# Sorting algorithms/Quicksort

Sorting algorithms/Quicksort
You are encouraged to solve this task according to the task description, using any language you may know.

Sorting Algorithm
This is a sorting algorithm. It may be applied to a set of data in order to sort it.

For other sorting algorithms, see Category:Sorting Algorithms, or:
O(n logn) Sorts
Heapsort | Mergesort | Quicksort
O(n log2n) Sorts
Shell Sort
O(n2) Sorts
Bubble sort | Cocktail sort | Comb sort | Gnome sort | Insertion sort | Selection sort | Strand sort
Other Sorts
Bead sort | Bogosort | Counting sort | Pancake sort | Permutation sort | Radix sort | Sleep sort | Stooge sort
 This page uses content from Wikipedia. The original article was at Quicksort. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with Rosetta Code, the text of Wikipedia is available under the GNU FDL. (See links for details on variance)

Sort an array (or list) elements using the   quicksort   algorithm.

The elements must have a   strict weak order   and the index of the array can be of any discrete type.

For languages where this is not possible, sort an array of integers.

Quicksort, also known as   partition-exchange sort,   uses these steps.

1.   Choose any element of the array to be the pivot.
2.   Divide all other elements (except the pivot) into two partitions.
•   All elements less than the pivot must be in the first partition.
•   All elements greater than the pivot must be in the second partition.
3.   Use recursion to sort both partitions.
4.   Join the first sorted partition, the pivot, and the second sorted partition.

The best pivot creates partitions of equal length (or lengths differing by   1).

The worst pivot creates an empty partition (for example, if the pivot is the first or last element of a sorted array).

The run-time of Quicksort ranges from   O(n log n)   with the best pivots, to   O(n2)   with the worst pivots, where   n   is the number of elements in the array.

This is a simple quicksort algorithm, adapted from Wikipedia.

```function quicksort(array)
less, equal, greater := three empty arrays
if length(array) > 1
pivot := select any element of array
for each x in array
if x < pivot then add x to less
if x = pivot then add x to equal
if x > pivot then add x to greater
quicksort(less)
quicksort(greater)
array := concatenate(less, equal, greater)
```

A better quicksort algorithm works in place, by swapping elements within the array, to avoid the memory allocation of more arrays.

```function quicksort(array)
if length(array) > 1
pivot := select any element of array
left := first index of array
right := last index of array
while left ≤ right
while array[left] < pivot
left := left + 1
while array[right] > pivot
right := right - 1
if left ≤ right
swap array[left] with array[right]
left := left + 1
right := right - 1
quicksort(array from first index to right)
quicksort(array from left to last index)
```

Quicksort has a reputation as the fastest sort. Optimized variants of quicksort are common features of many languages and libraries. One often contrasts quicksort with   merge sort,   because both sorts have an average time of   O(n log n).

"On average, mergesort does fewer comparisons than quicksort, so it may be better when complicated comparison routines are used. Mergesort also takes advantage of pre-existing order, so it would be favored for using sort() to merge several sorted arrays. On the other hand, quicksort is often faster for small arrays, and on arrays of a few distinct values, repeated many times."http://perldoc.perl.org/sort.html

Quicksort is at one end of the spectrum of divide-and-conquer algorithms, with merge sort at the opposite end.

• Quicksort is a conquer-then-divide algorithm, which does most of the work during the partitioning and the recursive calls. The subsequent reassembly of the sorted partitions involves trivial effort.
• Merge sort is a divide-then-conquer algorithm. The partioning happens in a trivial way, by splitting the input array in half. Most of the work happens during the recursive calls and the merge phase.

With quicksort, every element in the first partition is less than or equal to every element in the second partition. Therefore, the merge phase of quicksort is so trivial that it needs no mention!

This task has not specified whether to allocate new arrays, or sort in place. This task also has not specified how to choose the pivot element. (Common ways to are to choose the first element, the middle element, or the median of three elements.) Thus there is a variety among the following implementations.

## 360 Assembly

Translation of: REXX

Structured version with ASM & ASSIST macros.

`*        Quicksort                 14/09/2015 & 23/06/2016QUICKSOR CSECT         USING  QUICKSOR,R13       base register         B      72(R15)            skip savearea         DC     17F'0'             savearea         STM    R14,R12,12(R13)    prolog         ST     R13,4(R15)         "         ST     R15,8(R13)         "          LR     R13,R15            "         MVC    A,=A(1)            a(1)=1         MVC    B,=A(NN)           b(1)=hbound(t)         L      R6,=F'1'           k=1       DO WHILE=(LTR,R6,NZ,R6)   do while k<>0    ==================         LR     R1,R6              k          SLA    R1,2               ~         L      R10,A-4(R1)        l=a(k)         LR     R1,R6              k         SLA    R1,2               ~         L      R11,B-4(R1)        m=b(k)         BCTR   R6,0               k=k-1         LR     R4,R11             m         C      R4,=F'2'           if m<2          BL     ITERATE            then iterate         LR     R2,R10             l         AR     R2,R11             +m         BCTR   R2,0               -1         ST     R2,X               x=l+m-1         LR     R2,R11             m         SRA    R2,1               m/2         AR     R2,R10             +l         ST     R2,Y               y=l+m/2         L      R1,X               x         SLA    R1,2               ~         L      R4,T-4(R1)         r4=t(x)         L      R1,Y               y         SLA    R1,2               ~         L      R5,T-4(R1)         r5=t(y)         LR     R1,R10             l         SLA    R1,2               ~         L      R3,T-4(R1)         r3=t(l)         IF     CR,R4,LT,R3        if t(x)<t(l)       ---+         IF     CR,R5,LT,R4          if t(y)<t(x)        |         LR     R7,R4                  p=t(x)            |         L      R1,X                   x                 |         SLA    R1,2                   ~                 |         ST     R3,T-4(R1)             t(x)=t(l)         |         ELSEIF CR,R5,GT,R3          elseif t(y)>t(l)    |         LR     R7,R3                  p=t(l)            |         ELSE   ,                    else                |         LR     R7,R5                  p=t(y)            |         L      R1,Y                   y                 |         SLA    R1,2                   ~                 |         ST     R3,T-4(R1)            t(y)=t(l)          |         ENDIF  ,                    end if              |         ELSE   ,                  else                  |         IF     CR,R5,LT,R3          if t(y)<t(l)        |         LR     R7,R3                  p=t(l)            |         ELSEIF CR,R5,GT,R4          elseif t(y)>t(x)    |         LR     R7,R4                  p=t(x)            |         L      R1,X                   x                 |         SLA    R1,2                   ~                 |         ST     R3,T-4(R1)             t(x)=t(l)         |         ELSE   ,                    else                |         LR     R7,R5                  p=t(y)            |         L      R1,Y                   y                 |         SLA    R1,2                   ~                 |         ST     R3,T-4(R1)             t(y)=t(l)         |         ENDIF  ,                    end if              |         ENDIF  ,                  end if             ---+         LA     R8,1(R10)          i=l+1         L      R9,X               j=xFOREVER  EQU    *                  do forever  --------------------+           LR     R1,R8                i                             |         SLA    R1,2                 ~                             |         LA     R2,T-4(R1)           @t(i)                         |         L      R0,0(R2)             t(i)                          |         DO WHILE=(CR,R8,LE,R9,AND,  while i<=j and   ---+         |   X               CR,R0,LE,R7)                t(i)<=p       |         |         AH     R8,=H'1'               i=i+1             |         |         AH     R2,=H'4'               @t(i)             |         |         L      R0,0(R2)               t(i)              |         |         ENDDO  ,                    end while        ---+         |         LR     R1,R9                j                             |         SLA    R1,2                 ~                             |         LA     R2,T-4(R1)           @t(j)                         |         L      R0,0(R2)             t(j)                          |         DO WHILE=(CR,R8,LT,R9,AND,  while i<j and    ---+         |   X               CR,R0,GE,R7)                t(j)>=p       |         |         SH     R9,=H'1'               j=j-1             |         |         SH     R2,=H'4'               @t(j)             |         |         L      R0,0(R2)               t(j)              |         |         ENDDO  ,                    end while        ---+         |         CR     R8,R9                if i>=j                       |         BNL    LEAVE                then leave (segment finished) |         LR     R1,R8                i                             |         SLA    R1,2                 ~                             |         LA     R2,T-4(R1)           @t(i)                         |         LR     R1,R9                j                             |         SLA    R1,2                 ~                             |         LA     R3,T-4(R1)           @t(j)                         |         L      R0,0(R2)             w=t(i)       +                |         MVC    0(4,R2),0(R3)        t(i)=t(j)    |swap t(i),t(j)  |         ST     R0,0(R3)             t(j)=w       +                |         B      FOREVER            end do forever  ----------------+LEAVE    EQU    *         LR     R9,R8              j=i         BCTR   R9,0               j=i-1         LR     R1,R9              j         SLA    R1,2               ~         LA     R3,T-4(R1)         @t(j)         L      R2,0(R3)           t(j)         LR     R1,R10             l         SLA    R1,2               ~         ST     R2,T-4(R1)         t(l)=t(j)         ST     R7,0(R3)           t(j)=p         LA     R6,1(R6)           k=k+1         LR     R1,R6              k         SLA    R1,2               ~         LA     R4,A-4(R1)         [email protected](k)         LA     R5,B-4(R1)         [email protected](k)         IF     C,R8,LE,Y          if i<=y           ----+         ST     R8,0(R4)             a(k)=i              |         L      R2,X                 x                   |         SR     R2,R8                -i                  |         LA     R2,1(R2)             +1                  |         ST     R2,0(R5)             b(k)=x-i+1          |         LA     R6,1(R6)             k=k+1               |         ST     R10,4(R4)            a(k)=l              |         LR     R2,R9                j                   |         SR     R2,R10               -l                  |         ST     R2,4(R5)             b(k)=j-l            |         ELSE   ,                  else                  |         ST     R10,4(R4)            a(k)=l              |         LR     R2,R9                j                   |         SR     R2,R10               -l                  |         ST     R2,0(R5)             b(k)=j-l            |         LA     R6,1(R6)             k=k+1               |         ST     R8,4(R4)             a(k)=i              |         L      R2,X                 x                   |         SR     R2,R8                -i                  |         LA     R2,1(R2)             +1                  |         ST     R2,4(R5)             b(k)=x-i+1          |         ENDIF  ,                  end if            ----+ITERATE  EQU    *                         ENDDO    ,                  end while  =====================*        ***    *********          print sorted table         LA     R3,PG              ibuffer         LA     R4,T               @t(i)       DO WHILE=(C,R4,LE,=A(TEND)) do i=1 to hbound(t)         L      R2,0(R4)             t(i)         XDECO  R2,XD                edit t(i)         MVC    0(4,R3),XD+8         put in buffer         LA     R3,4(R3)             ibuffer=ibuffer+1         LA     R4,4(R4)             i=i+1       ENDDO    ,                  end do         XPRNT  PG,80              print buffer         L      R13,4(0,R13)       epilog          LM     R14,R12,12(R13)    "         XR     R15,R15            "         BR     R14                exitT        DC     F'10',F'9',F'9',F'6',F'7',F'16',F'1',F'16',F'17',F'15'         DC     F'1',F'9',F'18',F'16',F'8',F'20',F'18',F'2',F'19',F'8'TEND     DS     0FNN       EQU    (TEND-T)/4)A        DS     (NN)F              same size as TB        DS     (NN)F              same size as TX        DS     FY        DS     FPG       DS     CL80XD       DS     CL12         YREGS          END    QUICKSOR`
Output:
```   1   1   2   6   7   8   8   9   9   9  10  15  16  16  16  17  18  18  19  20
```

## ABAP

This works for ABAP Version 7.40 and above

` report z_quicksort. data(numbers) = value int4_table( ( 4 ) ( 65 ) ( 2 ) ( -31 ) ( 0 ) ( 99 ) ( 2 ) ( 83 ) ( 782 ) ( 1 ) ).perform quicksort changing numbers. write `[`.loop at numbers assigning field-symbol(<numbers>).  write <numbers>.endloop.write `]`. form quicksort changing numbers type int4_table.  data(less) = value int4_table( ).  data(equal) = value int4_table( ).  data(greater) = value int4_table( ).   if lines( numbers ) > 1.    data(pivot) = numbers[ lines( numbers ) / 2 ].     loop at numbers assigning field-symbol(<number>).      if <number> < pivot.        append <number> to less.      elseif <number> = pivot.        append <number> to equal.      elseif <number> > pivot.        append <number> to greater.      endif.    endloop.     perform quicksort changing less.    perform quicksort changing greater.     clear numbers.    append lines of less to numbers.    append lines of equal to numbers.    append lines of greater to numbers.  endif.endform. `
Output:
```[        31-         0          1          2          2          4         65         83         99        782  ]
```

## ACL2

`(defun partition (p xs)   (if (endp xs)       (mv nil nil)       (mv-let (less more)               (partition p (rest xs))          (if (< (first xs) p)              (mv (cons (first xs) less) more)              (mv less (cons (first xs) more)))))) (defun qsort (xs)   (if (endp xs)       nil       (mv-let (less more)               (partition (first xs) (rest xs))          (append (qsort less)                  (list (first xs))                  (qsort more)))))`

Usage:

`> (qsort '(8 6 7 5 3 0 9))(0 3 5 6 7 8 9)`

## ActionScript

Works with: ActionScript version 3

The functional programming way

`function quickSort (array:Array):Array{    if (array.length <= 1)        return array;     var pivot:Number = array[Math.round(array.length / 2)];     return quickSort(array.filter(function (x:Number, index:int, array:Array):Boolean { return x <  pivot; })).concat(            array.filter(function (x:Number, index:int, array:Array):Boolean { return x == pivot; })).concat(        quickSort(array.filter(function (x:Number, index:int, array:Array):Boolean { return x > pivot; })));}`

The faster way

`function quickSort (array:Array):Array{    if (array.length <= 1)        return array;     var pivot:Number = array[Math.round(array.length / 2)];     var less:Array = [];    var equal:Array = [];    var greater:Array = [];     for each (var x:Number in array) {        if (x < pivot)            less.push(x);        if (x == pivot)            equal.push(x);        if (x > pivot)            greater.push(x);    }     return quickSort(less).concat(            equal).concat(            quickSort(greater));}`

This example is implemented as a generic procedure.

Beware all potential users. This code is broken. In attempting to avoid letting the indices Left and Right go out of range, as they are required to do by the pseudocode, it seems to prevent this implementation from functioning correctly. Try running it on a 1000 long array of random integers and see what happens. I can't see an easy fix of this particular implementation. A colleague and I wrote code directly from the pseudocode and used 'Base on the index type to allow Left and Right to go out of range in the pseudocode if block starting "if left <= right". I also put guards on the recursive Sort calls, as in the implementation below, to prevent calling with illegal limits. I can't share my actual code because my employers hold the copyright.

The procedure specification is:

`------------------------------------------------------------------------- Generic Quicksort procedure-----------------------------------------------------------------------generic    type Element_Type is private;   type Index_Type is (<>);   type Element_Array is array(Index_Type range <>) of Element_Type;   with function "<" (Left, Right : Element_Type) return Boolean is <>;    with function ">" (Left, Right : Element_Type) return Boolean is <>;procedure Sort(Item : in out Element_Array);`

The procedure body deals with any discrete index type, either an integer type or an enumerated type.

`------------------------------------------------------------------------- Generic Quicksort procedure-----------------------------------------------------------------------  procedure Sort (Item : in out Element_Array) is    procedure Swap(Left, Right : in out Element_Type) is      Temp : Element_Type := Left;   begin      Left := Right;      Right := Temp;   end Swap;    Pivot_Index : Index_Type;   Pivot_Value : Element_Type;   Right       : Index_Type := Item'Last;   Left        : Index_Type := Item'First; begin   if Item'Length > 1 then      Pivot_Index := Index_Type'Val((Index_Type'Pos(Item'Last) + 1 +                                     Index_Type'Pos(Item'First)) / 2);      Pivot_Value := Item(Pivot_Index);       Left  := Item'First;      Right := Item'Last;      loop         while Left < Item'Last and then Item(Left) < Pivot_Value loop            Left := Index_Type'Succ(Left);         end loop;         while Right > Item'First and then Item(Right) > Pivot_Value loop            Right := Index_Type'Pred(Right);         end loop;         exit when Left >= Right;         Swap(Item(Left), Item(Right));         if Left < Item'Last then            Left := Index_Type'Succ(Left);         end if;         if Right > Item'First then            Right := Index_Type'Pred(Right);         end if;      end loop;      if Right > Item'First then         Sort(Item(Item'First..Index_Type'Pred(Right)));      end if;      if Left < Item'Last then         Sort(Item(Left..Item'Last));      end if;   end if;end Sort;`

An example of how this procedure may be used is:

`with Sort;with Ada.Text_Io;with Ada.Float_Text_IO; use Ada.Float_Text_IO;  procedure Sort_Test is   type Days is (Mon, Tue, Wed, Thu, Fri, Sat, Sun);   type Sales is array(Days range <>) of Float;   procedure Sort_Days is new Sort(Float, Days, Sales);    procedure Print(Item : Sales) is   begin      for I in Item'range loop         Put(Item => Item(I), Fore => 5, Aft => 2, Exp => 0);      end loop;   end Print;    Weekly_Sales : Sales := (Mon => 300.0,       Tue => 700.0,       Wed => 800.0,       Thu => 500.0,       Fri => 200.0,       Sat => 100.0,       Sun => 900.0); begin    Print(Weekly_Sales);   Ada.Text_Io.New_Line(2);   Sort_Days(Weekly_Sales);   Print(Weekly_Sales); end Sort_Test;`

## ALGOL 68

`#--- Swap function ---#PROC swap = (REF []INT array, INT first, INT second) VOID:(    INT temp := array[first];    array[first] := array[second];    array[second]:= temp); #--- Quick sort 3 arg function ---#PROC quick = (REF [] INT array, INT first, INT last) VOID:(    INT smaller := first + 1,          larger  := last,        pivot   := array[first];     WHILE smaller <= larger DO        WHILE array[smaller] < pivot   AND   smaller < last DO               smaller +:= 1                OD;        WHILE array[larger]  > pivot   AND   larger > first DO               larger  -:= 1               OD;         IF smaller < larger THEN             swap(array, smaller, larger);             smaller +:= 1;            larger  -:= 1        ELSE            smaller +:= 1        FI    OD;     swap(array, first, larger);         IF first < larger-1 THEN        quick(array, first, larger-1)      FI;    IF last > larger +1 THEN        quick(array, larger+1, last)       FI); #--- Quick sort 1 arg function ---#PROC quicksort = (REF []INT array) VOID:(  IF UPB array > 1 THEN    quick(array, 1, UPB array)   FI); #***************************************************************#main:(    [10]INT a;     FOR i FROM 1 TO UPB a DO         a[i] := ROUND(random*1000)    OD;                                  print(("Before:", a));    quicksort(a);    print((newline, newline));    print(("After: ", a))) `
Output:
```Before:        +73       +921       +179       +961        +50       +324        +82       +178       +243       +458

After:         +50        +73        +82       +178       +179       +243       +324       +458       +921       +961
```

## ALGOL W

`% Quicksorts in-place the array of integers v, from lb to ub %procedure quicksort ( integer array v( * )                    ; integer value lb, ub                    ) ;if ub > lb then begin    % more than one element, so must sort %    integer left, right, pivot;    left   := lb;    right  := ub;    % choosing the middle element of the array as the pivot %    pivot  := v( left + ( ( right + 1 ) - left ) div 2 );    while begin        while left  <= ub and v( left  ) < pivot do left  := left  + 1;        while right >= lb and v( right ) > pivot do right := right - 1;        left <= right    end do begin        integer swap;        swap       := v( left  );        v( left  ) := v( right );        v( right ) := swap;        left       := left  + 1;        right      := right - 1    end while_left_le_right ;    quicksort( v, lb,   right );    quicksort( v, left, ub    )end quicksort ;`

## APL

Works with: Dyalog APL
Translation of: J
`      qsort ← {1≥⍴⍵:⍵ ⋄ e←⍵[?⍴⍵] ⋄ (∇(⍵<e)/⍵) , ((⍵=e)/⍵) , (∇(⍵>e)/⍵)}      qsort 31 4 1 5 9 2 6 5 3 5 81 2 3 4 5 5 5 6 8 9 31`

Of course, in real APL applications, one would use ⍋ to sort (which will pick a sorting algorithm suited to the argument).

## AppleScript

Emphasising clarity and simplicity more than run-time performance. (Practical scripts will often delegate sorting to the OS X shell, or, since OS X Yosemite, to Foundation classes through the ObjC interface).

