised to the power of Y.  ## Metafont show mexp(256); % outputs e; since MF uses mexp(x) = exp(x/256) show 3.14159; % no pi constant built in; of course we can define it % in several ways... even computing % C/2r (which would be funny since MF handles paths, % and a circle is a path...) show sqrt2; % 1.41422, or in general sqrt(a) show mexp(256*x); % see e. show abs(x); % returns |x| (the absolute value of the number x, or % the length of the vector x); it is the same as % length(x); plain Metafont in fact says: % let abs = length; show floor(x); % floor show ceiling(x); % ceiling show x**y; % ** is not a built in: it is defined in the basic macros % set for Metafont (plain Metafont) as a primarydef ## min Works with: min version 0.19.3 e ; e pi ; π sqrt ; square root log10 ; common logarithm log2 ; binary logarithm ; no exponential ; no absolute value floor ; greatest whole number smaller than or equal ceil ; smallest whole number greater than or equal trunc ; remove the fractional part (i.e. round towards 0) round ; round number to nth decimal place pow ; power ## МК-61/52 1 e^x С/П пи С/П КвКор С/П lg С/П e^x С/П |x| С/П П0 ^ [x] П1 - x=0 09 ИП0 С/П ЗН x>=0 14 ИП1 С/П ИП1 1 - С/П П0 ^ [x] П1 - x=0 09 ИП0 С/П ЗН x<0 14 ИП1 С/П ИП1 1 + С/П x^y С/П  ## Modula-3 Modula-3 uses a module that is a wrapper around C's math.h. Note that all of these procedures (except the built ins) take LONGREALs as their argument, and return LONGREALs. Math.E; Math.Pi; Math.sqrt(x); Math.log(x); Math.exp(x); ABS(x); (* Built in function. *) FLOOR(x); (* Built in function. *) CEILING(x); (* Built in function. *) Math.pow(x, y); ## Neko /** Real constants and functions, in Neko Tectonics: nekoc real-constants.neko neko real-constants */ var euler =$loader.loadprim("std@math_exp", 1)(1)
var pi = $loader.loadprim("std@math_pi", 0)() var math_sqrt =$loader.loadprim("std@math_sqrt", 1)
var math_log = $loader.loadprim("std@math_log", 1) var math_exp =$loader.loadprim("std@math_exp", 1)
var math_abs = $loader.loadprim("std@math_abs", 1) var math_floor =$loader.loadprim("std@math_floor", 1)
var math_ceil = $loader.loadprim("std@math_ceil", 1) var math_pow =$loader.loadprim("std@math_pow", 2)

$print("Euler : ", euler, "\n")$print("Pi         : ", pi, "\n")

