# Move-to-front algorithm

Move-to-front algorithm
You are encouraged to solve this task according to the task description, using any language you may know.

Given a symbol table of a zero-indexed array of all possible input symbols this algorithm reversibly transforms a sequence of input symbols into an array of output numbers (indices).

The transform in many cases acts to give frequently repeated input symbols lower indices which is useful in some compression algorithms.

Encoding algorithm
```    for each symbol of the input sequence:
output the index of the symbol in the symbol table
move that symbol to the front of the symbol table
```

Decoding algorithm
```    # Using the same starting symbol table
for each index of the input sequence:
output the symbol at that index of the symbol table
move that symbol to the front of the symbol table
```

Example

Encoding the string of character symbols 'broood' using a symbol table of the lowercase characters   a-to-z

Input Output SymbolTable
broood 1 'abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz'
broood 1 17 'bacdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz'
broood 1 17 15 'rbacdefghijklmnopqstuvwxyz'
broood 1 17 15 0 'orbacdefghijklmnpqstuvwxyz'
broood 1 17 15 0 0 'orbacdefghijklmnpqstuvwxyz'
broood 1 17 15 0 0 5 'orbacdefghijklmnpqstuvwxyz'

Decoding the indices back to the original symbol order:

Input Output SymbolTable
1 17 15 0 0 5 b 'abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz'
1 17 15 0 0 5 br 'bacdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz'
1 17 15 0 0 5 bro 'rbacdefghijklmnopqstuvwxyz'
1 17 15 0 0 5 broo 'orbacdefghijklmnpqstuvwxyz'
1 17 15 0 0 5 brooo 'orbacdefghijklmnpqstuvwxyz'
1 17 15 0 0 5 broood 'orbacdefghijklmnpqstuvwxyz'

•   Encode and decode the following three strings of characters using the symbol table of the lowercase characters   a-to-z   as above.
•   Show the strings and their encoding here.
•   Add a check to ensure that the decoded string is the same as the original.

The strings are:

```   broood
bananaaa
hiphophiphop
```

(Note the misspellings in the above strings.)

## 11l

Translation of: Python
```V symboltable = Array(‘a’..‘z’)

F move2front_encode(strng)
[Int] sequence
L(char) strng
sequence.append(indx)
R sequence

F move2front_decode(sequence)
[Char] chars
L(indx) sequence
chars.append(char)
R chars.join(‘’)

L(s) [‘broood’, ‘bananaaa’, ‘hiphophiphop’]
V encode = move2front_encode(s)
print(‘#14 encodes to #.’.format(s, encode), end' ‘, ’)
V decode = move2front_decode(encode)
print(‘which decodes back to #.’.format(decode))
assert(s == decode, ‘Whoops!’)```
Output:
```        broood encodes to [1, 17, 15, 0, 0, 5], which decodes back to broood
bananaaa encodes to [1, 1, 13, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0], which decodes back to bananaaa
hiphophiphop encodes to [7, 8, 15, 2, 15, 2, 2, 3, 2, 2, 3, 2], which decodes back to hiphophiphop
```

## Action!

```DEFINE SYMBOL_TABLE_SIZE="26"

PROC InitSymbolTable(BYTE ARRAY table BYTE len)
BYTE i

FOR i=0 TO len-1
DO
table(i)=i+'a
OD
RETURN

BYTE FUNC Find(BYTE ARRAY table BYTE len,c)
BYTE i

FOR i=0 TO len-1
DO
IF table(i)=c THEN
RETURN (i)
FI
OD
Break()
RETURN (0)

PROC MoveToFront(BYTE ARRAY table BYTE len,pos)
BYTE sym

sym=table(pos)
WHILE pos>0
DO
table(pos)=table(pos-1)
pos==-1
OD
table(pos)=sym
RETURN

PROC Encode(CHAR ARRAY in BYTE ARRAY out BYTE POINTER outLen)
BYTE ARRAY table(SYMBOL_TABLE_SIZE)
BYTE i,pos

outLen^=0
InitSymbolTable(table,SYMBOL_TABLE_SIZE)
FOR i=1 TO in(0)
DO
pos=Find(table,SYMBOL_TABLE_SIZE,in(i))
out(outLen^)=pos
outLen^==+1
MoveToFront(table,SYMBOL_TABLE_SIZE,pos)
OD
RETURN

