# One of n lines in a file

One of n lines in a file
You are encouraged to solve this task according to the task description, using any language you may know.

A method of choosing a line randomly from a file:

• Without reading the file more than once
• When substantial parts of the file cannot be held in memory
• Without knowing how many lines are in the file

Is to:

• keep the first line of the file as a possible choice, then
• Read the second line of the file if possible and make it the possible choice if a uniform random value between zero and one is less than 1/2.
• Read the third line of the file if possible and make it the possible choice if a uniform random value between zero and one is less than 1/3.
• ...
• Read the Nth line of the file if possible and make it the possible choice if a uniform random value between zero and one is less than 1/N
• Return the computed possible choice when no further lines exist in the file.

1. Create a function/method/routine called `one_of_n` that given `n`, the number of actual lines in a file, follows the algorithm above to return an integer - the line number of the line chosen from the file.
The number returned can vary, randomly, in each run.
2. Use `one_of_n` in a simulation to find what would be the chosen line of a 10-line file simulated 1,000,000 times.
3. Print and show how many times each of the 10 lines is chosen as a rough measure of how well the algorithm works.

Note: You may choose a smaller number of repetitions if necessary, but mention this up-front.

Note: This is a specific version of a Reservoir Sampling algorithm: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reservoir_sampling

## 11l

Translation of: Python
```F one_of_n(lines)
V choice = 0
L(line) lines
I random:(0..L.index) == 0
choice = line
R choice

F one_of_n_test(n = 10, trials = 1000000)
V bins = [0] * n
I n != 0
L 1..trials
bins[one_of_n(0 .< n)]++
R bins

print(one_of_n_test())```
Sample output
```[100032, 100304, 99964, 100101, 100666, 100276, 99470, 99547, 99738, 99902]
```

```with Ada.Text_IO, Ada.Numerics.Float_Random;

procedure One_Of_N is

Num_Of_Lines: constant Positive := 10;

Gen: Rnd.Generator; -- used globally

function Choose_One_Of_N(Last_Line_Number: Positive) return Natural is
Current_Choice: Natural := 0;
begin
for Line_Number in 1 .. Last_Line_Number loop
if (Rnd.Random(Gen) * Float(Line_Number) <= 1.0) then
Current_Choice := Line_Number;
end if;
end loop;
return Current_Choice;
end Choose_One_Of_N;

Results: array(1 .. Num_Of_Lines) of Natural := (others => 0);
Index: Integer range 1 .. Num_Of_Lines;

begin
Rnd.Reset(Gen);
for I in 1 .. 1_000_000 loop    -- compute results
Index := Choose_One_Of_N(Num_Of_Lines);
Results(Index) := Results(Index) + 1;
end loop;

for R in Results'Range loop    -- output results
end loop;
end One_Of_N;
```

Example output:

` 100104 100075 99761 99851 100457 100315 100101 99557 99678 100101`

## Aime

```one_of_n(integer n)
{
integer i, r;

i = r = 0;
while ((r += 1) < n) {
i = drand(r) ? i : r;
}

i;
}

main(void)
{
integer i;
index x;

i = 1000000;
do {
x[one_of_n(10)] += 1;
} while (i -= 1);

x.ucall(o_winteger, 1, 7);
o_newline();

0;
}```
Output:
`  99804 100236  99846 100484  99888  99639  99886  99810  99923 100484`

## ALGOL 68

```BEGIN
INT max lines = 10;		CO Should be read from a file. CO
[max lines]INT stats;
FOR i TO max lines DO stats[i] := 0 OD;
first random (42);		CO Should have rather more entropy! CO
PROC one of n = (INT n) INT :
BEGIN
INT result := 1;
FOR i TO n DO (random < 1/i | result := i) OD;
result
END;
TO 1000000 DO stats[one of n (max lines)] +:= 1 OD;
print (("Line  Number times chosen", newline));
FOR i TO max lines DO printf ((\$g(0)7xg(0)l\$, i, stats[i])) OD
END```
Output:
```Line  Number times chosen
1       99808
2       99715
3       100018
4       100064
5       99373
6       100687
7       99363
8       100349
9       100029
10       100594
```

## Applesoft BASIC

A million iterations will take a very very long time to run. I suggest cranking the end value of J down to 1000 or less in line 20, and run this at full speed in a modern Apple II emulator. Initializing with RND(0) in line 10, seeds the RND function to be random, otherwise you may see the same results every time.

```10 I = RND(0) : REMRANDOM SEED

20 FOR J = 1 TO 1000000 : REMMAYBE TRY 100 ON A 1MHZ APPLE II
30     N = 10 : GOSUB 100"ONE_OF_N
40     C(C) = C(C) + 1
50 NEXT

60 FOR J = 1 TO 10
70     PRINT J, C(J)
80 NEXT
90 END

100 REMONE_OF_N
110 FOR I = 1 TO N
120     IF INT(RND(1) * I) = 0 THEN C = I
130 NEXT I
140 RETURN```

## Arturo

```oneOfN: function [n][
result: 0
loop 0..dec n 'x [
if zero? random 0 x ->
result: x
]
return result
]

oneOfNTest: function [n,trials][
ret: array.of:n 0
if n > 0 [
loop 1..trials 'i [
oon: oneOfN n
ret\[oon]: ret\[oon] + 1
]
]
return ret
]

print oneOfNTest 10 1000000
```
Output:
`100120 100126 99975 99847 100235 100238 99528 99956 100038 99937`

## AutoHotkey

Translation of: Python

This simulation is for 100,000 repetitions.

```one_of_n(n){
; One based line numbers
choice = 1
Loop % n-1
{
Random, rnd, 1, % A_Index+1
If rnd = 1
choice := A_Index+1
}
return choice
}
one_of_n_test(n=10, trials=100000){
bins := [0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0]
Loop % trials
bins[one_of_n(n)] += 1
return bins
}

b := one_of_n_test()
Loop 10
out .= A_Index ": " b[A_Index] "`n"
MsgBox % out
```

Output:

```---------------------------
One of n.ahk
---------------------------
1: 10046
2: 9958
3: 9953
4: 9973
5: 9915
6: 10212
7: 9941
8: 9993
9: 10063
10: 9946

---------------------------
OK
---------------------------```

## AWK

```#!/usr/bin/gawk -f
#
# Usage:
#   gawk -v Seed=\$RANDOM -f one_of_n_lines_in_a_file.awk
#
BEGIN {
srand(Seed ? Seed : 1);
}
{
if (NR*rand() < 1 ) {
line = \$0
}
}
END {
print line;
}
```

Test randomness

```for i in `seq 1 10000`; do seq 1 10 | awk -v Seed=\$RANDOM -f one_of_n_lines_in_a_file.awk; done |sort|uniq -c
```
```     91 1
102 10
120 2
82 3
103 4
93 5
112 6
108 7
94 8
95 9
```

## BASIC

Works with: QBasic
```DECLARE FUNCTION oneofN& (n AS LONG)

DIM L0 AS LONG, c AS LONG
DIM chosen(1 TO 10) AS LONG

RANDOMIZE TIMER

FOR L0 = 1 TO 1000000
c = oneofN&(10)
chosen(c) = chosen(c) + 1
NEXT

FOR L0 = 1 TO 10
PRINT L0, chosen(L0)
NEXT

FUNCTION oneofN& (n AS LONG)
'assumes first line is 1
DIM L1 AS LONG, choice AS LONG
FOR L1 = 1 TO n
IF INT(RND * L1) = 0 THEN choice = L1
NEXT
oneofN& = choice
END FUNCTION
```

Sample output:

```1             100106
2             99533
3             100318
4             100203
5             99750
6             100412
7             99625
8             100019
9             100154
10            99880
```

## Batch File

I chose to only run this 100,000 times as it is slightly time consuming (running at 105 simulations / second). I attempted to optimise a few ways but none were especially helpful.

There is also no need to parse the actual number of lines in the file to `one_of_n`

Batch file to call one_of_n

