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Unix/ls

From Rosetta Code
Task
Unix/ls
You are encouraged to solve this task according to the task description, using any language you may know.
Task

Write a program that will list everything in the current folder,   similar to:

  •   the Unix utility   “ls”   [1]       or
  •   the Windows terminal command   “DIR


The output must be sorted, but printing extended details and producing multi-column output is not required.


Example output

For the list of paths:

/foo/bar
/foo/bar/1
/foo/bar/2
/foo/bar/a
/foo/bar/b


When the program is executed in   `/foo`,   it should print:

bar

and when the program is executed in   `/foo/bar`,   it should print:

1
2
a
b



8080 Assembly[edit]

This program runs under CP/M and lists the current directory. CP/M does not return the filenames in sorted order, so it has to do the sorting itself.

dma:		equ	80h
puts: equ 9h ; Write string to console
sfirst: equ 11h ; Find first matching file
snext: equ 12h ; Get next matching file
org 100h
;;; First, retrieve all filenames in current directory
;;; CP/M has function 11h (sfirst) and function 13h (snext)
;;; to return the first, and then following, files that
;;; match a wildcard.
lxi d,0 ; Amount of files
push d ; Push on stack
lxi h,fnames ; Start of area to save names
push h ; Push on stack
lxi d,fcb ; FCB that will match any file
mvi c,sfirst ; Get the first file
getnames: call 5 ; Call CP/M BDOS
inr a
jz namesdone ; FF = we have all files
dcr a ; Dir entry is at DMA+32*A
rrc ; Rotate 3 right, same as
rrc ; rotate 5 left, *32
rrc
adi dma+1 ; Add DMA offset + 1 (filename offset)
mov e,a ; Low byte of address
mvi d,0 ; High byte is 0
mvi b,8 ; Filename is 8 bytes
pop h ; Get pointer to name area
call memcpy ; Copy the name
mvi m,' ' ; Separate name and extension
inx h
mvi b,3 ; Extension is 3 bytes
call memcpy ; Copy the extension
mvi m,13 ; While we're at it, terminate
inx h ; the filename with \r\n
mvi m,10
inx h
pop d ; Get amount of files
inx d ; Increment it (we've added a file)
push d ; Put it back onto the stack
push h ; Put the name pointer on the stack too
mvi c,snext ; Go get the next file
jmp getnames
namesdone: pop h ; Terminate the file list with $
mvi m,'$' ; so it can be printed with function 9
;;; CP/M does not keep its directory in sorted order,
;;; so we need to sort the list of files ourselves.
;;; What follows is a simple insertion sort.
lxi d,1 ; DE (i) = 1
sortouter: pop h ; Get amount of files
push h
call cmpdehl ; i < length(files)?
jnc sortdone ; If not, we're done
push d ; push i; DE (j) = i
sortinner: push d ; push j
mov a,d ; j > 0?
ora e
jz sortinnerdone ; If not, inner loop is done
dcx d ; DE = j-1
call lookup ; HL = files[j-1]
push h ; push files[j-1]
inx d ; DE = j
call lookup ; HL = files[j]
pop d ; pop DE = files[j-1]
push d ; keep them across comparison
push h
call cmpentries ; A[j] >= A[j-1]?
pop h
pop d
jc sortinnerdone ; Then inner loop is done.
mvi b,12 ; Otherwise we should swap them
swaploop: ldax d ; Get byte from files[j-1]
mov c,m ; Get byte from files[j]
mov m,a ; files[j][x]=files[j-1][x]
mov a,c ; files[j-1][x]=files[j]-[x]
stax d
inx h ; Increment pointers
inx d
dcr b ; all 12 bytes done yet?
jnz swaploop ; if not, swap next byte
pop d ; DE = j
dcx d ; j = j-1
jmp sortinner
sortinnerdone: pop d ; pop j
pop d ; pop i
inx d ; i = i + 1
jmp sortouter
sortdone: pop h ; Remove file count from stack
;;; We're done sorting the list, print it.
lxi d,fnames ; Print the now sorted list of files
mvi c,puts
jmp 5
;;; Subroutine: compare entries under DE and HL
cmpentries: mvi b,12 ; Each entry has 12 relevant bytes.
cmploop: ldax d ; Get byte from entry DE
cmp m ; Compare with byte from entry HL
rnz ; If they differ, we know the ordering
inx h ; Increment both pointers
inx d
dcr b ; Decrement byte counter
jnz cmploop ; Compare next byte
ret
;;; Subroutine: look up filename entry (HL=DE*14+fnames)
lookup: push d ; Save entry number
mov h,d
mov l,e
dad h ; HL = HL' * 2
dad d ; HL = HL' * 3
dad h ; HL = HL' * 6
dad d ; HL = HL' * 7
dad h ; HL = HL' * 14
lxi d,fnames ; Offset
dad d ; Add the offset
pop d ; Restore entry number
ret
;;; Subroutine: compare DE and HL
cmpdehl: mov a,d
cmp h
rnz
mov a,e
cmp l
ret
;;; Subroutine: copy B bytes from DE to HL
memcpy: ldax d ; Get byte from source
mov m,a ; Store byte at destination
inx h ; Increment both pointers
inx d
dcr b ; Done yet?
jnz memcpy ; If not, copy next byte
ret
;;; File control block used to specify wildcard
fcb: db 0,'???????????' ; Accept any file
ds fcb+36-$ ; Pad the FCB out to 36 bytes
fnames:


8th[edit]

 
"*" f:glob
' s:cmp a:sort
"\n" a:join .
 