Translation of: JavaScript

(Functional ES5 version)

`-- quickSort :: (Ord a) => [a] -> [a]on quickSort(xs)    if length of xs > 1 then        set {h, t} to uncons(xs)         -- lessOrEqual :: a -> Bool        script lessOrEqual            on |λ|(x)                x ≤ h            end |λ|        end script         set {less, more} to partition(lessOrEqual, t)         quickSort(less) & h & quickSort(more)    else        xs    end ifend quickSort  -- TEST -----------------------------------------------------------------------on run     quickSort([11.8, 14.1, 21.3, 8.5, 16.7, 5.7])     --> {5.7, 8.5, 11.8, 14.1, 16.7, 21.3} end run  -- GENERIC FUNCTIONS ---------------------------------------------------------- -- partition :: predicate -> List -> (Matches, nonMatches)-- partition :: (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> ([a], [a])on partition(f, xs)    tell mReturn(f)        set lst to {{}, {}}        repeat with x in xs            set v to contents of x            set end of item ((|λ|(v) as integer) + 1) of lst to v        end repeat        return {item 2 of lst, item 1 of lst}    end tellend partition -- uncons :: [a] -> Maybe (a, [a])on uncons(xs)    if length of xs > 0 then        {item 1 of xs, rest of xs}    else        missing value    end ifend uncons -- Lift 2nd class handler function into 1st class script wrapper -- mReturn :: Handler -> Scripton mReturn(f)    if class of f is script then        f    else        script            property |λ| : f        end script    end ifend mReturn`
Output:
`{5.7, 8.5, 11.8, 14.1, 16.7, 21.3}`

## AWK

` # the following qsort implementation extracted from:##       ftp://ftp.armory.com/pub/lib/awk/qsort## Copyleft GPLv2 John DuBois## @(#) qsort 1.2.1 2005-10-21# 1990 john h. dubois iii ([email protected])## qsortArbIndByValue(): Sort an array according to the values of its elements.## Input variables:## Arr[] is an array of values with arbitrary (associative) indices.## Output variables:## k[] is returned with numeric indices 1..n.  The values assigned to these# indices are the indices of Arr[], ordered so that if Arr[] is stepped# through in the order Arr[k[1]] .. Arr[k[n]], it will be stepped through in# order of the values of its elements.## Return value: The number of elements in the arrays (n).## NOTES:## Full example for accessing results:##       foolist["second"] = 2;#       foolist["zero"] = 0;#       foolist["third"] = 3;#       foolist["first"] = 1;##       outlist[1] = 0;#       n = qsortArbIndByValue(foolist, outlist)##       for (i = 1; i <= n; i++) {#               printf("item at %s has value %d\n", outlist[i], foolist[outlist[i]]);#       }#      delete outlist; #function qsortArbIndByValue(Arr, k,                            ArrInd, ElNum){        ElNum = 0;        for (ArrInd in Arr) {                k[++ElNum] = ArrInd;        }        qsortSegment(Arr, k, 1, ElNum);        return ElNum;}## qsortSegment(): Sort a segment of an array.## Input variables:## Arr[] contains data with arbitrary indices.## k[] has indices 1..nelem, with the indices of Arr[] as values.## Output variables:## k[] is modified by this function.  The elements of Arr[] that are pointed to# by k[start..end] are sorted, with the values of elements of k[] swapped# so that when this function returns, Arr[k[start..end]] will be in order.## Return value: None.#function qsortSegment(Arr, k, start, end,                      left, right, sepval, tmp, tmpe, tmps){        if ((end - start) < 1) {        # 0 or 1 elements                return;        }        # handle two-element case explicitly for a tiny speedup        if ((end - start) == 1) {                if (Arr[tmps = k[start]] > Arr[tmpe = k[end]]) {                        k[start] = tmpe;                        k[end] = tmps;                }                return;        }        # Make sure comparisons act on these as numbers        left = start + 0;        right = end + 0;        sepval = Arr[k[int((left + right) / 2)]];        # Make every element <= sepval be to the left of every element > sepval        while (left < right) {                while (Arr[k[left]] < sepval) {                        left++;                }                while (Arr[k[right]] > sepval) {                        right--;                }                if (left < right) {                        tmp = k[left];                        k[left++] = k[right];                        k[right--] = tmp;                }        }        if (left == right)                if (Arr[k[left]] < sepval) {                        left++;                } else {                        right--;                }        if (start < right) {                qsortSegment(Arr, k, start, right);        }        if (left < end) {                qsortSegment(Arr, k, left, end);        }} `

## AutoHotkey

Translated from the python example:

`a := [4, 65, 2, -31, 0, 99, 83, 782, 7]for k, v in QuickSort(a)	Out .= "," vMsgBox, % SubStr(Out, 2)return QuickSort(a){	if (a.MaxIndex() <= 1)		return a	Less := [], Same := [], More := []	Pivot := a[1]	for k, v in a	{		if (v < Pivot)			less.Insert(v)		else if (v > Pivot)			more.Insert(v)		else			same.Insert(v)	}	Less := QuickSort(Less)	Out := QuickSort(More)	if (Same.MaxIndex())		Out.Insert(1, Same*) ; insert all values of same at index 1	if (Less.MaxIndex())		Out.Insert(1, Less*) ; insert all values of less at index 1	return Out}`

Old implementation for AutoHotkey 1.0:

`MsgBox % quicksort("8,4,9,2,1") quicksort(list){  StringSplit, list, list, `,  If (list0 <= 1)    Return list  pivot := list1  Loop, Parse, list, `,  {    If (A_LoopField < pivot)      less = %less%,%A_LoopField%    Else If (A_LoopField > pivot)      more = %more%,%A_LoopField%    Else      pivotlist = %pivotlist%,%A_LoopField%  }  StringTrimLeft, less, less, 1  StringTrimLeft, more, more, 1  StringTrimLeft, pivotList, pivotList, 1  less := quicksort(less)  more := quicksort(more)  Return less . pivotList . more}`

## BASIC

Works with: FreeBASIC
Works with: PowerBASIC for DOS
Works with: QB64
Works with: QBasic

This is specifically for `INTEGER`s, but can be modified for any data type by changing `arr()`'s type.

`DECLARE SUB quicksort (arr() AS INTEGER, leftN AS INTEGER, rightN AS INTEGER) DIM q(99) AS INTEGERDIM n AS INTEGER RANDOMIZE TIMER FOR n = 0 TO 99    q(n) = INT(RND * 9999)NEXT OPEN "output.txt" FOR OUTPUT AS 1    FOR n = 0 TO 99        PRINT #1, q(n),    NEXT    PRINT #1,    quicksort q(), 0, 99    FOR n = 0 TO 99        PRINT #1, q(n),    NEXTCLOSE SUB quicksort (arr() AS INTEGER, leftN AS INTEGER, rightN AS INTEGER)    DIM pivot AS INTEGER, leftNIdx AS INTEGER, rightNIdx AS INTEGER    leftNIdx = leftN    rightNIdx = rightN    IF (rightN - leftN) > 0 THEN        pivot = (leftN + rightN) / 2        WHILE (leftNIdx <= pivot) AND (rightNIdx >= pivot)            WHILE (arr(leftNIdx) < arr(pivot)) AND (leftNIdx <= pivot)                leftNIdx = leftNIdx + 1            WEND            WHILE (arr(rightNIdx) > arr(pivot)) AND (rightNIdx >= pivot)                rightNIdx = rightNIdx - 1            WEND            SWAP arr(leftNIdx), arr(rightNIdx)            leftNIdx = leftNIdx + 1            rightNIdx = rightNIdx - 1            IF (leftNIdx - 1) = pivot THEN                rightNIdx = rightNIdx + 1                pivot = rightNIdx            ELSEIF (rightNIdx + 1) = pivot THEN                leftNIdx = leftNIdx - 1                pivot = leftNIdx            END IF        WEND        quicksort arr(), leftN, pivot - 1        quicksort arr(), pivot + 1, rightN    END IFEND SUB`

### BBC BASIC

`      DIM test(9)      test() = 4, 65, 2, -31, 0, 99, 2, 83, 782, 1      PROCquicksort(test(), 0, 10)      FOR i% = 0 TO 9        PRINT test(i%) ;      NEXT      PRINT      END       DEF PROCquicksort(a(), s%, n%)      LOCAL l%, p, r%, t%      IF n% < 2 THEN ENDPROC      t% = s% + n% - 1      l% = s%      r% = t%      p = a((l% + r%) DIV 2)      REPEAT        WHILE a(l%) < p l% += 1 : ENDWHILE        WHILE a(r%) > p r% -= 1 : ENDWHILE        IF l% <= r% THEN          SWAP a(l%), a(r%)          l% += 1          r% -= 1        ENDIF      UNTIL l% > r%      IF s% < r% PROCquicksort(a(), s%, r% - s% + 1)      IF l% < t% PROCquicksort(a(), l%, t% - l% + 1 )      ENDPROC`
Output:
```       -31         0         1         2         2         4        65        83        99       782
```

### IS-BASIC

`100 PROGRAM "QuickSrt.bas"110 RANDOMIZE120 NUMERIC A(5 TO 19)130 CALL INIT(A)140 CALL WRITE(A)150 CALL QSORT(LBOUND(A),UBOUND(A))160 CALL WRITE(A)170 DEF INIT(REF A)180   FOR I=LBOUND(A) TO UBOUND(A)190     LET A(I)=RND(98)+1200   NEXT210 END DEF220 DEF WRITE(REF A)230   FOR I=LBOUND(A) TO UBOUND(A)240     PRINT A(I);250   NEXT260   PRINT270 END DEF280 DEF QSORT(AH,FH)290   NUMERIC E300   LET E=AH:LET U=FH:LET K=A(E)310   DO UNTIL E=U320     DO UNTIL E=U OR A(U)<K330       LET U=U-1340     LOOP350     IF E<U THEN360       LET A(E)=A(U):LET E=E+1370       DO UNTIL E=U OR A(E)>K380         LET E=E+1390       LOOP400       IF E<U THEN LET A(U)=A(E):LET U=U-1410     END IF420   LOOP430   LET A(E)=K440   IF AH<E-1 THEN CALL QSORT(AH,E-1)450   IF E+1<FH THEN CALL QSORT(E+1,FH)460 END DEF`

## BCPL

`// This can be run using Cintcode BCPL freely available from www.cl.cam.ac.uk/users/mr10. GET "libhdr.h" LET quicksort(v, n) BE qsort(v+1, v+n) AND qsort(l, r) BE{ WHILE l+8<r DO  { LET midpt = (l+r)/2    // Select a good(ish) median value.    LET val   = middle(!l, !midpt, !r)    LET i = partition(val, l, r)    // Only use recursion on the smaller partition.    TEST i>midpt THEN { qsort(i, r);   r := i-1 }                 ELSE { qsort(l, i-1); l := i   }  }   FOR p = l+1 TO r DO  // Now perform insertion sort.   FOR q = p-1 TO l BY -1 TEST q!0<=q!1 THEN BREAK                                        ELSE { LET t = q!0                                               q!0 := q!1                                               q!1 := t                                             }} AND middle(a, b, c) = a<b -> b<c -> b,                                    a<c -> c,                                           a,                             b<c -> a<c -> a,                                           c,                                    b AND partition(median, p, q) = VALOF{ LET t = ?  WHILE !p < median DO p := p+1  WHILE !q > median DO q := q-1  IF p>=q RESULTIS p  t  := !p  !p := !q  !q := t  p, q := p+1, q-1} REPEAT LET start() = VALOF {  LET v = VEC 1000  FOR i = 1 TO 1000 DO v!i := randno(1_000_000)  quicksort(v, 1000)  FOR i = 1 TO 1000 DO  { IF i MOD 10 = 0 DO newline()    writef(" %i6", v!i)  }  newline()}`

## Bracmat

Instead of comparing elements explicitly, this solution puts the two elements-to-compare in a sum. After evaluating the sum its terms are sorted. Numbers are sorted numerically, strings alphabetically and compound expressions by comparing nodes and leafs in a left-to right order. Now there are three cases: either the terms stayed put, or they were swapped, or they were equal and were combined into one term with a factor `2` in front. To not let the evaluator add numbers together, each term is constructed as a dotted list.