```@echo off

for /l %%i in (1,1,10000) do call one_of_n
:: To show progress add to the FOR loop code block -
:: title %%i

for /l %%i in (1,1,10) do (
for /f "usebackq tokens=1,2 delims=:" %%j in (`find /c "%%i" output.txt`) do echo Line %%i =%%k
)
del output.txt
pause>nul
```

one_of_n

```setlocal enabledelayedexpansion

set /a count=1

for /f "tokens=*" %%i in (file.txt) do (
set /a rand=!random! %% !count!
if !rand!==0 set line=!count!
set /a count+=1
)
echo %line% >> output.txt

endlocal
exit /b
```

Output

```Line 1 = 9,868‬
Line 2 = 10032
Line 3 = 9988
Line 4 = 10160
Line 5 = 10189
Line 6 = 9953
Line 7 = 9851
Line 8 = 10052
Line 9 = 9937
Line 10 = 9970
```

## BBC BASIC

```      @% = 7 : REM Column width
DIM cnt%(10)
FOR test% = 1 TO 1000000
cnt%(FNone_of_n(10)) += 1
NEXT
FOR i% = 1 TO 10
PRINT cnt%(i%);
NEXT
PRINT
END

DEF FNone_of_n(n%)
LOCAL i%, l%
FOR i% = 1 TO n%
IF RND(1) <= 1/i% l% = i%
NEXT
= l%
```

Output:

```  99846 100156  99812 100275  99995 100019  99217  99778 100409 100493
```

## C

```#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>

inline int irand(int n)
{
int r, randmax = RAND_MAX/n * n;
while ((r = rand()) >= randmax);
return r / (randmax / n);
}

inline int one_of_n(int n)
{
int i, r = 0;
for (i = 1; i < n; i++) if (!irand(i + 1)) r = i;
return r;
}

int main(void)
{
int i, r[10] = {0};

for (i = 0; i < 1000000; i++, r[one_of_n(10)]++);
for (i = 0; i < 10; i++)
printf("%d%c", r[i], i == 9 ? '\n':' ');

return 0;
}
```

output

`100561 99814 99816 99721 99244 99772 100790 100072 99997 100213`

## C#

```    class Program
{
private static Random rnd = new Random();
public static int one_of_n(int n)
{
int currentChoice = 1;
for (int i = 2; i <= n; i++)
{
double outerLimit = 1D / (double)i;
if (rnd.NextDouble() < outerLimit)
currentChoice = i;
}
return currentChoice;
}

static void Main(string[] args)
{
Dictionary<int, int> results = new Dictionary<int, int>();
for (int i = 1; i < 11; i++)

for (int i = 0; i < 1000000; i++)
{
int result = one_of_n(10);
results[result] = results[result] + 1;
}

for (int i = 1; i < 11; i++)
Console.WriteLine("{0}\t{1}", i, results[i]);
}
}
```
```1       99777
2       100289
3       100028
4       100294
5       99777
6       100330
7       100480
8       99617
9       99682
10      99726
```

## C++

Works with: C++11
```#include <random>
#include <iostream>
#include <iterator>
#include <algorithm>
using namespace std;

mt19937 engine; //mersenne twister

unsigned int one_of_n(unsigned int n) {
unsigned int choice;
for(unsigned int i = 0; i < n; ++i) {
uniform_int_distribution<unsigned int> distribution(0, i);
if(!distribution(engine))
choice = i;
}
return choice;
}

int main() {
engine = mt19937(random_device()()); //seed random generator from system
unsigned int results[10] = {0};
for(unsigned int i = 0; i < 1000000; ++i)
results[one_of_n(10)]++;
ostream_iterator<unsigned int> out_it(cout, " ");
copy(results, results+10, out_it);
cout << '\n';
}
```

output

`99981 99806 100190 99831 99833 100291 99356 100165 100279 100268`

## Chapel

```use Random;

proc one_of_n(n) {
var rand = new RandomStream();
var keep = 1;

for i in 2..n do
if rand.getNext() < 1.0 / i then
keep = i;

delete rand;

return keep;
}
```

## Clojure

The function rand-seq-elem actually implements the algorithm; one-of-n uses it to select a random element from the sequence (1 ... n). (Though they weren't automatically highlighted when I wrote this, rand-int, second, and frequencies and println are also standard functions)

```(defn rand-seq-elem [sequence]
(let [f (fn [[k old] new]
[(inc k) (if (zero? (rand-int k)) new old)])]
(->> sequence (reduce f [1 nil]) second)))

(defn one-of-n [n]
(rand-seq-elem (range 1 (inc n))))

(let [countmap (frequencies (repeatedly 1000000 #(one-of-n 10)))]
(doseq [[n cnt] (sort countmap)]
(println n cnt)))
```

Sample output

```1 99350
2 99933
3 99820
4 100266
5 100675
6 100370
7 99842
8 100020
9 100342
10 99382
```

To actually get a randomly selected line from a file:

```(require '[clojure.java.io :as io])

(defn rand-line [filename]
```

## Common Lisp

Great place to use closures.

```(defun one-of-n-fn ()
(let ((cur 0) (sel nil))
#'(lambda (v)
(setq cur (+ cur 1))
(if (eql 0 (random cur)) (setq sel v))
sel)))

(defun test-one-of-n ()
(let ((counts (make-array 10 :initial-contents '(0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0)))
(fnt))
(do ((test 0 (+ 1 test)))
((eql test 1000000) counts)
(setq fnt (one-of-n-fn))
(do ((probe 0 (+ 1 probe)))
((eql probe 9) t)
(funcall fnt probe))
(let* ((sel (funcall fnt 9)))
(setf (aref counts sel) (+ 1 (aref counts sel)))))))
```

Output:

```#(100104 100144 100004 99593 100049 99706 100612 99481 100029 100278)
```

## D

```import std.stdio, std.random, std.algorithm;

// Zero-based line numbers.
int oneOfN(in int n) {
int choice = 0;
foreach (immutable i; 1 .. n)
if (!uniform(0, i + 1))
choice = i;
return choice;
}

void main() {
int[10] bins;
foreach (immutable i; 0 .. 1_000_000)
bins[10.oneOfN]++;

bins.writeln;
writeln("Total of bins: ", bins[].sum);
}
```
Output:
```[100091, 99940, 100696, 99799, 100234, 99419, 100225, 99716, 99942, 99938]
Total of bins: 1000000```

See Pascal.

## EasyLang

Translation of: Lua
```n = 10
trials = 1000000
func one n .
for i = 1 to n
if randomf < 1 / i
chosen = i
.
.
return chosen
.
len results[] n
for i = 1 to trials
r = one n
results[r] += 1
.
print "Value   Occurrences"
print "-------------------"
for i to n
print i & "\t" & results[i]
.
```

## Eiffel

```class
APPLICATION

create
make

feature

make
-- Simulates one_of_n_lines a 1000000 times.
local
t: INTEGER
simulator: ARRAY [INTEGER]
do
create simulator.make_filled (0, 1, 10)
create one.make
across
1 |..| 1000000 as c
loop
t := one.one_of_n_lines (10)
simulator [t] := simulator [t] + 1
end
across
simulator as s
loop
io.put_integer (s.item)
io.new_line
end
end

one: ONE_OF_N_LINES

end
```
```class
ONE_OF_N_LINES

create
make

feature {NONE}

r: RANDOM

feature

make
do
create r.make
end

one_of_n_lines (n: INTEGER): INTEGER
-- A integer between 1 and 'n', denoting a line.
require
n_is_positive: n > 0
local
p: REAL_64
do
across
1 |..| n as c
loop
p := r.double_item
if p < (1 / c.item) then
Result := c.item
end
r.forth
end
ensure
Result_in_file: Result <= n
Result_is_positive: Result > 0
end

end
```
Output:
```99698
100643
100017
100251
99742
99877
100244
99897
99738
99893
```