$print("Sqrt(2) : ", math_sqrt(2), "\n")$print("Log(10)    : ", math_log(10), "\n")
$print("Exp(1) : ", math_pow(euler, 1), "\n")$print("Abs(-2.2)  : ", math_abs(-2.2), "\n")
$print("Floor(-2.2): ", math_floor(-2.2), "\n")$print("Ceil(-2.2) : ", math_ceil(-2.2), "\n")
$print("Pow(2, 8) : ", math_pow(2, 8), "\n")  Output: prompt$ nekoc real-contstants.neko
prompt$neko real-contstants.n Euler : 2.71828182845905 Pi : 3.14159265358979 Sqrt(2) : 1.4142135623731 Log(10) : 2.30258509299405 Exp(1) : 2.71828182845905 Abs(-2.2) : 2.2 Floor(-2.2): -3 Ceil(-2.2) : -2 Pow(2, 8) : 256 ## NetRexx All the required constants and functions (and more) are in Java's Math class. NetRexx also provides a limited set of built in numeric manipulation functions for it's Rexx object. /* NetRexx */ options replace format comments java crossref symbols nobinary utf8 numeric digits 30 x = 2.5 y = 3 pad = 40 say say 'Java Math constants & functions:' say Rexx(' Euler''s number (e):').left(pad) Math.E say Rexx(' Pi:').left(pad) Math.PI say Rexx(' Square root of' x':').left(pad) Math.sqrt(x) say Rexx(' Log(e) of' x':').left(pad) Math.log(x) say Rexx(' Log(e) of e:').left(pad) Math.log(Math.E) say Rexx(' Log(10) of' x':').left(pad) Math.log10(x) say Rexx(' Log(10) of 10:').left(pad) Math.log10(10) say Rexx(' Exponential (e**x) of' x':').left(pad) Math.exp(x) say Rexx(' Exponential (e**x) of log(e)' x':').left(pad) Math.exp(Math.log(x)) say Rexx(' Abs of' x':').left(pad) Math.abs(x.todouble) say Rexx(' Abs of' (-x)':').left(pad) Math.abs((-x).todouble) say Rexx(' Floor of' x':').left(pad) Math.floor(x) say Rexx(' Floor of' (-x)':').left(pad) Math.floor((-x)) say Rexx(' Ceiling of' x':').left(pad) Math.ceil(x) say Rexx(' Ceiling of' (-x)':').left(pad) Math.ceil((-x)) say Rexx(' ' x 'to the power of' y':').left(pad) Math.pow(x, y) say Rexx(' ' x 'to the power of' 1 / y':').left(pad) Math.pow(x, 1 / y) say Rexx(' 10 to the power of log10' x':').left(pad) Math.pow(10, Math.log10(x)) -- Extras say Rexx(' Cube root of' x':').left(pad) Math.cbrt(x) say Rexx(' Hypotenuse of' 3 'x' 4 'right triangle:').left(pad) Math.hypot(3, 4) say Rexx(' Max of' (-x) '&' x':').left(pad) Math.max((-x).todouble, x) say Rexx(' Min of' (-x) '&' x':').left(pad) Math.min((-x).todouble, x) say Rexx(' Signum of' x':').left(pad) Math.signum((x).todouble) say Rexx(' Signum of' x '-' x':').left(pad) Math.signum((x - x).todouble) say Rexx(' Signum of' (-x)':').left(pad) Math.signum((-x).todouble) say say 'NetRexx built-in support for numeric data:' say Rexx(' Abs of' x':').left(pad) x.abs() say Rexx(' Abs of' (-x)':').left(pad) (-x).abs() say Rexx(' Sign of' x':').left(pad) x.sign() say Rexx(' Sign of' x '-' x':').left(pad) (x - x).sign() say Rexx(' Sign of' (-x)':').left(pad) (-x).sign() say Rexx(' Max of' (-x) '&' x':').left(pad) (-x).max(x) say Rexx(' Min of' (-x) '&' x':').left(pad) (-x).min(x) say Rexx(' Truncate' x 'by' y':').left(pad) x.trunc(y) say Rexx(' Format (with rounding)' x 'by' y':').left(pad) x.format(y, 0) Output: Java Math constants & functions: Euler's number (e): 2.718281828459045 Pi: 3.141592653589793 Square root of 2.5: 1.58113883008419 Log(e) of 2.5: 0.9162907318741551 Log(e) of e: 1 Log(10) of 2.5: 0.3979400086720376 Log(10) of 10: 1 Exponential (e**x) of 2.5: 12.18249396070347 Exponential (e**x) of log(e) 2.5: 2.5 Abs of 2.5: 2.5 Abs of -2.5: 2.5 Floor of 2.5: 2 Floor of -2.5: -3 Ceiling of 2.5: 3 Ceiling of -2.5: -2 2.5 to the power of 3: 15.625 2.5 to the power of 0.3333333333333333 1.357208808297453 10 to the power of log10 2.5: 2.5 Cube root of 2.5: 1.357208808297453 Hypotenuse of 3 x 4 right triangle: 5 Max of -2.5 & 2.5: 2.5 Min of -2.5 & 2.5: -2.5 Signum of 2.5: 1 Signum of 2.5 - 2.5: 0 Signum of -2.5: -1 NetRexx built-in support for numeric data: Abs of 2.5: 2.5 Abs of -2.5: 2.5 Sign of 2.5: 1 Sign of 2.5 - 2.5: 0 Sign of -2.5: -1 Max of -2.5 & 2.5: 2.5 Min of -2.5 & 2.5: -2.5 Truncate 2.5 by 3: 2.500 Format (with rounding) 2.5 by 3: 3  ## Nim import math var x, y = 12.5 echo E echo PI echo sqrt(x) echo ln(x) echo log10(x) echo exp(x) echo abs(x) echo floor(x) echo ceil(x) echo pow(x, y)  ## Objeck Float->Pi(); Float->E(); 4.0->SquareRoot(); 1.5->Log(); # exponential is not supported 3.99->Abs(); 3.99->Floor(); 3.99->Ceiling(); 4.5->Ceiling(2.0); ## OCaml Unless otherwise noted, the following functions are for floats only: Float.pi (* pi *) sqrt x (* square root *) log x (* natural logarithm--log base 10 also available (log10) *) exp x (* exponential *) abs_float x (* absolute value *) abs x (* absolute value (for integers) *) floor x (* floor *) ceil x (* ceiling *) x ** y (* power *) -. x (* negation for floats *)  ## Octave e % e pi % pi sqrt(pi) % square root log(e) % natural logarithm exp(pi) % exponential abs(-e) % absolute value floor(pi) % floor ceil(pi) % ceiling e**pi % power  ## Oforth import: math : testReal E println Pi println 9 sqrt println 2 ln println 2 exp println -3.4 abs println 3.4 exp println 2.4 floor println 3.9 