`( ( Q  =   Less Greater Equal pivot element    .     !arg:%(?pivot:?Equal) %?arg        & :?Less:?Greater        &   whl          ' ( !arg:%?element ?arg            &   (.!element)+(.!pivot)               { BAD: 1900+90 adds to 1990,  GOOD: (.1900)+(.90) is sorted to (.90)+(.1900) }              : (   (.!element)+(.!pivot)                  & !element !Less:?Less                |   (.!pivot)+(.!element)                  & !element !Greater:?Greater                | ?&!element !Equal:?Equal                )            )        & Q\$!Less !Equal Q\$!Greater      | !arg  )& out\$Q\$(1900 optimized variants of 4001/2 Quicksort (quick,sort) are (quick,sober) features of 90 languages));`
Output:
```  90
1900
4001/2
Quicksort
are
features
languages
of
of
optimized
variants
(quick,sober)
(quick,sort)```

## C

` #include <stdio.h> void quicksort(int *A, int len); int main (void) {  int a[] = {4, 65, 2, -31, 0, 99, 2, 83, 782, 1};  int n = sizeof a / sizeof a[0];   int i;  for (i = 0; i < n; i++) {    printf("%d ", a[i]);  }  printf("\n");   quicksort(a, n);   for (i = 0; i < n; i++) {    printf("%d ", a[i]);  }  printf("\n");   return 0;} void quicksort(int *A, int len) {  if (len < 2) return;   int pivot = A[len / 2];   int i, j;  for (i = 0, j = len - 1; ; i++, j--) {    while (A[i] < pivot) i++;    while (A[j] > pivot) j--;     if (i >= j) break;     int temp = A[i];    A[i]     = A[j];    A[j]     = temp;  }   quicksort(A, i);  quicksort(A + i, len - i);} `
Output:
```4 65 2 -31 0 99 2 83 782 1
-31 0 1 2 2 4 65 83 99 782
```

Randomized sort with separated components.

` #include <stdlib.h>     // REQ: rand() void swap(int *a, int *b) {  int c = *a;  *a = *b;  *b = c;} int partition(int A[], int p, int q) {  swap(&A[p + (rand() % (q - p + 1))], &A[q]);   // PIVOT = A[q]   int i = p - 1;  for(int j = p; j <= q; j++) {    if(A[j] <= A[q]) {      swap(&A[++i], &A[j]);    }  }   return i;} void quicksort(int A[], int p, int q) {  if(p < q) {    int pivotIndx = partition(A, p, q);     quicksort(A, p, pivotIndx - 1);    quicksort(A, pivotIndx + 1, q);  }} `

## C++

The following implements quicksort with a median-of-three pivot. As idiomatic in C++, the argument last is a one-past-end iterator. Note that this code takes advantage of std::partition, which is O(n). Also note that it needs a random-access iterator for efficient calculation of the median-of-three pivot (more exactly, for O(1) calculation of the iterator mid).

`#include <iterator>#include <algorithm> // for std::partition#include <functional> // for std::less // helper function for median of threetemplate<typename T> T median(T t1, T t2, T t3){  if (t1 < t2)  {    if (t2 < t3)      return t2;    else if (t1 < t3)      return t3;    else      return t1;  }  else  {    if (t1 < t3)      return t1;    else if (t2 < t3)      return t3;    else      return t2;  }} // helper object to get <= from <template<typename Order> struct non_strict_op:  public std::binary_function<typename Order::second_argument_type,                              typename Order::first_argument_type,                              bool>{  non_strict_op(Order o): order(o) {}  bool operator()(typename Order::second_argument_type arg1,                  typename Order::first_argument_type arg2) const  {    return !order(arg2, arg1);  }private:  Order order;}; template<typename Order> non_strict_op<Order> non_strict(Order o){  return non_strict_op<Order>(o);} template<typename RandomAccessIterator,         typename Order> void quicksort(RandomAccessIterator first, RandomAccessIterator last, Order order){  if (first != last && first+1 != last)  {    typedef typename std::iterator_traits<RandomAccessIterator>::value_type value_type;    RandomAccessIterator mid = first + (last - first)/2;    value_type pivot = median(*first, *mid, *(last-1));    RandomAccessIterator split1 = std::partition(first, last, std::bind2nd(order, pivot));    RandomAccessIterator split2 = std::partition(split1, last, std::bind2nd(non_strict(order), pivot));    quicksort(first, split1, order);    quicksort(split2, last, order);  }} template<typename RandomAccessIterator> void quicksort(RandomAccessIterator first, RandomAccessIterator last){  quicksort(first, last, std::less<typename std::iterator_traits<RandomAccessIterator>::value_type>());}`

A simpler version of the above that just uses the first element as the pivot and only does one "partition".

`#include <iterator>#include <algorithm> // for std::partition#include <functional> // for std::less template<typename RandomAccessIterator,         typename Order> void quicksort(RandomAccessIterator first, RandomAccessIterator last, Order order){  if (last - first > 1)  {    RandomAccessIterator split = std::partition(first+1, last, std::bind2nd(order, *first));    std::iter_swap(first, split-1);    quicksort(first, split-1, order);    quicksort(split, last, order);  }} template<typename RandomAccessIterator> void quicksort(RandomAccessIterator first, RandomAccessIterator last){  quicksort(first, last, std::less<typename std::iterator_traits<RandomAccessIterator>::value_type>());}`

## C#

Note that Array.Sort and ArrayList.Sort both use an unstable implementation of the quicksort algorithm.

`//// The Tripartite conditional enables Bentley-McIlroy 3-way Partitioning.// This performs additional compares to isolate islands of keys equal to// the pivot value.  Use unless key-equivalent classes are of small size.//#define Tripartite namespace Sort {  using System;  using System.Diagnostics;   class QuickSort<T> where T : IComparable {    #region Constants    private const Int32 INSERTION_LIMIT_DEFAULT = 12;    #endregion     #region Properties    public Int32 InsertionLimit { get; set; }    private Random Random { get; set; }    private T Median { get; set; }     private Int32 Left { get; set; }    private Int32 Right { get; set; }    private Int32 LeftMedian { get; set; }    private Int32 RightMedian { get; set; }    #endregion     #region Constructors    public QuickSort(Int32 insertionLimit, Random random) {      this.InsertionLimit = insertionLimit;      this.Random = random;    }     public QuickSort(Int32 insertionLimit)      : this(insertionLimit, new Random()) {    }     public QuickSort()      : this(INSERTION_LIMIT_DEFAULT) {    }    #endregion     #region Sort Methods    public void Sort(T[] entries) {      Sort(entries, 0, entries.Length - 1);    }     public void Sort(T[] entries, Int32 first, Int32 last) {      var length = last + 1 - first;      while (length > 1) {        if (length < InsertionLimit) {          InsertionSort<T>.Sort(entries, first, last);          return;        }         Left = first;        Right = last;        pivot(entries);        partition(entries);        //[Note]Right < Left         var leftLength = Right + 1 - first;        var rightLength = last + 1 - Left;         //        // First recurse over shorter partition, then loop        // on the longer partition to elide tail recursion.        //        if (leftLength < rightLength) {          Sort(entries, first, Right);          first = Left;          length = rightLength;        }        else {          Sort(entries, Left, last);          last = Right;          length = leftLength;        }      }    }     private void pivot(T[] entries) {      //      // An odd sample size is chosen based on the log of the interval size.      // The median of a randomly chosen set of samples is then returned as      // an estimate of the true median.      //      var length = Right + 1 - Left;      var logLen = (Int32)Math.Log10(length);      var pivotSamples = 2 * logLen + 1;      var sampleSize = Math.Min(pivotSamples, length);      var last = Left + sampleSize - 1;      // Sample without replacement      for (var first = Left; first <= last; first++) {        // Random sampling avoids pathological cases        var random = Random.Next(first, Right + 1);        Swap(entries, first, random);      }       InsertionSort<T>.Sort(entries, Left, last);      Median = entries[Left + sampleSize / 2];    }     private void partition(T[] entries) {      var first = Left;      var last = Right;#if Tripartite      LeftMedian = first;      RightMedian = last;#endif      while (true) {        //[Assert]There exists some index >= Left where entries[index] >= Median        //[Assert]There exists some index <= Right where entries[index] <= Median        // So, there is no need for Left or Right bound checks        while (Median.CompareTo(entries[Left]) > 0) Left++;        while (Median.CompareTo(entries[Right]) < 0) Right--;         //[Assert]entries[Right] <= Median <= entries[Left]        if (Right <= Left) break;         Swap(entries, Left, Right);        swapOut(entries);        Left++;        Right--;        //[Assert]entries[first:Left - 1] <= Median <= entries[Right + 1:last]      }       if (Left == Right) {        Left++;        Right--;      }      //[Assert]Right < Left      swapIn(entries, first, last);       //[Assert]entries[first:Right] <= Median <= entries[Left:last]      //[Assert]entries[Right + 1:Left - 1] == Median when non-empty    }    #endregion     #region Swap Methods    [Conditional("Tripartite")]    private void swapOut(T[] entries) {      if (Median.CompareTo(entries[Left]) == 0) Swap(entries, LeftMedian++, Left);      if (Median.CompareTo(entries[Right]) == 0) Swap(entries, Right, RightMedian--);    }     [Conditional("Tripartite")]    private void swapIn(T[] entries, Int32 first, Int32 last) {      // Restore Median entries      while (first < LeftMedian) Swap(entries, first++, Right--);      while (RightMedian < last) Swap(entries, Left++, last--);    }     public static void Swap(T[] entries, Int32 index1, Int32 index2) {      if (index1 != index2) {        var entry = entries[index1];        entries[index1] = entries[index2];        entries[index2] = entry;      }    }    #endregion  }   #region Insertion Sort  static class InsertionSort<T> where T : IComparable {    public static void Sort(T[] entries, Int32 first, Int32 last) {      for (var index = first + 1; index <= last; index++)        insert(entries, first, index);    }     private static void insert(T[] entries, Int32 first, Int32 index) {      var entry = entries[index];      while (index > first && entries[index - 1].CompareTo(entry) > 0)        entries[index] = entries[--index];      entries[index] = entry;    }  }  #endregion}`

Example:

`  using Sort;  using System;   class Program {    static void Main(String[] args) {      var entries = new Int32[] { 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 8, 6, 4, 2 };      var sorter = new QuickSort<Int32>();      sorter.Sort(entries);      Console.WriteLine(String.Join(" ", entries));    }  }`
Output:
`1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9`

A very inefficient way to do qsort in C# to prove C# code can be just as compact and readable as any dynamic code

`using System;using System.Collections.Generic;using System.Linq; namespace QSort{    class QSorter    {        private static IEnumerable<IComparable> empty = new List<IComparable>();         public static IEnumerable<IComparable> QSort(IEnumerable<IComparable> iEnumerable)        {            if(iEnumerable.Any())            {                var pivot = iEnumerable.First();                return QSort(iEnumerable.Where((anItem) => pivot.CompareTo(anItem) > 0)).                    Concat(iEnumerable.Where((anItem) => pivot.CompareTo(anItem) == 0)).                    Concat(QSort(iEnumerable.Where((anItem) => pivot.CompareTo(anItem) < 0)));            }            return empty;        }    }}`

## Clojure

A very Haskell-like solution using list comprehensions and lazy evaluation.

`(defn qsort [L]  (if (empty? L)       '()      (let [[pivot & L2] L]           (lazy-cat (qsort (for [y L2 :when (<  y pivot)] y))                     (list pivot)                     (qsort (for [y L2 :when (>= y pivot)] y))))))`

Another short version (using quasiquote):

`(defn qsort [[pvt & rs]]  (if pvt    `([email protected](qsort (filter #(<  % pvt) rs))      ~pvt       [email protected](qsort (filter #(>= % pvt) rs)))))`

Another, more readable version (no macros):

`(defn qsort [[pivot & xs]]  (when pivot    (let [smaller #(< % pivot)]      (lazy-cat (qsort (filter smaller xs))		[pivot]		(qsort (remove smaller xs))))))`

A 3-group quicksort (fast when many values are equal):

`(defn qsort3 [[pvt :as coll]]  (when pvt    (let [{left -1 mid 0 right 1} (group-by #(compare % pvt) coll)]      (lazy-cat (qsort3 left) mid (qsort3 right)))))`

A lazier version of above (unlike group-by, filter returns (and reads) a lazy sequence)

`(defn qsort3 [[pivot :as coll]]  (when pivot    (lazy-cat (qsort (filter #(< % pivot) coll))              (filter #{pivot} coll)              (qsort (filter #(> % pivot) coll)))))`

## COBOL

Works with: Visual COBOL
`       IDENTIFICATION DIVISION.       PROGRAM-ID. quicksort RECURSIVE.        DATA DIVISION.       LOCAL-STORAGE SECTION.       01  temp                   PIC S9(8).        01  pivot                  PIC S9(8).        01  left-most-idx          PIC 9(5).       01  right-most-idx         PIC 9(5).        01  left-idx               PIC 9(5).       01  right-idx              PIC 9(5).        LINKAGE SECTION.       78  Arr-Length             VALUE 50.        01  arr-area.           03  arr                PIC S9(8) OCCURS Arr-Length TIMES.        01  left-val               PIC 9(5).       01  right-val              PIC 9(5).          PROCEDURE DIVISION USING REFERENCE arr-area, OPTIONAL left-val,               OPTIONAL right-val.           IF left-val IS OMITTED OR right-val IS OMITTED               MOVE 1 TO left-most-idx, left-idx               MOVE Arr-Length TO right-most-idx, right-idx           ELSE               MOVE left-val TO left-most-idx, left-idx               MOVE right-val TO right-most-idx, right-idx           END-IF            IF right-most-idx - left-most-idx < 1               GOBACK           END-IF            COMPUTE pivot = arr ((left-most-idx + right-most-idx) / 2)            PERFORM UNTIL left-idx > right-idx               PERFORM VARYING left-idx FROM left-idx BY 1                   UNTIL arr (left-idx) >= pivot               END-PERFORM                PERFORM VARYING right-idx FROM right-idx BY -1                   UNTIL arr (right-idx) <= pivot               END-PERFORM                IF left-idx <= right-idx                   MOVE arr (left-idx) TO temp                   MOVE arr (right-idx) TO arr (left-idx)                   MOVE temp TO arr (right-idx)                    ADD 1 TO left-idx                   SUBTRACT 1 FROM right-idx               END-IF           END-PERFORM            CALL "quicksort" USING REFERENCE arr-area,               CONTENT left-most-idx, right-idx           CALL "quicksort" USING REFERENCE arr-area, CONTENT left-idx,               right-most-idx            GOBACK           .`

## CoffeeScript

` quicksort = ([x, xs...]) ->  return [] unless x?  smallerOrEqual = (a for a in xs when a <= x)  larger = (a for a in xs when a > x)  (quicksort smallerOrEqual).concat(x).concat(quicksort larger) `

## Common Lisp

The functional programming way

`(defun quicksort (list &aux (pivot (car list)) )  (if (cdr list)      (nconc (quicksort (remove-if-not #'(lambda (x) (< x pivot)) list))             (remove-if-not #'(lambda (x) (= x pivot)) list)             (quicksort (remove-if-not #'(lambda (x) (> x pivot)) list)))      list))`

With flet

`(defun qs (list)  (if (cdr list)      (flet ((pivot (test)               (remove (car list) list :test-not test)))        (nconc (qs (pivot #'>)) (pivot #'=) (qs (pivot #'<))))      list))`

In-place non-functional

`(defun quicksort (sequence)  (labels ((swap (a b) (rotatef (elt sequence a) (elt sequence b)))           (sub-sort (left right)             (when (< left right)               (let ((pivot (elt sequence right))                     (index left))                 (loop for i from left below right                       when (<= (elt sequence i) pivot)                         do (swap i (prog1 index (incf index))))                 (swap right index)                 (sub-sort left (1- index))                 (sub-sort (1+ index) right)))))    (sub-sort 0 (1- (length sequence)))    sequence))`

Functional with destructuring

` (defun quicksort (list)  (when list    (destructuring-bind (x . xs) list      (nconc (quicksort (remove-if (lambda (a) (> a x)) xs))	     `(,x)	     (quicksort (remove-if (lambda (a) (<= a x)) xs))))))`

## Crystal

Translation of: Ruby
`def quick_sort(a : Array(Int32)) : Array(Int32)  return a if a.size <= 1  p = a[0]  lt, rt = a[1 .. -1].partition { |x| x < p }  return quick_sort(lt) + [p] + quick_sort(rt)end a = [7, 6, 5, 9, 8, 4, 3, 1, 2, 0]puts quick_sort(a) # => [0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9]`

## Curry

Copied from Curry: Example Programs.

`-- quicksort using higher-order functions: qsort :: [Int] -> [Int] qsort []     = []qsort (x:l)  = qsort (filter (<x) l) ++ x : qsort (filter (>=x) l) goal = qsort [2,3,1,0]`

## D

A functional version:

`import std.stdio, std.algorithm, std.range, std.array; auto quickSort(T)(T[] items) pure nothrow @safe {    if (items.length < 2)        return items;    immutable pivot = items[0];    return items[1 .. \$].filter!(x => x < pivot).array.quickSort ~           pivot ~           items[1 .. \$].filter!(x => x >= pivot).array.quickSort;} void main() {    [4, 65, 2, -31, 0, 99, 2, 83, 782, 1].quickSort.writeln;}`
Output:
`[-31, 0, 1, 2, 2, 4, 65, 83, 99, 782]`

A simple high-level version (same output):

`import std.stdio, std.array; T[] quickSort(T)(T[] items) pure nothrow {    if (items.empty)        return items;    T[] less, notLess;    foreach (x; items[1 .. \$])        (x < items[0] ? less : notLess) ~= x;    return less.quickSort ~ items[0] ~ notLess.quickSort;} void main() {    [4, 65, 2, -31, 0, 99, 2, 83, 782, 1].quickSort.writeln;}`

Often short functional sieves are not a true implementations of the Sieve of Eratosthenes: http://www.cs.hmc.edu/~oneill/papers/Sieve-JFP.pdf

Similarly, one could argue that a true QuickSort is in-place, as this more efficient version (same output):

`import std.stdio, std.algorithm; void quickSort(T)(T[] items) pure nothrow @safe @nogc {    if (items.length >= 2) {        auto parts = partition3(items, items[\$ / 2]);        parts[0].quickSort;        parts[2].quickSort;    }} void main() {    auto items = [4, 65, 2, -31, 0, 99, 2, 83, 782, 1];    items.quickSort;    items.writeln;}`

## Dart

`quickSort(List a) {  if (a.length <= 1) {    return a;  }   var pivot = a[0];  var less = [];  var more = [];  var pivotList = [];   // Partition  a.forEach((var i){        if (i.compareTo(pivot) < 0) {      less.add(i);    } else if (i.compareTo(pivot) > 0) {      more.add(i);    } else {      pivotList.add(i);    }  });   // Recursively sort sublists  less = quickSort(less);  more = quickSort(more);   // Concatenate results  less.addAll(pivotList);  less.addAll(more);  return less;} void main() {  var arr=[1,5,2,7,3,9,4,6,8];  print("Before sort");  arr.forEach((var i)=>print("\$i"));  arr = quickSort(arr);  print("After sort");  arr.forEach((var i)=>print("\$i"));}`

## E

`def quicksort := {     def swap(container, ixA, ixB) {        def temp := container[ixA]        container[ixA] := container[ixB]        container[ixB] := temp    }     def partition(array, var first :int, var last :int) {        if (last <= first) { return }         # Choose a pivot        def pivot := array[def pivotIndex := (first + last) // 2]         # Move pivot to end temporarily        swap(array, pivotIndex, last)         var swapWith := first         # Scan array except for pivot, and...        for i in first..!last {            if (array[i] <= pivot) {   # items ≤ the pivot                swap(array, i, swapWith) # are moved to consecutive positions on the left                swapWith += 1            }        }         # Swap pivot into between-partition position.        # Because of the swapping we know that everything before swapWith is less        # than or equal to the pivot, and the item at swapWith (since it was not        # swapped) is greater than the pivot, so inserting the pivot at swapWith        # will preserve the partition.        swap(array, swapWith, last)        return swapWith    }     def quicksortR(array, first :int, last :int) {        if (last <= first) { return }        def pivot := partition(array, first, last)        quicksortR(array, first, pivot - 1)        quicksortR(array, pivot + 1, last)    }     def quicksort(array) { # returned from block        quicksortR(array, 0, array.size() - 1)    }}`

## EchoLisp

` (lib 'list) ;; list-partition (define compare 0) ;; counter (define (quicksort L compare-predicate: proc aux:  (part null))(if  (<= (length L) 1) L     (begin     ;; counting the number of comparisons     (set! compare (+ compare (length (rest L))))      ;; pivot = first element of list     (set! part (list-partition (rest L) proc (first L)))     (append (quicksort (first part) proc )            (list (first L))             (quicksort (second part) proc))))) `
Output:
` (shuffle (iota 15))    → (10 0 14 11 13 9 2 5 4 8 1 7 12 3 6)(quicksort (shuffle (iota 15)) <)    → (0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14) ;; random list of numbers in [0 .. n[;; count number of comparisons(define (qtest (n 10000))	(set! compare 0)	(quicksort (shuffle (iota n)) >)	(writeln 'n n 'compare# compare )) (qtest 1000)  n     1000       compare#     12764    (qtest 10000)  n     10000      compare#     277868    (qtest 100000)  n     100000     compare#     6198601      `

## Eero

`#import <Foundation/Foundation.h> void quicksortInPlace(MutableArray array, const long first, const long last)  if first >= last    return  Value pivot = array[(first + last) / 2]  left := first  right := last  while left <= right    while array[left] < pivot      left++    while array[right] > pivot      right--    if left <= right      array.exchangeObjectAtIndex: left++, withObjectAtIndex: right--   quicksortInPlace(array, first, right)  quicksortInPlace(array, left, last) Array quicksort(Array unsorted)  a := []  a.addObjectsFromArray: unsorted  quicksortInPlace(a, 0, a.count - 1)  return a  int main(int argc, const char * argv[])  autoreleasepool    a := [1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 8, 6, 4, 2]    Log( 'Unsorted: %@', a)    Log( 'Sorted: %@', quicksort(a) )    b := ['Emil', 'Peg', 'Helen', 'Juergen', 'David', 'Rick', 'Barb', 'Mike', 'Tom']    Log( 'Unsorted: %@', b)    Log( 'Sorted: %@', quicksort(b) )   return 0`

Alternative implementation (not necessarily as efficient, but very readable)

`#import <Foundation/Foundation.h> implementation Array (Quicksort)   plus: Array array, return Array =     self.arrayByAddingObjectsFromArray: array   filter: BOOL (^)(id) predicate, return Array    array := []    for id item in self      if predicate(item)        array.addObject: item    return array.copy   quicksort, return Array = self    if self.count > 1            id x = self[self.count / 2]      lesser := self.filter: (id y | return y < x)      greater := self.filter: (id y | return y > x)      return lesser.quicksort + [x] + greater.quicksort end int main()  autoreleasepool    a := [1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 8, 6, 4, 2]    Log( 'Unsorted: %@', a)    Log( 'Sorted: %@', a.quicksort )    b := ['Emil', 'Peg', 'Helen', 'Juergen', 'David', 'Rick', 'Barb', 'Mike', 'Tom']    Log( 'Unsorted: %@', b)    Log( 'Sorted: %@', b.quicksort )   return 0`
Output:
```2013-09-04 16:54:31.780 a.out[2201:507] Unsorted: (
1,
3,
5,
7,
9,
8,
6,
4,
2
)
2013-09-04 16:54:31.781 a.out[2201:507] Sorted: (
1,
2,
3,
4,
5,
6,
7,
8,
9
)
2013-09-04 16:54:31.781 a.out[2201:507] Unsorted: (
Emil,
Peg,
Helen,
Juergen,
David,
Rick,
Barb,
Mike,
Tom
)
2013-09-04 16:54:31.782 a.out[2201:507] Sorted: (
Barb,
David,
Emil,
Helen,
Juergen,
Mike,
Peg,
Rick,
Tom
)
```

## Eiffel

The
`QUICKSORT`
class:
` class	QUICKSORT [G -> COMPARABLE] create	make feature {NONE} --Implementation 	is_sorted (list: ARRAY [G]): BOOLEAN		require			not_void: list /= Void		local			i: INTEGER		do			Result := True			from				i := list.lower + 1			invariant				i >= list.lower + 1 and i <= list.upper + 1			until				i > list.upper			loop				Result := Result and list [i - 1] <= list [i]				i := i + 1			variant				list.upper + 1 - i			end		end 	concatenate_array (a: ARRAY [G] b: ARRAY [G]): ARRAY [G]		require			not_void: a /= Void and b /= Void		do			create Result.make_from_array (a)			across				b as t			loop				Result.force (t.item, Result.upper + 1)			end		ensure			same_size: a.count + b.count = Result.count		end 	quicksort_array (list: ARRAY [G]): ARRAY [G]		require			not_void: list /= Void		local			less_a: ARRAY [G]			equal_a: ARRAY [G]			more_a: ARRAY [G]			pivot: G		do			create less_a.make_empty			create more_a.make_empty			create equal_a.make_empty			create Result.make_empty			if list.count <= 1 then				Result := list			else				pivot := list [list.lower]				across					list as li				invariant					less_a.count + equal_a.count + more_a.count <= list.count				loop					if li.item < pivot then						less_a.force (li.item, less_a.upper + 1)					elseif li.item = pivot then						equal_a.force (li.item, equal_a.upper + 1)					elseif li.item > pivot then						more_a.force (li.item, more_a.upper + 1)					end				end				Result := concatenate_array (Result, quicksort_array (less_a))				Result := concatenate_array (Result, equal_a)				Result := concatenate_array (Result, quicksort_array (more_a))			end		ensure			same_size: list.count = Result.count			sorted: is_sorted (Result)		end feature -- Initialization 	make		do		end 	quicksort (a: ARRAY [G]): ARRAY [G]		do			Result := quicksort_array (a)		end end `

A test application:

` class	APPLICATION create	make feature {NONE} -- Initialization 	make			-- Run application.		local			test: ARRAY [INTEGER]			sorted: ARRAY [INTEGER]			sorter: QUICKSORT [INTEGER]		do			create sorter.make			test := <<1, 3, 2, 4, 5, 5, 7, -1>>			sorted := sorter.quicksort (test)			across				sorted as s			loop				print (s.item)				print (" ")			end			print ("%N")		end end `

## Elena

ELENA 3.4 :

`import extensions.import system'routines.import system'collections. extension op{    quickSort    [        if (self isEmpty) [ ^ self ].         var pivot := self[0].         auto less := ArrayList new.        auto pivotList := ArrayList new.        auto more := ArrayList new.         self forEach(:item)        [            if (item < pivot)            [                less append(item)            ];            if (item > pivot)             [                more append(item)            ];            [                pivotList append(item)            ]        ].         less := less quickSort.        more := more quickSort.         less appendRange(pivotList).        less appendRange(more).         ^ less    ]} public program[    var list := (3, 14, 1, 5, 9, 2, 6, 3).     console printLine("before:", list).    console printLine("after :", list quickSort).]`
Output:
```before:3,14,1,5,9,2,6,3
after :1,2,3,3,5,6,9,14
```

## Elixir

`defmodule Sort do  def qsort([]), do: []  def qsort([h | t]) do    {lesser, greater} = Enum.split_with(t, &(&1 < h))    qsort(lesser) ++ [h] ++ qsort(greater)  endend`

## Erlang

like haskell. Used by Measure_relative_performance_of_sorting_algorithms_implementations. If changed keep the interface or change Measure_relative_performance_of_sorting_algorithms_implementations

` -module( quicksort ). -export( [qsort/1] ). qsort([]) -> [];qsort([X|Xs]) ->   qsort([ Y || Y <- Xs, Y < X]) ++ [X] ++ qsort([ Y || Y <- Xs, Y >= X]). `

multi-process implementation (number processes = number of processor cores):

` quick_sort(L) -> qs(L, trunc(math:log2(erlang:system_info(schedulers)))). qs([],_) -> [];qs([H|T], N) when N > 0  ->     {Parent, Ref} = {self(), make_ref()},    spawn(fun()-> Parent ! {l1, Ref, qs([E||E<-T, E<H], N-1)} end),     spawn(fun()-> Parent ! {l2, Ref, qs([E||E<-T, H =< E], N-1)} end),     {L1, L2} = receive_results(Ref, undefined, undefined),     L1 ++ [H] ++ L2;qs([H|T],_) ->    qs([E||E<-T, E<H],0) ++ [H] ++ qs([E||E<-T, H =< E],0). receive_results(Ref, L1, L2) ->    receive        {l1, Ref, L1R} when L2 == undefined -> receive_results(Ref, L1R, L2);        {l2, Ref, L2R} when L1 == undefined -> receive_results(Ref, L1, L2R);        {l1, Ref, L1R} -> {L1R, L2};        {l2, Ref, L2R} -> {L1, L2R}    after 5000 -> receive_results(Ref, L1, L2)    end. `

## ERRE

` PROGRAM QUICKSORT_DEMO DIM ARRAY[21] !\$DYNAMICDIM QSTACK[0] !\$INCLUDE="PC.LIB" PROCEDURE QSORT(ARRAY[],START,NUM)  FIRST=START               ! initialize work variables  LAST=START+NUM-1  LOOP    REPEAT      TEMP=ARRAY[(LAST+FIRST) DIV 2]  ! seek midpoint      I=FIRST      J=LAST      REPEAT     ! reverse both < and > below to sort descending      WHILE ARRAY[I]<TEMP DO        I=I+1        END WHILE        WHILE ARRAY[J]>TEMP DO          J=J-1        END WHILE        EXIT IF I>J        IF I<J THEN SWAP(ARRAY[I],ARRAY[J]) END IF        I=I+1        J=J-1      UNTIL NOT(I<=J)      IF I<LAST THEN             ! Done         QSTACK[SP]=I            ! Push I         QSTACK[SP+1]=LAST       ! Push Last         SP=SP+2      END IF      LAST=J    UNTIL NOT(FIRST<LAST)     EXIT IF SP=0    SP=SP-2    FIRST=QSTACK[SP]            ! Pop First    LAST=QSTACK[SP+1]           ! Pop Last  END LOOPEND PROCEDURE BEGIN   RANDOMIZE(TIMER)              ! generate a new series each run                                  ! create an array   FOR X=1 TO 21 DO              ! fill with random numbers       ARRAY[X]=RND(1)*500       ! between 0 and 500   END FOR   PRIMO=6                       ! sort starting here   NUM=10                        ! sort this many elements   CLS   PRINT("Before Sorting:";TAB(31);"After sorting:")   PRINT("===============";TAB(31);"==============")   FOR X=1 TO 21 DO              ! show them before sorting      IF X>=PRIMO AND X<=PRIMO+NUM-1 THEN         PRINT("==>";)      END IF      PRINT(TAB(5);)      WRITE("###.##";ARRAY[X])   END FOR ! create a stack!\$DIM QSTACK[INT(NUM/5)+10]   QSORT(ARRAY[],PRIMO,NUM)!\$ERASE QSTACK    LOCATE(2,1)   FOR X=1 TO 21 DO                ! print them after sorting      LOCATE(2+X,30)      IF X>=PRIMO AND X<=PRIMO+NUM-1 THEN         PRINT("==>";)             ! point to sorted items      END IF      LOCATE(2+X,35)      WRITE("###.##";ARRAY[X])   END FOREND PROGRAM `

## F#

` let rec qsort = function    hd :: tl ->        let less, greater = List.partition ((>=) hd) tl        List.concat [qsort less; [hd]; qsort greater]    | _ -> [] `

## Factor

`: qsort ( seq -- seq )    dup empty? [       unclip [ [ < ] curry partition [ qsort ] [email protected] ] keep      prefix append    ] unless ;`

## Fexl

`# (sort xs) is the ordered list of all elements in list xs.# This version preserves duplicates.\sort==     (\xs    xs [] \x\xs    append (sort; filter (gt x) xs);   # all the items less than x    cons x; append (filter (eq x) xs); # all the items equal to x    sort; filter (lt x) xs             # all the items greater than x    ) # (unique xs) is the ordered list of unique elements in list xs.\unique==    (\xs    xs [] \x\xs    append (unique; filter (gt x) xs); # all the items less than x    cons x;                            # x itself    unique; filter (lt x) xs           # all the items greater than x    ) `

## Forth

`: mid ( l r -- mid ) over - 2/ -cell and + ; : exch ( addr1 addr2 -- ) dup @ >r over @ swap ! r> swap ! ; : partition ( l r -- l r r2 l2 )  2dup mid @ >r ( r: pivot )  2dup begin    swap begin dup @  [email protected] < while cell+ repeat    swap begin [email protected] over @ < while cell- repeat    2dup <= if 2dup exch >r cell+ r> cell- then  2dup > until  r> drop ; : qsort ( l r -- )  partition  swap rot  \ 2over 2over - + < if 2swap then  2dup < if recurse else 2drop then  2dup < if recurse else 2drop then ; : sort ( array len -- )  dup 2 < if 2drop exit then  1- cells over + qsort ;`

## Fortran

Works with: Fortran version 90 and later
`module qsort_mod implicit none type group    integer :: order    ! original order of unsorted data    real :: value       ! values to be sorted byend type group contains recursive subroutine QSort(a,na) ! DUMMY ARGUMENTSinteger, intent(in) :: nAtype (group), dimension(nA), intent(in out) :: A ! LOCAL VARIABLESinteger :: left, rightreal :: randomreal :: pivottype (group) :: tempinteger :: marker     if (nA > 1) then         call random_number(random)        pivot = A(int(random*real(nA-1))+1)%value   ! random pivor (not best performance, but avoids worst-case)        left = 0        right = nA + 1         do while (left < right)            right = right - 1            do while (A(right)%value > pivot)                right = right - 1            end do            left = left + 1            do while (A(left)%value < pivot)                left = left + 1            end do            if (left < right) then                temp = A(left)                A(left) = A(right)                A(right) = temp            end if        end do         if (left == right) then            marker = left + 1        else            marker = left        end if         call QSort(A(:marker-1),marker-1)        call QSort(A(marker:),nA-marker+1)     end if end subroutine QSort end module qsort_mod ! Test Qsort Moduleprogram qsort_testuse qsort_modimplicit none integer, parameter :: l = 8type (group), dimension(l) :: Ainteger, dimension(12) :: seed = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12]integer :: ireal :: random     write (*,*) "Unsorted Values:"    call random_seed(put = seed)    do i = 1, l        call random_number(random)        A(i)%value = random        A(i)%order = i        if (mod(i,4) == 0) write (*,"(4(I5,1X,F8.6))") A(i-3:i)    end do     call QSort(A,l)    write (*,*) "Sorted Values:"    do i = 4, l, 4        if (mod(i,4) == 0) write (*,"(4(I5,1X,F8.6))") A(i-3:i)    end do end program qsort_test`
Output:
```Compiled with GNU Fortran 4.6.3
Unsorted Values:
1 0.228570    2 0.352733    3 0.167898    4 0.883237
5 0.968189    6 0.806234    7 0.117714    8 0.487401
Sorted Values:
7 0.117714    3 0.167898    1 0.228570    2 0.352733
8 0.487401    6 0.806234    4 0.883237    5 0.968189
```

A discussion about Quicksort pivot options, free source code for an optimized quicksort using insertion sort as a finisher, and an OpenMP multi-threaded quicksort is found at balfortran.org

## FreeBASIC

`' version 23-10-2016' compile with: fbc -s console ' sort from lower bound to the highter bound' array's can have subscript range from -2147483648 to +2147483647 Sub quicksort(qs() As Long, l As Long, r As Long)     Dim As ULong size = r - l +1    If size < 2 Then Exit Sub     Dim As Long i = l, j = r    Dim As Long pivot = qs(l + size \ 2)     Do        While qs(i) < pivot            i += 1        Wend        While pivot < qs(j)            j -= 1        Wend        If i <= j Then            Swap qs(i), qs(j)            i += 1            j -= 1        End If    Loop Until i > j     If l < j Then quicksort(qs(), l, j)    If i < r Then quicksort(qs(), i, r) End Sub ' ------=< MAIN >=------ Dim As Long i, array(-7 To 7)Dim As Long a = LBound(array), b = UBound(array) Randomize TimerFor i = a To b : array(i) = i  : NextFor i = a To b ' little shuffle    Swap array(i), array(Int(Rnd * (b - a +1)) + a)Next Print "unsorted ";For i = a To b : Print Using "####"; array(i); : Next : Print quicksort(array(), LBound(array), UBound(array)) Print "  sorted ";For i = a To b : Print Using "####"; array(i); : Next : Print ' empty keyboard bufferWhile Inkey <> "" : WendPrint : Print "hit any key to end program"SleepEnd`
Output:
```unsorted   -5  -6  -1   0   2  -4  -7   6  -2  -3   4   7   5   1   3
sorted   -7  -6  -5  -4  -3  -2  -1   0   1   2   3   4   5   6   7```

## FunL

`def  qsort( [] )    =  []  qsort( p:xs )  =  qsort( xs.filter((< p)) ) + [p] + qsort( xs.filter((>= p)) )`

Here is a more efficient version using the `partition` function.