Ada[edit]

with Ada.Text_IO, Ada.Directories, Ada.Containers.Indefinite_Vectors; 
 
procedure Directory_List is
 
use Ada.Directories, Ada.Text_IO;
Search: Search_Type; Found: Directory_Entry_Type;
package SV is new Ada.Containers.Indefinite_Vectors(Natural, String);
Result: SV.Vector;
package Sorting is new SV.Generic_Sorting; use Sorting;
function SName return String is (Simple_Name(Found));
 
begin
-- search directory and store it in Result, a vector of strings
Start_Search(Search, Directory => ".", Pattern =>"");
while More_Entries(Search) loop
Get_Next_Entry(Search, Found);
declare
Name: String := Simple_Name(Found);
begin
if Name(Name'First) /= '.' then
Result.Append(Name);
end if; -- ingnore filenames beginning with "."
end;
end loop; -- Result holds the entire directory in arbitrary order
 
Sort(Result); -- Result holds the directory in proper order
 
-- print Result
for I in Result.First_Index .. Result.Last_Index loop
Put_Line(Result.Element(I));
end loop;
end Directory_List;

Aime[edit]

record r;
file f;
text s;
 
f.opendir(1.argv);
 
while (~f.case(s)) {
if (s != "." && s != "..") {
r[s] = 0;
}
}
 
r.vcall(o_, 0, "\n");

Arturo[edit]

print [dirContent "."]

AWK[edit]

Works with: gawk
"BEGINFILE" is a gawk-extension
 
# syntax: GAWK -f UNIX_LS.AWK * | SORT
BEGINFILE {
printf("%s\n",FILENAME)
nextfile
}
END {
exit(0)
}
 

Sample commands and output under Windows 8:

REM create folders and files
MKDIR c:\foo\bar
CD /D c:\foo\bar
GAWK "BEGIN{x=\"12ab\";for(i=1;i<=length(x);i++){print(i)>substr(x,i,1)}}"
REM run test
CD /D c:\foo
GAWK -f UNIX_LS.AWK * | SORT
bar
CD /D c:\foo\bar
GAWK -f UNIX_LS.AWK * | SORT
1
2
a
b
Works with: gawk

To replicate 'ls .'

gawk -lreaddir 'BEGIN { FS = "/" } {print $2}' .
Works with: gawk

To replicate 'ls examplefile.txt'

gawk -lfilefuncs -lreaddir 'BEGIN { FS = "/"; stat(ARGV[1], fd); if(fd["type"] == "file") {print ARGV[1]; exit} } { print $2}' examplefile.txt

BaCon[edit]

' Emulate ls
cnt% = 0
files$ = ""
OPEN CURDIR$ FOR DIRECTORY AS mydir
GETFILE myfile$ FROM mydir
WHILE ISTRUE(LEN(myfile$))
IF LEFT$(myfile$, 1) != "." THEN
INCR cnt%
files$ = APPEND$(files$, cnt%, UNFLATTEN$(myfile$))
ENDIF
GETFILE myfile$ FROM mydir
WEND
CLOSE DIRECTORY mydir
IF cnt% > 0 THEN
FOR f$ IN SORT$(files$)
PRINT FLATTEN$(f$)
NEXT
ENDIF

C[edit]

C does not have any os-independent way of reading a directory. The following uses readdir and should work on any Unix system.

 
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <limits.h>
#include <sys/types.h>
#include <dirent.h>
#include <unistd.h>
 
int cmpstr(const void *a, const void *b)
{
return strcmp(*(const char**)a, *(const char**)b);
}
 
int main(void)
{
DIR *basedir;
char path[PATH_MAX];
struct dirent *entry;
char **dirnames;
int diralloc = 128;
int dirsize = 0;
 
if (!(dirnames = malloc(diralloc * sizeof(char*)))) {
perror("malloc error:");
return 1;
}
 
if (!getcwd(path, PATH_MAX)) {
perror("getcwd error:");
return 1;
}
 
if (!(basedir = opendir(path))) {
perror("opendir error:");
return 1;
}
 
while ((entry = readdir(basedir))) {
if (dirsize >= diralloc) {
diralloc *= 2;
if (!(dirnames = realloc(dirnames, diralloc * sizeof(char*)))) {
perror("realloc error:");
return 1;
}
}
dirnames[dirsize++] = strdup(entry->d_name);
}
 
qsort(dirnames, dirsize, sizeof(char*), cmpstr);
 
int i;
for (i = 0; i < dirsize; ++i) {
if (dirnames[i][0] != '.') {
printf("%s\n", dirnames[i]);
}
}
 
for (i = 0; i < dirsize; ++i)
free(dirnames[i]);
free(dirnames);
closedir(basedir);
return 0;
}
 

C#[edit]

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.IO;
using System.Linq;
using System.Threading.Tasks;
 
namespace Unix_ls
{
public class UnixLS
{
public static void Main(string[] args)
{
UnixLS ls = new UnixLS();
ls.list(args.Length.Equals(0) ? "." : args[0]);
}
 
private void list(string folder)
{
foreach (FileSystemInfo fileSystemInfo in new DirectoryInfo(folder).EnumerateFileSystemInfos("*", SearchOption.TopDirectoryOnly))
{
Console.WriteLine(fileSystemInfo.Name);
}
}
}
}

C++[edit]

Library: Boost
 
#include <iostream>
#include <set>
#include <boost/filesystem.hpp>
 
namespace fs = boost::filesystem;
 
int main(void)
{
fs::path p(fs::current_path());
std::set<std::string> tree;
 
for (auto it = fs::directory_iterator(p); it != fs::directory_iterator(); ++it)
tree.insert(it->path().filename().native());
 
for (auto entry : tree)
std::cout << entry << '\n';
}
 

Clojure[edit]

(def files (sort (filter #(= "." (.getParent %)) (file-seq (clojure.java.io/file ".")))))
 