floor println 5.5 floor println -2.4 floor println -3.9 floor println -5.5 floor println 2.4 ceil println 3.9 ceil println 5.5 ceil println -2.4 ceil println -3.9 ceil println -5.5 ceil println ; ## ooRexx Translation of: NetRexx Uses: RxMath /* Rexx */ -- MathLoadFuncs & MathDropFuncs are no longer needed and are effectively NOPs -- but MathLoadFuncs does return its copyright statement when given a string argument RxMathCopyright = MathLoadFuncs('') say RxMathCopyright numeric digits 16 x = 2.5 y = 3 pad = 40 digs = digits() say say 'Working with precision' digs say 'Math constants & functions:' say (' Euler''s number (e):')~left(pad) RxCalcExp(1, digs) say (' Pi:')~left(pad) RxCalcPi(digs) say (' Square root of' x':')~left(pad) RxCalcSqrt(x, digs) say (' Log(e) of' x':')~left(pad) RxCalcLog(x, digs) say (' Log(e) of e:')~left(pad) RxCalcLog(RxCalcExp(1, digs), digs) say (' Log(10) of' x':')~left(pad) RxCalcLog10(x, digs) say (' Log(10) of 10:')~left(pad) RxCalcLog10(10, digs) say (' Exponential (e**x) of' x':')~left(pad) RxCalcExp(x, digs) say (' Exponential (e**x) of log(e)' x':')~left(pad) RxCalcExp(RxCalcLog(x, digs), digs) say (' ' x 'to the power of' y':')~left(pad) RxCalcPower(x, y, digs) say (' ' x 'to the power of 1/'y':')~left(pad) RxCalcPower(x, 1 / y, digs) say (' 10 to the power of log10' x':')~left(pad) RxCalcPower(10, RxCalcLog10(x), digs) say say 'Rexx built-in support for numeric data:' say (' Abs of' x':')~left(pad) x~abs() say (' Abs of' (-x)':')~left(pad) (-x)~abs() say (' Sign of' x':')~left(pad) x~sign() say (' Sign of' x '-' x':')~left(pad) (x - x)~sign() say (' Sign of' (-x)':')~left(pad) (-x)~sign() say (' Max of' (-x) '&' x':')~left(pad) (-x)~max(x) say (' Min of' (-x) '&' x':')~left(pad) (-x)~min(x) say (' Truncate' x 'by' y':')~left(pad) x~trunc(y) say (' Format (with rounding)' x 'by' y':')~left(pad) x~format(y, 0) say say 'Use RYO functions for floor & ceiling:' say (' Floor of' x':')~left(pad) floor(x) say (' Floor of' (-x)':')~left(pad) floor((-x)) say (' Ceiling of' x':')~left(pad) ceiling(x) say (' Ceiling of' (-x)':')~left(pad) ceiling((-x)) return -- floor and ceiling functions are not part of ooRexx floor: procedure return arg(1)~trunc() - (arg(1) < 0) * (arg(1) \= arg(1)~trunc()) ceiling: procedure return arg(1)~trunc() + (arg(1) > 0) * (arg(1) \= arg(1)~trunc()) ::requires 'RxMath' library Output: rxmath 1.1 - REXX mathematical function package (c) Copyright RexxLanguage Association 2005. All Rights Reserved. Working with precision 16 Math constants & functions: Euler's number (e): 2.718281828459045 Pi: 3.141592653589793 Square root of 2.5: 1.581138830084190 Log(e) of 2.5: 0.9162907318741551 Log(e) of e: 1 Log(10) of 2.5: 0.3979400086720376 Log(10) of 10: 1 Exponential (e**x) of 2.5: 12.18249396070347 Exponential (e**x) of log(e) 2.5: 2.5 2.5 to the power of 3: 15.625 2.5 to the power of 1/3: 1.357208808297453 10 to the power of log10 2.5: 2.5 Rexx built-in support for numeric data: Abs of 2.5: 2.5 Abs of -2.5: 2.5 Sign of 2.5: 1 Sign of 2.5 - 2.5: 0 Sign of -2.5: -1 Max of -2.5 & 2.5: 2.5 Min of -2.5 & 2.5: -2.5 Truncate 2.5 by 3: 2.500 Format (with rounding) 2.5 by 3: 3 Use RYO functions for floor & ceiling: Floor of 2.5: 2 Floor of -2.5: -3 Ceiling of 2.5: 3 Ceiling of -2.5: -2  ## Oz {ForAll [ {Exp 1.} %% 2.7183 Euler's number: not predefined 4. * {Atan2 1. 1.} %% 3.1416 pi: not predefined {Sqrt 81.} %% 9.0 square root; expects a float {Log 2.7183} %% 1.0 natural logarithm {Abs ~1} %% 1 absolute value; expects a float or an integer {Floor 1.999} %% 1.0 floor; expects and returns a float {Ceil 1.999} %% 2.0 ceiling; expects and returns a float {Pow 2 3} %% 8 power; both arguments must be of the same type ] Show} ## PARI/GP [exp(1), Pi, sqrt(2), log(2), abs(2), floor(2), ceil(2), 2^3] ## Pascal See also Delphi and Free Pascal Following functions are defined by ISO standard 7185, Standard “Unextended” Pascal, and supported by any processor:  { Euler’s constant } exp(1) { principal square root of x } sqrt(x) { natural logarithm } ln(x) { exponential } exp(x) { absolute value } abs(x)  Works with: Extended Pascal Additionally, in Extended Pascal (ISO standard 10206) following operators and expressions can be used:  { Pi } 2 * arg(cmplx(0.0, maxReal)) { power, yields same data type as base, exponent has to be an integer } base pow exponent { real power, exponent may be an integer or real value, yet base and } { exponent are automatically promoted to an approximate real value, result } { is complex if base is complex, otherwise a real value } base ** exponent  Exp, sqrt, ln, and exp return real values, but a complex value if supplied with a complex value. Abs returns an integer value if supplied with an integer, otherwise a real value. ## PascalABC.NET ## Println(E); Println(Pi); var x := 2.5; Println(Sqrt(x)); Println(Ln(x)); // natural logarithm Println(LogN(10,x)); // logarithm with base Println(Exp(x)); Println(Abs(-x)); Println(Floor(x)); Println(Ceil(x)); var y := 4.1; Println(x ** y);  Output: 2.71828182845905 3.14159265358979 1.58113883008419 0.916290731874155 0.397940008672038 12.1824939607035 2.5 2 3 42.8108682181725  ## Perl use POSIX; # for floor() and ceil() exp(1); # e 4 * atan2(1, 1); # pi sqrt($x); # square root