## Elixir

Translation of: Erlang
```defmodule One_of_n_lines_in_file do
dict = Enum.reduce(1..1000000, %{}, fn _,acc ->
Map.update( acc, one_of_n(10), 1, &(&1+1) )
end)
Enum.each(Enum.sort(Map.keys(dict)), fn x ->
:io.format "Line ~2w selected: ~6w~n", [x, dict[x]]
end)
end

def one_of_n( n ), do: loop( n, 2, :rand.uniform, 1 )

def loop( max, n, _random, acc ) when n == max + 1, do: acc
def loop( max, n, random, _acc ) when random < (1/n), do: loop( max, n + 1, :rand.uniform, n )
def loop( max, n, _random, acc ), do: loop( max, n + 1, :rand.uniform, acc )
end

```
Output:
```Line  1 selected: 100327
Line  2 selected:  99858
Line  3 selected: 100292
Line  4 selected:  99992
Line  5 selected: 100138
Line  6 selected:  99807
Line  7 selected:  99982
Line  8 selected: 100065
Line  9 selected:  99765
Line 10 selected:  99774
```

## Erlang

```-module( one_of_n_lines_in_file  ).

one_of_n( N ) -> loop( N, 2, random:uniform(), 1 ).

Dict = lists:foldl( fun update_counter/2,  dict:new(), lists:seq(1, 1000000) ),
[io:fwrite("Line ~p selected: ~p~n", [X, dict:fetch(X, Dict)]) || X <- lists:sort(dict:fetch_keys(Dict))].

loop( Max, N, _Random, Acc ) when N =:= Max + 1 -> Acc;
loop( Max, N, Random, _Acc ) when Random < (1/N) -> loop( Max, N + 1, random:uniform(), N );
loop( Max, N, _Random, Acc ) -> loop( Max, N + 1, random:uniform(), Acc ).

update_counter( _N, Dict ) -> dict:update_counter( one_of_n(10), 1, Dict ).
```
Output:
```74> one_of_n_lines_in_file:task().
Line 1 selected: 100038
Line 2 selected: 99849
Line 3 selected: 99851
Line 4 selected: 99661
Line 5 selected: 100326
Line 6 selected: 100485
Line 7 selected: 99760
Line 8 selected: 99920
Line 9 selected: 100129
Line 10 selected: 99981
```

## ERRE

```PROGRAM ONE_OF_N

DIM CNT[10]

PROCEDURE ONE_OF_N(N->L)
LOCAL I
FOR I=1 TO N DO
IF RND(1)<=1.0/I THEN L=I END IF
END FOR
END PROCEDURE

BEGIN
N=10
RANDOMIZE(TIMER)       ! init
FOR TEST=1 TO 1000000 DO
ONE_OF_N(N->L)
CNT[L]+=1
END FOR
FOR I=1 TO N DO
PRINT(CNT[I];)
END FOR
PRINT
END PROGRAM```
Output:
``` 99864  99893  99973  100016  100097  100169  100561  99804  100006  99617
```

## Euphoria

```--  One of n lines in a file
include std/rand.e
include std/math.e

function one_of_n(integer n)
integer line_num = 1
for i = 2 to n do
if rnd() < 1 / i then
line_num = i
end if
end for
return line_num
end function

procedure main()
integer num_reps = 1000000, num_lines_in_file = 10
sequence lines = repeat(0,num_lines_in_file)
for i = 1 to num_reps do
lines[one_of_n(num_lines_in_file)] += 1
end for
for i = 1 to num_lines_in_file do
printf(1,"Number of times line %d was selected: %g\n", {i,lines[i]})
end for
printf(1,"Total number selected: %d\n", sum(lines) )
end procedure

main()```

Sample Output:

```Number of times line 1 was selected: 100154
Number of times line 2 was selected: 99778
Number of times line 3 was selected: 99906
Number of times line 4 was selected: 99727
Number of times line 5 was selected: 100025
Number of times line 6 was selected: 100465
Number of times line 7 was selected: 99738
Number of times line 8 was selected: 100135
Number of times line 9 was selected: 99871
Number of times line 10 was selected: 100201
Total number selected: 1000000
```

## F#

```open System

[<EntryPoint>]
let main args =
let rnd = new Random()

let one_of_n n =
let rec loop i r =
if i >= n then r else
if rnd.Next(i + 1) = 0
then loop (i + 1) i
else loop (i + 1) r
loop 1 0

let test n trials =
let ar = Array.zeroCreate n
for i = 1 to trials do
let d = one_of_n n
ar.[d] <- 1 + ar.[d]
Console.WriteLine (String.Join(" ", ar))

test 10 1000000
0
```

Output

`99721 100325 99939 99579 100174 100296 99858 99910 100192 100006`

## Factor

random-line uses an input stream. `"/etc/passwd" ascii [ random-line . ] with-file-reader` would print a random line from /etc/passwd.

```! rosettacode/random-line/random-line.factor
USING: io kernel locals math random ;
IN: rosettacode.random-line

:: random-line ( -- line )
readln :> choice! 1 :> count!
[ count 1 + dup count! random zero?
[ choice! ] [ drop ] if
] while drop
choice ;
```

one-of-n wants to use the same algorithm. Factor has duck typing, so one-of-n creates a mock object that quacks like an input stream. This mock object only responds to stream-readln, not the other methods of stream protocol. This works because random-line only needs stream-readln. The mock response is a line number instead of a real line.

```! rosettacode/one-of-n/one-of-n.factor
USING: accessors io kernel math rosettacode.random-line ;
IN: rosettacode.one-of-n

<PRIVATE
TUPLE: mock-stream count last ;
: <mock-stream> ( n -- stream )
mock-stream new 0 >>count swap >>last ;
M: mock-stream stream-readln ! stream -- line
dup [ count>> ] [ last>> ] bi <
[ [ 1 + ] change-count count>> ]
[ drop f ] if ;
PRIVATE>

: one-of-n ( n -- line )
<mock-stream> [ random-line ] with-input-stream* ;

USING: assocs formatting locals sequences sorting ;
<PRIVATE
: f>0 ( object/f -- object/0 )
dup [ drop 0 ] unless ;
:: test-one-of-n ( -- )
H{ } clone :> chosen
1000000 [
10 one-of-n chosen [ f>0 1 + ] change-at
] times
chosen keys natural-sort [
dup chosen at "%d chosen %d times\n" printf
] each ;
PRIVATE>
MAIN: test-one-of-n
```
```\$ ./factor -run=rosettacode.one-of-n
1 chosen 100497 times
2 chosen 100157 times
3 chosen 100207 times
4 chosen 99448 times
5 chosen 100533 times
6 chosen 99774 times
7 chosen 99535 times
8 chosen 99826 times
9 chosen 100058 times
10 chosen 99965 times```

## Forth

Works with: GNU Forth

for random.fs and 1/f

```require random.fs

: frnd
rnd 0 d>f [ s" MAX-U" environment? drop 0 d>f 1/f ] fliteral f* ;
: u>f 0 d>f ;
: one_of_n ( u1 -- u2 )
1 swap  1+ 2 ?do  frnd  i u>f 1/f  f<  if drop i then  loop ;

create hist 0 , 0 , 0 , 0 , 0 , 0 , 0 , 0 , 0 , 0 ,  does> swap cells + ;
: simulate  1000000 0 do  1  10 one_of_n 1- hist  +!  loop ;
: .hist  cr 10 0 do  i 1+ 2 .r ." : "  i hist @ .  cr loop ;

simulate .hist bye
```
Output:
```> gforthamd64 rosetta_one_of_n.fs

1: 99381
2: 99970
3: 99793
4: 100035
5: 100195
6: 100147
7: 99583
8: 100135
9: 100309
10: 100452```