PROC Decode(BYTE ARRAY in BYTE inLen CHAR ARRAY out)
BYTE ARRAY table(SYMBOL_TABLE_SIZE)
BYTE i,pos,len

len=0
InitSymbolTable(table,SYMBOL_TABLE_SIZE)
FOR i=0 TO inLen-1
DO
pos=in(i)
len==+1
out(len)=table(pos)
MoveToFront(table,SYMBOL_TABLE_SIZE,pos)
OD
out(0)=len
RETURN

PROC Test(CHAR ARRAY s)
BYTE ARRAY encoded(255)
CHAR ARRAY decoded(256)
BYTE encodedLength,i

Print("Source:  ")
PrintE(s)

Encode(s,encoded,@encodedLength)
Print("Encoded: ")
FOR i=0 TO encodedLength-1
DO
PrintB(encoded(i)) Put(32)
OD
PutE()

Decode(encoded,encodedLength,decoded)
Print("Decoded: ")
PrintE(decoded)
IF SCompare(s,decoded)=0 THEN
PrintE("Decoded is equal to the source.")
ELSE
PrintE("Decoded is different from the source!")
FI
PutE()
RETURN

PROC Main()
Test("broood")
Test("bananaaa")
Test("hiphophiphop")
RETURN```
Output:
```Source:  broood
Encoded: 1 17 15 0 0 5
Decoded: broood
Decoded is equal to the source.

Source:  bananaaa
Encoded: 1 1 13 1 1 1 0 0
Decoded: bananaaa
Decoded is equal to the source.

Source:  hiphophiphop
Encoded: 7 8 15 2 15 2 2 3 2 2 3 2
Decoded: hiphophiphop
Decoded is equal to the source.
```

```with Ada.Text_IO;

procedure Move_To_Front is

subtype Lower_Case is Character range 'a' .. 'z';
subtype Index is Integer range 0 .. 25;
type Table is array (Index) of Lower_Case;
Alphabet: constant Table := "abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz";
type Number_String is array(Positive range <>) of Natural;

function Encode(S: String) return Number_String is
Key: Table := Alphabet;

function Encode(S: String; Tab: in out Table) return Number_String is

procedure Look_Up(A: in out Table; Ch: Lower_Case; Pos: out Index) is
begin
for I in A'Range loop
if A(I) = Ch then
Pos := I;
A := A(Pos) & A(A'First .. Pos-1) & A(Pos+1 .. A'Last);
return;
end if;
end loop;
raise Program_Error with "unknown character";
end Look_Up;

Empty: Number_String(1 .. 0);
Result: Natural;
begin
if S'Length = 0 then
return Empty;
else
Look_Up(Tab, S(S'First), Result);
return Result & Encode(S(S'First+1 .. S'Last), Tab);
end if;
end Encode;

begin
return Encode(S, Key);
end Encode;

function Decode(N: Number_String) return String is
Key: Table := Alphabet;

function Decode(N: Number_String; Tab: in out Table) return String is

procedure Look_Up(A: in out Table; Pos: Index; Ch: out Lower_Case) is
begin
Ch := A(Pos);
A := A(Pos) & A(A'First .. Pos-1) & A(Pos+1 .. A'Last);
end Look_Up;

Result: String(N'Range);
begin
for I in N'Range loop
Look_Up(Tab, N(I), Result(I));
end loop;
return Result;
end Decode;

begin
return Decode(N, Key);
end Decode;

procedure Encode_Write_Check(S: String) is
N: Number_String := Encode(S);
T: String := Decode(N);
Check: String := (if S=T then "Correct!" else "*WRONG*!");
begin
Ada.Text_IO.Put("'" & S & "' encodes to");
for Num of N loop
end loop;
Ada.Text_IO.Put_Line(". This decodes to '" & T & "'. " & Check);
end Encode_Write_Check;

begin
Encode_Write_Check("broood");
Encode_Write_Check("bananaaa");
Encode_Write_Check("hiphophiphop");
end Move_To_Front;
```
Output:
```'broood' encodes to 1 17 15 0 0 5. This decodes to 'broood'. Correct!
'bananaaa' encodes to 1 1 13 1 1 1 0 0. This decodes to 'bananaaa'. Correct!
'hiphophiphop' encodes to 7 8 15 2 15 2 2 3 2 2 3 2. This decodes to 'hiphophiphop'. Correct!```

## Aime