(doseq [n files] (println (.getName n)))

Common Lisp[edit]

In some implementations, `(directory)` results automatically include subdirectories (e.g. SBCL); some require them to be requested separately (e.g. CLISP). The function below asks for both and then removes any duplicates from the resulting list.

The workhorse is `files-list`, which returns a list of filenames. The `ls` function sorts the resulting list and formats it for output.

(defun files-list (&optional (path "."))
(let* ((dir (concatenate 'string path "/"))
(abs-path (car (directory dir)))
(file-pattern (concatenate 'string dir "*"))
(subdir-pattern (concatenate 'string file-pattern "/")))
(remove-duplicates
(mapcar (lambda (p) (enough-namestring p abs-path))
(mapcan #'directory (list file-pattern subdir-pattern)))
:test #'string-equal)))
 
(defun ls (&optional (path "."))
(format t "~{~a~%~}" (sort (files-list path) #'string-lessp)))

D[edit]

void main() {
import std.stdio, std.file, std.path, std.array, std.algorithm;
 
foreach (const string path; dirEntries(getcwd, SpanMode.shallow).array.sort)
path.baseName.writeln;
}

EchoLisp[edit]

No directory in EchoLisp, which is run in a browser window. Instead, "stores" (folders) and keys in stores (file names) are located in local storage.

 
;; ls of stores (kind of folders)
(for-each writeln (list-sort < (local-stores)))
AGES
NEMESIS
info
objects.dat
reader
system
user
words
 
;; ls of "NEMESIS" store
(for-each writeln (local-keys "NEMESIS"))
Alan
Glory
Jonah
 

Elixir[edit]

iex(1)> ls = fn dir -> File.ls!(dir) |> Enum.each(&IO.puts &1) end
#Function<6.54118792/1 in :erl_eval.expr/5>
iex(2)> ls.("foo")
bar
:ok
iex(3)> ls.("foo/bar")
1
2
a
b
:ok

Erlang[edit]

 
1> Ls = fun(Dir) ->
1> {ok, DirContents} = file:list_dir(Dir),
1> [io:format("~s~n", [X]) || X <- lists:sort(DirContents)]
1> end.
#Fun<erl_eval.6.36634728>
2> Ls("foo").
bar
[ok]
3> Ls("foo/bar").
1
2
a
b
[ok,ok,ok,ok]
 

F#[edit]

Works with .NET framework 4.

let ls = DirectoryInfo(".").EnumerateFileSystemInfos() |> Seq.map (fun i -> i.Name) |> Seq.sort |> Seq.iter (printfn "%s")

Prior to .NET4 you had to enumerate files and directories separately.

The call to sort is probably redundant, since "sorted by name" seems to be the default in Windows.

Forth[edit]

This is much easier without the 'sorted output' requirement:

256 buffer: filename-buf
: each-filename { xt -- } \ xt-consuming variant
s" ." open-dir throw { d }
begin filename-buf 256 d read-dir throw while
filename-buf swap xt execute
repeat d close-dir throw ;
 
\ immediate variant
: each-filename[ s" ." postpone sliteral ]] open-dir throw >r begin filename-buf 256 [email protected] read-dir throw while filename-buf swap [[ ; immediate compile-only
: ]each-filename ]] repeat drop r> close-dir throw [[ ; immediate compile-only
 
: ls ( -- ) [: cr type ;] each-filename ;

Given that requirement, we must first generate a sorted array of filenames:

: save-string ( c-addr u -- a )
dup 1+ allocate throw dup >r place r> ;
 
require ffl/car.fs
: sorted-filenames ( -- car )
0 car-new { a }
[: swap count rot count compare ;] a car-compare!
each-filename[ save-string a car-insert-sorted ]each-filename
a ;
 
: each-sorted-filename ( xt -- )
sorted-filenames { a } a car-execute [: free throw ;] a car-execute a car-free ;
 
: ls ( -- )
[: count cr type ;] each-sorted-filename ;
 

Fortran[edit]

This is possible only for those Fortran compilers that offer some sort of interface with the operating system's file handling routines. Not standard at all!
      PROGRAM LS		!Names the files in the current directory.
USE DFLIB !Mysterious library.
TYPE(FILE$INFO) INFO !With mysterious content.
NAMELIST /HIC/INFO !This enables annotated output.
INTEGER MARK,L !Assistants.
 
MARK = FILE$FIRST !Starting state.
Call for the next file.
10 L = GETFILEINFOQQ("*",INFO,MARK) !Mystery routine returns the length of the file name.
IF (MARK.EQ.FILE$ERROR) THEN !Or possibly, not.
WRITE (6,*) "Error!",L !Something went wrong.
WRITE (6,HIC) !Reveal INFO, annotated.
STOP "That wasn't nice." !Quite.
ELSE IF (IAND(INFO.PERMIT,FILE$DIR) .EQ. 0) THEN !Not a directory.
IF (L.GT.0) WRITE (6,*) INFO.NAME(1:L) !The object of the exercise!
END IF !So much for that entry.
IF (MARK.NE.FILE$LAST) GO TO 10 !Lastness is discovered after the last file is fingered.
END !If FILE$LAST is not reached, "system resources may be lost."
This relies on the supplied routine GETFILEINFOQQ, which is not at all a standard routine, but it does behave in the same way as is found in many other systems, notably with a file name selection filter, here chosen to be "*" meaning "any file". It supplies successive file names and requires mysterious parameters to keep track of what it is doing. In the installation file C:/Compilers/Furrytran/Compaq Furrytran 6.6a CD/X86/DF/INCLUDE/DFLIB.F90, there is the following segment:
      INTERFACE
INTEGER*4 FUNCTION GETFILEINFOQQ(FILES, BUFFER,dwHANDLE)
!DEC$ ATTRIBUTES DEFAULT :: GETFILEINFOQQ
CHARACTER*(*) FILES
STRUCTURE / FILE$INFO /
INTEGER*4 CREATION ! Creation time (-1 on FAT)
INTEGER*4 LASTWRITE ! Last write to file
INTEGER*4 LASTACCESS ! Last access (-1 on FAT)
INTEGER*4 LENGTH ! Length of file
INTEGER*2 PERMIT ! File access mode
CHARACTER*255 NAME ! File name
END STRUCTURE
RECORD / FILE$INFO / BUFFER
INTEGER*4 dwHANDLE
END FUNCTION
END INTERFACE