## Fortran

Task description is contradictory in that it states number of lines in file is unknown, and then that it is passed in as "n", and exercise seems to be to simulate instead of actually perform the file reads; but (at least when using Fortran, even on an old laptop) it only takes a few seconds to run the 1 000 000, cases so actually ran them.

```!> read lines one at a time and randomly choose one
!! using a Reservoir Sampling algorithm:
!! http://www.rosettacode.org/wiki/One_of_n_lines_in_a_file
program reservoir_sample
use, intrinsic :: iso_fortran_env, only : dp=>real64
implicit none
character(len=256)   :: line
integer              :: lun, n, i, count(10)
call random_seed()
!! create test file
open(file='_data.txt',newunit=lun)
do i=1,10
write(lun,'(*(g0))')'test line ',i
enddo
!! run once and show result
call one_of_n(line,n)
write(*,'(i10,":",a)')n,trim(line)
!! run 1 000 000, times on ten-line test file
count=0
do i=1,1000000
call one_of_n(line,n)
if(n.gt.0.and.n.le.10)then
count(n)=count(n)+1
else
write(*,*)'<ERROR>'
endif
enddo
write(*,*)count
write(*,*)count-100000
contains
subroutine one_of_n(line,n)
character(len=256),intent(out) :: line
integer,intent(out)            :: n
real(kind=dp)                  :: rand_val
integer                        :: ios, ilines
line=''
ios=0
ilines=1
n=0
rewind(lun)
do
call random_number(rand_val)
if( rand_val < 1.0d0/(ilines) )then
if(ios/=0)exit
n=ilines
else
if(ios/=0)exit
endif
ilines=ilines+1
enddo
end subroutine one_of_n
end program reservoir_sample
}
```
Output:
``` time fpm run --compiler gfortran
100112  99672  99928 100707  99612 100086 100628  99645  99676  99934
112   -328    -72    707   -388     86    628   -355   -324    -66

real    0m7.281s
user    0m5.812s
sys     0m1.465s
```

## FreeBASIC

```Declare Function one_of_n (n As Long) As Long

Dim As Long L0, c, elegido(1 To 10)

Function one_of_n (n As Long) As Long

'asume que la primera línea es 1
Dim As Long L1, opcion
For L1 = 1 To n
If Int(Rnd * L1) = 0 Then opcion = L1
Next L1
one_of_n = opcion
End Function

Randomize Timer

For L0 = 1 To 1000000
c = one_of_n(10)
elegido(c) += 1
Next L0

For L0 = 1 To 10
Print Using "##. #######"; L0; elegido(L0)
Next L0

Sleep
```

## Go

```package main

import (
"bufio"
"fmt"
"io"
"math/rand"
"time"
)

// choseLineRandomly implements the method described in the task.
// input is a an io.Reader, which could be an os.File, for example.
// Or, to implement a simulation, it could be anything else that implements
// io.Reader.  The method as described suggests saving and returning
// lines, but the rest of the task requires line numbers.  This function
// thus returns both.
func choseLineRandomly(r io.Reader) (s string, ln int, err error) {
if err != nil {
return
}
ln = 1
lnLast := 1.
var sLast string
for {
// note bufio.ReadString used here.  This effectively defines a
// line of the file as zero or more bytes followed by a newline.
if err == io.EOF {
return s, ln, nil // normal return
}
if err != nil {
break
}
lnLast++
if rand.Float64() < 1/lnLast {
s = sLast
ln = int(lnLast)
}
}
return // error return
}

// oneOfN function required for task item 1.  Specified to take a number
// n, the number of lines in a file, but the method (above) specified to
// to be used does not need n, but rather the file itself.  This function
// thus takes both, ignoring n and passing the file to choseLineRandomly.
func oneOfN(n int, file io.Reader) int {
_, ln, err := choseLineRandomly(file)
if err != nil {
panic(err)
}
return ln
}

if *r <= 0 {
return 0, io.EOF
}
b[0] = '\n'
*r--
return 1, nil
}

func main() {
// task item 2 simulation consists of accumulating frequency statistic
// on 1,000,000 calls of oneOfN on simulated file.
n := 10
freq := make([]int, n)
rand.Seed(time.Now().UnixNano())
for times := 0; times < 1e6; times++ {
freq[oneOfN(n, &sr)-1]++
}

// task item 3.  show frequencies.
fmt.Println(freq)
}
```

Output:

```[99945 99770 99594 100532 99941 100223 99716 100217 99855 100207]
```

The function selItem will operate on any list, whether a lazy list of strings from a file or a list of numbers, as in the test.

```import qualified Data.Map as M
import System.Random
import Data.List
import System.Environment

testFile = [1..10]

selItem g xs = foldl' f (head xs, 1, 2, g) \$ tail xs
where f :: RandomGen a => (b, Int, Int, a) -> b -> (b, Int, Int, a)
f (c, cn, n, gen) l | v == 1    = (l, n, n+1, ngen)
| otherwise = (c, cn, n+1, ngen)
where (v, ngen) = randomR (1, n) gen

oneOfN a = do
g <- newStdGen
let (r, _, _, _) = selItem g a
return r

test = do
x <- replicateM 1000000 (oneOfN testFile)
let f m l = M.insertWith (+) l 1 m
let results = foldl' f M.empty x
forM_ (M.toList results) \$ \(x, y) -> putStrLn \$ "Line number " ++ show x ++
" had count :" ++ show y

main = do
a <- getArgs
g <- newStdGen
if null a then test
else putStrLn.(\(l, n, _, _) -> "Line " ++
show n ++ ": " ++ l)
```

Running without any args runs the test:

```\$ ./oneofn
Line number 1 had count :99887
Line number 2 had count :99739
Line number 3 had count :99749
Line number 4 had count :100689
Line number 5 had count :100126
Line number 6 had count :99986
Line number 7 had count :100699
Line number 8 had count :99569
Line number 9 had count :99121
Line number 10 had count :100435```

Running with a filename argument prints the line number and the line to stdin:

```\$ ./oneofn test.txt
Line 6.0: This is line 6```

## Icon and Unicon

Translation of: Python
```procedure main() # one of n
one_of_n_test(10,1000000)
end

procedure one_of_n(n)
every i := 1 to n do
choice := (?0  < 1. / i, i)
return \choice | fail
end

procedure one_of_n_test(n,trials)
bins := table(0)
every i := 1 to trials do
bins[one_of_n(n)] +:= 1
every writes(bins[i := 1 to n]," ")
return bins
end
```

Sample output:

`99470 99806 99757 99921 100213 100001 99778 100385 100081 100588`

## J

This implementation also implements line buffering, since the built-in line handling does not work quite how I want it to work. That said, if a line is too large (many gigabytes, for example), the system will crawl to a halt when the line is read.

```randLineBig=:3 :0
file=. boxopen y
r=. ''
n=. 1
size=. fsize file
blocksize=. 1e7
buffer=. ''
for_block. |: blocksize -~/\@(] <. [ * 0 1 +/i.@>.@%~) size do.
linends=. LF = buffer
lines=. linends <;.2 buffer
buffer=. buffer }.~ {: 1+I.linends
pick=. (0 ?@\$~ #lines) < % n+i.#lines
if. 1 e. pick do.
r=. ({:I.pick) {:: lines
end.
n=. n+#lines
end.
r
)
```

Usage: randLineBig 'filename'

Testing:

```   (,LF,.~":,.i.10) fwrite <'seq.txt'
20
(#;~.)/.~ /:~ <@randLineBig"0]1e6#<'seq.txt'
┌──────┬───┐
│99916 │0  │
├──────┼───┤
│99944 │1  │
├──────┼───┤
│100250│2  │
├──────┼───┤
│100621│3  │
├──────┼───┤
│99594 │4  │
├──────┼───┤
│100106│5  │
├──────┼───┤
│99957 │6  │
├──────┼───┤
│99975 │7  │
├──────┼───┤
│100054│8  │
├──────┼───┤
│99583 │9  │
└──────┴───┘
```