`def  qsort( [] )    =  []  qsort( x:xs )  =    val (ys, zs) = xs.partition( (< x) )    qsort( ys ) + (x : qsort( zs )) println( qsort([4, 2, 1, 3, 0, 2]) )println( qsort(["Juan", "Daniel", "Miguel", "William", "Liam", "Ethan", "Jacob"]) )`
Output:
```[0, 1, 2, 2, 3, 4]
[Daniel, Ethan, Jacob, Juan, Liam, Miguel, William]
```

## Go

Note that Go's `sort.Sort` function is a Quicksort so in practice it would be just be used. It's actually a combination of quick sort, heap sort, and insertion sort. It starts with a quick sort, after a depth of 2*ceil(lg(n+1)) it switches to heap sort, or once a partition becomes small (less than eight items) it switches to insertion sort.

Old school, following Hoare's 1962 paper.

As a nod to the task request to work for all types with weak strict ordering, code below uses the < operator when comparing key values. The three points are noted in the code below.

Actually supporting arbitrary types would then require at a minimum a user supplied less-than function, and values referenced from an array of interface{} types. More efficient and flexible though is the sort interface of the Go sort package. Replicating that here seemed beyond the scope of the task so code was left written to sort an array of ints.

Go has no language support for indexing with discrete types other than integer types, so this was not coded.

Finally, the choice of a recursive closure over passing slices to a recursive function is really just a very small optimization. Slices are cheap because they do not copy the underlying array, but there's still a tiny bit of overhead in constructing the slice object. Passing just the two numbers is in the interest of avoiding that overhead.

`package main import "fmt" func main() {    list := []int{31, 41, 59, 26, 53, 58, 97, 93, 23, 84}    fmt.Println("unsorted:", list)     quicksort(list)    fmt.Println("sorted!  ", list)} func quicksort(a []int) {    var pex func(int, int)    pex = func(lower, upper int) {        for {            switch upper - lower {            case -1, 0: // 0 or 1 item in segment.  nothing to do here!                return            case 1: // 2 items in segment                // < operator respects strict weak order                if a[upper] < a[lower] {                    // a quick exchange and we're done.                    a[upper], a[lower] = a[lower], a[upper]                }                return            // Hoare suggests optimized sort-3 or sort-4 algorithms here,            // but does not provide an algorithm.            }             // Hoare stresses picking a bound in a way to avoid worst case            // behavior, but offers no suggestions other than picking a            // random element.  A function call to get a random number is            // relatively expensive, so the method used here is to simply            // choose the middle element.  This at least avoids worst case            // behavior for the obvious common case of an already sorted list.            bx := (upper + lower) / 2            b := a[bx]  // b = Hoare's "bound" (aka "pivot")            lp := lower // lp = Hoare's "lower pointer"            up := upper // up = Hoare's "upper pointer"        outer:            for {                // use < operator to respect strict weak order                for lp < upper && !(b < a[lp]) {                    lp++                }                for {                    if lp > up {                        // "pointers crossed!"                        break outer                    }                    // < operator for strict weak order                    if a[up] < b {                        break // inner                    }                    up--                }                // exchange                a[lp], a[up] = a[up], a[lp]                lp++                up--            }            // segment boundary is between up and lp, but lp-up might be            // 1 or 2, so just call segment boundary between lp-1 and lp.            if bx < lp {                // bound was in lower segment                if bx < lp-1 {                    // exchange bx with lp-1                    a[bx], a[lp-1] = a[lp-1], b                }                up = lp - 2            } else {                // bound was in upper segment                if bx > lp {                    // exchange                    a[bx], a[lp] = a[lp], b                }                up = lp - 1                lp++            }            // "postpone the larger of the two segments" = recurse on            // the smaller segment, then iterate on the remaining one.            if up-lower < upper-lp {                pex(lower, up)                lower = lp            } else {                pex(lp, upper)                upper = up            }        }    }    pex(0, len(a)-1)}`
Output:
```unsorted: [31 41 59 26 53 58 97 93 23 84]
sorted!   [23 26 31 41 53 58 59 84 93 97]
```

More traditional version of quicksort. It work generically with any container that conforms to `sort.Interface`.

`package main import (    "fmt"    "sort"    "math/rand") func partition(a sort.Interface, first int, last int, pivotIndex int) int {    a.Swap(first, pivotIndex) // move it to beginning    left := first+1    right := last    for left <= right {        for left <= last && a.Less(left, first) {            left++        }        for right >= first && a.Less(first, right) {            right--        }        if left <= right {            a.Swap(left, right)            left++            right--        }    }    a.Swap(first, right) // swap into right place    return right    } func quicksortHelper(a sort.Interface, first int, last int) {    if first >= last {        return    }    pivotIndex := partition(a, first, last, rand.Intn(last - first + 1) + first)    quicksortHelper(a, first, pivotIndex-1)    quicksortHelper(a, pivotIndex+1, last)} func quicksort(a sort.Interface) {    quicksortHelper(a, 0, a.Len()-1)} func main() {    a := []int{1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 8, 6, 4, 2}    fmt.Printf("Unsorted: %v\n", a)    quicksort(sort.IntSlice(a))    fmt.Printf("Sorted: %v\n", a)    b := []string{"Emil", "Peg", "Helen", "Juergen", "David", "Rick", "Barb", "Mike", "Tom"}    fmt.Printf("Unsorted: %v\n", b)    quicksort(sort.StringSlice(b))    fmt.Printf("Sorted: %v\n", b)}`
Output:
```Unsorted: [1 3 5 7 9 8 6 4 2]
Sorted: [1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9]
Unsorted: [Emil Peg Helen Juergen David Rick Barb Mike Tom]
Sorted: [Barb David Emil Helen Juergen Mike Peg Rick Tom]
```

The famous two-liner, reflecting the underlying algorithm directly:

`qsort [] = []qsort (x:xs) = qsort [y | y <- xs, y < x] ++ [x] ++ qsort [y | y <- xs, y >= x]`

A more efficient version, doing only one comparison per element:

`import Data.List (partition) qsort :: Ord a => [a] -> [a]qsort [] = []qsort (x:xs) = qsort ys ++ x : qsort zs  where    (ys, zs) = partition (< x) xs`

## IDL

IDL has a powerful optimized sort() built-in. The following is thus merely for demonstration.

`function qs, arr  if (count = n_elements(arr)) lt 2 then return,arr  pivot = total(arr) / count ; use the average for want of a better choice  return,[qs(arr[where(arr le pivot)]),qs(arr[where(arr gt pivot)])] end`

Example:

```IDL> print,qs([3,17,-5,12,99])
-5       3      12      17      99
```

## Icon and Unicon

`procedure main()                     #: demonstrate various ways to sort a list and string    demosort(quicksort,[3, 14, 1, 5, 9, 2, 6, 3],"qwerty")end procedure quicksort(X,op,lower,upper)                      #: return sorted listlocal pivot,x     if /lower := 1 then {                                   # top level call setup      upper := *X         op := sortop(op,X)                                   # select how and what we sort      }    if upper - lower > 0 then {      every x := quickpartition(X,op,lower,upper) do       # find a pivot and sort ...          /pivot | X := x                                  # ... how to return 2 values w/o a structure      X := quicksort(X,op,lower,pivot-1)                   # ... left                  X := quicksort(X,op,pivot,upper)                     # ... right      }    return X                                             end procedure quickpartition(X,op,lower,upper)                 #: quicksort partitioner helperlocal   pivotstatic  pivotLinitial pivotL := list(3)    pivotL[1] := X[lower]                                   # endpoints   pivotL[2] := X[upper]                                   # ... and   pivotL[3] := X[lower+?(upper-lower)]                    # ... random midpoint   if op(pivotL[2],pivotL[1]) then pivotL[2] :=: pivotL[1] # mini-   if op(pivotL[3],pivotL[2]) then pivotL[3] :=: pivotL[2] # ... sort   pivot := pivotL[2]                                      # median is pivot    lower -:= 1   upper +:= 1   while lower < upper do {                                # find values on wrong side of pivot ...      while op(pivot,X[upper -:= 1])                       # ... rightmost       while op(X[lower +:=1],pivot)                        # ... leftmost      if lower < upper then                                # not crossed yet         X[lower] :=: X[upper]                             # ... swap       }    suspend lower                                           # 1st return pivot point   suspend X                                               # 2nd return modified X (in case immutable)end`

Implementation notes:

• Since this transparently sorts both string and list arguments the result must 'return' to bypass call by value (strings)
• The partition procedure must "return" two values - 'suspend' is used to accomplish this

Algorithm notes:

• The use of a type specific sorting operator meant that a general pivot choice need to be made. The median of the ends and random middle seemed reasonable. It turns out to have been suggested by Sedgewick.
• Sedgewick's suggestions for tail calling to recurse into the larger side and using insertion sort below a certain size were not implemented. (Q: does Icon/Unicon has tail calling optimizations?)

Note: This example relies on the supporting procedures 'sortop', and 'demosort' in Bubble Sort. The full demosort exercises the named sort of a list with op = "numeric", "string", ">>" (lexically gt, descending),">" (numerically gt, descending), a custom comparator, and also a string.

Output:
Abbreviated
```Sorting Demo using procedure quicksort
on list : [ 3 14 1 5 9 2 6 3 ]
with op = &null:         [ 1 2 3 3 5 6 9 14 ]   (0 ms)
...
on string : "qwerty"
with op = &null:         "eqrtwy"   (0 ms)```

## Io

`List do(    quickSort := method(        if(size > 1) then(            pivot := at(size / 2 floor)            return select(x, x < pivot) quickSort appendSeq(                select(x, x == pivot) appendSeq(select(x, x > pivot) quickSort)            )        ) else(return self)    )     quickSortInPlace := method(        copy(quickSort)    )) lst := list(5, -1, -4, 2, 9)lst quickSort println # ==> list(-4, -1, 2, 5, 9)lst quickSortInPlace println # ==> list(-4, -1, 2, 5, 9)`

Another more low-level Quicksort implementation can be found in Io's [github ] repository.

## J

Generally, this task should be accomplished in J using `/:~`. Here we take an approach that's more comparable with the other examples on this page.
`sel=: 1 : 'x # [' quicksort=: 3 : 0 if.  1 >: #y do.  y else.  e=. y{~?#y  (quicksort y <sel e),(y =sel e),quicksort y >sel e end.)`

See the Quicksort essay in the J Wiki for additional explanations and examples.

## Java

### Imperative

Works with: Java version 1.5+

Translation of: Python
`public static <E extends Comparable<? super E>> List<E> quickSort(List<E> arr) {    if (arr.isEmpty())        return arr;    else {        E pivot = arr.get(0);         List<E> less = new LinkedList<E>();        List<E> pivotList = new LinkedList<E>();        List<E> more = new LinkedList<E>();         // Partition        for (E i: arr) {            if (i.compareTo(pivot) < 0)                less.add(i);            else if (i.compareTo(pivot) > 0)                more.add(i);            else                pivotList.add(i);        }         // Recursively sort sublists        less = quickSort(less);        more = quickSort(more);         // Concatenate results        less.addAll(pivotList);        less.addAll(more);        return less;    }} `

### Functional

Works with: Java version 1.8
`public static <E extends Comparable<E>> List<E> sort(List<E> col) {    if (col == null || col.isEmpty())        return Collections.emptyList();    else {        E pivot = col.get(0);        Map<Integer, List<E>> grouped = col.stream()                .collect(Collectors.groupingBy(pivot::compareTo));        return Stream.of(sort(grouped.get(1)), grouped.get(0), sort(grouped.get(-1)))                .flatMap(Collection::stream).collect(Collectors.toList());    }}`

## JavaScript

### Imperative

`function sort(array, less) {   function swap(i, j) {    var t = array[i];    array[i] = array[j];    array[j] = t;  }   function quicksort(left, right) {     if (left < right) {      var pivot = array[left + Math.floor((right - left) / 2)],          left_new = left,          right_new = right;       do {        while (less(array[left_new], pivot)) {          left_new += 1;        }        while (less(pivot, array[right_new])) {          right_new -= 1;        }        if (left_new <= right_new) {          swap(left_new, right_new);          left_new += 1;          right_new -= 1;        }      } while (left_new <= right_new);       quicksort(left, right_new);      quicksort(left_new, right);     }  }   quicksort(0, array.length - 1);   return array;}`
Example:
`var test_array = [10, 3, 11, 15, 19, 1];var sorted_array = sort(test_array, function(a,b) { return a<b; });`
Output:
`[ 1, 3, 10, 11, 15, 19 ]`

### Functional

#### ES5

Emphasising clarity more than run-time optimisation (for which Array.sort() would be a better option)

`(function () {    'use strict';     // quickSort :: (Ord a) => [a] -> [a]      function quickSort(xs) {         if (xs.length) {            var h = xs[0],                t = xs.slice(1),                 lessMore = partition(function (x) {                    return x <= h;                }, t),                less = lessMore[0],                more = lessMore[1];             return [].concat.apply(                [], [quickSort(less), h, quickSort(more)]            );         } else return [];    }      // partition :: Predicate -> List -> (Matches, nonMatches)    // partition :: (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> ([a], [a])    function partition(p, xs) {        return xs.reduce(function (a, x) {            return (                a[p(x) ? 0 : 1].push(x),                a            );        }, [[], []]);    }     return quickSort([11.8, 14.1, 21.3, 8.5, 16.7, 5.7]) })();`
Output:
`[5.7, 8.5, 11.8, 14.1, 16.7, 21.3]`

#### ES6

`Array.prototype.quick_sort = function () {    if (this.length < 2) { return this; }     var pivot = this[Math.round(this.length / 2)];     return this.filter(x => x <  pivot)               .quick_sort()               .concat(this.filter(x => x == pivot))               .concat(this.filter(x => x >  pivot).quick_sort());};`

Or, expressed in terms of a single partition, rather than two consecutive filters:

`(() => {    'use strict';     // QUICKSORT --------------------------------------------------------------     // quickSort :: (Ord a) => [a] -> [a]    const quickSort = xs =>        xs.length > 1 ? (() => {            const                h = xs[0],                [less, more] = partition(x => x <= h, xs.slice(1));            return [].concat.apply(                [], [quickSort(less), h, quickSort(more)]            );        })() : xs;      // GENERIC ----------------------------------------------------------------     // partition :: Predicate -> List -> (Matches, nonMatches)    // partition :: (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> ([a], [a])    const partition = (p, xs) =>        xs.reduce((a, x) =>            p(x) ? [a[0].concat(x), a[1]] : [a[0], a[1].concat(x)], [                [],                []            ]);     // TEST -------------------------------------------------------------------    return quickSort([11.8, 14.1, 21.3, 8.5, 16.7, 5.7]);})();`
Output:
`[5.7, 8.5, 11.8, 14.1, 16.7, 21.3]`

## Joy

` DEFINE qsort ==  [small]            # termination condition: 0 or 1 element  []                 # do nothing  [uncons [>] split] # pivot and two lists  [enconcat]         # insert the pivot after the recursion  binrec.            # recursion on the two lists `

## jq

jq's built-in sort currently (version 1.4) uses the standard C qsort, a quicksort. sort can be used on any valid JSON array.

Example:
`[1, 1.1, [1,2], true, false, null, {"a":1}, null] | sort`
Output:
`[null,null,false,true,1,1.1,[1,2],{"a":1}]`
`def quicksort:  if length < 2 then .                            # it is already sorted  else .[0] as \$pivot       | reduce .[] as \$x         # state: [less, equal, greater]           ( [ [], [], [] ];                      # three empty arrays:             if   \$x  < \$pivot then .[0] += [\$x]  # add x to less             elif \$x == \$pivot then .[1] += [\$x]  # add x to equal             else                   .[2] += [\$x]  # add x to greater             end         )       | (.[0] | quicksort ) + .[1] + (.[2] | quicksort )  end ; `
Fortunately, the example input used above produces the same output,

and so both are omitted here.

## Julia

Built-in function for in-place sorting via quicksort (the code from the standard library is quite readable):

`sort!(A, alg=QuickSort)`

A simple polymorphic implementation of an in-place recursive quicksort (based on the pseudocode above):

`function quicksort!(A,i=1,j=length(A))    if j > i        pivot = A[rand(i:j)] # random element of A        left, right = i, j        while left <= right            while A[left] < pivot                left += 1            end            while A[right] > pivot                right -= 1            end            if left <= right                A[left], A[right] = A[right], A[left]                left += 1                right -= 1            end        end        quicksort!(A,i,right)        quicksort!(A,left,j)    end    return Aend`

A one-line (but rather inefficient) implementation based on the Haskell version, which operates out-of-place and allocates temporary arrays:

`qsort(L) = isempty(L) ? L : vcat(qsort(filter(x -> x < L[1], L[2:end])), L[1:1], qsort(filter(x -> x >= L[1], L[2:end])))`
Output:
```julia> A = [84,77,20,60,47,20,18,97,41,49,31,39,73,68,65,52,1,92,15,9]

julia> qsort(A)
[1,9,15,18,20,20,31,39,41,47,49,52,60,65,68,73,77,84,92,97]

julia> quicksort!(copy(A))
[1,9,15,18,20,20,31,39,41,47,49,52,60,65,68,73,77,84,92,97]

julia> qsort(A) == quicksort!(copy(A)) == sort(A) == sort(A, alg=QuickSort)
true```

## K

`quicksort:{f:*[email protected]?#x;:[0=#x;x;,/(_f [email protected]&x<f;[email protected]&x=f;_f [email protected]&x>f)]}`

Example:

`     quicksort 1 3 5 7 9 8 6 4 2 `
Output:
```1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
```

Explanation:

`   _f() `

is the current function called recursively.

`    :[....]  `

generally means :[condition1;then1;condition2;then2;....;else]. Though here it is used as :[if;then;else].

This construct

`    f:*[email protected]?#x `

assigns a random element in x (the argument) to f, as the pivot value.

And here is the full if/then/else clause:

`     :[        0=#x;           / if length of x is zero         x;              / then return x                        / else        ,/(             / join the results of:           _f [email protected]&x<f         / sort (recursively) elements less than f (pivot)          [email protected]&x=f            / element equal to f           _f [email protected]&x>f)        / sort (recursively) elements greater than f      ] `

Though - as with APL and J - for larger arrays it's much faster to sort using "<" (grade up) which gives the indices of the list sorted ascending, i.e.