log($x); # natural logarithm; log10() available in POSIX module exp($x); # exponential
abs($x); # absolute value floor($x); # floor
ceil($x); # ceiling$x ** $y; # power use Math::Trig; pi; # alternate way to get pi use Math::Complex; pi; # alternate way to get pi  ## Phix ?E -- Euler number ?PI -- pi ?log(E) -- natural logarithm ?log10(10) -- base 10 logarithm ?exp(log(5)) -- exponential ?sqrt(5) -- square root ?abs(-1.2) -- absolute value ?floor(-1.2) -- floor, -2 ?ceil(-1.2) -- ceiling, -1 ?round(-1.8) -- rounded, -2 ?trunc(-1.8) -- truncate, -1 ?power(E,log(5)) -- displays 5.0 ?power(10,log10(5)) -- displays 5.0 ?INVLN10 -- displays 0.434.. ?exp(1/INVLN10) -- displays 10.0  ## PHP M_E; //e M_PI; //pi sqrt(x); //square root log(x); //natural logarithm--log base 10 also available (log10) exp(x); //exponential abs(x); //absolute value floor(x); //floor ceil(x); //ceiling pow(x,y); //power  ## Picat main => println(math.e), println(math.pi), nl, println(sqrt(2)), nl, println(log(10)), % base e println(log(math.pi,10)), % some base, here pi println(log2(10)), % base 2 println(exp(2.302585092994046)), nl, println(abs(- math.e)), nl, println(floor(sqrt(101))), println(ceiling(sqrt(101))), nl, println(math.pi**math.e), % power println(pow(math.pi,math.e)), % power nl. Output: 2.718281828459045 3.141592653589793 1.414213562373095 2.302585092994046 2.011465867588061 3.321928094887362 10.000000000000002 2.718281828459045 10 11 22.459157718361041 22.459157718361041 ## PicoLisp PicoLisp has only limited floating point support (scaled bignum arithmetics). It can handle real numbers with as many positions after the decimal point as desired, but is practically limited by the precision of the C-library functions (about 16 digits). The default precision is six, and can be changed with 'scl': (scl 12) # 12 places after decimal point (load "@lib/math.l") (prinl (format (exp 1.0) *Scl)) # e, exp (prinl (format pi *Scl)) # pi (prinl (format (pow 2.0 0.5) *Scl)) # sqare root (prinl (format (sqrt 2.0 1.0) *Scl)) (prinl (format (log 2.0) *Scl)) # logarithm (prinl (format (exp 4.0) *Scl)) # exponential (prinl (format (abs -7.2) *Scl)) # absolute value (prinl (abs -123)) (prinl (format (pow 3.0 4.0) *Scl)) # power Output: 2.718281828459 3.141592653590 1.414213562373 1.414213562373 0.693147180560 54.598150033144 7.200000000000 123 81.000000000000 ## PL/I /* e not available other than by using exp(1q0).*/ /* pi not available other than by using a trig function such as: pi=4*atan(1) */ y = sqrt(x); y = log(x); y = log2(x); y = log10(x); y = exp(x); y = abs(x); y = floor(x); y = ceil(x); a = x**y; /* power */ /* extra functions: */ y = erf(x); /* the error function. */ y = erfc(x); /* the error function complemented. */ y = gamma (x); y = loggamma (x); ## Plain English Plain English comes with these constants and functions in the noodle (Euler's number, logarithms, exponential, ceiling, and floor are not available): The pizza pie is a fraction equal to 355/113. \ equivalent to pi \ square root To find a square root of a number: \ rounds down Privatize the number. De-sign the number. If the number is 0, put 0 into the square root; exit. If the number is 1, put 1 into the square root; exit. Put 1 into a square number. Put 3 into a delta number. Loop. If the square is greater than the number, break. Add the delta to the square. Add 2 to the delta. Repeat. Put the delta divided by 2 minus 1 into the square root. A square root is a number. \ absolute value To put a fraction's absolute value into another fraction: Put the fraction into the other fraction. De-sign the other fraction. To put a number's absolute value into another number: Put the number into the other number. De-sign the other number. To put a pair's absolute value into another pair: Put the pair into the other pair. De-sign the other pair. \ power To raise a number to another number: If the other number is 0, put 1 into the number; exit. If the other number is less than 0, put 0 into the number; exit. \ should be 1/the raised result, but always comes out 0 with numbers Put 1 into a result number. Loop. If a counter is past the other number, break. Multiply the result by the number. Repeat. Put the result into the number.  ## Pop11 pi ;;; Number Pi sqrt(x) ;;; Square root log(x) ;;; Natural logarithm exp(x) ;;; Exponential function abs(x) ;;; Absolute value x ** y ;;; x to the power y The number e is not provided directly, one has to compute 'exp(1)' instead. Also, f/math>) See also Trigonometric Functions ## PowerShell Since PowerShell has access to .NET all this can be achieved using the .NET Base Class Library: Write-Host ([Math]::E) Write-Host ([Math]::Pi) Write-Host ([Math]::Sqrt(2)) Write-Host ([Math]::Log(2)) Write-Host ([Math]::Exp(2)) Write-Host ([Math]::Abs(-2)) Write-Host ([Math]::Floor(3.14)) Write-Host ([Math]::Ceiling(3.14)) Write-Host ([Math]::Pow(2, 3))  ## Python import math math.e # e math.pi # pi math.sqrt(x) # square root (Also commonly seen as x ** 0.5 to obviate importing the math module) math.log(x) # natural logarithm math.log10(x) # base 10 logarithm math.exp(x) # e raised to the power of x abs(x) # absolute value math.floor(x) # floor math.ceil(x) # ceiling x ** y # exponentiation pow(x, y[, n]) # exponentiation [, modulo n (useful in certain encryption/decryption algorithms)] # The math module constants and functions can, of course, be imported directly by: # from math import e, pi, sqrt, log, log10, exp, floor, ceil  ## R exp(1) # e pi # pi sqrt(x) # square root log(x) # natural logarithm log10(x) # base 10 logarithm log(x, y) # arbitrary base logarithm exp(x) # exponential abs(x) # absolute value floor(x) # floor ceiling(x) # ceiling x^y # power  ## Racket (exp 1) ; e pi ; pi (sqrt x) ; square root (log x) ; natural logarithm (exp x) ; exponential (abs x) ; absolute value (floor x) ; floor (ceiling x) ; ceiling (expt x y) ; power  ## Raku (formerly Perl 6) say e; # e say π; # or pi # pi say τ; # or tau # tau # Common mathmatical function are availble # as subroutines and as numeric methods. # It is a matter of personal taste and # programming style as to which is used. say sqrt 2; # Square root say 2.sqrt; # Square root # If you omit a base, does natural logarithm say log 2; # Natural logarithm say 2.log; # Natural logarithm # Specify a base if other than e say log 4, 10; # Base 10 logarithm say 4.log(10); # Base 10 logarithm say 4.log10; # Convenience, base 10 only logarithm say exp 7; # Exponentiation base e say 7.exp; # Exponentiation base e # Specify a base if other than e say exp 7, 4; # Exponentiation say 7.exp(4); # Exponentiation say 4 ** 7; # Exponentiation say abs -2; # Absolute value say (-2).abs; # Absolute value say floor -3.5; # Floor say (-3.5).floor; # Floor say ceiling pi; # Ceiling say pi.ceiling; # Ceiling say e ** π\i + 1 ≅ 0; # :-)  ## REXX REXX has no built-in functions for trig functions, square root, pi, exponential (e raised to a power), logarithms and other similar functions. REXX doesn't have any built-in (math) constants. ### abs a=abs(y) /*takes the absolute value of y.*/  ### exponentiation (**) r=x**y /*REXX only supports integer powers.*/ /*Y may be negative, zero, positive.*/ /*X may be any real number. */  ### ceiling A ceiling function for REXX: ceiling: procedure; parse arg x; t=trunc(x); return t+(x>0)*(x\=t)  ### floor A floor function for REXX: floor: procedure; parse arg x; t=trunc(x); return t-(x<0)-(x\=t)  ### sqrt (optimized) A [principal] square root (SQRT) function for REXX (with arbitrary precision): /*──────────────────────────────────SQRT subroutine───────────────────────────*/ sqrt: procedure; parse arg x; if x=0 then return 0 /*handle 0 case.*/ if \datatype(x,'N') then return '[n/a]' /*Not Applicable ───if not numeric.*/ i=; if x<0 then do; x=-x; i='i'; end /*handle complex numbers if X is < 0.*/ d=digits() /*get the current numeric precision. */ m.=9 /*technique uses just enough digits. */ h=d+6 /*use extra decimal digits for accuracy*/ numeric digits 9 /*use "small" precision at first. */ numeric form /*force scientific form of the number. */ if fuzz()\==0 then numeric fuzz 0 /*just in case invoker has a FUZZ set.*/ parse value format(x,2,1,,0) 'E0' with g 'E' _ . /*get the X's exponent.*/ g=(g * .5) || 'e' || (_ % 2) /*1st guesstimate for the square root. */ /* g= g * .5 'e' (_ % 2) */ /*a shorter & concise version of above.*/ /*Note: to insure enough accuracy for */ /* the result, the precision during */ /* the SQRT calculations is increased */ /* by two extra decimal digits. */ do j=0 while h>9; m.j=h; h=h%2+1 /*compute the sizes (digs) of precision*/ end /*j*/ /* [↑] precisions are stored in M. */ /*now, we start to do the heavy lifting*/ do k=j+5 to 0 by -1 /*compute the √ with increasing digs.*/ numeric digits m.k /*each iteration, increase the digits. */ g=(g+x/g) * .5 /*perform the nitty-gritty calculations*/ end /*k*/ /* [↑] * .5 is faster than / 2 */ /* [↓] normalize √ ──► original digits*/ numeric digits d /* [↓] make answer complex if X < 0. */ return (g/1)i /*normalize, and add possible I suffix.