Getting this to work was quite annoying. It turned out that the irritating "files" . and .. are deemed a directory (via the bit in INFO.PERMIT matching that of FILE$DIR = 16) and so can be skipped along with proper subdirectories, but the "PERMIT" value of -1 returned for the FILE$LAST state also matches, though its (non-existent) file name length is given as zero. Thus, if one skips directories filter-style by IF ... GO TO 10, in such a case the end will never be seen. Further, although Fortran syntax allows INFO.PERMIT .AND. FILE$DIR the bit values of logical variables are strange. Instead, what is needed is IAND(INFO.PERMIT,FILE$DIR)

Further vexation was due to the compiler's "help" system giving PERMIT as a 32-bit integer in its example. Copying the declaration to give a type name not involving a dollar symbol foundered because the type checking done by the compiler for the parameters of the function is based not on the contents of the type matching, but on the name of the type matching. So, one is stuck with the $. In a mood for retaliation, some special tests were made, involving a pause for input after each name was revealed. Removing the file just named before responding to the request for input did not prevent the next file from being named, nor (in another run) did removing the file next to be named: although it was gone, it was still named in the next step as if it were still there, and this worked even if INFO.NAME were scrubbed each time as well. Evidently, there could arise transient problems when using this scheme in a file system undergoing turbulence.

As for the ordering of results, on this Windows XP system, the file names came out ordered so there is no need to mess about with a storage area to sort the names in.

FunL[edit]

import io.File
 
for f <- sort( list(File( "." ).list()).filterNot(s -> s.startsWith(".")) )
println( f )
Output:

The above script has been placed in a file called ls.lf which has been placed in the home directory.

$ sudo mkdir -p /foo/bar
$ cd /foo/bar
$ sudo touch 1 2 a b
$ cd ..
$ funl ~/ls
bar
$ cd bar
$ funl ~/ls
1
2
a
b
$ 

Furor[edit]

The following program lists just the subdirectories, regular files and symlinks, because I do no need the other gizmos generally, but based on these abovementioned file types it is easy to expand with them, if it is necessary.

The output is indeed sorted, but not all filetypes alltogether: the sorting algorythm is invoked for the different filetypes separately, because it is the way I like it!

 
###sysinclude dir.uh
###sysinclude stringextra.uh
 
###define COLORS
// delete the COLORS directive above if you do not want colored output!
{ „vonal” __usebigbossnamespace myself "-" 90 makestring() }
{ „points” __usebigbossnamespace myself "." 60 makestring() }
#g argc 3 < { "." }{ 2 argv } sto mypath
@mypath 'd !istrue { ."The give directory doesn't exist! Exited.\n" end }
@mypath getdir { ."Cannot load the dir! Aborted.\n" end } sto mydir
 
@mydir ~d {
."Directories:\n"
@mydir ~d {| #s
@mydir 'd {} octalrights dup print free SPACE
@mydir 'd {} getfilename dup 37 stub print SPACE drop
@mydir 'd {} groupname ': !+
@mydir 'd {} ownername dup sto temp + dup 10 stub print free @temp free
@mydir 'd {} mtime dup print free
NL |}
@points sprint
@mydir ~d { ."Total: " @mydir ~d #g print ." subdirectories.\n" }
@vonal sprint
}
@mydir ~r {
."Regular files:\n"
@mydir ~r {| #s
@mydir 'r {} octalrights dup print free SPACE
@mydir 'r {} getfilesize sbr §ifcolored
@mydir 'r {} executable { ." >" }{ ." " } SPACE
@mydir 'r {} getfilename dup 37 stub print SPACE drop
@mydir 'r {} groupname ': !+
@mydir 'r {} ownername dup sto temp + dup 10 stub print free @temp free
@mydir 'r {} mtime dup print free
NL |}
@points sprint
@mydir ~r { ."Total: " @mydir ~r #g print ." regular files. "
."TotalSize = " @mydir 'r totalsize sbr §ifcolored NL
}
@vonal sprint
}
@mydir ~L {
."Symlinks:\n"
@mydir ~L {| #s
@mydir 'L {} octalrights dup print free SPACE
@mydir 'L {} executable { .">" }{ SPACE } SPACE
@mydir 'L {} getfilename dup 67 stub print SPACE drop
@mydir 'L {} broken { ."--->" }{ ."===>" } SPACE
@mydir 'L {} destination dup 30 stub print drop
NL |}
@points sprint
@mydir ~L { ."Total: " @mydir ~L #g print ." symlinks.\n"
}
}
@vonal sprint
."Size, alltogether = " @mydir alltotal sbr §ifcolored NL
@vonal sprint
@mydir free
."Free spaces: /* Total size of the filesystem is : " @mypath filesystemsize dup sto filsize sbr §ifcolored ." */\n"
." for non-privilegized use: " @mypath freenonpriv dup sbr §ifcolored
#g 100 * @filsize / ." ( " print ."% ) " NL
." All available free space: " @mypath totalfree dup sbr §ifcolored
#g 100 * @filsize / ." ( " print ."% ) " NL
end
 
ifcolored:
###ifdef COLORS
coloredsize
###endif
###ifndef COLORS
#g !(#s) 21 >|
###endif
dup sprint free
rts
 