`    [email protected]<t:1 3 5 7 9 8 6 4 2 `

## Kotlin

`import java.util.*import java.util.Comparator fun <T> quickSort(a: List<T>, c: Comparator<T>): ArrayList<T> {    if (a.isEmpty()) return ArrayList(a)     val boxes = Array(3, { ArrayList<T>() })    fun normalise(i: Int) = i / Math.max(1, Math.abs(i))    a.forEach { boxes[normalise(c.compare(it, a[0])) + 1].add(it) }    arrayOf(0, 2).forEach { boxes[it] = quickSort(boxes[it], c) }    return boxes.flatMapTo(ArrayList<T>()) { it }}`

Another version of the code:

`fun <T : Comparable<T>> quicksort(list: List<T>): List<T> {    if (list.isEmpty()) return emptyList()     val head = list.first()    val tail = list.takeLast(list.size - 1)     val (less, high) = tail.partition { it < head }     return less + head + high} fun main(args: Array<String>) {    val nums = listOf(9, 7, 9, 8, 1, 2, 3, 4, 1, 9, 8, 9, 2, 4, 2, 4, 6, 3)    println(quicksort(nums))}`

## Lobster

`include "std.lobster" def quicksort(xs, lt):    if xs.length <= 1:        xs    else:        pivot := xs[0]        tail := xs.slice(1, -1)        f1 := filter tail:  lt(_, pivot)        f2 := filter tail: !lt(_, pivot)        append(append(quicksort(f1, lt), [ pivot ]),                      quicksort(f2, lt)) sorted := [ 3, 9, 5, 4, 1, 3, 9, 5, 4, 1 ].quicksort(): _a < _bprint sorted`

## Logo

`; quicksort (lists, functional) to small? :list  output or [empty? :list] [empty? butfirst :list]endto quicksort :list  if small? :list [output :list]  localmake "pivot first :list  output (sentence    quicksort filter [? < :pivot] butfirst :list              filter [? = :pivot]          :list    quicksort filter [? > :pivot] butfirst :list  )end show quicksort [1 3 5 7 9 8 6 4 2]`
`; quicksort (arrays, in-place) to incr :name  make :name (thing :name) + 1endto decr :name  make :name (thing :name) - 1endto swap :i :j :a  localmake "t item :i :a  setitem :i :a item :j :a  setitem :j :a :tend to quick :a :low :high  if :high <= :low [stop]  localmake "l :low  localmake "h :high  localmake "pivot item ashift (:l + :h) -1  :a  do.while [    while [(item :l :a) < :pivot] [incr "l]    while [(item :h :a) > :pivot] [decr "h]    if :l <= :h [swap :l :h :a  incr "l  decr "h]  ] [:l <= :h]  quick :a :low :h  quick :a :l :highendto sort :a  quick :a first :a count :aend make "test {1 3 5 7 9 8 6 4 2}sort :testshow :test`

## Logtalk

`quicksort(List, Sorted) :-    quicksort(List, [], Sorted). quicksort([], Sorted, Sorted).quicksort([Pivot| Rest], Acc, Sorted) :-     partition(Rest, Pivot, Smaller0, Bigger0),    quicksort(Smaller0, [Pivot| Bigger], Sorted),    quicksort(Bigger0, Acc, Bigger). partition([], _, [], []).partition([X| Xs], Pivot, Smalls, Bigs) :-    (   X @< Pivot ->        Smalls = [X| Rest],        partition(Xs, Pivot, Rest, Bigs)    ;   Bigs = [X| Rest],        partition(Xs, Pivot, Smalls, Rest)    ).`

## Lua

### in-place

`--in-place quicksortfunction quicksort(t, start, endi)  start, endi = start or 1, endi or #t  --partition w.r.t. first element  if(endi - start < 1) then return t end  local pivot = start  for i = start + 1, endi do    if t[i] <= t[pivot] then      if i == pivot + 1 then        t[pivot],t[pivot+1] = t[pivot+1],t[pivot]      else        t[pivot],t[pivot+1],t[i] = t[i],t[pivot],t[pivot+1]      end      pivot = pivot + 1    end  end  t = quicksort(t, start, pivot - 1)  return quicksort(t, pivot + 1, endi)end --exampleprint(unpack(quicksort{5, 2, 7, 3, 4, 7, 1}))`

### non in-place

`function quicksort(t)  if #t<2 then return t end  local pivot=t[1]  local a,b,c={},{},{}  for _,v in ipairs(t) do    if     v<pivot then a[#a+1]=v    elseif v>pivot then c[#c+1]=v    else                b[#b+1]=v    end  end  a=quicksort(a)  c=quicksort(c)  for _,v in ipairs(b) do a[#a+1]=v end  for _,v in ipairs(c) do a[#a+1]=v end  return aend`

## Lucid

`qsort(a) = if eof(first a) then a else follow(qsort(b0),qsort(b1)) fi where    p = first a < a;    b0 = a whenever p;    b1 = a whenever not p;    follow(x,y) = if xdone then y upon xdone else x fi                    where                       xdone = iseod x fby xdone or iseod x;                     end; end`

## M2000 Interpreter

### Recursive calling Functions

` Module Checkit1 {      Group Quick {      Private:            Function partition {                     Read &A(), p, r                     x = A(r)                     i = p-1                     For j=p to r-1 {                         If .LE(A(j), x) Then {                                i++                                Swap A(i),A(j)                             }                      }                      Swap A(i+1),A(r)                     = i+1                  }      Public:            LE=Lambda->Number<=Number            Function quicksort {                 Read &A(), p, r                 If p < r Then {                   q = .partition(&A(), p, r)                   Call .quicksort(&A(), p, q - 1)                   Call .quicksort(&A(), q + 1, r)                }            }      }      Dim A(10)<<Random(50, 100)      Print A()      Call Quick.quicksort(&A(), 0, Len(A())-1)      Print A()}Checkit1 `

### Recursive calling Subs

Variables p, r, q removed from quicksort function. we use stack for values. Also Partition push to stack now. Works for string arrays too.

` Module Checkit2 {      Class Quick {      Private:            partition=lambda-> {                  Read &A(), p, r : i = p-1 : x=A(r)                  For j=p to r-1 {If .LE(A(j), x) Then i++:Swap A(i),A(j)                  } : Swap A(i+1), A(r) :  Push i+1            }      Public:            LE=Lambda->Number<=Number            Module ForStrings {                  .partition<=lambda-> {                        Read &A\$(), p, r : i = p-1 : x\$=A\$(r)                        For j=p to r-1 {If A\$(j)<= x\$ Then i++:Swap A\$(i),A\$(j)                        } : Swap A\$(i+1), A\$(r) : Push i+1                  }            }            Function quicksort (ref\$) {                  myQuick()                  sub myQuick()                        If Stackitem() >= stackitem(2) Then drop 2 : Exit Sub                        Over 2, 2 : Call .partition(ref\$) : Over : Shiftback  3, 2                        myQuick(number,  number - 1)                        myQuick( number + 1, number)                  End Sub             }       }      Quick=Quick()      Dim A(10)      A(0):=57, 83, 74, 98, 51, 73, 85, 76, 65, 92      Print A()      Call Quick.quicksort(&A(), 0, Len(A())-1)      Print A()      Quick=Quick()      Quick.ForStrings      Dim A\$()      A\$()=("one","two", "three","four", "five")      Print A\$()      Call Quick.quicksort(&A\$(), 0, Len(A\$())-1)      Print A\$()}Checkit2 `

### Non Recursive

Partition function return two values (where we want q, and use it as q-1 an q+1 now Partition() return final q-1 and q+1_ Example include numeric array, array of arrays (we provide a lambda for comparison) and string array.

` Module Checkit3 {      Class Quick {      Private:            partition=lambda-> {                  Read &A(), p, r : i = p-1 : x=A(r)                  For j=p to r-1 {If .LE(A(j), x) Then i++:Swap A(i),A(j)                  } : Swap A(i+1), A(r) :  Push  i+2, i             }      Public:            LE=Lambda->Number<=Number            Module ForStrings {                  .partition<=lambda-> {                        Read &A\$(), p, r : i = p-1 : x\$=A\$(r)                        For j=p to r-1 {If A\$(j)<= x\$ Then i++:Swap A\$(i),A\$(j)                        } : Swap A\$(i+1), A\$(r) : Push i+2, i                  }            }            Function quicksort {                 Read ref\$                 {                         loop : If Stackitem() >= Stackitem(2) Then Drop 2 : if  empty then {Break} else continue                         over 2,2 : call .partition(ref\$) :shift 3                  }            }      }      Quick=Quick()      Dim A(10)<<Random(50, 100)      Print A()      Call Quick.quicksort(&A(), 0, Len(A())-1)      Print A()      Quick=Quick()      Function join\$(a\$()) {            n=each(a\$(), 1, -2)            k\$=""            while n {                  overwrite k\$, ".", n^:=array\$(n)            }            =k\$      }      Stack New {                  Data "1.3.6.1.4.1.11.2.17.19.3.4.0.4" , "1.3.6.1.4.1.11.2.17.19.3.4.0.1", "1.3.6.1.4.1.11150.3.4.0.1"                  Data "1.3.6.1.4.1.11.2.17.19.3.4.0.10", "1.3.6.1.4.1.11.2.17.5.2.0.79", "1.3.6.1.4.1.11150.3.4.0"                  Dim Base 0, arr(Stack.Size)                  Link arr() to arr\$()                  i=0 : While not Empty {arr\$(i)=piece\$(letter\$+".", ".") : i++ }      }      \\ change comparison function      Quick.LE=lambda (a, b)->{            Link a, b to a\$(), b\$()             def i=-1             do {                   i++             } until a\$(i)="" or b\$(i)="" or a\$(i)<>b\$(i)             if b\$(i)="" then =a\$(i)="":exit             if a\$(i)="" then =true:exit             =val(a\$(i))<=val(b\$(i))      }      Call Quick.quicksort(&arr(), 0, Len(arr())-1)      For i=0 to len(arr())-1 {            Print join\$(arr(i))      }      \\ Fresh load      Quick=Quick()      Quick.ForStrings      Dim A\$()      A\$()=("one","two", "three","four", "five")      Print A\$()      Call Quick.quicksort(&A\$(), 0, Len(A\$())-1)      Print A\$()}Checkit3 `

## M4

`dnl  return the first element of a list when called in the funny way seen belowdefine(`arg1', `\$1')dnldnldnl  append lists 1 and 2define(`append',   `ifelse(`\$1',`()',      `\$2',      `ifelse(`\$2',`()',         `\$1',         `substr(\$1,0,decr(len(\$1))),substr(\$2,1)')')')dnldnldnl  separate list 2 based on pivot 1, appending to left 3 and right 4,dnl  until 2 is empty, and then combine the sort of left with pivot withdnl  sort of rightdefine(`sep',   `ifelse(`\$2', `()',      `append(append(quicksort(\$3),(\$1)),quicksort(\$4))',      `ifelse(eval(arg1\$2<=\$1),1,         `sep(\$1,(shift\$2),append(\$3,(arg1\$2)),\$4)',         `sep(\$1,(shift\$2),\$3,append(\$4,(arg1\$2)))')')')dnldnldnl  pick first element of list 1 as pivot and separate based on thatdefine(`quicksort',   `ifelse(`\$1', `()',      `()',      `sep(arg1\$1,(shift\$1),`()',`()')')')dnldnlquicksort((3,1,4,1,5,9))`
Output:
```(1,1,3,4,5,9)
```

## Maple

`swap := proc(arr, a, b)	local temp := arr[a]:	arr[a] := arr[b]:	arr[b] := temp:end proc:quicksort := proc(arr, low, high)	local pi:	if (low < high) then		pi := qpart(arr,low,high):		quicksort(arr, low, pi-1):		quicksort(arr, pi+1, high):	end if:end proc:qpart := proc(arr, low, high)	local i,j,pivot;	pivot := arr[high]:	i := low-1:	for j from low to high-1 by 1 do		if (arr[j] <= pivot) then			i++:			swap(arr, i, j):		end if;	end do;	swap(arr, i+1, high):	return (i+1):end proc:a:=Array([12,4,2,1,0]);quicksort(a,1,5);a;`
Output:
`[0, 1, 2, 4, 12]`

## Mathematica

`QuickSort[x_List] := Module[{pivot},  If[[email protected] <= 1, Return[x]];  pivot = [email protected];  [email protected]{QuickSort[Cases[x, j_ /; j < pivot]], Cases[x, j_ /; j == pivot], QuickSort[Cases[x, j_ /; j > pivot]]}  ]`
`qsort[{}] = {};qsort[{x_, xs___}] := Join[[email protected][{xs}, # <= x &], {x}, [email protected][{xs}, # > x &]];`
`QuickSort[{}] := {}QuickSort[list: {__}] := With[{pivot=RandomChoice[list]},	Join[ <|1->{}, -1->{}|>, GroupBy[list,Order[#,pivot]&] ] // Catenate[ {[email protected]#[1], #[0], [email protected]#[-1]} ]&]`

## MATLAB

This implements the pseudo-code in the specification. The input can be either a row or column vector, but the returned vector will always be a row vector. This can be modified to operate on any built-in primitive or user defined class by replacing the "<=" and ">" comparisons with "le" and "gt" functions respectively. This is because operators can not be overloaded, but the functions that are equivalent to the operators can be overloaded in class definitions.

This should be placed in a file named quickSort.m.

`function sortedArray = quickSort(array)     if numel(array) <= 1 %If the array has 1 element then it can't be sorted               sortedArray = array;        return    end     pivot = array(end);    array(end) = [];     %Create two new arrays which contain the elements that are less than or    %equal to the pivot called "less" and greater than the pivot called    %"greater"    less = array( array <= pivot );    greater = array( array > pivot );     %The sorted array is the concatenation of the sorted "less" array, the    %pivot and the sorted "greater" array in that order    sortedArray = [quickSort(less) pivot quickSort(greater)]; end`

A slightly more vectorized version of the above code that removes the need for the less and greater arrays:

`function sortedArray = quickSort(array)     if numel(array) <= 1 %If the array has 1 element then it can't be sorted               sortedArray = array;        return    end     pivot = array(end);    array(end) = [];     sortedArray = [quickSort( array(array <= pivot) ) pivot quickSort( array(array > pivot) )]; end`

Sample usage:

`quickSort([4,3,7,-2,9,1]) ans =     -2     1     3     4     7     9`

## MAXScript

`fn quickSort arr =(    less = #()    pivotList = #()    more = #()    if arr.count <= 1 then    (        arr    )    else    (        pivot = arr[arr.count/2]        for i in arr do        (            case of            (                (i < pivot):	(append less i)                (i == pivot):	(append pivotList i)                (i > pivot):	(append more i)            )        )        less = quickSort less        more = quickSort more        less + pivotList + more    ))a = #(4, 89, -3, 42, 5, 0, 2, 889)a = quickSort a`

## Modula-2

The definition module exposes the interface. This one uses the procedure variable feature to pass a caller defined compare callback function so that it can sort various simple and structured record types.

This Quicksort assumes that you are working with an an array of pointers to an arbitrary type and are not moving the record data itself but only the pointers. The M2 type "ADDRESS" is considered compatible with any pointer type.

The use of type ADDRESS here to achieve genericity is something of a chink the the normal strongly typed flavor of Modula-2. Unlike the other language types, "system" types such as ADDRESS or WORD must be imported explicity from the SYSTEM MODULE. The ISO standard for the "Generic Modula-2" language extension provides genericity without the chink, but most compilers have not implemented this extension.

`(*#####################*) DEFINITION MODULE QSORT; (*#####################*)       FROM SYSTEM IMPORT ADDRESS; TYPE CmpFuncPtrs = PROCEDURE(ADDRESS, ADDRESS):INTEGER;  PROCEDURE QuickSortPtrs(VAR Array:ARRAY OF ADDRESS; N:CARDINAL;                         Compare:CmpFuncPtrs);END QSORT. `

The implementation module is not visible to clients, so it may be changed without worry so long as it still implements the definition.

Sedgewick suggests that faster sorting will be achieved if you drop back to an insertion sort once the partitions get small.

`(*##########################*) IMPLEMENTATION MODULE QSORT; (*##########################*) FROM SYSTEM    IMPORT ADDRESS; CONST SmallPartition  = 9; (*NOTE        1.Reference on QuickSort: "Implementing Quicksort Programs", Robert          Sedgewick, Communications of the ACM, Oct 78, v21 #10.*) (*==============================================================*) PROCEDURE QuickSortPtrs(VAR Array:ARRAY OF ADDRESS; N:CARDINAL;                         Compare:CmpFuncPtrs);(*==============================================================*)          (*-----------------------------*)          PROCEDURE Swap(VAR A,B:ADDRESS);         (*-----------------------------*)          VAR  temp :ADDRESS;          BEGIN          temp := A; A := B; B := temp;          END Swap;          (*-------------------------------*)          PROCEDURE TstSwap(VAR A,B:ADDRESS);         (*-------------------------------*)          VAR  temp   :ADDRESS;          BEGIN          IF Compare(A,B) > 0 THEN            temp := A; A := B; B := temp;         END;          END TstSwap;          (*--------------*)          PROCEDURE Isort;         (*--------------*)         (*                 Insertion sort.         *)          VAR  i,j    :CARDINAL;              temp   :ADDRESS;          BEGIN          IF N < 2 THEN RETURN END;          FOR i := N-2 TO 0 BY -1 DO            IF Compare(Array[i],Array[i+1]) > 0 THEN               temp := Array[i];               j := i+1;               REPEAT                  Array[j-1] := Array[j];                  INC(j);               UNTIL (j = N) OR (Compare(Array[j],temp) >= 0);               Array[j-1] := temp;            END;         END;          END Isort;          (*----------------------------------*)          PROCEDURE Quick(left,right:CARDINAL);         (*----------------------------------*)          VAR              i,j,              second     :CARDINAL;              Partition  :ADDRESS;          BEGIN          IF right > left THEN            i := left; j := right;             Swap(Array[left],Array[(left+right) DIV 2]);             second := left+1;                          (* insure 2nd element is in   *)            TstSwap(Array[second], Array[right]);      (* the lower part, last elem  *)            TstSwap(Array[left], Array[right]);        (* in the upper part          *)            TstSwap(Array[second], Array[left]);       (* THUS, only one test is     *)                                                       (* needed in repeat loops     *)            Partition := Array[left];             LOOP               REPEAT INC(i) UNTIL Compare(Array[i],Partition) >= 0;               REPEAT DEC(j) UNTIL Compare(Array[j],Partition) <= 0;               IF j < i THEN                  EXIT               END;               Swap(Array[i],Array[j]);            END; (*loop*)            Swap(Array[left],Array[j]);             IF (j > 0) AND (j-1-left >= SmallPartition) THEN               Quick(left,j-1);            END;            IF right-i >= SmallPartition THEN               Quick(i,right);            END;         END;          END Quick;  BEGIN (* QuickSortPtrs --------------------------------------------------*) IF N > SmallPartition THEN              (* won't work for 2 elements *)   Quick(0,N-1);END; Isort; END QuickSortPtrs; END QSORT. `

## Modula-3

This code is taken from libm3, which is basically Modula-3's "standard library". Note that this code uses Insertion sort when the array is less than 9 elements long.

`GENERIC INTERFACE ArraySort(Elem); PROCEDURE Sort(VAR a: ARRAY OF Elem.T; cmp := Elem.Compare); END ArraySort.`
`GENERIC MODULE ArraySort (Elem); PROCEDURE Sort (VAR a: ARRAY OF Elem.T;  cmp := Elem.Compare) =  BEGIN    QuickSort (a, 0, NUMBER (a), cmp);    InsertionSort (a, 0, NUMBER (a), cmp);  END Sort; PROCEDURE QuickSort (VAR a: ARRAY OF Elem.T;  lo, hi: INTEGER;                     cmp := Elem.Compare) =  CONST CutOff = 9;  VAR i, j: INTEGER;  key, tmp: Elem.T;  BEGIN    WHILE (hi - lo > CutOff) DO (* sort a[lo..hi) *)       (* use median-of-3 to select a key *)      i := (hi + lo) DIV 2;      IF cmp (a[lo], a[i]) < 0 THEN        IF cmp (a[i], a[hi-1]) < 0 THEN          key := a[i];        ELSIF cmp (a[lo], a[hi-1]) < 0 THEN          key := a[hi-1];  a[hi-1] := a[i];  a[i] := key;        ELSE          key := a[lo];  a[lo] := a[hi-1];  a[hi-1] := a[i];  a[i] := key;        END;      ELSE (* a[lo] >= a[i] *)        IF cmp (a[hi-1], a[i]) < 0 THEN          key := a[i];  tmp := a[hi-1];  a[hi-1] := a[lo];  a[lo] := tmp;        ELSIF cmp (a[lo], a[hi-1]) < 0 THEN          key := a[lo];  a[lo] := a[i];  a[i] := key;        ELSE          key := a[hi-1];  a[hi-1] := a[lo];  a[lo] := a[i];  a[i] := key;        END;      END;       (* partition the array *)      i := lo+1;  j := hi-2;       (* find the first hole *)      WHILE cmp (a[j], key) > 0 DO DEC (j) END;      tmp := a[j];      DEC (j);       LOOP        IF (i > j) THEN EXIT END;         WHILE i < hi AND cmp (a[i], key) < 0 DO INC (i) END;        IF (i > j) THEN EXIT END;        a[j+1] := a[i];        INC (i);         WHILE j > lo AND cmp (a[j], key) > 0 DO DEC (j) END;        IF (i > j) THEN  IF (j = i-1) THEN  DEC (j)  END;  EXIT  END;        a[i-1] := a[j];        DEC (j);      END;       (* fill in the last hole *)      a[j+1] := tmp;      i := j+2;       (* then, recursively sort the smaller subfile *)      IF (i - lo < hi - i)        THEN  QuickSort (a, lo, i-1, cmp);   lo := i;        ELSE  QuickSort (a, i, hi, cmp);     hi := i-1;      END;     END; (* WHILE (hi-lo > CutOff) *)  END QuickSort; PROCEDURE InsertionSort (VAR a: ARRAY OF Elem.T;  lo, hi: INTEGER;                         cmp := Elem.Compare) =  VAR j: INTEGER;  key: Elem.T;  BEGIN    FOR i := lo+1 TO hi-1 DO      key := a[i];      j := i-1;      WHILE (j >= lo) AND cmp (key, a[j]) < 0 DO        a[j+1] := a[j];        DEC (j);      END;      a[j+1] := key;    END;  END InsertionSort; BEGINEND ArraySort.`

To use this generic code to sort an array of text, we create two files called TextSort.i3 and TextSort.m3, respectively.

`INTERFACE TextSort = ArraySort(Text) END TextSort.`
`MODULE TextSort = ArraySort(Text) END TextSort.`

Then, as an example:

`MODULE Main; IMPORT IO, TextSort; VAR arr := ARRAY [1..10] OF TEXT {"Foo", "bar", "!ooF", "Modula-3", "hickup",                                  "baz", "quuz", "Zeepf", "woo", "Rosetta Code"}; BEGIN  TextSort.Sort(arr);  FOR i := FIRST(arr) TO LAST(arr) DO    IO.Put(arr[i] & "\n");  END;END Main.`

## Mond

Implements the simple quicksort algorithm.