*/   ╔════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════╗ ╔═╝ __ ╚═╗ ║ √ ║ ║ ║ ║ While the above REXX code seems like it's doing a lot of extra work, ║ ║ it saves a substantial amount of processing time when the precision ║ ║ (DIGITs) is a lot greater than the default (default is nine digits). ║ ║ ║ ║ Indeed, when computing square roots in the hundreds (even thousands) ║ ║ of digits, this technique reduces the amount of CPU processing time ║ ║ by keeping the length of the computations to a minimum (due to a large ║ ║ precision), while the accuracy at the beginning isn't important for ║ ║ calculating the (first) guesstimate (the running square root guess). ║ ║ ║ ║ Each iteration of K (approximately) doubles the number of digits, ║ ║ but takes almost four times longer to compute (actually, around 3.8). ║ ║ ║ ║ The REXX code could be streamlined (pruned) by removing the ║ ║ The NUMERIC FUZZ 0 statement can be removed if it is known ║ ║ that it is already set to zero. (which is the default). ║ ║ ║ ║ Also, the NUMERIC FORM statement can be removed if it is known ║ ║ that the form is SCIENTIFIC (which is the default). ║ ║ __ ║ ╚═╗ √ ╔═╝ ╚════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════╝  ### sqrt (simple) /*──────────────────────────────────SQRT subroutine─────────────────────*/ sqrt: procedure; arg x /*a simplistic SQRT subroutine.*/ if x=0 then return 0 /*handle special case of zero. */ d=digits() /*get the current precision (dig)*/ numeric digits d+2 /*ensure extra precision (2 digs)*/ g=x/4 /*try get a so-so 1st guesstimate*/ old=0 /*set OLD guess to zero. */ do forever /*keep at it 'til G (guess)=old.*/ g=(g+x/g) / 2 /*do the nitty-gritty calculation*/ if g=old then leave /*if G is the same as old, quit. */ old=g /*save OLD for next iteration. */ end /*forever*/ /* [↑] ···'til we run out of digs*/ numeric digits d /*restore the original precision.*/ return g/1 /*normalize to old precision (d).*/  ### other Other mathematical-type functions supported are: numeric digits ddd /*sets the current precision to DDD */ numeric fuzz fff /*arithmetic comparisons with FFF fuzzy*/ numeric form kkk /*exponential: scientific | engineering*/ low=min(a,b,c,d,e,f,g, ...) /*finds the min of specified arguments.*/ big=min(a,b,c,d,e,f,g, ...) /*finds the max of specified arguments.*/ rrr=random(low,high) /*gets a random integer from LOW-->HIGH*/ arr=random(low,high,seed) /* ... with a seed (to make repeatable)*/ mzp=sign(x) /*finds the sign of x (-1, 0, +1). */ fs=format(x) /*formats X with the current DIGITS() */ fb=format(x,bbb) /* BBB digs before decimal*/ fa=format(x,bbb,aaa) /* AAA digs after decimal*/ fa=format(x,,0) /* rounds X to an integer.*/ fe=format(x,,eee) /* exponent has eee places. */ ft=format(x,,eee,ttt) /*if x exceeds TTT digits, force exp. */ hh=b2x(bbb) /*converts binary/bits to hexadecimal. */ dd=c2d(ccc) /*converts character to decimal. */ hh=c2x(ccc) /*converts character to hexadecimal. */ cc=d2c(ddd) /*converts decimal to character. */ hh=d2x(ddd) /*converts decimal to hexadecimal. */ bb=x2b(hhh) /*converts hexadecimal to binary (bits)*/ cc=x2c(hhh) /*converts hexadecimal to character. */ dd=x2d(hhh) /*converts hexadecimal to decimal. */  ## Ring See "Mathematical Functions" + nl See "Sin(0) = " + sin(0) + nl See "Sin(90) radians = " + sin(90) + nl See "Sin(90) degree = " + sin(90*3.14/180) + nl See "Cos(0) = " + cos(0) + nl See "Cos(90) radians = " + cos(90) + nl See "Cos(90) degree = " + cos(90*3.14/180) + nl See "Tan(0) = " + tan(0) + nl See "Tan(90) radians = " + tan(90) + nl See "Tan(90) degree = " + tan(90*3.14/180) + nl See "asin(0) = " + asin(0) + nl See "acos(0) = " + acos(0) + nl See "atan(0) = " + atan(0) + nl See "atan2(1,1) = " + atan2(1,1) + nl See "sinh(0) = " + sinh(0) + nl See "sinh(1) = " + sinh(1) + nl See "cosh(0) = " + cosh(0) + nl See "cosh(1) = " + cosh(1) + nl See "tanh(0) = " + tanh(0) + nl See "tanh(1) = " + tanh(1) + nl See "exp(0) = " + exp(0) + nl See "exp(1) = " + exp(1) + nl See "log(1) = " + log(1) + nl See "log(2) = " + log(2) + nl See "log10(1) = " + log10(1) + nl See "log10(2) = " + log10(2) + nl See "log10(10) = " + log10(10) + nl See "Ceil(1.12) = " + Ceil(1.12) + nl See "Ceil(1.72) = " + Ceil(1.72) + nl See "Floor(1.12) = " + floor(1.12) + nl See "Floor(1.72) = " + floor(1.72) + nl See "fabs(1.12) = " + fabs(1.12) + nl See "fabs(1.72) = " + fabs(1.72) + nl See "pow(2,3) = " + pow(2,3) + nl see "sqrt(16) = " + sqrt(16) + nl ## RLaB ### Mathematical Constants RLaB has a number of mathematical constants built-in within the list const. These facilities are provided through the Gnu Science Library [[1]]. >> const e euler ln10 ln2 lnpi log10e log2e pi pihalf piquarter rpi sqrt2 sqrt2r sqrt3 sqrtpi tworpi ### Physical Constants Another list of physical constants and unit conversion factors exists and is called mks. Here the conversion goes between that particular unit and the equivalent unit in, one and only, metric system. >> mks F G J L N Na R0 Ry Tsp V0 a a0 acre alpha atm au bar barn btu c cal cgal cm cm2 cm3 ct cup curie day dm dm2 dm3 dyne e eV eps0 erg fathom floz ft ftcan ftlam g gal gauss gf h ha hbar hour hp in inH2O inHg kSB kb kcal km km2 km3 kmh knot kpf lam lb lumen lux ly mHg mSun me micron mil mile min mm mm2 mm3 mmu mn mp mph mu0 mub mue mun mup nmi oz pal parsec pf phot poise psi rad roe stilb stokes tcs therm tntton ton torr toz tsp uam ukgal ukton uston week yd ### Elementary Functions >> x = rand() >> sqrt(x) 2.23606798 >> log(x) 1.60943791 >> log10(x) 0.698970004 >> exp(x) 148.413159 >> abs(x) 5 >> floor(x) 5 >> ceil(x) 5 >> x .