{ „filsize” }
{ „mydir” }
{ „mypath” }
{ „temp” }
{ „makestring” #s * dup 10 !+ swap free #g = }
 
Output:

An example output:

Directories:
0775 arrays                                vz:vz     2020.05.08 15:00:34 P  
0775 Brainfukk                             vz:vz     2020.03.28 16:06:37 Szo
0775 examples                              vz:vz     2020.06.07 19:26:48 V  
0775 furorfonts                            vz:vz     2020.05.09 10:46:19 Szo
0775 furorheaders                          vz:vz     2020.06.02 00:37:36 K  
0775 hasznosvolt                           vz:vz     2020.05.09 15:19:09 Szo
0775 headers                               vz:vz     2020.05.30 19:20:18 Szo
0775 kiserleti                             vz:vz     2020.05.13 19:24:23 Sze
0775 libraries                             vz:vz     2020.06.07 19:25:25 V  
0775 OLD                                   vz:vz     2020.06.07 23:29:10 V  
0775 tests                                 vz:vz     2020.03.16 23:00:47 H  
0775 useful                                vz:vz     2020.06.07 23:24:42 V  
............................................................
Total: 12 subdirectories.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Regular files:
0664                  3313   __furor.c                             vz:vz     2020.05.23 14:30:17 Szo
0664                871113   A_Furor_programozasi_nyelv.odt        vz:vz     2020.06.07 23:24:25 V  
0664                  9046   castingoperators.c                    vz:vz     2020.04.28 16:05:35 K  
0664                 32414   cmpoperators.c                        vz:vz     2020.06.06 18:23:20 Szo
0664                  2424   dir.upu                               vz:vz     2020.06.09 09:47:00 K  
0664                  1187   eca.upu                               vz:vz     2020.06.07 23:13:06 V  
0664                  2630   fonttest.upu                          vz:vz     2020.05.24 23:43:48 V  
0775                 10756 > furor                                 vz:vz     2020.06.07 19:25:25 V  
0664                    81   furordescriptorlength.upu             vz:vz     2020.06.07 19:26:19 V  
0664                 85399   furorrun.c                            vz:vz     2020.06.07 19:25:12 V  
0664                   509   furt.upu                              vz:vz     2020.06.02 00:31:17 K  
0664                 13150   jumpingtable.c                        vz:vz     2020.06.06 20:58:26 Szo
0644                563834   Kajjam700.png                         vz:vz     2013.07.31 01:38:01 Sze
0664                 21392   keywords.c                            vz:vz     2020.06.07 19:23:58 V  
0664                  5399   labelledloops.c                       vz:vz     2020.05.28 09:43:50 Cs 
0664                  2040   langtonsant.upu                       vz:vz     2020.05.25 15:25:41 H  
0664                  2581   libraries.sh                          vz:vz     2020.06.02 00:28:27 K  
0664                    84   link.txt                              vz:vz     2020.06.02 00:56:22 K  
0664                    41   lowercasealphabet.upu                 vz:vz     2020.06.05 22:40:34 P  
0664                  1035   Makefile                              vz:vz     2020.04.09 22:24:12 Cs 
0664                  1646   makeup.c                              vz:vz     2020.06.01 20:09:30 H  
0664                   884   mandelbrot9.upu                       vz:vz     2020.06.06 18:06:48 Szo
0664                 22767   maze.upu                              vz:vz     2020.05.04 18:26:14 H  
0664                   669   myxmodmap.fur                         vz:vz     2020.05.11 18:51:59 H  
0664                   240   neglect.upu                           vz:vz     2020.05.16 19:33:13 Szo
0644                131072   pibinary.bin                          vz:vz     2018.06.07 22:36:54 Cs 
0664                  1270   pngxproba.upu                         vz:vz     2020.05.09 20:08:50 Szo
0664                  1275   pngxproba2.upu                        vz:vz     2020.05.06 21:15:24 Sze
0644                   504   preinitpostmortem.c                   vz:vz     2020.03.26 13:03:12 Cs 
0644               5891695   primszamok.txt                        vz:vz     2017.01.23 18:33:14 H  
0664                   954   statusbar.upu                         vz:vz     2020.06.08 21:11:06 H  
0664                  3447   t.txt                                 vz:vz     2020.06.08 22:00:05 H  
0644                  7401   UPU.syntax                            vz:vz     2020.05.25 22:34:33 H  
0664                  2000   verify.upu                            vz:vz     2020.04.29 21:10:02 Sze
0664                   188   windowsresolutions.upu                vz:vz     2020.06.02 00:36:08 K  
0664                   816   xproba.upu                            vz:vz     2020.05.11 11:39:39 H  
0664                   931   xprobafur.upu                         vz:vz     2020.05.11 18:49:16 H  
............................................................
Total: 37 regular files. TotalSize =               7696187
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Size, alltogether =               7745339
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Free spaces:   /* Total size of the filesystem is :          126693117952 */
  for non-privilegized use:           13951995904 ( 11% ) 
  All available free space:           20411224064 ( 16% ) 

It is not visible on the output above, but the digits in the filesize are colored, each 3 digits has different color.