`fun quicksort( arr, cmp ){    if( arr.length() < 2 )        return arr;     if( !cmp )        cmp = ( a, b ) -> a - b;     var a = [ ], b = [ ];    var pivot = arr[0];    var len = arr.length();     for( var i = 1; i < len; ++i )    {        var item = arr[i];         if( cmp( item, pivot ) < cmp( pivot, item ) )            a.add( item );        else            b.add( item );    }     a = quicksort( a, cmp );    b = quicksort( b, cmp );     a.add( pivot );     foreach( var item in b )        a.add( item );     return a;}`
Usage
`var array = [ 532, 16, 153, 3, 63.60, 925, 0.214 ];var sorted = quicksort( array ); printLn( sorted );`
Output:
```[
0.214,
3,
16,
63.6,
153,
532,
925
]```

## Nemerle

A little less clean and concise than Haskell, but essentially the same.

`using System;using System.Console;using Nemerle.Collections.NList; module Quicksort{    Qsort[T] (x : list[T]) : list[T]      where T : IComparable    {        |[]    => []        |x::xs => Qsort(\$[y|y in xs, (y.CompareTo(x) < 0)]) + [x] + Qsort(\$[y|y in xs, (y.CompareTo(x) > 0)])    }     Main() : void    {        def empty = [];        def single = [2];        def several = [2, 6, 1, 7, 3, 9, 4];        WriteLine(Qsort(empty));        WriteLine(Qsort(single));        WriteLine(Qsort(several));    }}`

## NetRexx

This sample implements both the simple and in place algorithms as described in the task's description:

`/* NetRexx */options replace format comments java crossref savelog symbols binary import java.util.List placesList = [String -    "UK  London",     "US  New York",   "US  Boston",     "US  Washington" -  , "UK  Washington", "US  Birmingham", "UK  Birmingham", "UK  Boston"     -]lists = [ -    placesList -  , quickSortSimple(String[] Arrays.copyOf(placesList, placesList.length)) -  , quickSortInplace(String[] Arrays.copyOf(placesList, placesList.length)) -] loop ln = 0 to lists.length - 1  cl = lists[ln]  loop ct = 0 to cl.length - 1    say cl[ct]    end ct    say  end ln return method quickSortSimple(array = String[]) public constant binary returns String[]   rl = String[array.length]  al = List quickSortSimple(Arrays.asList(array))  al.toArray(rl)   return rl method quickSortSimple(array = List) public constant binary returns ArrayList   if array.size > 1 then do    less    = ArrayList()    equal   = ArrayList()    greater = ArrayList()     pivot = array.get(Random().nextInt(array.size - 1))    loop x_ = 0 to array.size - 1      if (Comparable array.get(x_)).compareTo(Comparable pivot) < 0 then less.add(array.get(x_))      if (Comparable array.get(x_)).compareTo(Comparable pivot) = 0 then equal.add(array.get(x_))      if (Comparable array.get(x_)).compareTo(Comparable pivot) > 0 then greater.add(array.get(x_))      end x_    less    = quickSortSimple(less)    greater = quickSortSimple(greater)    out = ArrayList(array.size)    out.addAll(less)    out.addAll(equal)    out.addAll(greater)     array = out    end   return ArrayList array method quickSortInplace(array = String[]) public constant binary returns String[]   rl = String[array.length]  al = List quickSortInplace(Arrays.asList(array))  al.toArray(rl)   return rl method quickSortInplace(array = List, ixL = int 0, ixR = int array.size - 1) public constant binary returns ArrayList   if ixL < ixR then do    ixP = int ixL + (ixR - ixL) % 2    ixP = quickSortInplacePartition(array, ixL, ixR, ixP)    quickSortInplace(array, ixL, ixP - 1)    quickSortInplace(array, ixP + 1, ixR)    end   array = ArrayList(array)  return ArrayList array method quickSortInplacePartition(array = List, ixL = int, ixR = int, ixP = int) public constant binary returns int   pivotValue = array.get(ixP)  rValue     = array.get(ixR)  array.set(ixP, rValue)  array.set(ixR, pivotValue)  ixStore = ixL  loop i_ = ixL to ixR - 1    iValue = array.get(i_)    if (Comparable iValue).compareTo(Comparable pivotValue) < 0 then do      storeValue = array.get(ixStore)      array.set(i_, storeValue)      array.set(ixStore, iValue)      ixStore = ixStore + 1      end    end i_  storeValue = array.get(ixStore)  rValue     = array.get(ixR)  array.set(ixStore, rValue)  array.set(ixR, storeValue)   return ixStore `
Output:
```UK  London
US  New York
US  Boston
US  Washington
UK  Washington
US  Birmingham
UK  Birmingham
UK  Boston

UK  Birmingham
UK  Boston
UK  London
UK  Washington
US  Birmingham
US  Boston
US  New York
US  Washington

UK  Birmingham
UK  Boston
UK  London
UK  Washington
US  Birmingham
US  Boston
US  New York
US  Washington
```

## Nial

`quicksort is fork [ >= [1 first,tally],  pass,  link [      quicksort sublist [ < [pass, first], pass ],      sublist [ match [pass,first],pass ],      quicksort sublist [ > [pass,first], pass ]  ]]`

Using it.

`|quicksort [5, 8, 7, 4, 3]=3 4 5 7 8`

## Nim

` proc quickSort[T](a: var openarray[T], inl = 0, inr = -1) =  var r = if inr >= 0: inr else: a.high  var l = inl  let n = r - l + 1  if n < 2: return  let p = a[l + 3 * n div 4]  while l <= r:    if a[l] < p:      inc l      continue    if a[r] > p:      dec r      continue    if l <= r:      swap a[l], a[r]      inc l      dec r  quickSort(a, inl, r)  quickSort(a, l, inr) var a = @[4, 65, 2, -31, 0, 99, 2, 83, 782]quickSort aecho a`
Output:
`@[-31, 0, 2, 2, 4, 65, 83, 99, 782]`

## Nix

` let  qs = l:    if l == [] then []    else      with builtins;      let x  = head l;          xs = tail l;          low  = filter (a: a < x)  xs;          high = filter (a: a >= x) xs;      in qs low ++ [x] ++ qs high;in  qs [4 65 2 (-31) 0 99 83 782] `
Output:
`[ -31 0 2 4 65 83 99 782 ]`

## Objeck

` class QuickSort {  function : Main(args : String[]) ~ Nil {    array := [1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 8, 6, 4, 2];    Sort(array);    each(i : array) {      array[i]->PrintLine();    };  }   function : Sort(array : Int[]) ~ Nil {    size := array->Size();    if(size <= 1) {      return;    };    Sort(array, 0, size - 1);  }   function : native : Sort(array : Int[], low : Int, high : Int) ~ Nil {    i := low; j := high;    pivot := array[low + (high-low)/2];     while(i <= j) {      while(array[i] < pivot) {        i+=1;      };       while(array[j] > pivot) {        j-=1;      };       if (i <= j) {        temp := array[i];        array[i] := array[j];        array[j] := temp;        i+=1; j-=1;      };    };     if(low < j) {      Sort(array, low, j);    };     if(i < high) {      Sort(array, i, high);    };  }} `

## Objective-C

The latest XCode compiler is assumed with ARC enabled.

`void quicksortInPlace(NSMutableArray *array, NSInteger first, NSInteger last, NSComparator comparator) {    if (first >= last) return;    id pivot = array[(first + last) / 2];    NSInteger left = first;    NSInteger right = last;    while (left <= right) {        while (comparator(array[left], pivot) == NSOrderedAscending)            left++;        while (comparator(array[right], pivot) == NSOrderedDescending)            right--;        if (left <= right)            [array exchangeObjectAtIndex:left++ withObjectAtIndex:right--];    }    quicksortInPlace(array, first, right, comparator);    quicksortInPlace(array, left, last, comparator);} NSArray* quicksort(NSArray *unsorted, NSComparator comparator) {    NSMutableArray *a = [NSMutableArray arrayWithArray:unsorted];    quicksortInPlace(a, 0, a.count - 1, comparator);    return a;} int main(int argc, const char * argv[]) {    @autoreleasepool {        NSArray *a = @[ @1, @3, @5, @7, @9, @8, @6, @4, @2 ];        NSLog(@"Unsorted: %@", a);        NSLog(@"Sorted: %@", quicksort(a, ^(id x, id y) { return [x compare:y]; }));        NSArray *b = @[ @"Emil", @"Peg", @"Helen", @"Juergen", @"David", @"Rick", @"Barb", @"Mike", @"Tom" ];        NSLog(@"Unsorted: %@", b);        NSLog(@"Sorted: %@", quicksort(b, ^(id x, id y) { return [x compare:y]; }));    }    return 0;}`
Output:
```Unsorted: (
1,
3,
5,
7,
9,
8,
6,
4,
2
)
Sorted: (
1,
2,
3,
4,
5,
6,
7,
8,
9
)
Unsorted: (
Emil,
Peg,
Helen,
Juergen,
David,
Rick,
Barb,
Mike,
Tom
)
Sorted: (
Barb,
David,
Emil,
Helen,
Juergen,
Mike,
Peg,
Rick,
Tom
)```

## OCaml

`let rec quicksort gt = function  | [] -> []  | x::xs ->      let ys, zs = List.partition (gt x) xs in      (quicksort gt ys) @ (x :: (quicksort gt zs)) let _ =  quicksort (>) [4; 65; 2; -31; 0; 99; 83; 782; 1]`

## Octave

Translation of: MATLAB
(The MATLAB version works as is in Octave, provided that the code is put in a file named quicksort.m, and everything below the return must be typed in the prompt of course)
`function f=quicksort(v)                       % v must be a column vector  f = v; n=length(v);  if(n > 1)     vl = min(f); vh = max(f);                  % min, max     p  = (vl+vh)*0.5;                          % pivot     ia = find(f < p); ib = find(f == p); ic=find(f > p);     f  = [quicksort(f(ia)); f(ib); quicksort(f(ic))];  endendfunction N=30; v=rand(N,1); tic,u=quicksort(v); tocu`

## Oforth

Oforth built-in sort uses quick sort algorithm (see lang/collect/ListBuffer.of for implementation) :

`[ 5, 8, 2, 3, 4, 1 ] sort`

## ooRexx

Translation of: Python
`    a = .array~Of(4, 65, 2, -31, 0, 99, 83, 782, 1)    say 'before:' a~toString( ,', ')    a = quickSort(a)    say ' after:' a~toString( ,', ')    exit ::routine quickSort    use arg arr -- the array to be sorted    less = .array~new    pivotList = .array~new    more = .array~new    if arr~items <= 1 then        return arr    else do        pivot = arr[1]        do i over arr            if i < pivot then                less~append(i)            else if i > pivot then                more~append(i)            else                pivotList~append(i)        end        less = quickSort(less)        more = quickSort(more)        return less~~appendAll(pivotList)~~appendAll(more)    end`
Output:
```before: 4, 65, 2, -31, 0, 99, 83, 782, 1
after: -31, 0, 1, 2, 4, 65, 83, 99, 782 ```

## Oz

`declare  fun {QuickSort Xs}     case Xs of nil then nil     [] Pivot|Xr then	fun {IsSmaller X} X < Pivot end        Smaller Larger     in	{List.partition Xr IsSmaller ?Smaller ?Larger}        {Append {QuickSort Smaller} Pivot|{QuickSort Larger}}     end  endin  {Show {QuickSort [3 1 4 1 5 9 2 6 5]}}`

## PARI/GP

`quickSort(v)={  if(#v<2, return(v));  my(less=List(),more=List(),same=List(),pivot);  pivot=median([v[random(#v)+1],v[random(#v)+1],v[random(#v)+1]]); \\ Middle-of-three  for(i=1,#v,    if(v[i]<pivot,      listput(less, v[i]),      if(v[i]==pivot, listput(same, v[i]), listput(more, v[i]))    )  );  concat(quickSort(Vec(less)), concat(Vec(same), quickSort(Vec(more))))};median(v)={  vecsort(v)[#v>>1]};`

## Pascal

` { X is array of LongInt }Procedure QuickSort ( Left, Right : LongInt );Var   i, j,  tmp, pivot : LongInt;         { tmp & pivot are the same type as the elements of array }Begin  i:=Left;  j:=Right;  pivot := X[(Left + Right) shr 1]; // pivot := X[(Left + Rigth) div 2]   Repeat    While pivot > X[i] Do inc(i);   // i:=i+1;    While pivot < X[j] Do dec(j);   // j:=j-1;    If i<=j Then Begin      tmp:=X[i];      X[i]:=X[j];      X[j]:=tmp;      dec(j);   // j:=j-1;      inc(i);   // i:=i+1;    End;  Until i>j;  If Left<j Then QuickSort(Left,j);  If i<Right Then QuickSort(i,Right);End; `

## Perl

` sub quick_sort {    return @_ if @_ < 2;    my \$p = splice @_, int rand @_, 1;    quick_sort(grep \$_ < \$p, @_), \$p, quick_sort(grep \$_ >= \$p, @_);} my @a = (4, 65, 2, -31, 0, 99, 83, 782, 1);@a = quick_sort @a;print "@a\n"; `

## Perl 6

`# Empty list sorts to the empty list multi quicksort([]) { () }  # Otherwise, extract first item as pivot... multi quicksort([\$pivot, *@rest]) {     # Partition.     my \$before := @rest.grep(* before \$pivot);     my \$after  := @rest.grep(* !before \$pivot);      # Sort the partitions.     flat quicksort(\$before), \$pivot, quicksort(\$after) }`

Note that `\$before` and `\$after` are bound to lazy lists, so the partitions can (at least in theory) be sorted in parallel.

## Phix

`function quick_sort(sequence x)---- put x into ascending order using recursive quick sort--integer n, last, midobject xi, midval     n = length(x)    if n<2 then        return x    -- already sorted (trivial case)    end if     mid = floor((n+1)/2)    midval = x[mid]    x[mid] = x[1]     last = 1    for i=2 to n do        xi = x[i]        if xi<midval then            last += 1            x[i] = x[last]            x[last] = xi        end if    end for     return quick_sort(x[2..last]) & {midval} & quick_sort(x[last+1..n])end function ?quick_sort({5,"oranges","and",3,"apples"})`
Output:
```{3,5,"and","apples","oranges"}
```

## PHP

`function quicksort(\$arr){	\$lte = \$gt = array();	if(count(\$arr) < 2){		return \$arr;	}	\$pivot_key = key(\$arr);	\$pivot = array_shift(\$arr);	foreach(\$arr as \$val){		if(\$val <= \$pivot){			\$lte[] = \$val;		} else {			\$gt[] = \$val;		}	}	return array_merge(quicksort(\$lte),array(\$pivot_key=>\$pivot),quicksort(\$gt));} \$arr = array(1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 8, 6, 4, 2);\$arr = quicksort(\$arr);echo implode(',',\$arr);`
`1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9`
` function quickSort(array \$array) {    // base case    if (empty(\$array)) {        return \$array;    }    \$head = array_shift(\$array);    \$tail = \$array;    \$lesser = array_filter(\$tail, function (\$item) use (\$head) {        return \$item <= \$head;    });    \$bigger = array_filter(\$tail, function (\$item) use (\$head) {        return \$item > \$head;    });    return array_merge(quickSort(\$lesser), [\$head], quickSort(\$bigger));}\$testCase = [1, 4, 8, 2, 8, 0, 2, 8];\$result = quickSort(\$testCase);echo sprintf("[%s] ==> [%s]\n", implode(', ', \$testCase), implode(', ', \$result)); `
`[1, 4, 8, 2, 8, 0, 2, 8] ==> [0, 1, 2, 2, 4, 8, 8, 8]`

## PicoLisp

`(de quicksort (L)   (if (cdr L)      (let Pivot (car L)          (append (quicksort (filter '((A) (< A Pivot)) (cdr L)))                             (filter '((A) (= A Pivot))      L )                  (quicksort (filter '((A) (> A Pivot)) (cdr L)))) )      L) )`

## PL/I

`DCL (T(20)) FIXED BIN(31);   /* scratch space of length N */ QUICKSORT: PROCEDURE (A,AMIN,AMAX,N) RECURSIVE ;   DECLARE (A(*))              FIXED BIN(31);   DECLARE (N,AMIN,AMAX)       FIXED BIN(31) NONASGN;   DECLARE (I,J,IA,IB,IC,PIV)  FIXED BIN(31);   DECLARE (P,Q)               POINTER;   DECLARE (AP(1))             FIXED BIN(31) BASED(P);    IF(N <= 1)THEN RETURN;   IA=0; IB=0; IC=N+1;   PIV=(AMIN+AMAX)/2;   DO I=1 TO N;      IF(A(I) < PIV)THEN DO;         IA+=1; A(IA)=A(I);      END; ELSE IF(A(I) > PIV) THEN DO;         IC-=1; T(IC)=A(I);      END; ELSE DO;         IB+=1; T(IB)=A(I);      END;   END;   DO I=1  TO IB; A(I+IA)=T(I);   END;   DO I=IC TO N;  A(I)=T(N+IC-I); END;   P=ADDR(A(IC));   IC=N+1-IC;   IF(IA > 1) THEN CALL QUICKSORT(A, AMIN, PIV-1,IA);   IF(IC > 1) THEN CALL QUICKSORT(AP,PIV+1,AMAX, IC);   RETURN;END QUICKSORT; MINMAX: PROC(A,AMIN,AMAX,N);   DCL (AMIN,AMAX) FIXED BIN(31),       (N,A(*))    FIXED BIN(31) NONASGN ;   DCL (I,X,Y) FIXED BIN(31);    AMIN=A(N); AMAX=AMIN;   DO I=1 TO N-1;      X=A(I); Y=A(I+1);      IF (X < Y)THEN DO;         IF (X < AMIN) THEN AMIN=X;         IF (Y > AMAX) THEN AMAX=Y;       END; ELSE DO;          IF (X > AMAX) THEN AMAX=X;          IF (Y < AMIN) THEN AMIN=Y;       END;   END;   RETURN;END MINMAX;CALL MINMAX(A,AMIN,AMAX,N);CALL QUICKSORT(A,AMIN,AMAX,N);`

## PowerShell

### First solution

`Function SortThree( [Array] \$data ){	if( \$data[ 0 ] -gt \$data[ 1 ] )	{		if( \$data[ 0 ] -lt \$data[ 2 ] )		{			\$data = \$data[ 1, 0, 2 ]		} elseif ( \$data[ 1 ] -lt \$data[ 2 ] ){			\$data = \$data[ 1, 2, 0 ]		} else {			\$data = \$data[ 2, 1, 0 ]		}	} else {		if( \$data[ 0 ] -gt \$data[ 2 ] )		{			\$data = \$data[ 2, 0, 1 ]		} elseif( \$data[ 1 ] -gt \$data[ 2 ] ) {			\$data = \$data[ 0, 2, 1 ]		}	}	\$data} Function QuickSort( [Array] \$data, \$rand = ( New-Object Random ) ){	\$datal = \$data.length	if( \$datal -gt 3 )	{		[void] \$datal--		\$median = ( SortThree \$data[ 0, ( \$rand.Next( 1, \$datal - 1 ) ), -1 ] )[ 1 ]		\$lt = @()		\$eq = @()		\$gt = @()		\$data | ForEach-Object { if( \$_ -lt \$median ) { \$lt += \$_ } elseif( \$_ -eq \$median ) { \$eq += \$_ } else { \$gt += \$_ } }		\$lt = ( QuickSort \$lt \$rand )		\$gt = ( QuickSort \$gt \$rand )		\$data = @(\$lt) + \$eq + \$gt	} elseif( \$datal -eq 3 ) {		\$data = SortThree( \$data )	} elseif( \$datal -eq 2 ) {		if( \$data[ 0 ] -gt \$data[ 1 ] )		{			\$data = \$data[ 1, 0 ]		}	}	\$data} QuickSort 5,3,1,2,4 QuickSort 'e','c','a','b','d' QuickSort 0.5,0.3,0.1,0.2,0.4 \$l = 100; QuickSort ( 1..\$l | ForEach-Object { \$Rand = New-Object Random }{ \$Rand.Next( 0, \$l - 1 ) } )`

### Another solution

` function quicksort(\$array) {    \$less, \$equal, \$greater = @(), @(), @()    if( \$array.Count -gt 1 ) {         \$pivot = \$array[0]        foreach( \$x in \$array) {            if(\$x -lt \$pivot) { \$less += @(\$x) }            elseif (\$x -eq \$pivot) { \$equal += @(\$x)}            else { \$greater += @(\$x) }        }            \$array = (@(quicksort \$less) + @(\$equal) + @(quicksort \$greater))    }    \$array}\$array = @(60, 21, 19, 36, 63, 8, 100, 80, 3, 87, 11)"\$(quicksort \$array)" `
`The output is: 3 8 11 19 21 36 60 63 80 87 100`

## Prolog

`qsort( [], [] ).qsort( [H|U], S ) :- splitBy(H, U, L, R), qsort(L, SL), qsort(R, SR), append(SL, [H|SR], S). % splitBy( H, U, LS, RS )% True if LS = { L in U | L <= H }; RS = { R in U | R > H }splitBy( _, [], [], []).splitBy( H, [U|T], [U|LS], RS ) :- U =< H, splitBy(H, T, LS, RS).splitBy( H, [U|T], LS, [U|RS] ) :- U  > H, splitBy(H, T, LS, RS). `

## PureBasic

`Procedure qSort(Array a(1), firstIndex, lastIndex)  Protected  low, high, pivotValue   low = firstIndex  high = lastIndex  pivotValue = a((firstIndex + lastIndex) / 2)   Repeat     While a(low) < pivotValue      low + 1    Wend     While a(high) > pivotValue      high - 1    Wend     If low <= high      Swap a(low), a(high)      low + 1      high - 1    EndIf   Until low > high   If firstIndex < high    qSort(a(), firstIndex, high)  EndIf   If low < lastIndex    qSort(a(), low, lastIndex)  EndIfEndProcedure Procedure quickSort(Array a(1))  qSort(a(),0,ArraySize(a()))EndProcedure`

## Python

`def quickSort(arr):    less = []    pivotList = []    more = []    if len(arr) <= 1:        return arr    else:        pivot = arr[0]        for i in arr:            if i < pivot:                less.append(i)            elif i > pivot:                more.append(i)            else:                pivotList.append(i)        less = quickSort(less)        more = quickSort(more)        return less + pivotList + more a = [4, 65, 2, -31, 0, 99, 83, 782, 1]a = quickSort(a)`

`def qsort(L):    return (qsort([y for y in L[1:] if y <  L[0]]) +             L[:1] +             qsort([y for y in L[1:] if y >= L[0]])) if len(L) > 1 else L`

More readable, but still using list comprehensions:

`def qsort(list):    if not list:        return []    else:        pivot = list[0]        less = [x for x in list     if x <  pivot]        more = [x for x in list[1:] if x >= pivot]        return qsort(less) + [pivot] + qsort(more)`

More correctly in some tests:

`from random import * def qSort(a):    if len(a) <= 1:        return a    else:        q = choice(a)        return qSort([elem for elem in a if elem < q]) + [q] * a.count(q) + qSort([elem for elem in a if elem > q])`

`def quickSort(a):    if len(a) <= 1:        return a    else:        less = []        more = []        pivot = choice(a)        for i in a:            if i < pivot:                less.append(i)            if i > pivot:                more.append(i)        less = quickSort(less)        more = quickSort(more)        return less + [pivot] * a.count(pivot) + more`

Returning a new list:

`def qsort(array):    if len(array) < 2:        return array    head, *tail = array    less = qsort([i for i in tail if i < head])    more = qsort([i for i in tail if i >= head])    return less + [head] + more`

Sorting a list in place:

`def quicksort(array):    _quicksort(array, 0, len(array) - 1) def _quicksort(array, start, stop):    if stop - start > 0:        pivot, left, right = array[start], start, stop        while left <= right:            while array[left] < pivot:                left += 1            while array[right] > pivot:                right -= 1            if left <= right:                array[left], array[right] = array[right], array[left]                left += 1                right -= 1        _quicksort(array, start, right)        _quicksort(array, left, stop)`

## Qi

`(define keep  _    []       -> []  Pred [A|Rest] -> [A | (keep Pred Rest)] where (Pred A)  Pred [_|Rest] -> (keep Pred Rest)) (define quicksort  []    -> []  [A|R] -> (append (quicksort (keep (>= A) R))                   [A]                   (quicksort (keep (< A) R)))) (quicksort [6 8 5 9 3 2 2 1 4 7]) `

## R

Translation of: Octave
`qsort <- function(v) {  if ( length(v) > 1 )   {    pivot <- (min(v) + max(v))/2.0                            # Could also use pivot <- median(v)    c(qsort(v[v < pivot]), v[v == pivot], qsort(v[v > pivot]))   } else v} N <- 100vs <- runif(N)system.time(u <- qsort(vs))print(u)`

## Racket

`#lang racket(define (quicksort < l)  (match l    ['() '()]    [(cons x xs)      (let-values ([(xs-gte xs-lt) (partition (curry < x) xs)])       (append (quicksort < xs-lt)                (list x)                (quicksort < xs-gte)))]))`

Examples

`(quicksort < '(8 7 3 6 4 5 2));returns '(2 3 4 5 6 7 8)(quicksort string<? '("Mergesort" "Quicksort" "Bubblesort"));returns '("Bubblesort" "Mergesort" "Quicksort")`

## REXX

### version 1

`/*REXX program  sorts  a  stemmed array  using the   quicksort  algorithm.              */call [email protected]                                        /*generate the elements for the array. */call [email protected]   'before sort'                       /*show  the  before   array elements.  */call qSort       #                               /*invoke the  quicksort  subroutine.   */call [email protected]   ' after sort'                       /*show  the   after   array elements.  */exit                                             /*stick a fork in it,  we're all done. *//*──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────*/qSort: procedure expose @.; a.1=1; parse arg b.1 /*access the caller's local variable.  */       \$=1               do  while  \$\==0;    L=a.\$;     t=b.\$;     \$=\$-1;      if t<2  then iterate               H=L+t-1;             ?=L+t%2               if @.H<@.L  then if @.?<@.H  then do;  [email protected].H;  @.[email protected].L;  end                                            else if @.?>@.L  then [email protected].L                                                             else do;  [email protected].?; @.[email protected].L; end                           else if @.?<@.L  then [email protected].L                                            else if @.?>@.H  then do;  [email protected].H; @.[email protected].L; end                                                             else do;  [email protected].?; @.[email protected].L; end               j=L+1;                             k=h                      do forever                          do j=j         while j<=k & @.j<=p;  end  /*a tinie─tiny loop.*/                          do k=k  by -1  while j <k & @.k>=p;  end  /*another   "    "  */                      if j>=k  then leave                           /*segment finished? */                      [email protected].j;   @.[email protected].k;   @.k=_                     /*swap J&K elements.*/                      end   /*forever*/               \$=\$+1               k=j-1;   @.[email protected].k;   @.k=p               if j<=?  then do;   a.\$=j;   b.\$=H-j+1;   \$=\$+1;   a.\$=L;   b.\$=k-L;    end                        else do;   a.\$=L;   b.\$=k-L;     \$=\$+1;   a.\$=j;   b.\$=H-j+1;  end               end          /*while \$¬==0*/       return/*──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────*/[email protected]: w=length(#);        do j=1  for #;  say 'element'  right(j,w)  arg(1)":"  @.j;  end       say copies('▒', maxL + w + 22)            /*display a separator (between outputs)*/       return/*───────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────*/[email protected]:  @.=;   maxL=0                             /*assign a default value for the array.*/@.1  = " Rivers that form part of a (USA) state's border "                                   /*this value is adjusted later to include a prefix & suffix.*/@.2  = '='                                                                                   /*this value is expanded later.  */@.3  = "Perdido River                       Alabama, Florida"@.4  = "Chattahoochee River                 Alabama, Georgia"@.5  = "Tennessee River                     Alabama, Kentucky, Mississippi, Tennessee"@.6  = "Colorado River                      Arizona, California, Nevada, Baja California (Mexico)"@.7  = "Mississippi River                   Arkansas, Illinois, Iowa, Kentucky, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Tennessee, Louisiana, Wisconsin"@.8  = "St. Francis River                   Arkansas, Missouri"@.9  = "Poteau River                        Arkansas, Oklahoma"@.10 = "Arkansas River                      Arkansas, Oklahoma"@.11 = "Red River (Mississippi watershed)   Arkansas, Oklahoma, Texas"@.12 = "Byram River                         Connecticut, New York"@.13 = "Pawcatuck River                     Connecticut, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations"@.14 = "Delaware River                      Delaware, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania"@.15 = "Potomac River                       District of Columbia, Maryland, Virginia, West Virginia"@.16 = "St. Marys River                     Florida, Georgia"@.17 = "Chattooga River                     Georgia, South Carolina"@.18 = "Tugaloo River                       Georgia, South Carolina"@.19 = "Savannah River                      Georgia, South Carolina"@.20 = "Snake River                         Idaho, Oregon, Washington"@.21 = "Wabash River                        Illinois, Indiana"@.22 = "Ohio River                          Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Ohio, West Virginia"@.23 = "Great Miami River (mouth only)      Indiana, Ohio"@.24 = "Des Moines River                    Iowa, Missouri"@.25 = "Big Sioux River                     Iowa, South Dakota"@.26 = "Missouri River                      Kansas, Iowa, Missouri, Nebraska, South Dakota"@.27 = "Tug Fork River                      Kentucky, Virginia, West Virginia"@.28 = "Big Sandy River                     Kentucky, West Virginia"@.29 = "Pearl River                         Louisiana, Mississippi"@.30 = "Sabine River                        Louisiana, Texas"@.31 = "Monument Creek                      Maine, New Brunswick (Canada)"@.32 = "St. Croix River                     Maine, New Brunswick (Canada)"@.33 = "Piscataqua River                    Maine, New Hampshire"@.34 = "St. Francis River                   Maine, Quebec (Canada)"@.35 = "St. John River                      Maine, Quebec (Canada)"@.36 = "Pocomoke River                      Maryland, Virginia"@.37 = "Palmer River                        Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations"@.38 = "Runnins River                       Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations"@.39 = "Montreal River                      Michigan (upper peninsula), Wisconsin"@.40 = "Detroit River                       Michigan, Ontario (Canada)"@.41 = "St. Clair River                     Michigan, Ontario (Canada)"@.42 = "St. Marys River                     Michigan, Ontario (Canada)"@.43 = "Brule River                         Michigan, Wisconsin"@.44 = "Menominee River                     Michigan, Wisconsin"@.45 = "Red River of the North              Minnesota, North Dakota"@.46 = "Bois de Sioux River                 Minnesota, North Dakota, South Dakota"@.47 = "Pigeon River                        Minnesota, Ontario (Canada)"@.48 = "Rainy River                         Minnesota, Ontario (Canada)"@.49 = "St. Croix River                     Minnesota, Wisconsin"@.50 = "St. Louis River                     Minnesota, Wisconsin"@.51 = "Halls Stream                        New Hampshire, Canada"@.52 = "Salmon Falls River                  New Hampshire, Maine"@.53 = "Connecticut River                   New Hampshire, Vermont"@.54 = "Arthur Kill                         New Jersey, New York (tidal strait)"@.55 = "Kill Van Kull                       New Jersey, New York (tidal strait)"@.56 = "Hudson River (lower part only)      New Jersey, New York"@.57 = "Rio Grande                          New Mexico, Texas, Tamaulipas (Mexico), Nuevo Leon (Mexico), Coahuila de Zaragoza (Mexico), Chihuahua (Mexico)"@.58 = "Niagara River                       New York, Ontario (Canada)"@.59 = "St. Lawrence River                  New York, Ontario (Canada)"@.60 = "Poultney River                      New York, Vermont"@.61 = "Catawba River                       North Carolina, South Carolina"@.62 = "Blackwater River                    North Carolina, Virginia"@.63 = "Columbia River                      Oregon, Washington"                do #=1  until  @.#==''           /*find how many entries in array,  and */                maxL=max(maxL, length(@.#))      /*   also find the maximum width entry.*/                end   /*#*/#=#-1                                            /*adjust the highest element number.   */@.1=center(@.1, maxL, '-')                       /*   "    "  header information.       */@.2=copies(@.2, maxL)                            /*   "    "     "   separator.         */return`

output