```decode(list l)
{
integer c, e;
data al, s;

al = "abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz";
for (, e in l) {
s.append(c = al[e]);
al.delete(e).insert(0, c);
}

s;
}

encode(data s)
{
integer c, e;
data al;
list l;

al = "abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz";
for (, c in s) {
l.append(e = al.place(c));
al.delete(e).insert(0, c);
}

l;
}

main(void)
{
for (, text s in list("broood", "bananaaa", "hiphophiphop")) {
list l;

l = encode(s);
l.ucall(o_, 1, " ");
o_(": ", decode(l), "\n");
}

0;
}```
Output:
``` 1 17 15 0 0 5: broood
1 1 13 1 1 1 0 0: bananaaa
7 8 15 2 15 2 2 3 2 2 3 2: hiphophiphop```

## ALGOL 68

Works with: ALGOL 68G version Any - tested with release 2.8.win32
```# move the character at text pos to the front of text                         #
# note text pos is based from 0                                               #
PROC move to front = ( STRING text, INT text pos )STRING:
IF text pos < 1
THEN
# the character is already at the front (or not in the string)        #
text
ELSE
# the character isn't already at the front - construct the new string #

INT    char pos = LWB text + text pos;

( text[ char pos     : char pos     ]
+ text[              : char pos - 1 ]
+ text[ char pos + 1 :              ]
)

FI;

# encode the string "text", using "initial table" as the starting symbol table#
PROC encode = ( STRING text, STRING initial table )[]INT:
BEGIN

[ 1 : ( UPB text - LWB text ) + 1 ]INT result;

STRING symbol table := initial table;

FOR text pos FROM LWB text TO UPB text
DO
INT    symbol pos := 0;

result[ text pos ]
:= IF char in string( text[ text pos ], symbol pos, symbol table )
THEN
# the character is in the symbol table at symbol pos       #
# (indexed from LWB text) - we store the positions         #
# indexed from 0                                           #
symbol pos - LWB text
ELSE
# the character isn't in the symbol table                  #
-1
FI;

# modify the symbol table so the latest character is at the front     #
symbol table := move to front( symbol table, result[ text pos ] )

OD;

result
END; # encode #

# decode "encoded", using "initial table" as the starting symbol table        #
PROC decode = ( []INT encoded, STRING initial table )STRING:
BEGIN

STRING result       := "";
STRING symbol table := initial table;

FOR text pos FROM LWB encoded TO UPB encoded
DO
result
+:= IF encoded[ text pos ] < 0
THEN
# the encoded character wasn't in the string               #
"?"
ELSE
# the character is in the symbol table                      #
symbol table[ encoded[ text pos ] + LWB symbol table ]
FI;

# modify the symbol table so the latest character is at the front     #
symbol table := move to front( symbol table, encoded[ text pos ] )

OD;

result
END; # decode #

# routine to test the encode and decode routines                              #
PROC test encode and decode = ( STRING text )VOID:
BEGIN

# initial value for the symbol table                                      #
[]CHAR initial table = "abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz";

# procedure to format the encoded value                                   #
PROC format encoded value = ( []INT values )STRING:
BEGIN
STRING result := "";
FOR value pos FROM LWB values TO UPB values
DO
result +:= ( " " + whole( values[ value pos ], 0 ) )
OD;

result
END; # format encoded value #

[]INT  encoded = encode( text,    initial table );
STRING decoded = decode( encoded, initial table );

print( ( ( text
+ " encodes to ["
+ format encoded value( encoded )
+ " ] which "
+ IF text = decoded
THEN
"correctly"
ELSE
"INCORRECTLY"
FI
+ " decodes to """
+ decoded
+ """"
)
, newline
)
)

END; # test encode and decode #

main: (

test encode and decode( "broood" )
;  test encode and decode( "bananaaa" )
;  test encode and decode( "hiphophiphop" )

# ;  test encode and decode( "abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz" ) #
# ;  test encode and decode( "zyxwvutsrqponmlkjihgfedcba" ) #

)```
Output:
```broood encodes to [ 1 17 15 0 0 5 ] which correctly decodes to "broood"
bananaaa encodes to [ 1 1 13 1 1 1 0 0 ] which correctly decodes to "bananaaa"
hiphophiphop encodes to [ 7 8 15 2 15 2 2 3 2 2 3 2 ] which correctly decodes to "hiphophiphop"
```