^ 2 25 ## RPL RPL code Comment e π x √ x LN x LNP x LOG x EXP x ABS x FLOOR x CEIL x y ^  e π square root logarithm (base e) equivalent to x 1 + LN - e.g. Log(x+1) - but more accurate for small values of x logarithm (base 10) exponential absolute value floor ceiling power  ## Ruby x.abs #absolute value x.magnitude #absolute value x.floor #floor x.ceil #ceiling x ** y #power include Math E #e PI #pi sqrt(x) #square root log(x) #natural logarithm log(x, y) #logarithm base y log10(x) #base 10 logarithm exp(x) #exponential  ## Rust use std::f64::consts::*; fn main() { // e (base of the natural logarithm) let mut x = E; // π x += PI; // square root x = x.sqrt(); // logarithm (any base allowed) x = x.ln(); // ceiling (smallest integer not less than this number--not the same as round up) x = x.ceil(); // exponential (ex) x = x.exp(); // absolute value (a.k.a. "magnitude") x = x.abs(); // floor (largest integer less than or equal to this number--not the same as truncate or int) x = x.floor(); // power (xy) x = x.powf(x); assert_eq!(x, 4.0); } ## Scala object RealConstantsFunctions extends App{ println(math.E) // e println(math.Pi) // pi println(math.sqrt(2.0)) // square root println(math.log(math.E)) // log to base e println(math.log10(10.0)) // log to base 10 println(math.exp(1.0)) // exponential println(math.abs(-1)) // absolute value println(math.floor(-2.5)) // floor println(math.ceil(-2.5)) // ceiling println(math.pow(2.5, 3.5)) // power } ## Scheme (sqrt x) ;square root (log x) ;natural logarithm (exp x) ;exponential (abs x) ;absolute value (floor x) ;floor (ceiling x) ;ceiling (expt x y) ;power ## Seed7 The math.s7i library defines:  E # e (Euler's number) PI # Pi sqrt(x) # square root log(x) # natural logarithm - log base 10 is also available: log10(x)) exp(x) # exponential abs(x) # absolute value floor(x) # floor ceil(x) # ceiling The float.s7i library defines:  x ** y # power with integer exponent x ** y # power with float exponent ## Sidef Num.e # e Num.pi # pi x.sqrt # square root x.log # natural logarithm x.log10 # base 10 logarithm x.exp # e raised to the power of x x.abs # absolute value x.floor # floor x.ceil # ceiling x**y # exponentiation ## Slate numerics E. numerics Pi. n sqrt. n log10. "base 10 logarithm" n ln. "natural logarithm" n log: m. "arbitrary base logarithm" n exp. "exponential" n abs. "absolute value" n floor. n ceiling. n raisedTo: anotherNumber ## Smalltalk Float e. Float pi. aNumber sqrt. aNumber log. "base 10 logarithm" aNumber ln. "natural logarithm" aNumber exp. "exponential" aNumber abs. "absolute value" aNumber floor. aNumber ceiling. aNumber raisedTo: anotherNumber ## Sparkling // e: print(M_E); // π: print(M_PI); // square root: let five = sqrt(25); // logarithm // natural: let one = log(M_E); // base-2: let six = log2(64); // base-10 let three = log10(1000); // exponential let e_cubed = exp(3); // absolute value let ten = abs(-10); // floor let seven = floor(7.8); // ceiling let four = ceil(3.2); // power let eighty_one = pow(3, 4); ## Standard ML Math.e (* e *) Math.pi (* pi *) (* Math.tau also available in some implementations *) Math.sqrt x (* square root *) Math.ln x (* natural logarithm--log base 10 also available (Math.log10) *) Math.exp ; (* exponential *) abs x (* absolute value *) floor x (* floor *) ceil x (* ceiling *) Math.pow (x, y) (* power *) ~x (* negation *) ## Stata scalar x=2 scalar y=3 di exp(1) di _pi di c(pi) di sqrt(x) di log(x) di log10(x) di exp(x) di abs(x) di floor(x) di ceil(x) di x^y ## Swift import Darwin M_E // e M_PI // pi sqrt(x) // square root--cube root also available (cbrt) log(x) // natural logarithm--log base 10 also available (log10) exp(x) // exponential abs(x) // absolute value floor(x) // floor ceil(x) // ceiling pow(x,y) // power ## Tcl expr {exp(1)} ;# e expr {4 * atan(1)} ;# pi -- also, simpler: expr acos(-1) expr {sqrt($x)}     ;# square root
expr {log($x)} ;# natural logarithm, also log10 expr {exp($x)}      ;# exponential
expr {abs($x)} ;# absolute value expr {floor($x)}    ;# floor
expr {ceil($x)} ;# ceiling expr {$x**$y} ;# power, also pow($x,$y) The constants ${\displaystyle e}$ and ${\displaystyle \pi }$ are also available with high precision in a support library. Library: Tcllib (Package: math::constants) package require math::constants math::constants::constants e pi puts "e =$e, pi = $pi" ## UNIX Shell Works with: ksh93 ksh93 exposes math functions from the C math library echo$(( exp(1) ))      # e
echo $(( acos(-1) )) # PI x=5 echo$(( sqrt(x) ))     # square root
echo $(( log(x) )) # logarithm base e echo$(( log2(x) ))     # logarithm base 2
echo $(( log10(x) )) # logarithm base 10 echo$(( exp(x) ))      # exponential
x=-42
echo $(( abs(x) )) # absolute value x=-5.5 echo$(( floor(x) ))    # floor
echo $(( ceil(x) )) # ceiling x=10 y=3 echo$(( pow(x,y) ))    # power
Output:
2.71828182845904524
3.14159265358979324
2.2360679774997897
1.60943791243410037
2.32192809488736235
0.698970004336018805
148.413159102576603
42
-6
-5
1000