Gambas[edit]

Public Sub Main()
Dim sDir As String[] = Dir(User.Home &/ "test").Sort()
 
Print sDir.Join(gb.NewLine)
 
End

Output:

a.txt
b.txt
c.txt
d.txt
e.txt

Go[edit]

package main
 
import (
"fmt"
"log"
"os"
"sort"
)
 
func main() {
f, err := os.Open(".")
if err != nil {
log.Fatal(err)
}
files, err := f.Readdirnames(0)
f.Close()
if err != nil {
log.Fatal(err)
}
sort.Strings(files)
for _, n := range files {
fmt.Println(n)
}
}

Haskell[edit]

Works with: GHC version 7.8.3
import Control.Monad
import Data.List
import System.Directory
 
dontStartWith = flip $ (/=) . head
 
main = do
files <- getDirectoryContents "."
mapM_ putStrLn $ sort $ filter (dontStartWith '.') files

J[edit]

See the dir.ijs script for a full description of the interface for dir:

   dir ''       NB. includes properties
>1 1 dir '' NB. plain filename as per task

Java[edit]

Works with: Java version 11
 
package rosetta;
 
import java.io.IOException;
import java.nio.file.Files;
import java.nio.file.Path;
 
public class UnixLS {
 
public static void main(String[] args) throws IOException {
Files.list(Path.of("")).sorted().forEach(System.out::println);
}
}
 

The challenge does not state that the files must be sorted in case-insensitive order, and the majority of solutions in other languages do not bother with same. The above can be expanded to sort case-insensitively by mapping Path to String and using the predefined String Comparator:

 
Files.list(Path.of("")).map(Path::toString).sorted(String.CASE_INSENSITIVE_ORDER).forEach(System.out::println);
 

JavaScript[edit]

Works with: Node.js version 4.3.2+
const fs = require('fs');
fs.readdir('.', (err, names) => names.sort().map( name => console.log(name) ));

Jsish[edit]

Jsi provides a File module with a glob method.

# help File.glob
File.glob(pattern:regexp|string|null='*', options:function|object|null=void):array
Return list of files in dir with optional pattern match.
With no arguments (or null) returns all files/directories in current directory.
The first argument can be a pattern (either a glob or regexp) of the files to return.
When the second argument is a function, it is called with each path, and filter on false.
Otherwise second argument must be a set of options.

To emulate ls, sorted, one entry per line:

puts(File.glob().sort().join('\n'));

Julia[edit]

# v0.6.0
 
for e in readdir() # Current directory
println(e)
end
 
# Same for...
readdir("~") # Read home directory
readdir("~/documents")

Kotlin[edit]

// Version 1.2.41
 
import java.io.File
 
fun ls(directory: String) {
val d = File(directory)
if (!d.isDirectory) {
println("$directory is not a directory")
return
}
d.listFiles().map { it.name }
.sortedBy { it.toLowerCase() } // case insensitive
.forEach { println(it) }
}
 
fun main(args: Array<String>) {
ls(".") // list files in current directory, say
}

LiveCode[edit]

set the defaultFolder to "/foo"
put the folders & the files
set the defaultFolder to "/foo/bar"
put the folders & the files

Lua[edit]

Using LuaFileSystem - available in LuaRocks, ULua, major Linux distro repos, etc, etc.

require("lfs")
for file in lfs.dir(".") do print(file) end

Mathematica[edit]

Column[FileNames[]]

Nanoquery[edit]

import Nanoquery.IO
import sort
 
fnames = sort(new(File).listDir("."))
 
for i in range(0, len(fnames) - 1)
println fnames[i]
end
Output:
.\nanoquery-2.3_1866
.\notes.txt
.\nq.bat
.\nq.vim
.\rosetta-code

Nim[edit]

 
from algorithm import sorted
from os import walkPattern
from sequtils import toSeq
 
for path in toSeq(walkPattern("*")).sorted:
echo path
 

Objeck[edit]

 
class Test {
function : Main(args : String[]) ~ Nil {
file_names := System.IO.File.Directory->List(".");
each(i : file_names) {
file_name := file_names[i];
if(System.IO.File.Directory->Exists(file_name)) {
file_name += '/';
};
file_name->PrintLine();
};
}
}
 

OCaml[edit]

let () =
Array.iter print_endline (
Sys.readdir Sys.argv.(1) )
Output:
$ cd /foo/bar
$ ocaml ls.ml
1
2
a
b

PARI/GP[edit]

GP doesn't have this capability so we can either use the shell or PARI. For the latter see C; for the former:

system("dir/b/on")

in DOS/Windows or

system("ls")

in *nix.

Pascal[edit]

This is the example in the Turbo Pascal 4 manual. With Turbo Pascal and old-style DOS file names, all file names come out in capitals, further, names not fitting into the "8.3" style (of up to eight characters followed by an extension of up to three characters) are presented with ad-hoc names fitting that style, so for example, Tab2Comma.exe comes out as TAB2CO~1.EXE. The same source file compiles unchanged via the Free Pascal compiler, whereupon long file names appear with capitals and lower-case letters rather than all-capitals.

When tested via Windows XP, the names came out in sorted order (ignoring case) however in earlier systems the files would be presented in entry order. That is, if files a, c, b were saved, they would be named in that order. Then, if file c were deleted and then a file named x were added, they would be named in the order a, x, b. In this case, a scheme for saving an unknown number of names (of unknown length) would be needed so that they could be sorted. Perhaps some linked-list with an insertionsort for each added name...