## Java

Translation of: Python
```import java.util.Arrays;
import java.util.Random;

public class OneOfNLines {

static Random rand;

public static int oneOfN(int n) {
int choice = 0;

for(int i = 1; i < n; i++) {
if(rand.nextInt(i+1) == 0)
choice = i;
}

return choice;
}

public static void main(String[] args) {
int n = 10;
int trials = 1000000;
int[] bins = new int[n];
rand = new Random();

for(int i = 0; i < trials; i++)
bins[oneOfN(n)]++;

System.out.println(Arrays.toString(bins));
}
}
```

Sample output:

`[99832, 99958, 100281, 99601, 99568, 99689, 100118, 99753, 100659, 100541]`

## jq

Translation of: Wren
Works with: jq

Since jq does not have a built-in PRNG, this entry assumes the availability of an external source of entropy such as /dev/random. The output shown below is from a run of the following:

```export LC_ALL=C
< /dev/random tr -cd '0-9' | fold -w 4 | jq -Mnr -f program.jq
```

program.jq

```# oneOfN presupposes an unbounded stream
# of 4-digit PRNs uniformly distributed on [0-9999]
def oneOfN:
reduce range(2; 1+.) as \$i (1;
if (input / 10000) < (1/\$i) then \$i else . end);

def n: 10;
def repetitions: 1e6;

( reduce range(0; repetitions) as \$i (null;
(n|oneOfN) as \$num
| .[\$num-1] += 1 )) as \$freqs
|  range(1; 1+n) | "Line\(.) \(\$freqs[.-1] )"```
Output:
```Line1 99745
Line2 100351
Line3 99805
Line4 100240
Line5 100155
Line6 99525
Line7 100182
Line8 99738
Line9 100360
Line10 99899
```

## Julia

```const N = 10
const GOAL = 10^6

function oneofn{T<:Integer}(n::T)
0 < n || error("n = ", n, ", but it should be positive.")
oon = 1
for i in 2:n
rand(1:i) == 1 || continue
oon = i
end
return oon
end

nhist = zeros(Int, N)
for i in 1:GOAL
nhist[oneofn(N)] += 1
end

println("Simulating oneofn(", N, ") ", GOAL, " times:")
for i in 1:N
println(@sprintf "   %2d => %6d" i nhist[i])
end
```
Output:
```Simulating oneofn(10) 1000000 times:
1 =>  99759
2 =>  99933
3 => 100052
4 =>  99893
5 => 100489
6 =>  99727
7 => 100114
8 => 100116
9 => 100139
10 =>  99778
```

## Kotlin

```// version 1.1.51

import java.util.Random

val r = Random()

fun oneOfN(n: Int): Int {
var choice = 1
for (i in 2..n) {
if (r.nextDouble() < 1.0 / i) choice = i
}
return choice
}

fun main(args: Array<String>) {
val n = 10
val freqs = IntArray(n)
val reps = 1_000_000
repeat(reps) {
val num = oneOfN(n)
freqs[num - 1]++
}
for (i in 1..n) println("Line \${"%-2d".format(i)} = \${freqs[i - 1]}")
}
```

Sample output:

```Line 1  = 100363
Line 2  = 99669
Line 3  = 100247
Line 4  = 100248
Line 5  = 100401
Line 6  = 99457
Line 7  = 100015
Line 8  = 100215
Line 9  = 99920
Line 10 = 99465
```

## Liberty BASIC

```DIM chosen(10)

FOR i = 1 TO 10000'00
c = oneofN(10)
chosen(c) = chosen(c) + 1
NEXT

FOR i = 1 TO 10
PRINT i, chosen(i)
NEXT

end

FUNCTION oneofN(n)
FOR i = 1 TO n
IF RND(1) < 1/i THEN oneofN = i
NEXT
END FUNCTION```
Output:
```1             1008
2             934
3             1009
4             1012
5             981
6             1013
7             1015
8             986
9             1002
10            1040
```

## Lua

```math.randomseed(os.time())

local n = 10
local trials = 1000000

function one(n)
local chosen = 1
for i = 1, n do
if math.random() < 1/i then
chosen = i
end
end

return chosen
end

-- 0 filled table for storing results
local results = {}
for i = 1, n do results[i] = 0 end

-- run simulation
for i = 1, trials do
local result = one(n)
results[result] = results[result] + 1
end

print("Value","Occurrences")
print("-------------------")
for k, v in ipairs(results) do
print(k,v)
end
```
Output:
```Value   Occurrences
-------------------
1       99393
2       100092
3       100412
4       100139
5       99773
6       99802
7       100020
8       99941
9       100063
10      100365
```

## Maple

```with(RandomTools[MersenneTwister]);
one_of_n_lines_in_a_file := proc(fn)
local fid, N, n, L, l, line;
if fid<0 then
return;
end if;
N := 0;
n := 1;
while not feof(fid) do
N := N+1;
if (N*GenerateFloat() < 1) then
n := N;
line := L;
end if;
end do;
fclose(fid);
return(n);
end proc;```

## Mathematica /Wolfram Language

```chooseLine[file_] := Block[{strm = OpenRead[file], n = 1, rec, selected},
While[rec =!= EndOfFile,
n++;
If[RandomReal[] < 1/n, selected = rec]];
Close[strm];
selected]
```

## MATLAB / Octave

```function [n,line] = one_of_n_lines_in_a_file(fn)
fid = fopen(fn,'r');
if fid<0, return; end;
N = 0;
n = 1;
while ~feof(fid)
N = N+1;
L = fgetl(fid);
if (N*rand() < 1)
n = N;
line = L;
end;
end
fclose(fid);
```

test

```x=zeros(1,10);
for k = 1:1e6;
n = one_of_n_lines_in_a_file('f1');
x(n) = x(n) + 1;
end;
[1:10;x]
```
```        1        2        3        4        5        6        7        8        9       10
105973   105715   106182   106213   105443   105255   106048   105999   105366   106070```

## Nim

```import random
randomize()

proc oneOfN(n: int): int =
result = 0
for x in 0 ..< n:
if random(x) == 0:
result = x

proc oneOfNTest(n = 10, trials = 1_000_000): seq[int] =
result = newSeq[int](n)
if n > 0:
for i in 1..trials:
inc result[oneOfN(n)]

echo oneOfNTest()
```
Output:
`@[100454, 100110, 99882, 99733, 100171, 99724, 100111, 99874, 100159, 99782]`

## OCaml

```let one_of_n n =
let rec aux i r =
if i >= n then r else
if Random.int (i + 1) = 0
then aux (succ i) i
else aux (succ i) r
in
aux 1 0

let test ~n ~trials =
let ar = Array.make n 0 in
for i = 1 to trials do
let d = one_of_n n in
ar.(d) <- succ ar.(d)
done;
Array.iter (Printf.printf " %d") ar;
print_newline ()

let () =
Random.self_init ();
test ~n:10 ~trials:1_000_000
```

Executing:

```\$ ocamlopt -o one.opt one.ml
\$ ./one.opt
100620 99719 99928 99864 99760 100151 99553 100529 99800 100076
```

## PARI/GP

gp can't read individual lines from a file (PARI would be needed for that) but it can do the simulation easily. The `random()` function produces high-quality pseudorandom numbers (via Brent's XORGEN) so the output passes a chi-square test easily (p = 0.848).

```one_of_n(n)={
my(chosen=1);
for(k=2,n,
if(random(k)==0, chosen=k)
);
chosen;
}
v=vector(10); for(i=1,1e6, v[one_of_n(10)]++); v```
Output:
`%1 = [99933, 100021, 100125, 100071, 99876, 99485, 100108, 100183, 99861, 100337]`

## Pascal

Works with: Free_Pascal
```Program OneOfNLines (Output);

{\$IFDEF FPC}
{\$MODE DELPHI}
{\$ENDIF}

function one_of_n(n: longint): longint;
var
i: longint;
begin
one_of_n := 1;
for i := 2 to n do
if random < 1.0 / i then
one_of_n := i;
end;

function sum(a: array of longint): longint;
var
i: integer;
begin
Result := 0;
for i := low(a) to high(a) do
Result := Result + a[i];
end;

const
num_reps = 1000000;
num_lines_in_file = 10;

var
lines: array[1..num_reps] of longint;
i: longint;

begin
randomize;
for i := 1 to num_reps do
lines[i] := 0;
for i := 1 to num_reps do
inc(lines[one_of_n(num_lines_in_file)]);
for i := 1 to num_lines_in_file do
writeln('Number of times line ', i, ' was selected: ', lines[i]);
writeln('Total number selected: ', sum(lines));
end.
```

Output:

```% ./OneOfNLines
Number of times line 1 was selected: 100388
Number of times line 2 was selected: 100206
Number of times line 3 was selected: 100427
Number of times line 4 was selected: 100092
Number of times line 5 was selected: 99951
Number of times line 6 was selected: 100114
Number of times line 7 was selected: 99518
Number of times line 8 was selected: 99900
Number of times line 9 was selected: 99967
Number of times line 10 was selected: 99437
Total number selected: 1000000
```

### using int-random

int-random needn't the calculation of (1.0 /i).That is 3-times faster.I implemented the use of reading a random line of a textfile as discribed.In that case, there is no need to use the functoin one_of_n .