## Arturo

```symbolTable: @`a`..`z`

encodeWord: function [s][
symt: new symbolTable
result: []
loop s 'c [
idx: index symt c
'result ++ idx
symt: (rotate symt\[0..idx] 1) ++ symt\[(idx+1)..dec size symt]
]
return result
]

decodeWord: function [s][
symt: new symbolTable
result: []
loop s 'idx [
'result ++ symt\[idx]
symt: (rotate symt\[0..idx] 1) ++ symt\[(idx+1)..dec size symt]
]
return join result
]

loop ["broood", "babanaaa", "hiphophiphop"] 'word [
encoded: encodeWord word
decoded: decodeWord encoded
print ["'"++word++"'" "encodes to" encoded "which correctly decodes to" "'"++decoded++"'"]
]
```
Output:
```'broood' encodes to [1 17 15 0 0 5] which correctly decodes to 'broood'
'babanaaa' encodes to [1 1 1 1 13 1 0 0] which correctly decodes to 'babanaaa'
'hiphophiphop' encodes to [7 8 15 2 15 2 2 3 2 2 3 2] which correctly decodes to 'hiphophiphop'```

## AutoHotkey

```MTF_Encode(string){
str := "abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz"
loop, parse, string
code .= (A_Index>1 ? ",":"") . InStr(str, A_LoopField) - 1	, str := A_LoopField . StrReplace(str, A_LoopField)
return code
}

MTF_Decode(code){
str := "abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz"
loop, parse, code, `,
string .= (letter := SubStr(str, A_LoopField+1, 1)) 		, str := letter . StrReplace(str, letter)
return string
}
```

Examples:

```testStrings = broood,bananaaa,hiphophiphop
loop, parse, testStrings, `,
Output .= A_LoopField "`t" MTF_Encode(A_LoopField) "`t" MTF_Decode(MTF_Encode(A_LoopField)) "`n"
MsgBox  % Output
return
```

Outputs:

```broood		1,17,15,0,0,5			broood
bananaaa	1,1,13,1,1,1,0,0		bananaaa
hiphophiphop	7,8,15,2,15,2,2,3,2,2,3,2	hiphophiphop```

## Bracmat

```  ( encode
=   string symboltable
.   !arg:(?string.?symboltable)
&   vap
\$ ( (
=   A Z i
.   !symboltable:?A [?i !arg ?Z
& !arg !A !Z:?symboltable
& !i
)
. !string
)
)
& ( decode
=   indices symboltable
.   !arg:(?indices.?symboltable)
&   str
\$ ( map
\$ ( (
=   A Z symbol
.   !symboltable:?A [!arg %?symbol ?Z
& !symbol !A !Z:?symboltable
& !symbol
)
. !indices
)
)
)
& ( test
=   string symboltable encoded decoded
.   !arg:(?string.?symboltable)
& put\$str\$("input:" !string ", ")
& encode\$(!string.!symboltable):?encoded
& put\$("encoded:" !encoded ", ")
& decode\$(!encoded.!symboltable):?decoded
& put\$str\$("decoded:" !decoded ", ")
& (   !string:!decoded
& out\$OK
| out\$WRONG
)
)
&   a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t y v w x y z
: ?symboltable
& test\$(broood.!symboltable)
& test\$(bananaaa.!symboltable)
& test\$(hiphophiphop.!symboltable)```

## C

```#include<stdio.h>
#include<stdlib.h>
#include<string.h>

#define MAX_SIZE 100

int move_to_front(char *str,char c)
{
char *q,*p;
int shift=0;
p=(char *)malloc(strlen(str)+1);
strcpy(p,str);
q=strchr(p,c); //returns pointer to location of char c in string str
shift=q-p;      // no of characters from 0 to position of c in str
strncpy(str+1,p,shift);
str[0]=c;
free(p);
//  printf("\n%s\n",str);
return shift;
}

void decode(int* pass,int size,char *sym)
{
int i,index;
char c;
char table[]="abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz";
for(i=0;i<size;i++)
{
c=table[pass[i]];
index=move_to_front(table,c);
if(pass[i]!=index) printf("there is an error");
sym[i]=c;
}
sym[size]='\0';
}