 
Program ls; {To list the names of all files/directories in the current directory.}
Uses DOS;
var DirInfo: SearchRec; {Predefined. See page 403 of the Turbo Pascal 4 manual.}
BEGIN
FindFirst('*.*',AnyFile,DirInfo); {AnyFile means any file name OR directory name.}
While DOSerror = 0 do {Result of FindFirst/Next not being a function, damnit.}
begin
WriteLn(DirInfo.Name);
FindNext(DirInfo);
end;
END.
 

Perl[edit]

opendir my $handle, '.' or die "Couldnt open current directory: $!";
while (readdir $handle) {
print "$_\n";
}
closedir $handle;

Alternatively, using glob:

print "$_\n" for glob '*';
print "$_\n" for glob '* .*';  # If you want to include dot files

Phix[edit]

pp(dir("."),{pp_Nest,1,pp_IntCh,false})
Output:
{{`.`, `d`, 0,2020,6,11,13,25,13},
 {`..`, `d`, 0,2020,6,11,13,25,13},
 {`.hg`, `d`, 0,2020,4,4,6,42,6},
 {`.hgignore`, `a`, 18898,2020,4,4,13,57,37},
 {`1KB.zip`, `a`, 1024,2019,7,28,15,30,45},
 {`a.exe`, `a`, 133889,2019,8,24,20,27,21},
 {`address.sqlite`, `a`, 12288,2018,7,20,19,44,34},
 {`alice_oz.txt`, `a`, 336926,2017,3,15,19,12,24},
 {`animation.svg`, `a`, 900,2019,5,25,12,49,14},
...etc

just names[edit]

?vslice(dir("."),D_NAME)
Output:
{".","..",".hg",".hgignore","1KB.zip","a.exe","address.sqlite","alice_oz.txt","animation.svg",...}

prettier output[edit]

Each element of dir() can be indexed with D_NAME, D_ATTRIBUTES, D_SIZE, D_YEAR, D_MONTH, D_DAY, D_HOUR, D_MINUTE, and D_SECOND, and of course you can easily format these things a bit nicer.

include builtins\timedate.e
set_timedate_formats({"hh:mmpm Ddd Mmm ddth YYYY"})
object d = dir(".")
if d!=-1 then
printf(1,"%-20s %s %10s  %s\n",{"-- name --","attr","size","-- time and date --"})
for i=1 to length(d) do
printf(1,"%-20s %=4s %10s  %s\n",{d[i][D_NAME],d[i][D_ATTRIBUTES],file_size_k(d[i][D_SIZE]),format_timedate(d[i][D_YEAR..$])})
end for
end if
Output:
-- name --           attr       size  -- time and date --
.                     d            0  01:25pm Thu Jun 11th 2020
..                    d            0  01:25pm Thu Jun 11th 2020
.hg                   d            0  06:42am Sat Apr 04th 2020
.hgignore             a      18.46KB  01:57pm Sat Apr 04th 2020
1KB.zip               a          1KB  03:30pm Sun Jul 28th 2019
a.exe                 a     130.75KB  08:27pm Sat Aug 24th 2019
address.sqlite        a         12KB  07:44pm Fri Jul 20th 2018
alice_oz.txt          a     329.03KB  07:12pm Wed Mar 15th 2017
animation.svg         a          900  12:49pm Sat May 25th 2019
...etc

PHP[edit]

This will output all the filenames in the current directory.

 
<?php
foreach(scandir('.') as $fileName){
echo $fileName."\n";
}
 

PicoLisp[edit]

(for F (sort (dir))
(prinl F) )

Pike[edit]

foreach(get_dir(), string file)
write(file +"\n");

PowerShell[edit]

# Prints Name, Length, Mode, and LastWriteTime
Get-ChildItem | Sort-Object Name | Write-Output
 
# Prints only the name of each file in the directory
Get-ChildItem | Sort-Object Name | ForEach-Object Name | Write-Output

Python[edit]

>>> import os
>>> print('\n'.join(sorted(os.listdir('.'))))
DLLs
Doc
LICENSE.txt
Lib
NEWS.txt
README.txt
Scripts
Tools
include
libs
python.exe
pythonw.exe
tcl
>>>

R[edit]

 
cat(paste(list.files(), collapse = "\n"), "\n")
cat(paste(list.files("bar"), collapse = "\n"), "\n")
 
Output:
bar 
1
2
a
b 

Racket[edit]

Ooh... warning... if you run the test module (either with DrRacket with the test module automatically running, or with raco test ls.rkt, then the example directory tree is built but not torn down.

#lang racket/base
 
;; Racket's `directory-list' produces a sorted list of files
(define (ls) (for-each displayln (directory-list)))
 
;; Code to run when this file is running directly
(module+ main
(ls))
 
(module+ test
(require tests/eli-tester racket/port racket/file)
(define (make-directory-tree)
(make-directory* "foo/bar")
(for ([f '("1" "2" "a" "b")])
(with-output-to-file (format "foo/bar/~a"f) #:exists 'replace newline)))
(make-directory-tree)
(define (ls/str dir)
(parameterize ([current-directory dir]) (with-output-to-string ls)))
(test (ls/str "foo") => "bar\n"
(ls/str "foo/bar") => "1\n2\na\nb\n"))

Both tests pass.

Raku[edit]

(formerly Perl 6)

There is a dir builtin command which returns a list of IO::Path objects. We stringify them all with a hyperoperator before sorting the strings.

.say for sort ~«dir

REXX[edit]

The following program works under Windows and used the Windows DIR command to list a bare-bones sorted list.

/*REXX program lists contents of current folder  (ala mode UNIX's  LS). */
'DIR /b /oN' /*use Windows DIR: sorts & lists.*/
/*stick a fork in it, we're done.*/

Notes on the options used for the DIR command:

  •   b   is for bare format (no heading information or summary).
  •   o   is for order, and it orders (sorts) by file Name.