```element  1 before sort: ------------------------------------------------ Rivers that form part of a (USA) state's border -------------------------------------------------
element  2 before sort: ==================================================================================================================================================
element  3 before sort: Perdido River                       Alabama, Florida
element  4 before sort: Chattahoochee River                 Alabama, Georgia
element  5 before sort: Tennessee River                     Alabama, Kentucky, Mississippi, Tennessee
element  6 before sort: Colorado River                      Arizona, California, Nevada, Baja California (Mexico)
element  7 before sort: Mississippi River                   Arkansas, Illinois, Iowa, Kentucky, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Tennessee, Louisiana, Wisconsin
element  8 before sort: St. Francis River                   Arkansas, Missouri
element  9 before sort: Poteau River                        Arkansas, Oklahoma
element 10 before sort: Arkansas River                      Arkansas, Oklahoma
element 11 before sort: Red River (Mississippi watershed)   Arkansas, Oklahoma, Texas
element 12 before sort: Byram River                         Connecticut, New York
element 13 before sort: Pawcatuck River                     Connecticut, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations
element 14 before sort: Delaware River                      Delaware, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania
element 15 before sort: Potomac River                       District of Columbia, Maryland, Virginia, West Virginia
element 16 before sort: St. Marys River                     Florida, Georgia
element 17 before sort: Chattooga River                     Georgia, South Carolina
element 18 before sort: Tugaloo River                       Georgia, South Carolina
element 19 before sort: Savannah River                      Georgia, South Carolina
element 20 before sort: Snake River                         Idaho, Oregon, Washington
element 21 before sort: Wabash River                        Illinois, Indiana
element 22 before sort: Ohio River                          Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Ohio, West Virginia
element 23 before sort: Great Miami River (mouth only)      Indiana, Ohio
element 24 before sort: Des Moines River                    Iowa, Missouri
element 25 before sort: Big Sioux River                     Iowa, South Dakota
element 26 before sort: Missouri River                      Kansas, Iowa, Missouri, Nebraska, South Dakota
element 27 before sort: Tug Fork River                      Kentucky, Virginia, West Virginia
element 28 before sort: Big Sandy River                     Kentucky, West Virginia
element 29 before sort: Pearl River                         Louisiana, Mississippi
element 30 before sort: Sabine River                        Louisiana, Texas
element 31 before sort: Monument Creek                      Maine, New Brunswick (Canada)
element 32 before sort: St. Croix River                     Maine, New Brunswick (Canada)
element 33 before sort: Piscataqua River                    Maine, New Hampshire
element 34 before sort: St. Francis River                   Maine, Quebec (Canada)
element 35 before sort: St. John River                      Maine, Quebec (Canada)
element 36 before sort: Pocomoke River                      Maryland, Virginia
element 37 before sort: Palmer River                        Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations
element 38 before sort: Runnins River                       Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations
element 39 before sort: Montreal River                      Michigan (upper peninsula), Wisconsin
element 40 before sort: Detroit River                       Michigan, Ontario (Canada)
element 41 before sort: St. Clair River                     Michigan, Ontario (Canada)
element 42 before sort: St. Marys River                     Michigan, Ontario (Canada)
element 43 before sort: Brule River                         Michigan, Wisconsin
element 44 before sort: Menominee River                     Michigan, Wisconsin
element 45 before sort: Red River of the North              Minnesota, North Dakota
element 46 before sort: Bois de Sioux River                 Minnesota, North Dakota, South Dakota
element 47 before sort: Pigeon River                        Minnesota, Ontario (Canada)
element 48 before sort: Rainy River                         Minnesota, Ontario (Canada)
element 49 before sort: St. Croix River                     Minnesota, Wisconsin
element 50 before sort: St. Louis River                     Minnesota, Wisconsin
element 51 before sort: Halls Stream                        New Hampshire, Canada
element 52 before sort: Salmon Falls River                  New Hampshire, Maine
element 53 before sort: Connecticut River                   New Hampshire, Vermont
element 54 before sort: Arthur Kill                         New Jersey, New York (tidal strait)
element 55 before sort: Kill Van Kull                       New Jersey, New York (tidal strait)
element 56 before sort: Hudson River (lower part only)      New Jersey, New York
element 57 before sort: Rio Grande                          New Mexico, Texas, Tamaulipas (Mexico), Nuevo Leon (Mexico), Coahuila De Zaragoza (Mexico), Chihuahua (Mexico)
element 58 before sort: Niagara River                       New York, Ontario (Canada)
element 59 before sort: St. Lawrence River                  New York, Ontario (Canada)
element 60 before sort: Poultney River                      New York, Vermont
element 61 before sort: Catawba River                       North Carolina, South Carolina
element 62 before sort: Blackwater River                    North Carolina, Virginia
element 63 before sort: Columbia River                      Oregon, Washington
▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒
element  1  after sort: ------------------------------------------------ Rivers that form part of a (USA) state's border -------------------------------------------------
element  2  after sort: ==================================================================================================================================================
element  3  after sort: Arkansas River                      Arkansas, Oklahoma
element  4  after sort: Arthur Kill                         New Jersey, New York (tidal strait)
element  5  after sort: Big Sandy River                     Kentucky, West Virginia
element  6  after sort: Big Sioux River                     Iowa, South Dakota
element  7  after sort: Blackwater River                    North Carolina, Virginia
element  8  after sort: Bois de Sioux River                 Minnesota, North Dakota, South Dakota
element  9  after sort: Brule River                         Michigan, Wisconsin
element 10  after sort: Byram River                         Connecticut, New York
element 11  after sort: Catawba River                       North Carolina, South Carolina
element 12  after sort: Chattahoochee River                 Alabama, Georgia
element 13  after sort: Chattooga River                     Georgia, South Carolina
element 14  after sort: Colorado River                      Arizona, California, Nevada, Baja California (Mexico)
element 15  after sort: Columbia River                      Oregon, Washington
element 16  after sort: Connecticut River                   New Hampshire, Vermont
element 17  after sort: Delaware River                      Delaware, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania
element 18  after sort: Des Moines River                    Iowa, Missouri
element 19  after sort: Detroit River                       Michigan, Ontario (Canada)
element 20  after sort: Great Miami River (mouth only)      Indiana, Ohio
element 21  after sort: Halls Stream                        New Hampshire, Canada
element 22  after sort: Hudson River (lower part only)      New Jersey, New York
element 23  after sort: Kill Van Kull                       New Jersey, New York (tidal strait)
element 24  after sort: Menominee River                     Michigan, Wisconsin
element 25  after sort: Mississippi River                   Arkansas, Illinois, Iowa, Kentucky, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Tennessee, Louisiana, Wisconsin
element 26  after sort: Missouri River                      Kansas, Iowa, Missouri, Nebraska, South Dakota
element 27  after sort: Montreal River                      Michigan (upper peninsula), Wisconsin
element 28  after sort: Monument Creek                      Maine, New Brunswick (Canada)
element 29  after sort: Niagara River                       New York, Ontario (Canada)
element 30  after sort: Ohio River                          Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Ohio, West Virginia
element 31  after sort: Palmer River                        Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations
element 32  after sort: Pawcatuck River                     Connecticut, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations
element 33  after sort: Pearl River                         Louisiana, Mississippi
element 34  after sort: Perdido River                       Alabama, Florida
element 35  after sort: Pigeon River                        Minnesota, Ontario (Canada)
element 36  after sort: Piscataqua River                    Maine, New Hampshire
element 37  after sort: Pocomoke River                      Maryland, Virginia
element 38  after sort: Poteau River                        Arkansas, Oklahoma
element 39  after sort: Potomac River                       District of Columbia, Maryland, Virginia, West Virginia
element 40  after sort: Poultney River                      New York, Vermont
element 41  after sort: Rainy River                         Minnesota, Ontario (Canada)
element 42  after sort: Red River (Mississippi watershed)   Arkansas, Oklahoma, Texas
element 43  after sort: Red River of the North              Minnesota, North Dakota
element 44  after sort: Rio Grande                          New Mexico, Texas, Tamaulipas (Mexico), Nuevo Leon (Mexico), Coahuila De Zaragoza (Mexico), Chihuahua (Mexico)
element 45  after sort: Runnins River                       Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations
element 46  after sort: Sabine River                        Louisiana, Texas
element 47  after sort: Salmon Falls River                  New Hampshire, Maine
element 48  after sort: Savannah River                      Georgia, South Carolina
element 49  after sort: Snake River                         Idaho, Oregon, Washington
element 50  after sort: St. Clair River                     Michigan, Ontario (Canada)
element 51  after sort: St. Croix River                     Maine, New Brunswick (Canada)
element 52  after sort: St. Croix River                     Minnesota, Wisconsin
element 53  after sort: St. Francis River                   Arkansas, Missouri
element 54  after sort: St. Francis River                   Maine, Quebec (Canada)
element 55  after sort: St. John River                      Maine, Quebec (Canada)
element 56  after sort: St. Lawrence River                  New York, Ontario (Canada)
element 57  after sort: St. Louis River                     Minnesota, Wisconsin
element 58  after sort: St. Marys River                     Florida, Georgia
element 59  after sort: St. Marys River                     Michigan, Ontario (Canada)
element 60  after sort: Tennessee River                     Alabama, Kentucky, Mississippi, Tennessee
element 61  after sort: Tug Fork River                      Kentucky, Virginia, West Virginia
element 62  after sort: Tugaloo River                       Georgia, South Carolina
element 63  after sort: Wabash River                        Illinois, Indiana
▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒
```

### version 2

Translation of: Python
The Python code translates very well to ooRexx but here is a way to implement it in classic REXX as well.
`    a = '4 65 2 -31 0 99 83 782 1'    do i = 1 to words(a)        queue word(a, i)    end    call quickSort    parse pull item    do queued()        call charout ,item', '        parse pull item    end    say item    exit quickSort: procedure/* In classic Rexx, arguments are passed by value, not by reference so stems    cannot be passed as arguments nor used as return values.  Putting their    contents on the external data queue is a way to bypass this issue. */     /* construct the input stem */    arr.0 = queued()    do i = 1 to arr.0        parse pull arr.i    end    less.0 = 0    pivotList.0 = 0    more.0 = 0    if arr.0 <= 1 then do        if arr.0 = 1 then            queue arr.1        return    end    else do        pivot = arr.1        do i = 1 to arr.0            item = arr.i            select                when item < pivot then do                    j = less.0 + 1                    less.j = item                    less.0 = j                end                when item > pivot then do                    j = more.0 + 1                    more.j = item                    more.0 = j                end                otherwise                    j = pivotList.0 + 1                    pivotList.j = item                    pivotList.0 = j            end        end    end    /* recursive call to sort the less. stem */    do i = 1 to less.0        queue less.i    end    if queued() > 0 then do        call quickSort        less.0 = queued()        do i = 1 to less.0            parse pull less.i        end    end    /* recursive call to sort the more. stem */    do i = 1 to more.0        queue more.i    end    if queued() > 0 then do        call quickSort        more.0 = queued()        do i = 1 to more.0            parse pull more.i        end    end    /* put the contents of all 3 stems on the queue in order */    do i = 1 to less.0        queue less.i    end    do i = 1 to pivotList.0        queue pivotList.i    end    do i = 1 to more.0        queue more.i    end    return`

## Ring

` # Project : Sorting algorithms/Quicksort test = [4, 65, 2, -31, 0, 99, 2, 83, 782, 1]see "before sort:" + nlshowarray(test)quicksort(test, 1, 10)see "after sort:" + nlshowarray(test) func quicksort(a, s, n)       if n < 2           return       ok       t = s + n - 1       l = s       r = t       p = a[floor((l + r) / 2)]       while l <= r               while a[l] < p                        l = l + 1               end               while a[r] > p                       r = r - 1               end               if l <= r                  temp = a[l]                  a[l] = a[r]                  a[r] = temp                  l = l + 1                  r = r - 1              ok       end       if s < r           quicksort(a, s, r - s + 1)       ok       if l < t          quicksort(a, l, t - l + 1 )       ok func showarray(vect)        svect = ""        for n = 1 to len(vect)              svect = svect + vect[n] + " "        next        svect = left(svect, len(svect) - 1)        see svect + nl `

Output:

```before sort:
4 65 2 -31 0 99 2 83 782 1
after sort:
-31 0 1 2 2 4 65 83 99 782
```

## Ruby

`class Array  def quick_sort    return self if length <= 1    pivot = self[0]    less, greatereq = self[1..-1].partition { |x| x < pivot }    less.quick_sort + [pivot] + greatereq.quick_sort  endend`

or

`class Array  def quick_sort    return self if length <= 1    pivot = sample    group = group_by{ |x| x <=> pivot }    group.default = []    group[-1].quick_sort + group[0] + group[1].quick_sort  endend`

or functionally

`class Array  def quick_sort    h, *t = self    h ? t.partition { |e| e < h }.inject { |l, r| l.quick_sort + [h] + r.quick_sort } : []  endend`

## Run BASIC

`' -------------------------------' quick sort' -------------------------------size = 50dim s(size)			' array to sortfor i = 1 to size		' fill it with some random numbers s(i) = rnd(0) * 100next i lft  = 1rht  = size [qSort]  lftHold = lft  rhtHold = rht  pivot   = s(lft)  while lft < rht    while (s(rht) >= pivot) and (lft < rht) : rht = rht - 1 :wend    if lft <> rht then      s(lft) = s(rht)      lft    = lft + 1    end if    while (s(lft) <= pivot) and (lft < rht) : lft = lft + 1 :wend    if lft <> rht then      s(rht) = s(lft)      rht    = rht - 1    end if  wend   s(lft) = pivot  pivot  = lft  lft    = lftHold  rht    = rhtHold  if lft < pivot then    rht = pivot - 1    goto [qSort]  end if  if rht > pivot then    lft = pivot + 1    goto [qSort] end if for i = 1 to size print i;"-->";s(i)next i`

## Rust

`fn main() {    println!("Sort numbers in descending order");    let mut numbers = [4, 65, 2, -31, 0, 99, 2, 83, 782, 1];    println!("Before: {:?}", numbers);     quick_sort(&mut numbers, &|x,y| x > y);    println!("After:  {:?}\n", numbers);     println!("Sort strings alphabetically");    let mut strings = ["beach", "hotel", "airplane", "car", "house", "art"];    println!("Before: {:?}", strings);     quick_sort(&mut strings, &|x,y| x < y);    println!("After:  {:?}\n", strings);     println!("Sort strings by length");    println!("Before: {:?}", strings);     quick_sort(&mut strings, &|x,y| x.len() < y.len());    println!("After:  {:?}", strings);    } fn quick_sort<T,F>(v: &mut [T], f: &F)     where F: Fn(&T,&T) -> bool{    let len = v.len();    if len >= 2 {        let pivot_index = partition(v, f);        quick_sort(&mut v[0..pivot_index], f);        quick_sort(&mut v[pivot_index + 1..len], f);    }} fn partition<T,F>(v: &mut [T], f: &F) -> usize     where F: Fn(&T,&T) -> bool{    let len = v.len();    let pivot_index = len / 2;     v.swap(pivot_index, len - 1);     let mut store_index = 0;    for i in 0..len - 1 {        if f(&v[i], &v[len - 1]) {            v.swap(i, store_index);            store_index += 1;        }    }     v.swap(store_index, len - 1);    store_index}`
Output:
```Sort numbers in descending order
Before: [4, 65, 2, -31, 0, 99, 2, 83, 782, 1]
After:  [782, 99, 83, 65, 4, 2, 2, 1, 0, -31]

Sort strings alphabetically
Before: ["beach", "hotel", "airplane", "car", "house", "art"]
After:  ["airplane", "art", "beach", "car", "hotel", "house"]

Sort strings by length
Before: ["airplane", "art", "beach", "car", "hotel", "house"]
After:  ["car", "art", "house", "hotel", "beach", "airplane"]```

## SASL

Copied from SASL manual, Appendix II, solution (2)(b)

`DEF || this rather nice solution is due to Silvio Meirasort () = ()sort (a : x) = sort {b <- x; b <= a } ++ a : sort { b <- x; b>a}?`

## Sather

`class SORT{T < \$IS_LT{T}} is   private afilter(a:ARRAY{T}, cmp:ROUT{T,T}:BOOL, p:T):ARRAY{T} is    filtered ::= #ARRAY{T};    loop v ::= a.elt!;      if cmp.call(v, p) then        filtered := filtered.append(|v|);      end;    end;    return filtered;  end;   private mlt(a, b:T):BOOL is return a < b; end;  private mgt(a, b:T):BOOL is return a > b; end;  quick_sort(inout a:ARRAY{T}) is    if a.size < 2 then return; end;    pivot ::= a.median;    left:ARRAY{T} := afilter(a, bind(mlt(_,_)), pivot);    right:ARRAY{T} := afilter(a, bind(mgt(_,_)), pivot);    quick_sort(inout left);    quick_sort(inout right);    res ::= #ARRAY{T};    res := res.append(left, |pivot|,  right);    a := res;  end;end;`
`class MAIN is  main is    a:ARRAY{INT} := |10, 9, 8, 7, 6, -10, 5, 4, 656, -11|;    b ::= a.copy;    SORT{INT}::quick_sort(inout a);    #OUT + a + "\n" + b.sort + "\n";  end;end;`

The ARRAY class has a builtin sorting method, which is quicksort (but under certain condition an insertion sort is used instead), exactly `quicksort_range`; this implementation is original.