void encode(char *sym,int size,int *pass)
{
int i=0;
char c;
char table[]="abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz";
for(i=0;i<size;i++)
{
c=sym[i];
pass[i]=move_to_front(table,c);
}
}

int check(char *sym,int size,int *pass)
{
int *pass2=malloc(sizeof(int)*size);
char *sym2=malloc(sizeof(char)*size);
int i,val=1;

encode(sym,size,pass2);
i=0;
while(i<size && pass[i]==pass2[i])i++;
if(i!=size)val=0;

decode(pass,size,sym2);
if(strcmp(sym,sym2)!=0)val=0;

free(sym2);
free(pass2);

return val;
}

int main()
{
char sym[3][MAX_SIZE]={"broood","bananaaa","hiphophiphop"};
int pass[MAX_SIZE]={0};
int i,len,j;
for(i=0;i<3;i++)
{
len=strlen(sym[i]);
encode(sym[i],len,pass);
printf("%s : [",sym[i]);
for(j=0;j<len;j++)
printf("%d ",pass[j]);
printf("]\n");
if(check(sym[i],len,pass))
printf("Correct :)\n");
else
printf("Incorrect :(\n");
}
return 0;
}
```
Output:
```broood : [1 17 15 0 0 5 ]
Correct :)
bananaaa : [1 1 13 1 1 1 0 0 ]
Correct :)
hiphophiphop : [7 8 15 2 15 2 2 3 2 2 3 2 ]
Correct :)```

## C#

```using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Text;

namespace MoveToFront
{
class Program
{
private static char[] symbolTable;
private static void setSymbolTable()
{
symbolTable = "abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz".ToCharArray();
}

private static void moveToFront(int charIndex)
{
char toFront = symbolTable[charIndex];
for (int j = charIndex; j > 0; j--)
{
symbolTable[j] = symbolTable[j - 1];
}
symbolTable[0] = toFront;
}

public static int[] Encode(string input)
{
setSymbolTable();
var output = new List<int>();
foreach (char c in input)
{
for (int i = 0; i < 26; i++)
{
if (symbolTable[i] == c)
{
moveToFront(i);
break;
}
}
}
return output.ToArray();
}

public static string Decode(int[] input)
{
setSymbolTable();
var output = new StringBuilder(input.Length);
foreach (int n in input)
{
output.Append(symbolTable[n]);
moveToFront(n);
}
return output.ToString();
}

static void Main(string[] args)
{
string[] testInputs = new string[] { "broood", "bananaaa", "hiphophiphop" };
int[] encoding;
foreach (string s in testInputs)
{
Console.WriteLine(\$"Encoding for '{s}':");
encoding = Encode(s);
foreach (int i in encoding)
{
Console.Write(\$"{i} ");
}
Console.WriteLine(\$"\nDecoding for '{s}':");
Console.WriteLine(\$"{Decode(encoding)}\n");
}
}
}
}
```

## C++

```#include <iostream>
#include <iterator>
#include <sstream>
#include <vector>

using namespace std;

class MTF
{
public:
string encode( string str )
{
fillSymbolTable();
vector<int> output;
for( string::iterator it = str.begin(); it != str.end(); it++ )
{
for( int i = 0; i < 26; i++ )
{
if( *it == symbolTable[i] )
{
output.push_back( i );
moveToFront( i );
break;
}
}
}
string r;
for( vector<int>::iterator it = output.begin(); it != output.end(); it++ )
{
ostringstream ss;
ss << *it;
r += ss.str() + " ";
}
return r;
}

string decode( string str )
{
fillSymbolTable();
istringstream iss( str ); vector<int> output;
copy( istream_iterator<int>( iss ), istream_iterator<int>(), back_inserter<vector<int> >( output ) );
string r;
for( vector<int>::iterator it = output.begin(); it != output.end(); it++ )
{
r.append( 1, symbolTable[*it] );
moveToFront( *it );
}
return r;
}

private:
void moveToFront( int i )
{
char t = symbolTable[i];
for( int z = i - 1; z >= 0; z-- )
symbolTable[z + 1] = symbolTable[z];

symbolTable[0] = t;
}

void fillSymbolTable()
{
for( int x = 0; x < 26; x++ )
symbolTable[x] = x + 'a';
}

char symbolTable[26];
};

int main()
{
MTF mtf;
string a, str[] = { "broood", "bananaaa", "hiphophiphop" };
for( int x = 0; x < 3; x++ )
{
a = str[x];
cout << a << " -> encoded = ";
a = mtf.encode( a );
cout << a << "; decoded = " << mtf.decode( a ) << endl;
}
return 0;
}
```
Output:
```broood -> encoded = 1 17 15 0 0 5 ; decoded = broood
bananaaa -> encoded = 1 1 13 1 1 1 0 0 ; decoded = bananaaa
hiphophiphop -> encoded = 7 8 15 2 15 2 2 3 2 2 3 2 ; decoded = hiphophiphop
```