```Program OneOfNLines(InPut,Output);
{\$h+} //use Ansistring
{type
NativeInt = LongInt;}

function one_of_n(n: NativeInt): NativeInt;
var
ch,i: LongInt;// doubles speed of random using 64-Bit :-(
begin
ch := 1;
for i := 2 to n do
if random(i) = 0 then
ch := i;
one_of_n := ch;
end;

function ChooseRNDLine(          fileNm : string;
var LnChsn,LnCnt :NativeInt):string;
var
choosen,
n : NativeInt;
f : textFile;
actRow,
chsnRow: string;
buf : array[0..4095] of char;// speed things up
begin
n:= 0;
choosen := n;
chsnRow := '';

Assign(f,fileNm);
{\$I-}
Reset(f);
{\$I+}
IF IoResult <> 0 then
close(f)
else
Begin
SetTextBuf(f,Buf[0]);

while Not(EOF(f)) do
Begin
inc(n);
IF Random(n)= 0 then
begin
chsnRow:= actRow;
choosen := n;
end;
end;
close(f);
end;

LnChsn := choosen;
LnCnt := n;
ChooseRNDLine := chsnRow;
end;

const
cFn = 'OneOfNLines.s';// compiled with -al assembler output
num_reps = 1000000;
num_lines_in_file = 10;

var
Ln    : String;
LnChsn,
LnCnt,
i     : NativeInt;
cntLns: array[1..num_lines_in_file] of NativeUint;
begin
randomize;
Ln := ChooseRNDLine(cFn,LnChsn,LnCnt);
writeln('choosen ', LnChsn,' out of ',LnCnt );
writeln(Ln);writeln;

FillChar(cntLns,SizeOf(cntLns),#0);
for i := 1 to num_reps do
inc(cntLns[one_of_n(num_lines_in_file)]);
for i := 1 to num_lines_in_file do
writeln('Number of times line ', i, ' was selected: ', cntLns[i]);

LnCnt := 0;
For i := Low(cntLns) to High(cntLns) do
inc(LnCnt,cntLns[i]);
writeln('Total number selected: ', LnCnt);
end.
```
Output
```time ./OneOfNLines
choosen 463 out of 667
.section .data.n_INITFINAL

rest like above:
Number of times line 1 was selected: 99891
....
Number of times line 10 was selected: 99523
Total number selected: 1000000

real  0m0.086s```

## Perl

```#!/usr/bin/perl
use warnings;
use strict;

sub one_of_n {
my \$n = shift;
my \$return = 1;
for my \$line (2 .. \$n) {
\$return = \$line if 1 > rand \$line;
}
return \$return;
}

my \$repeat = 1_000_000;
my \$size   = 10;

my @freq;
++\$freq[ one_of_n(\$size) - 1 ] for 1 .. \$repeat;
print "@freq\n";
```

## Phix

```with javascript_semantics
function one_of_n(integer n)
integer line_num = 1
for i=2 to n do
if rnd()<1/i then
line_num = i
end if
end for
return line_num
end function

sequence counts = repeat(0,10)
for i=1 to 1000000 do
integer cdx = one_of_n(10)
counts[cdx] += 1
end for
?counts
```
Output:
```{99998,100223,99972,100323,100174,99663,99593,100141,99866,100047}
```

## PicoLisp

```(de one-of-n (N)
(let R 1
(for I N
(when (= 1 (rand 1 I))
(setq R I) ) )
R ) )

(let L (need 10 0)
(do 1000000
(inc (nth L (one-of-n 10))) )
L )```

Output:

`-> (99893 100145 99532 100400 100263 100229 99732 100116 99709 99981)`

## PowerShell

Translation of: C#

```function Get-OneOfN ([int]\$Number)
{
\$current = 1

for (\$i = 2; \$i -le \$Number; \$i++)
{
\$limit = 1 / \$i

if ((Get-Random -Minimum 0.0 -Maximum 1.0) -lt \$limit)
{
\$current = \$i
}
}

\$current
}

\$table = [ordered]@{}

for (\$i = 1; \$i -lt 11; \$i++)
{
}

for (\$i = 0; \$i -lt 1000000; \$i++)
{
\$index = (Get-OneOfN -Number 10) - 1
\$table[\$index] = \$table[\$index] + 1
}

[PSCustomObject]\$table
```
Output:
```Line  1 : 99928
Line  2 : 100067
Line  3 : 100415
Line  4 : 100133
Line  5 : 100555
Line  6 : 99845
Line  7 : 99625
Line  8 : 99968
Line  9 : 99864
Line 10 : 99600
```

The above version runs in ~650 seconds, because of the large overhead of calling PowerShell functions and binding their parameters. With a small change to move the function into a class method, the parameter binding becomes faster, and swapping Get-Random for System.Random, the overall code runtime drops to ~20 seconds. Changing the ordered hashtable to a Generic Dictionary reduces it again to ~15 seconds:

```class Holder {
[System.Random]\$rng

Holder()
{
\$this.rng = [System.Random]::new()
}

[int] GetOneOfN([int]\$Number)
{
\$current = 1

for (\$i = 2; \$i -le \$Number; \$i++)
{
\$limit = 1 / \$i

if (\$this.rng.NextDouble() -lt \$limit)
{
\$current = \$i
}
}

return \$current
}
}

\$table = [Collections.Generic.Dictionary[int, int]]::new()
\$X = [Holder]::new()

1..10 | ForEach-Object {
}

for (\$i = 0; \$i -lt 1e6; \$i++)
{
\$index = \$X.GetOneOfN(10) - 1
\$table[\$index] += 1
}

[PSCustomObject]\$table
```

## PureBasic

```Procedure.f randomFloat()
ProcedureReturn Random(1000000) / 1000000
EndProcedure

Procedure one_of_n(n)
If randomFloat() <= (1.0 / (linesRead))
EndIf
Wend
ProcedureReturn lineChosen
EndProcedure

If OpenConsole()
#testFileLineCount = 10
#simulationCount = 1000000
Define i
Dim a(#testFileLineCount) ;index 0 is not used
For i = 1 To #simulationCount
x = one_of_n(#testFileLineCount)
a(x) + 1
Next

For i = 1 To #testFileLineCount
Print(Str(a(i)) + "  ")
Next
PrintN("")

Print(#CRLF\$ + #CRLF\$ + "Press ENTER to exit"): Input()
CloseConsole()
EndIf
```

Sample output:

`99959  100011  100682  100060  99834  99632  100083  99817  99824  100098`

## Python

To be more in line with the spirit of the problem, `one_of_n` will take the "lines" as an iterator, guaranteeing that it only traverses the lines one time, and does not know the length until the end.