Ruby[edit]

 
Dir.foreach("./"){|n| puts n}
 

This will output all files including hidden ones e.g. '.' and '..'.

Run BASIC[edit]

files #f, DefaultDir$ + "\*.*" 	' RunBasic Default directory.. Can be any directroy
print "rowcount: ";#f ROWCOUNT() ' how many rows in directory
#f DATEFORMAT("mm/dd/yy") 'set format of file date or not
#f TIMEFORMAT("hh:mm:ss") 'set format of file time or not
count = #f rowcount()
for i = 1 to count ' loop thru the row count
print "info: ";#f nextfile$() ' file info
print "name: ";#f NAME$() ' Name of file
print "size: ";#f SIZE() ' size
print "date: ";#f DATE$() ' date
print "time: ";#f TIME$() ' time
print "isdir: ";#f ISDIR() ' 1 = is a directory
next

This will output RunBasics Default Directory.. It can be any directory

rowcount: 30
info: antiGram1.bas,1743,08/02/16,08:34:50,
name: antiGram1.bas
size: 1743
date: 08/02/16
time: 08:34:50
isdir: 0
info: avionics.db,0,05/09/16,09:02:01,
name: avionics.db
size: 0
date: 05/09/16
time: 09:02:01
isdir: 0
...

Rust[edit]

use std::{env, fmt, fs, process};
use std::io::{self, Write};
use std::path::Path;
 
fn main() {
let cur = env::current_dir().unwrap_or_else(|e| exit_err(e, 1));
let arg = env::args().nth(1);
print_files(arg.as_ref().map_or(cur.as_path(), |p| Path::new(p)))
.unwrap_or_else(|e| exit_err(e, 2));
}
 
#[inline]
fn print_files(path: &Path) -> io::Result<()> {
for x in try!(fs::read_dir(path)) {
println!("{}", try!(x).file_name().to_string_lossy());
}
Ok(())
}
 
#[inline]
fn exit_err<T>(msg: T, code: i32) -> ! where T: fmt::Display {
writeln!(&mut io::stderr(), "{}", msg).expect("Could not write to stderr");
process::exit(code)
}
Output:
$ mkdir -p foo/bar
$ ./unix_ls
foo
unix_ls
$ cd foo/bar
$ touch a b 1 2
$ cd ../..
$ ./unix_ls foo
bar
$ ./unix_ls foo/bar
1
2
a
b

S-lang[edit]

variable d = listdir(getcwd()), p;
foreach p (array_sort(d))
() = printf("%s\n", d[p] );

Scala[edit]

Output:
scala> new java.io.File("/").listFiles.sorted.foreach(println)
/bin
/boot
/core
/dev
/etc
/home
/lib
/lib64
/local
/lost+found
/media
/mnt
/opt
/proc
/root
/run
/sbin
/selinux
/srv
/sys
/tmp
/user
/usr
/var 

Seed7[edit]

$ include "seed7_05.s7i";
include "osfiles.s7i";
 
const proc: main is func
local
var string: name is "";
begin
for name range readDir(".") do
writeln(name);
end for;
end func;

Sidef[edit]

Explicit, by opening the current working directory:

var content = [];
Dir.cwd.open.each { |file|
file ~~ < . .. > && next;
content.append(file);
}
 
content.sort.each { |file|
say file;
}

Implicit, by using the String.glob method:

'*'.glob.each { |file|
say file;
}

Standard ML[edit]

OS.Process.system "ls -a" 

Doing it all by yourself:

 
local (* make a sort function *)
val rec insert = fn s :string =>fn [] => [s]
| ll as h::t => if s<=h then s::ll else h::insert s t;
in
val rec sort = fn [] => [] | h::t => insert h (sort t)
end;
 
open Posix.FileSys ;
val istream = opendir "." ;
val ll = ref [readdir istream] ;
while ( isSome (hd (!ll)) ) do ( ll:=readdir istream :: !ll );
val result = List.map valOf (tl (!ll));
closedir istream ;
 
sort result;
 

Stata[edit]

Stata has a builtin dir command (or equivalently ls).

. dir *.dta
6.3k 6/12/17 14:26 auto.dta
2.3k 8/10/17 7:34 titanium.dta
6.0k 8/12/17 9:28 trend.dta

Tcl[edit]

puts [join [lsort [glob -nocomplain *]] "\n"]

Ursa[edit]

decl file f
decl string<> fnames
set fnames (sort (f.listdir "."))
 
for (decl int i) (< i (size fnames)) (inc i)
out fnames<i> endl console
end for

Wren[edit]

import "io" for Directory
 
var path = "./" // or whatever
 
// Note that output is automatically sorted using this method.
Directory.list(path).each { |f| System.print(f) }

zkl[edit]

File.glob("*").sort()

Lists all files and directories in the current directory. If you only want a list of files:

File.glob("*",0x8).sort()
Output:
L("README","superball","testThemAll.log","zkl.exe","zkl_tests.zip","zkl_vm_src.zip")

The glob method uses Unix shell wild cards.

The globular method recurses down through the directories. It can send results to objects, functions, methods, threads, etc, etc. To get a sorted list of all the directories under the "Src" directory:

File.globular("Src",*,True,0x10,List).sort().concat("\n")
Output:
Src/Compiler/
Src/Misc/
Src/Test/
Src/Time/
Src/Utils/
Src/ZenKinetic/
Src/ZenKinetic/Frame_O_Matic/
Src/ZenKinetic/GBalls/
Src/ZenKinetic/Twist and Draw/
Src/ZenKinetic/ZEd