## Clojure

```(def lowercase (map char (range (int \a) (inc (int \z)))))

(defn move-to-front [x xs]
(cons x (remove #{x} xs)))

(defn encode [text table & {:keys [acc] :or {acc []}}]
(let [c (first text)
idx (.indexOf table c)]
(if (empty? text) acc (recur (drop 1 text) (move-to-front c table) {:acc (conj acc idx)}))))

(defn decode [indices table & {:keys [acc] :or {acc []}}]
(if (empty? indices) (apply str acc)
(let [n (first indices)
c (nth table n)]
(recur (drop 1 indices) (move-to-front c table) {:acc (conj acc c)}))))

(doseq [word ["broood" "bananaaa" "hiphophiphop"]]
(let [encoded (encode word lowercase)
decoded (decode encoded lowercase)]
(println (format "%s encodes to %s which decodes back to %s."
word encoded decoded))))
```
Output:
```broood encodes to [1 17 15 0 0 5] which decodes back to broood.
bananaaa encodes to [1 1 13 1 1 1 0 0] which decodes back to bananaaa.
hiphophiphop encodes to [7 8 15 2 15 2 2 3 2 2 3 2] which decodes back to hiphophiphop.
```

## Common Lisp

```(defconstant +lower+ (coerce "abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz" 'list))

(defun move-to-front (x xs)
(cons x (remove x xs)))

(defun enc (text table)
(map 'list
(lambda (c)
(let ((idx (position c table)))
(setf table (move-to-front c table))
idx))
text))

(defun dec (indices table)
(coerce (mapcar (lambda (idx)
(let ((c (nth idx table)))
(setf table (move-to-front c table))
c))
indices)
'string))

(loop for word in '("broood" "bananaaa" "hiphophiphop")
do (let* ((encoded (enc word +lower+))
(decoded (dec encoded +lower+)))
(assert (string= word decoded))
(format T "~s encodes to ~a which decodes back to ~s.~%"
word encoded decoded)))
```
Output:
```"broood" encodes to (1 17 15 0 0 5) which decodes back to "broood".
"bananaaa" encodes to (1 1 13 1 1 1 0 0) which decodes back to "bananaaa".
"hiphophiphop" encodes to (7 8 15 2 15 2 2 3 2 2 3 2) which decodes back to "hiphophiphop".```

## D

```import std.stdio, std.string, std.ascii, std.algorithm;

ptrdiff_t[] mtfEncoder(in string data) pure nothrow @safe
in {
assert(data.countchars("a-z") == data.length);
} out(result) {
assert(result.length == data.length);
assert(result.all!(e => e >= 0 && e < lowercase.length));
} body {
ubyte[lowercase.length] order = lowercase.representation;
auto encoded = new typeof(return)(data.length);

size_t i = 0;
foreach (immutable b; data) {
immutable j = encoded[i++] = order[].countUntil(b);
bringToFront(order[0 .. j], order[j .. j + 1]);
}

return encoded;
}

string mtfDecoder(in ptrdiff_t[] encoded) pure nothrow @safe
in {
assert(encoded.all!(e => e >= 0 && e < lowercase.length));
} out(result) {
assert(result.length == encoded.length);
assert(result.countchars("a-z") == result.length);
} body {
ubyte[lowercase.length] order = lowercase.representation;
auto decoded = new char[encoded.length];

size_t i = 0;
foreach (immutable code; encoded) {
decoded[i++] = order[code];
bringToFront(order[0 .. code], order[code .. code + 1]);
}

return decoded;
}

void main() {
foreach (immutable word; ["broood", "bananaaa", "hiphophiphop"]) {
immutable encoded = word.mtfEncoder;
immutable decoded = encoded.mtfDecoder;
writefln("'%s' encodes to %s, which decodes back to '%s'",
word, encoded, decoded);
assert(word == decoded);
}
}
```
Output:
```'broood' encodes to [1, 17, 15, 0, 0, 5], which decodes back to 'broood'
'bananaaa' encodes to [1, 1, 13, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0], which decodes back to 'bananaaa'
'hiphophiphop' encodes to [7, 8, 15, 2, 15, 2, 2, 3, 2, 2, 3, 2], which decodes back to 'hiphophiphop'```