## Scala

What follows is a progression on genericity here.

First, a quick sort of a list of integers:

`  def sort(xs: List[Int]): List[Int] = {    xs match {      case Nil => Nil      case x :: xx => {        // Arbitrarily partition list in two        val (lo, hi) = xx.partition(_ < x)        // Sort each half        sort(lo) ++ (x :: sort(hi))      }    }  }`

Next, a quick sort of a list of some type T, given a lessThan function:

`  def sort[T](xs: List[T], lessThan: (T, T) => Boolean): List[T] = {    xs match {      case Nil => Nil      case x :: xx => {        val (lo, hi) = xx.partition(lessThan(_, x))        sort(lo, lessThan) ++ (x :: sort(hi, lessThan))      }    }  }`

To take advantage of known orderings, a quick sort of a list of some type T, for which exists an implicit (or explicit) Ordering[T]:

`  def sort[T](xs: List[T])(implicit ord: Ordering[T]): List[T] = {    xs match {      case Nil => Nil      case x :: xx => {        val (lo, hi) = xx.partition(ord.lt(_, x))        sort[T](lo) ++ (x :: sort[T](hi))      }    }  } `

That last one could have worked with Ordering, but Ordering is Java, and doesn't have the less than operator. Ordered is Scala-specific, and provides it.

`  def sort[T <: Ordered[T]](xs: List[T]): List[T] = {    xs match {      case Nil => Nil      case x :: xx => {        val (lo, hi) = xx.partition(_ < x)        sort(lo) ++ (x :: sort(hi))      }    }  }`

What hasn't changed in all these examples is ordering a list. It is possible to write a generic quicksort in Scala, which will order any kind of collection. To do so, however, requires that the type of the collection, itself, be made a parameter to the function. Let's see it below, and then remark upon it:

`  def sort[T, C[T] <: scala.collection.TraversableLike[T, C[T]]]    (xs: C[T])    (implicit ord: scala.math.Ordering[T],      cbf: scala.collection.generic.CanBuildFrom[C[T], T, C[T]]): C[T] = {    // Some collection types can't pattern match    if (xs.isEmpty) {      xs    } else {      val (lo, hi) = xs.tail.partition(ord.lt(_, xs.head))      val b = cbf()      b.sizeHint(xs.size)      b ++= sort(lo)      b += xs.head      b ++= sort(hi)      b.result()    }  }`

The type of our collection is "C[T]", and, by providing C[T] as a type parameter to TraversableLike, we ensure C[T] is capable of returning instances of type C[T]. Traversable is the base type of all collections, and TraversableLike is a trait which contains the implementation of most Traversable methods.

We need another parameter, though, which is a factory capable of building a C[T] collection. That is being passed implicitly, so callers to this method do not need to provide them, as the collection they are using should already provide one as such implicitly. Because we need that implicitly, then we need to ask for the "T => Ordering[T]" as well, as the "T <: Ordered[T]" which provides it cannot be used in conjunction with implicit parameters.

The body of the function is from the list variant, since many of the Traversable collection types don't support pattern matching, "+:" or "::".

## Scheme

`(define (split-by l p k)  (let loop ((low '())             (high '())             (l l))    (cond ((null? l)           (k low high))          ((p (car l))           (loop low (cons (car l) high) (cdr l)))          (else           (loop (cons (car l) low) high (cdr l)))))) (define (quicksort l gt?)  (if (null? l)      '()      (split-by (cdr l)                 (lambda (x) (gt? x (car l)))                (lambda (low high)                  (append (quicksort low gt?)                          (list (car l))                          (quicksort high gt?)))))) (quicksort '(1 3 5 7 9 8 6 4 2) >)`

With srfi-1:

`(define (quicksort l gt?)  (if (null? l)      '()      (append (quicksort (filter (lambda (x) (gt? (car l) x)) (cdr l)) gt?)              (list (car l))              (quicksort (filter (lambda (x) (not (gt? (car l) x))) (cdr l)) gt?)))) (quicksort '(1 3 5 7 9 8 6 4 2) >) `

## Seed7

`const proc: quickSort (inout array elemType: arr, in integer: left, in integer: right) is func  local    var elemType: compare_elem is elemType.value;    var integer: less_idx is 0;    var integer: greater_idx is 0;    var elemType: help is elemType.value;  begin    if right > left then      compare_elem := arr[right];      less_idx := pred(left);      greater_idx := right;      repeat        repeat          incr(less_idx);        until arr[less_idx] >= compare_elem;        repeat          decr(greater_idx);        until arr[greater_idx] <= compare_elem or greater_idx = left;        if less_idx < greater_idx then          help := arr[less_idx];          arr[less_idx] := arr[greater_idx];          arr[greater_idx] := help;        end if;      until less_idx >= greater_idx;      arr[right] := arr[less_idx];      arr[less_idx] := compare_elem;      quickSort(arr, left, pred(less_idx));      quickSort(arr, succ(less_idx), right);    end if;  end func; const proc: quickSort (inout array elemType: arr) is func  begin    quickSort(arr, 1, length(arr));  end func;`

Original source: [2]

## SETL

In-place sort (looks much the same as the C version)

`a := [2,5,8,7,0,9,1,3,6,4];qsort(a);print(a); proc qsort(rw a);  if #a > 1 then    pivot := a(#a div 2 + 1);    l := 1;    r := #a;    (while l < r)      (while a(l) < pivot) l +:= 1; end;      (while a(r) > pivot) r -:= 1; end;      swap(a(l), a(r));    end;    qsort(a(1..l-1));    qsort(a(r+1..#a));  end if;end proc; proc swap(rw x, rw y);  [y,x] := [x,y];end proc;`

Copying sort using comprehensions:

`a := [2,5,8,7,0,9,1,3,6,4];print(qsort(a)); proc qsort(a);  if #a > 1 then    pivot := a(#a div 2 + 1);    a := qsort([x in a | x < pivot]) +         [x in a | x = pivot] +         qsort([x in a | x > pivot]);  end if;  return a;end proc;`

## Sidef

`func quicksort (a) {    a.len < 2 && return(a);    var p = a.pop_rand;          # to avoid the worst cases    __FUNC__(a.grep{ .< p}) + [p] + __FUNC__(a.grep{ .>= p});}`

## Simula

`PROCEDURE QUICKSORT(A); REAL ARRAY A;BEGIN     PROCEDURE QS(A, FIRST, LAST); REAL ARRAY A; INTEGER FIRST, LAST;    BEGIN        INTEGER LEFT, RIGHT;        LEFT := FIRST; RIGHT := LAST;        IF RIGHT - LEFT + 1 > 1 THEN        BEGIN            REAL PIVOT;            PIVOT := A((LEFT + RIGHT) // 2);             WHILE LEFT <= RIGHT DO            BEGIN                WHILE A(LEFT) < PIVOT DO LEFT := LEFT + 1;                WHILE A(RIGHT) > PIVOT DO RIGHT := RIGHT - 1;                IF LEFT <= RIGHT THEN                BEGIN                    REAL SWAP;                    SWAP := A(LEFT); A(LEFT) := A(RIGHT); A(RIGHT) := SWAP;                    LEFT := LEFT + 1; RIGHT := RIGHT - 1;                END;            END;            QS(A, FIRST, RIGHT);            QS(A, LEFT, LAST);        END;    END QS;     QS(A, LOWERBOUND(A, 1), UPPERBOUND(A, 1)); END QUICKSORT; `

## Standard ML

`fun quicksort [] = []  | quicksort (x::xs) =    let         val (left, right) = List.partition (fn y => y<x) xs    in        quicksort left @ [x] @ quicksort right    end `

Solution 2:

Without using List.partition

` fun par_helper([], x, l, r) = (l, r) |	par_helper(h::t, x, l, r) = 		if h <= x then 			par_helper(t, x, l @ [h], r)		else			par_helper(t, x, l, r @ [h]); fun par(l, x) = par_helper(l, x, [], []); fun quicksort [] = []  | quicksort (h::t) =    let         val (left, right) = par(t, h)    in        quicksort left @ [h] @ quicksort right    end;`

## Swift

`func quicksort<T where T : Comparable>(inout elements: [T], range: Range<Int>) {  if (range.endIndex - range.startIndex > 1) {    let pivotIndex = partition(&elements, range)    quicksort(&elements, range.startIndex ..< pivotIndex)    quicksort(&elements, pivotIndex+1 ..< range.endIndex)  }} func quicksort<T where T : Comparable>(inout elements: [T]) {  quicksort(&elements, indices(elements))}`

## Tcl

`package require Tcl 8.5 proc quicksort {m} {    if {[llength \$m] <= 1} {        return \$m    }    set pivot [lindex \$m 0]    set less [set equal [set greater [list]]]    foreach x \$m {        lappend [expr {\$x < \$pivot ? "less" : \$x > \$pivot ? "greater" : "equal"}] \$x    }    return [concat [quicksort \$less] \$equal [quicksort \$greater]]} puts [quicksort {8 6 4 2 1 3 5 7 9}] ;# => 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9`

## TypeScript

` /**  Generic quicksort function using typescript generics.  Follows quicksort as done in CLRS.*/export type Comparator<T> = (o1: T, o2: T) => number;  export function quickSort<T>(array: T[], compare: Comparator<T>) {  if (array.length <= 1 || array == null) {    return;  }  sort(array, compare, 0, array.length - 1);} function sort<T>(    array: T[], compare: Comparator<T>, low: number, high: number) {  if (low < high) {    const partIndex = partition(array, compare, low, high);    sort(array, compare, low, partIndex - 1);    sort(array, compare, partIndex + 1, high);  }} function partition<T>(    array: T[], compare: Comparator<T>, low: number, high: number): number {  const pivot: T = array[high];  let i: number = low - 1;  for (let j = low; j <= high - 1; j++) {    if (compare(array[j], pivot) == -1) {      i = i + 1;      swap(array, i, j)    }  }  if (compare(array[high], array[i + 1]) == -1) {    swap(array, i + 1, high);  }  return i + 1;} function swap<T>(array: T[], i: number, j: number) {  const newJ: T = array[i];  array[i] = array[j];  array[j] = newJ;} export function testQuickSort(): void {  function numberComparator(o1: number, o2: number): number {    if (o1 < o2) {      return -1;    } else if (o1 == o2) {      return 0;    }    return 1;  }  let tests: number[][] = [    [], [1], [2, 1], [-1, 2, -3], [3, 16, 8, -5, 6, 4], [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6],    [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]  ];   for (let testArray of tests) {    quickSort(testArray, numberComparator);    console.log(testArray);  }} `

## uBasic/4tH

`PRINT "Quick sort:"  n = FUNC (_InitArray)  PROC _ShowArray (n)  PROC _Quicksort (n)  PROC _ShowArray (n)PRINT END  _InnerQuick PARAM(2)  LOCAL(4)   IF [email protected] < 2 THEN RETURN  [email protected] = [email protected] + [email protected] - 1  [email protected] = [email protected]  [email protected] = [email protected]  [email protected] = @(([email protected] + [email protected]) / 2)   DO    DO WHILE @([email protected]) < [email protected]      [email protected] = [email protected] + 1    LOOP     DO WHILE @([email protected]) > [email protected]      [email protected] = [email protected] - 1    LOOP     IF [email protected] - 1 < [email protected] THEN      PROC _Swap ([email protected], [email protected])      [email protected] = [email protected] + 1      [email protected] = [email protected] - 1    ENDIF     UNTIL [email protected] > [email protected]  LOOP   IF [email protected] < [email protected] THEN PROC _InnerQuick ([email protected], [email protected] - [email protected] + 1)  IF [email protected] < [email protected] THEN PROC _InnerQuick ([email protected], [email protected] - [email protected] + 1)RETURN  _Quicksort PARAM(1)                   ' Quick sort  PROC _InnerQuick (0, [email protected])RETURN  _Swap PARAM(2)                         ' Swap two array elements  PUSH @([email protected])  @([email protected]) = @([email protected])  @([email protected]) = POP()RETURN  _InitArray                             ' Init example array  PUSH 4, 65, 2, -31, 0, 99, 2, 83, 782, 1   FOR i = 0 TO 9    @(i) = POP()  NEXT RETURN (i)  _ShowArray PARAM (1)                   ' Show array subroutine  FOR i = 0 TO [email protected]    PRINT @(i),  NEXT   PRINTRETURN`

## UnixPipes

Works with: Zsh
`split() {  (while read n ; do      test \$1 -gt \$n && echo \$n > \$2 || echo \$n > \$3  done)} qsort() { (read p; test -n "\$p" && (     lc="1.\$1" ; gc="2.\$1"     split \$p >(qsort \$lc >\$lc) >(qsort \$gc >\$gc);     cat \$lc <(echo \$p) \$gc     rm -f \$lc \$gc; ))} cat to.sort | qsort`

## Ursala

The distributing bipartition operator, *|, is useful for this algorithm. The pivot is chosen as the greater of the first two items, this being the least sophisticated method sufficient to ensure termination. The quicksort function is a higher order function parameterized by the relational predicate p, which can be chosen appropriately for the type of items in the list being sorted. This example demonstrates sorting a list of natural numbers.

`#import nat quicksort "p" = ~&itB^?a\~&a ^|WrlT/~& "p"*|^\~& "p"?hthPX/~&th ~&h #cast %nL example = quicksort(nleq) <694,1377,367,506,3712,381,1704,1580,475,1872>`
Output:
```<367,381,475,506,694,1377,1580,1704,1872,3712>
```

## V

`[qsort  [joinparts [p [*l1] [*l2] : [*l1 p *l2]] view].  [split_on_first uncons [>] split].  [small?]    []    [split_on_first [l1 l2 : [l1 qsort l2 qsort joinparts]] view i]  ifte].`

The way of joy (using binrec)

`[qsort   [small?] []     [uncons [>] split]     [[p [*l] [*g] : [*l p *g]] view]    binrec].`

## VBA

This is the "simple" quicksort, using temporary arrays.

` Public Sub Quick(a() As Variant, last As Integer)' quicksort a Variant array (1-based, numbers or strings)Dim aLess() As VariantDim aEq() As VariantDim aGreater() As VariantDim pivot As VariantDim naLess As IntegerDim naEq As IntegerDim naGreater As Integer If last > 1 Then    'choose pivot in the middle of the array    pivot = a(Int((last + 1) / 2))    'construct arrays    naLess = 0    naEq = 0    naGreater = 0    For Each el In a()      If el > pivot Then        naGreater = naGreater + 1        ReDim Preserve aGreater(1 To naGreater)        aGreater(naGreater) = el      ElseIf el < pivot Then        naLess = naLess + 1        ReDim Preserve aLess(1 To naLess)        aLess(naLess) = el      Else        naEq = naEq + 1        ReDim Preserve aEq(1 To naEq)        aEq(naEq) = el      End If    Next    'sort arrays "less" and "greater"    Quick aLess(), naLess    Quick aGreater(), naGreater    'concatenate    P = 1    For i = 1 To naLess      a(P) = aLess(i): P = P + 1    Next    For i = 1 To naEq      a(P) = aEq(i): P = P + 1    Next    For i = 1 To naGreater      a(P) = aGreater(i): P = P + 1    NextEnd IfEnd Sub Public Sub QuicksortTest()Dim a(1 To 26) As Variant  'populate a with numbers in descending order, then sort For i = 1 To 26: a(i) = 26 - i: Next Quick a(), 26 For i = 1 To 26: Debug.Print a(i);: Next Debug.Print 'now populate a with strings in descending order, then sort For i = 1 To 26: a(i) = Chr\$(Asc("z") + 1 - i) & "-stuff": Next Quick a(), 26 For i = 1 To 26: Debug.Print a(i); " ";: Next Debug.PrintEnd Sub  `
Output:
```quicksorttest
0  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14  15  16  17  18  19  20  21  22  23  24  25
a-stuff b-stuff c-stuff d-stuff e-stuff f-stuff g-stuff h-stuff i-stuff j-stuff k-stuff l-stuff m-stuff n-stuff o-stuff p-stuff q-stuff r-stuff s-stuff t-stuff u-stuff v-stuff w-stuff x-stuff y-stuff z-stuff
```

Note: the "quicksort in place"

## VBScript

Translation of: BBC BASIC
`Function quicksort(arr,s,n)	l = s	r = s + n - 1	p = arr(Int((l + r)/2))	Do Until l > r		Do While arr(l) < p			l = l + 1		Loop		Do While arr(r) > p			r = r -1		Loop		If l <= r Then			tmp = arr(l)			arr(l) = arr(r)			arr(r) = tmp			l = l + 1			r = r - 1		End If	Loop	If s < r Then		Call quicksort(arr,s,r-s+1)	End If	If l < t Then		Call quicksort(arr,l,t-l+1)	End If	quicksort = arrEnd Function myarray=Array(9,8,7,6,5,5,4,3,2,1,0,-1)m = quicksort(myarray,0,12)WScript.Echo Join(m,",")`
Output:
`-1,0,1,2,3,4,5,5,6,7,8,9`

## Wart

`def (qsort (pivot ... ns))  (+ (qsort+keep (fn(_) (_ < pivot)) ns)     list.pivot     (qsort+keep (fn(_) (_ > pivot)) ns)) def (qsort x) :case x=nil  nil`

## XPL0

`include c:\cxpl\codes;          \intrinsic 'code' declarationsstring 0;                       \use zero-terminated strings proc    QSort(Array, Num);      \Quicksort Array into ascending orderchar    Array;                  \address of array to sortint     Num;                    \number of elements in the arrayint     I, J, Mid, Temp;[I:= 0;J:= Num-1;Mid:= Array(J>>1);while I <= J do       [while Array(I) < Mid do I:= I+1;        while Array(J) > Mid do J:= J-1;        if I <= J then                [Temp:= Array(I);  Array(I):= Array(J);  Array(J):= Temp;                I:= I+1;                J:= J-1;                ];        ];if I < Num-1 then QSort(@Array(I), Num-I);if J > 0 then QSort(Array, J+1);];      \QSort func    StrLen(Str);            \Return number of characters in an ASCIIZ stringchar    Str;int     I;for I:= 0 to -1>>1-1 do        if Str(I) = 0 then return I; char    Str;[Str:= "Pack my box with five dozen liquor jugs.";QSort(Str, StrLen(Str), 1);Text(0, Str);  CrLf(0);]`
Output:
```       .Pabcdeefghiiijklmnoooqrstuuvwxyz
```

## zkl

These are the Wikipedia algorithms.

Quick sort immutable sequence using crappy pivot choice:

`fcn qtSort(list,cmp=Op("<")){	// sort immutable lists   fcn(list,cmp,N){	// spendy to keep recreating cmp      reg pivot=list[0], rest=list[1,*];      left,right:=rest.filter22(cmp,pivot);      N+=1;      T.extend(self.fcn(left,cmp,N),T(pivot),self.fcn(right,cmp,N));   }(list,cmp,0);}`

In place quick sort:

`fcn qiSort(list,cmp='<){		// in place quick sort   fcn(list,left,right,cmp){      if (left<right){	 // partition list	 pivotIndex:=(left+right)/2; // or median of first,middle,last	 pivot:=list[pivotIndex];	 list.swap(pivotIndex,right);	// move pivot to end	 pivotIndex:=left;	 i:=left; do(right-left){	// foreach i in ([left..right-1])	    if(cmp(list[i],pivot)){	// not cheap	       list.swap(i,pivotIndex);	       pivotIndex+=1;	    }	    i+=1;	 }	 list.swap(pivotIndex,right);	// move pivot to final place 	 // sort the partitions         self.fcn(list,left,pivotIndex-1,cmp);	 return(self.fcn(list,pivotIndex+1,right,cmp));      }   }(list,0,list.len()-1,cmp);   list;}`