# Category:COBOL

**COBOL**

This

**programming language**may be used to instruct a computer to perform a task.

Execution method: | Compiled (machine code) |
---|---|

Garbage collected: | No |

Parameter passing methods: | By reference, By value |

Type safety: | Strong |

Type strength: | Strong |

Type expression: | Explicit |

Type checking: | Static |

Lang tag(s): | cobol |

See Also: |

COBOL, an acronym for 'COmmon Business Oriented Language', is one of the oldest programming languages, being created in 1959. It was designed by a CODASYL (Conference on Data System Languages) committee with Grace Hopper. It is primarily used in business, finance and administration for companies and governments. It is primarily an imperative, structured language, with support for object-oriented programming added in 2002.

### Versions

**COBOL 60**was the first version of the language.**COBOL-65**added some new features to the original specification.**COBOL-68**is the first COBOL standard and was published by ANSI. It was created to improve compatibility between the different versions of the language.**COBOL-74**added a few more features to the language, including the ability to`ACCEPT`

the date, day and time, and the file organization clause.**COBOL-85**added many new features to COBOL, notably including: excplicit scope terminators (`END-IF`

,`END-READ`

, etc.), the`EVALUATE`

verb, the`CONTINUE`

verb, inline`PERFORM`

statements, the ability to pass arguments by content, and the deprecation of the infamous`ALTER`

verb. This standard was followed by the intrinsic functions amendment and a clarifications amendment in 1989 and 1991, respectively.**X/Open COBOL**was a technical standard published by the X/Open Group in 1991 to facilitate uniformity of implementations and program portability. Based on COBOL-85, it excluded much of its optional modules and obsolete features, and also specified some common non-ANSI extensions that would later become incorporated into the standard, such as the screen section for TUI programming, and record locking.^{[1]}**COBOL 2002**was published by ISO as ISO/IEC 1989. It included a host of new features, most notably including object-oriented programming. However, there were also other features, including: floating-point support, portable arithmetic results, pointers, calling conventions to other languages, function prototypes, XML facilities and support for execution within framework environments. This standard has suffered from poor vendor support, due to little commercial demand for the new features.^{[2]}**COBOL 2014**was published on July 8th, 2014 and accepted by ISO early that summer, and then adopted by ANSI on Oct 31st, 2014.^{[3]}It includes numeric definitions following the IEEE 754 standard.**COBOL 2023**is the latest version of the standard, adopted in January 2023. It includes the standardizations of many previously nonstandard extensions, including transaction processing, asynchronous messaging, line sequential file organization, enhanced string manipulation, boolean shifting operators and a sleep statement.

### References

- ↑ X/Open.
*Technical Standard: COBOL Language*. https://pubs.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/009680799/toc.pdf. - ↑ John Billman & Huib Klink.
*Thoughts on the Future of COBOL Standardization*. https://web.archive.org/web/20090711032647/http://www.cobolstandard.info/j4/files/08-0034.pdf. - ↑
*ISO/IEC 1989:2014 Information technology – Programming languages, their environments and system software interfaces – Programming language COBOL*. https://www.iso.org/iso/home/store/catalogue_tc/catalogue_detail.htm?csnumber=51416.

## Subcategories

This category has the following 3 subcategories, out of 3 total.

### @

- COBOL examples needing attention (empty)
- COBOL Implementations (7 P)
- COBOL User (39 P)

## Pages in category "COBOL"

The following 163 pages are in this category, out of 363 total.

(previous page) (next page)### M

- Machine code
- Magic 8-ball
- Mandelbrot set
- Map range
- McNuggets problem
- MD5
- Memory allocation
- Menu
- Mertens function
- Middle three digits
- Minimum multiple of m where digital sum equals m
- Minimum number of cells after, before, above and below NxN squares
- Monty Hall problem
- Multiplication tables
- Munchausen numbers

### N

- N'th
- Narcissistic decimal number
- Nth root
- Null object
- Number reversal game
- Numbers divisible by their individual digits, but not by the product of their digits.
- Numbers in base 10 that are palindromic in bases 2, 4, and 16
- Numbers in base-16 representation that cannot be written with decimal digits
- Numerical integration/Adaptive Simpson's method

### O

### P

- Palindrome detection
- Pangram checker
- Parsing/RPN calculator algorithm
- Perfect numbers
- Pernicious numbers
- Phrase reversals
- Pick random element
- Playing cards
- Pointers and references
- Population count
- Positive decimal integers with the digit 1 occurring exactly twice
- Primality by trial division
- Print debugging statement
- Priority queue
- Product of divisors
- Product of min and max prime factors
- Program name
- Program termination
- Pseudo-random numbers/Middle-square method

### R

### S

- Scope modifiers
- Search a list
- SEDOLs
- Selective file copy
- Sequence of non-squares
- Shell one-liner
- Show ASCII table
- Show the (decimal) value of a number of 1s appended with a 3, then squared
- Show the epoch
- Sierpinski triangle
- Sieve of Eratosthenes
- Simple database
- Sleep
- Smallest square that begins with n
- Sort an integer array
- Sort numbers lexicographically
- Sort stability
- Sort three variables
- Sorting algorithms/Bead sort
- Sorting algorithms/Bogosort
- Sorting algorithms/Bubble sort
- Sorting algorithms/Cocktail sort
- Sorting algorithms/Comb sort
- Sorting algorithms/Gnome sort
- Sorting algorithms/Heapsort
- Sorting algorithms/Insertion sort
- Sorting algorithms/Merge sort
- Sorting algorithms/Quicksort
- Sorting algorithms/Selection sort
- Sorting algorithms/Shell sort
- Sorting algorithms/Stooge sort
- Soundex
- Special divisors
- Split a character string based on change of character
- Square but not cube
- Stack
- Strange numbers
- Strange plus numbers
- String append
- String case
- String comparison
- String concatenation
- String interpolation (included)
- String length
- String prepend
- Strip a set of characters from a string
- Strip comments from a string
- Strip whitespace from a string/Top and tail
- Subleq
- Substring
- Substring/Top and tail
- Sum and product of an array
- Sum multiples of 3 and 5
- Sum of a series
- Sum of first n cubes
- Sum of square and cube digits of an integer are primes
- Sum of the digits of n is substring of n
- System time

### T

- Take notes on the command line
- Tau function
- Temperature conversion
- Terminal control/Clear the screen
- Terminal control/Coloured text
- Terminal control/Cursor positioning
- Terminal control/Dimensions
- Terminal control/Display an extended character
- Terminal control/Inverse video
- Terminal control/Ringing the terminal bell
- Test integerness
- Text processing/1
- Text processing/2
- Text processing/Max licenses in use
- The Twelve Days of Christmas
- Thue-Morse
- Tokenize a string
- Tokenize a string with escaping
- Totient function
- Towers of Hanoi
- Trigonometric functions
- Two identical strings