## EasyLang

Translation of: Ring
```subr init
symt\$[] = strchars "abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz"
.
proc rot k . .
c\$ = symt\$[k]
for j = k downto 2
symt\$[j] = symt\$[j - 1]
.
symt\$[1] = c\$
.
func[] encode s\$ .
init
for c\$ in strchars s\$
k = 1
while symt\$[k] <> c\$
k += 1
.
res[] &= k - 1
rot k
.
return res[]
.
func\$ decode s[] .
init
for k in s[]
k += 1
c\$ = symt\$[k]
res\$ &= c\$
rot k
.
return res\$
.
for word\$ in [ "broood" "babanaaa" "hiphophiphop" ]
enc[] = encode word\$
print word\$ & " -> " & enc[]
if decode enc[] <> word\$
print "error"
.
.```
Output:
```broood -> [ 1 17 15 0 0 5 ]
babanaaa -> [ 1 1 1 1 13 1 0 0 ]
hiphophiphop -> [ 7 8 15 2 15 2 2 3 2 2 3 2 ]
```

## Elixir

```defmodule MoveToFront do
@table  Enum.to_list(?a..?z)

def encode(text), do: encode(to_char_list(text), @table, [])

defp encode([], _, output), do: Enum.reverse(output)
defp encode([h|t], table, output) do
i = Enum.find_index(table, &(&1 == h))
encode(t, move2front(table, i), [i | output])
end

def decode(indices), do: decode(indices, @table, [])

defp decode([], _, output), do: Enum.reverse(output) |> to_string
defp decode([h|t], table, output) do
decode(t, move2front(table, h), [Enum.at(table, h) | output])
end

def move2front(table, i), do: [Enum.at(table,i) | List.delete_at(table, i)]
end

Enum.each(["broood", "bananaaa", "hiphophiphop"], fn word ->
IO.inspect word
IO.inspect enc = MoveToFront.encode(word)
IO.puts "#{word == MoveToFront.decode(enc)}\n"
end)
```
Output:
```"broood"
[1, 17, 15, 0, 0, 5]
true

"bananaaa"
[1, 1, 13, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0]
true

"hiphophiphop"
[7, 8, 15, 2, 15, 2, 2, 3, 2, 2, 3, 2]
true
```

## F#

```// Move-to-front algorithm . Nigel Galloway: March 1st., 2021
let fN g=List.permute(fun n->match compare n g with 0->0 |1->n |_->n+1)
let decode n=let rec fG n g=[|match n with n::t->yield List.item n g; yield! fG t (fN n g)|_->()|] in fG n ['a'..'z']|>System.String
let encode n=let rec fG n g=[match n with n::t->let n=g|>List.findIndex((=)n) in yield n; yield! fG t (fN n g)|_->()]
fG ((string n).ToCharArray()|>List.ofArray) ['a'..'z']
["broood";"bananaaa";"hiphophiphop"]|>List.iter(fun n->let i=encode n in let g=decode i in printfn "%s->%A->%s check=%A" n i g (n=g))
```
Output:
```broood->[1; 17; 15; 0; 0; 5]->broood check=true
bananaaa->[1; 1; 13; 1; 1; 1; 0; 0]->bananaaa check=true
hiphophiphop->[7; 8; 15; 2; 15; 2; 2; 3; 2; 2; 3; 2]->hiphophiphop check=true
```

## Factor

```USING: formatting kernel locals make sequences ;

: to-front ( elt seq -- seq' ) over [ remove ] dip prefix ;

: encode ( symbols msg -- indices )
[ [ swap 2dup index , to-front ] each ] { } make nip ;

: decode ( symbols indices -- msg )
[ [ swap [ nth ] keep over , to-front ] each ] "" make nip ;