```from random import randrange
try:
range = xrange
except: pass

def one_of_n(lines): # lines is any iterable
choice = None
for i, line in enumerate(lines):
if randrange(i+1) == 0:
choice = line
return choice

def one_of_n_test(n=10, trials=1000000):
bins = [0] * n
if n:
for i in range(trials):
bins[one_of_n(range(n))] += 1
return bins

print(one_of_n_test())
```
Sample output
`[99833, 100303, 99902, 100132, 99608, 100117, 99531, 100017, 99795, 100762]`

## R

```one_of_n <- function(n)
{
choice <- 1L

for (i in 2:n)
{
if (i*runif(1) < 1)
choice <- i
}

return(choice)
}

table(sapply(1:1000000, function(i) one_of_n(10)))
```

Sample output:

```     1      2      3      4      5      6      7      8      9     10
99783  99776 100214 100342 100342  99771 100394 100176  99486  99716 ```

## Racket

```#lang racket

(define (one-of-n n)
(for/fold ([n 0]) ([i (in-range 1 n)])
(if (zero? (random (add1 i))) i n)))

(define (try n times)
(define rs (make-vector n 0))
(for ([i (in-range times)])
(define r (one-of-n n))
(vector-set! rs r (add1 (vector-ref rs r))))
(vector->list rs))

(define TIMES 1000000)
(for ([n (in-range 1 21)])
(define rs (try n TIMES))
(printf "~a: ~a\n    ~a\n" (~a #:width 2 n) rs
(map (lambda (r) (~a (round (/ r TIMES 1/100)) "%")) rs)))

#| Sample Run:

1 : (1000000)
(100%)
2 : (499702 500298)
(50% 50%)
3 : (332426 333314 334260)
(33% 33% 33%)
4 : (249925 250083 249695 250297)
(25% 25% 25% 25%)
5 : (200304 199798 199920 199983 199995)
(20% 20% 20% 20% 20%)
6 : (166276 167085 165955 166792 167143 166749)
(17% 17% 17% 17% 17% 17%)
7 : (142067 143242 142749 142997 143248 142746 142951)
(14% 14% 14% 14% 14% 14% 14%)
8 : (125026 125187 125214 124770 124785 125141 125039 124838)
(13% 13% 13% 12% 12% 13% 13% 12%)
9 : (111551 111013 110741 111292 111105 110627 110570 111685 111416)
(11% 11% 11% 11% 11% 11% 11% 11% 11%)
10: (100322 100031 100176 100590 99799 99892 100305 99955 99493 99437)
(10% 10% 10% 10% 10% 10% 10% 10% 10% 10%)
11: (91237 90706 90962 90901 90872 91002 91164 90967 90092 90706 91391)
(9% 9% 9% 9% 9% 9% 9% 9% 9% 9% 9%)
12: (83046 83556 83003 84128 83264 83305 83093 83202 83430 83605 83276 83092)
(8% 8% 8% 8% 8% 8% 8% 8% 8% 8% 8% 8%)
13: (77282 76936 76667 76659 76771 76736 77165 77190 77341 76469 76985 76942 76857)
(8% 8% 8% 8% 8% 8% 8% 8% 8% 8% 8% 8% 8%)
14: (71389 71496 71141 71314 71670 72062 71979 71361 71198 71457 70854 71686 71300 71093)
(7% 7% 7% 7% 7% 7% 7% 7% 7% 7% 7% 7% 7% 7%)
15: (66534 66571 66072 66977 66803 66894 67076 66409 66306 67222 66590 66780 66341 66680 66745)
(7% 7% 7% 7% 7% 7% 7% 7% 7% 7% 7% 7% 7% 7% 7%)
16: (62155 62496 62846 62136 62447 62714 62228 62454 62527 62577 62775 62692 62491 62231 62460 62771)
(6% 6% 6% 6% 6% 6% 6% 6% 6% 6% 6% 6% 6% 6% 6% 6%)
17: (58852 59046 58726 58782 58979 58725 59051 58935 58910 59082 58567 58863 58625 58922 58648 58456 58831)
(6% 6% 6% 6% 6% 6% 6% 6% 6% 6% 6% 6% 6% 6% 6% 6% 6%)
18: (55204 55683 55547 55492 55671 55467 55801 55704 55235 55411 55482 55387 55679 55557 55398 55649 55815 55818)
(6% 6% 6% 6% 6% 6% 6% 6% 6% 6% 6% 6% 6% 6% 6% 6% 6% 6%)
19: (52564 52283 52918 52363 52316 52511 52500 53042 52594 52720 52577 52623 52762 53047 52798 52832 52267 52550 52733)
(5% 5% 5% 5% 5% 5% 5% 5% 5% 5% 5% 5% 5% 5% 5% 5% 5% 5% 5%)
20: (50107 50008 49786 50128 50431 49905 50109 49781 50099 50117 49772 50128 49721 49937 49735 50067 49865 50155 50231 49918)
(5% 5% 5% 5% 5% 5% 5% 5% 5% 5% 5% 5% 5% 5% 5% 5% 5% 5% 5% 5%)

|#
```

## Raku

(formerly Perl 6)

Translation of: Python
```sub one_of_n(\$n) {
my \$choice;
\$choice = \$_ if .rand < 1 for 1 .. \$n;
\$choice - 1;
}

sub one_of_n_test(\$n = 10, \$trials = 1_000_000) {
my @bins;
@bins[one_of_n(\$n)]++ for ^\$trials;
@bins;
}

say one_of_n_test();
```

Output:

`100288 100047 99660 99773 100256 99633 100161 100483 99789 99910`

## REXX

```/*REXX program simulates reading a  ten─line  file,  count the selection randomness.    */
N= 10                                            /*the number of lines in pseudo-file.  */
@.= 0                                            /*zero  all  the (ten)  "buckets".     */
do 1000000                                 /*perform main loop  one million times.*/
?= 1
do k=1  for N                /*N  is the number of lines in the file*/
if random(0, 99999) / 100000  <  1/k  then ?= k      /*the criteria.*/
end   /*k*/
@.?= @.? + 1                               /*bump the count in a particular bucket*/
end                 /*1000000*/

do j=1  for N                                 /*display randomness counts (buckets). */
say "number of times line"       right(j, 2)       "was selected:"       right(@.j, 9)
end   /*j*/                                   /*stick a fork in it,  we're all done. */
```
output   when using the internal default input:
```number of times line  1 was selected:     99752
number of times line  2 was selected:    100060
number of times line  3 was selected:     99996
number of times line  4 was selected:    100023
number of times line  5 was selected:    100028
number of times line  6 was selected:    100262
number of times line  7 was selected:    100755
number of times line  8 was selected:     99794
number of times line  9 was selected:     99539
number of times line 10 was selected:     99791
```

## Ring

```cnt = list(10)
for nr = 1 to 10000
cnt[oneofn(10)] += 1
next
for m = 1 to 10
see "" + m + " : " + cnt[m] + nl
next
see nl

func oneofn n
for i = 1 to n
if random(1) <= 1/i d = i ok
next
return d```
```1 : 15
2 : 12
3 : 37
4 : 74
5 : 158
6 : 323
7 : 646
8 : 1233
9 : 2506
10 : 4996
```

## Ruby

```# Returns a random line from _io_, or nil if _io_ has no lines.
#  # Get a random line from /etc/passwd
#  line = open("/etc/passwd") {|f| random_line(f) }
def random_line(io)
choice = io.gets; count = 1
while line = io.gets
rand(count += 1).zero? and choice = line
end
choice
end

def one_of_n(n)
# Create a mock IO that provides line numbers instead of lines.
# Assumes that #random_line calls #gets.
(mock_io = Object.new).instance_eval do
@count = 0
@last = n
def self.gets
(@count < @last) ? (@count += 1) : nil
end
end
random_line(mock_io)
end

chosen = Hash.new(0)
1_000_000.times { chosen[one_of_n(10)] += 1 }
chosen.keys.sort.each do |key|
puts "#{key} chosen #{chosen[key]} times"
end
```
```\$ ruby one-of-n.rb
1 chosen 100470 times
2 chosen 100172 times
3 chosen 100473 times
4 chosen 99725 times
5 chosen 100600 times
6 chosen 99126 times
7 chosen 100297 times
8 chosen 99606 times
9 chosen 100039 times
10 chosen 99492 times```