## V (Vlang)

Many more in math module.

import math

fn main() {
x := -1.2345
println("e = ${math.e}") println("pi =${math.pi}")
println("sqrt(4) = ${math.sqrt(4)}") println("log(e) =${math.log(math.e)}")
println("exp(x) = ${math.exp(x)}") println("abs(x) =${math.abs(x)}")
println("floor(x) = ${math.floor(x)}") println("ceil(x) =${math.ceil(x)}")
println("pow(-x, x) = \${math.pow(-x, x)}")
}

## Wren

var e = 1.exp

System.print("e         = %(e)")
System.print("pi        = %(Num.pi)")
System.print("sqrt(2)   = %(2.sqrt)")
System.print("ln(3)     = %(3.log)")    // log base e
System.print("exp(2)    = %(2.exp)")
System.print("abs(-e)   = %((-e).abs)")
System.print("floor(e)  = %(e.floor)")
System.print("ceil(e)   = %(e.ceil)")
System.print("pow(e, 2) = %(e.pow(2))")
Output:
e         = 2.718281828459
pi        = 3.1415926535898
sqrt(2)   = 1.4142135623731
ln(3)     = 1.0986122886681
exp(2)    = 7.3890560989307
abs(-e)   = 2.718281828459
floor(e)  = 2
ceil(e)   = 3
pow(e, 2) = 7.3890560989306


## XPL0

include c:\cxpl\codes;                          \intrinsic 'code' declarations

func real Power(X, Y);  \X raised to the Y power
real X, Y;
return Exp(Y*Ln(X));

real E, Pi;
[Format(4, 16);                                 \places shown before and after .
E:= Exp(1.0);
RlOut(0, E);  CrLf(0);
RlOut(0, Ln(E));  CrLf(0);
CrLf(0);
Pi:= ATan2(0.0, -1.0);                          \Pi is also a defined constant
RlOut(0, Pi);  CrLf(0);
RlOut(0, Cos(Pi));  CrLf(0);
CrLf(0);
RlOut(0, Sqrt(2.0));  CrLf(0);                  \Sqrt is a call to an intrinsic
RlOut(0, Log(100.0));  CrLf(0);
RlOut(0, Ln(Exp(123.456789)));  CrLf(0);
CrLf(0);
RlOut(0, abs(-1234.5));  CrLf(0);               \abs works for both reals & ints
CrLf(0);
RlOut(0, float(fix(1.999-0.5)));  CrLf(0);      \floor   rounds toward -infinity
RlOut(0, float(fix(1.001+0.5)));  CrLf(0);      \ceiling rounds toward +infinity
RlOut(0, Power(sqrt(2.0), 4.0));  CrLf(0);      \sqrt is an inline function and
]                                               \ can be used for both reals & ints
Output:
   2.7182818284590500
1.0000000000000000

3.1415926535897900
-1.0000000000000000

1.4142135623731000
2.0000000000000000
123.4567890000000000

1234.5000000000000000

1.0000000000000000
2.0000000000000000
4.0000000000000000


## Zig

const std = @import("std");

pub fn main() void {
var x: f64 = -1.2345;
std.debug.print("e = {d}\n", .{std.math.e});
std.debug.print("pi = {d}\n", .{std.math.pi});
std.debug.print("sqrt(4) = {d}\n", .{std.math.sqrt(4)});
std.debug.print("ln(e) = {d}\n", .{std.math.ln(std.math.e)});
std.debug.print("exp(x) = {d}\n", .{std.math.exp(x)});
std.debug.print("abs(x) = {d}\n", .{std.math.absFloat(x)});
std.debug.print("floor(x) = {d}\n", .{std.math.floor(x)});
std.debug.print("ceil(x) = {d}\n", .{std.math.ceil(x)});
std.debug.print("pow(f64, -x, x) = {d}\n", .{std.math.pow(f64, -x, x)});
}

## zkl

(0.0).e        // Euler's number, a property of all floats
(0.0).e.pi     // pi, yep, all floats
(2.0).sqrt()   // square root
(2.0).log()    // natural (base e) logarithm
(2.0).log10()  // log base 10
(0.0).e.pow(x) // e^x
(-10.0).abs()  // absolute value, both floats and ints
x.pow(y)       // x raised to the y power
x.ceil()       // ceiling
x.floor()      // floor