## Run BASIC

```for i1 = 1 to 1000000
c = oneOfN(10)
chosen(c) = chosen(c) + 1
next

for i1 = 1 to 10
print i1;" ";chosen(i1)
next

FUNCTION oneOfN(n)
for i2 = 1 to n
IF int(rnd(1) * i2) = 0 then choice = i2
next
oneOfN = choice
END FUNCTION```

Output:

```1 99034
2 98462
3 98741
4 100256
5 100449
6 100758
7 100206
8 100982
9 100520
10 100592```

## Rust

Library: rand

You could also use `rand::seq::sample_iter` which uses a more general version of this problem, Reservoir Sampling: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reservoir_sampling.

```extern crate rand;

fn one_of_n<R: Rng>(rng: &mut R, n: usize) -> usize {
(1..n).fold(0, |keep, cand| {
// Note that this will break if n is larger than u32::MAX
if rng.gen_weighted_bool(cand as u32 + 1) {
cand
} else {
keep
}
})
}

fn main() {
const LINES: usize = 10;

let mut dist = [0; LINES];

for _ in 0..1_000_000 {
let num = one_of_n(&mut rng, LINES);
dist[num] += 1;
}

println!("{:?}", dist);
}
```
Output:
```[100203, 100012, 99854, 99686, 99888, 99899, 99559, 100584, 100208, 100107]
```

## Scala

```def one_of_n(n: Int, i: Int = 1, j: Int = 1): Int =
if (n < 1) i else one_of_n(n - 1, if (scala.util.Random.nextInt(j) == 0) n else i, j + 1)

def simulate(lines: Int, iterations: Int) = {
val counts = new Array[Int](lines)
for (_ <- 1 to iterations; i = one_of_n(lines) - 1) counts(i) = counts(i) + 1
counts
}

println(simulate(10, 1000000) mkString "\n")
```
Output:
```100014
100233
100146
100121
99796
99677
99948
99260
100299
100506```

## Seed7

```\$ include "seed7_05.s7i";

const func integer: one_of_n (in integer: n) is func
result
var integer: r is 1;
local
var integer: i is 0;
begin
for i range 2 to n do
if rand(1, i) = 1 then
r := i;
end if;
end for;
end func;

const proc: main is func
local
var array integer: r is 10 times 0;
var integer: i is 0;
begin
for i range 1 to 1000000 do
incr(r[one_of_n(10)]);
end for;
for i range 1 to 10 do
write(r[i] <& " ");
end for;
writeln;
end func;```

Output:

```100372 99661 100264 99644 100180 99748 99718 100205 99714 100494
```

## Sidef

Translation of: Raku
```func one_of_n(n) {
var choice
n.times { |i|
choice = i if (1 > i.rand)
}
choice - 1
}

func one_of_n_test(n = 10, trials = 1_000_000) {
var bins = []
trials.times {
bins[one_of_n(n)] := 0 ++
}
bins
}

say one_of_n_test()
```
Output:
`99838 100843 99696 100078 99973 100350 100054 99495 99540 100133`

## Swift

```func one_of_n(n: Int) -> Int {
var result = 1
for i in 2...n {
if arc4random_uniform(UInt32(i)) < 1 {
result = i
}
}
return result
}

var counts = [0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0]
for _ in 1..1_000_000 {
counts[one_of_n(10)-1]++
}

println(counts)
```
Sample Output:
`[100475, 99986, 99725, 100069, 99702, 100065, 99840, 100501, 100186, 99450]`

## Tcl

```package require Tcl 8.5
proc 1ofN {n} {
for {set line 1} {\$line <= \$n} {incr line} {
if {rand() < 1.0/[incr fraction]} {
set result \$line
}
}
return \$result
}

for {set i 0} {\$i < 1000000} {incr i} {
incr count([1ofN 10])
}
parray count;   # Alphabetic order, but convenient
```

Sample output:

```count(1)  = 99862
count(10) = 100517
count(2)  = 100545
count(3)  = 100339
count(4)  = 99636
count(5)  = 99920
count(6)  = 99263
count(7)  = 100283
count(8)  = 99871
count(9)  = 99764
```

## VBScript

```Dim chosen(10)

For j = 1 To 1000000
c = one_of_n(10)
chosen(c) = chosen(c) + 1
Next

For k = 1 To 10
WScript.StdOut.WriteLine k & ". " & chosen(k)
Next

Function one_of_n(n)
Randomize
For i = 1 To n
If Rnd(1) < 1/i Then
one_of_n = i
End If
Next
End Function
```
Output:
```1. 100082
2. 100358
3. 100184
4. 99573
5. 100404
6. 99544
7. 99884
8. 99995
9. 100081
10. 99895
```

## Wren

Translation of: Kotlin
Library: Wren-fmt
```import "random" for Random
import "./fmt" for Fmt

var rand = Random.new()

var oneOfN = Fn.new { |n|
var choice = 1
for (i in 2..n) {
if (rand.float() < 1/i) choice = i
}
return choice
}

var n = 10
var freqs = List.filled(n, 0)
var reps = 1e6
for (i in 0...reps) {
var num = oneOfN.call(n)
freqs[num-1] = freqs[num-1] + 1
}
for (i in 1..n) Fmt.print("Line \$-2d = \$,7d", i, freqs[i-1])
```
Output:

Sample run:

```Line 1  =  99,761
Line 2  =  99,876
Line 3  =  99,935
Line 4  = 100,020
Line 5  = 100,281
Line 6  = 100,329
Line 7  =  99,876
Line 8  =  99,810
Line 9  = 100,033
Line 10 = 100,079
```

## XPL0

```func One_of_n(N);
int  N, Choice, Line;
[Choice:= 1;
for Line:= 2 to N do
if Ran(1_000_000) < 1_000_000/Line then Choice:= Line;
return Choice;
];

int Counters(1+10), I, N;
[for I:= 1 to 10 do Counters(I):= 0;
for I:= 1 to 1_000_000 do
[N:= One_of_n(10);
Counters(N):= Counters(N)+1;
];
for I:= 1 to 10 do
[IntOut(0, Counters(I));
ChOut(0, ^ );
];
]```
Output:
`99477 99885 99826 100174 99902 99766 100287 100125 100386 100172 `

## Yabasic

Translation of: FreeBASIC
```dim elegido(10)

sub one_of_n (n)
//asume que la primera línea es 1
local L1
for L1 = 1 to n
if int(ran(L1)) = 0 then opcion = L1 : endif
next L1
return opcion
end sub

for L0 = 1 to 1000000
c = one_of_n(10)
elegido(c) = elegido(c) + 1
next L0

for L0 = 1 to 10
print L0, ".  ", elegido(L0)
next L0

end```

## zkl

Translation of: Python
```fcn one_of_n(lines){ # lines is any iterable
#if 0  // iterative
choice:=Void;
foreach i,line in ([0..].zip(lines)){
if((0).random(i+1)==0) choice=line;
}
return(choice);
#else  // functional
[0..].zip(lines).pump(Ref(Void).set,fcn([(n,line)])
{ if((0).random(n+1)==0) line else Void.Skip }).value
#endif
}

fcn one_of_n_test(n=10, trials=0d1_000_000){
bins:=n.pump(List(),0); // List(0,0,0...)
if(n){ foreach i in (trials){ bins[one_of_n((n).walker())]+=1 } }
return(bins);
}

println(one_of_n_test());```

A Ref is a strong reference to a value, Ref.set(value) sets the Ref, Ref.value gets the value. A pump pumps data through a list of functions into a sink, Void.Skip skips this value (ie same as continue in a loop).

Output:
`L(99402,99786,99751,100299,100356,99579,100280,100073,100308,100166)`