:: round-trip ( msg symbols -- )
symbols msg encode :> encoded
symbols encoded decode :> decoded
msg decoded assert=
msg encoded decoded "%s -> %u -> %s\n" printf ;

"broood" "bananaaa" "hiphophiphop"
[ "abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz" round-trip ] tri@
```
Output:
```broood -> { 1 17 15 0 0 5 } -> broood
bananaaa -> { 1 1 13 1 1 1 0 0 } -> bananaaa
hiphophiphop -> { 7 8 15 2 15 2 2 3 2 2 3 2 } -> hiphophiphop
```

## FreeBASIC

```#define FAIL -1

sub mtf( s() as string, i as uinteger )
'moves the symbol at index i to the front and shifts preceding ones back
dim as string*1 t = s(i)
for j as uinteger = i to 1 step -1
s(j) = s(j-1)
next j
s(0)=t
end sub

sub make_symbols( s() as string )
'populates an array of strings with the lowercase alphabet
for i as uinteger = 97 to 122
s(i-97) = chr(i)
next i
end sub

function find( s() as string, l as string ) as integer
'returns the index of the first occurrence of the symbol l in s()
for i as uinteger = 0 to ubound(s)
if s(i) = l then return i
next i
return FAIL
end function

sub encode( s() as string, ind() as uinteger )
dim as integer n = ubound(s), i
redim as uinteger ind(0 to n)
dim as string a(0 to 25)
make_symbols(a())
for z as uinteger = 0 to n
i = find( a(), s(z) )
if i = FAIL then
print "Uh oh! Couldn't find ";s(z);" in alphabet."
end
end if
mtf( a(), i )
ind(z) = i
next z
end sub

sub decode( s() as string, ind() as uinteger )
dim as integer n = ubound(ind), i
redim as string s(0 to n)
dim as string a(0 to 25)
make_symbols(a())
for z as uinteger = 0 to n
s(z) = a(ind(z))
mtf(a(), ind(z))
next z
end sub

sub printarr( s() as string )
for i as uinteger = 0 to ubound(s)
print s(i);
next i
print
end sub

sub printind( ind() as integer )
for i as uinteger = 0 to ubound(ind)
print ind(i);" ";
next i
print
end sub

sub compose( s() as string, b as string )
'turns a string into a zero-indexed array of single letters
'The reason we use such arrays is to get them zero-indexed
'and to make the point that we could work with multi-char
'symbol tables if we wanted to
dim as integer n = len(b), i
redim as string s(0 to n-1)
for i = 0 to n-1
s(i) = mid(b, 1+i, 1)
next i
end sub

'-----------now the tests-------------
redim as string s(0)
redim as integer ind(0)

compose( s(), "broood" )
encode( s(), ind() )
printind( ind() )
decode( s(), ind() )
printarr( s() ) : print

compose( s(), "bananaaa" )
encode( s(), ind() )
printind( ind() )
decode( s(), ind() )
printarr( s() ) : print

compose( s(), "hiphophiphop" )
encode( s(), ind() )
printind( ind() )
decode( s(), ind() )
printarr( s() )```
Output:
```
1  17  15  0  0  5
broood
1  1  13  1  1  1  0  0
bananaaa
7  8  15  2  15  2  2  3  2  2  3  2
hiphophiphop

```

## Gambas

```Public Sub Main()
Dim sToCode As String[] = ["broood", "bananaaa", "hiphophiphop"]  'Samples to process
Dim sHold As New String[]                                         'To store results
Dim siCount, siCounter, siPos As Short                            'Various variables
Dim sOutput, sCode, sWork, sEach As String                        'Various variables

For siCounter = 0 To sToCode.Max                                  'To loop through each 'Sample'
sCode = "abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz"                            'Set sCode to default setting
For siCount = 1 To Len(sToCode[siCounter])                      'Loop through each letter in 'Sample'
sWork = Mid(sToCode[siCounter], siCount, 1)                   'sWork to store the Letter
siPos = InStr(scode, sWork) - 1                               'Find the position of the letter in sCode, -1 for '0' based array
sOutput &= Str(siPos) & " "                                   'Add the postion to sOutput
sCode = Mid(sCode, siPos + 1, 1) & Replace(sCode, sWork, "")  'sCode = the letter + the rest of sCode except the letter
Next
Print sToCode[siCounter] & " = " & sOutput                      'Print the 'Sample' and the coded version
sOutput = ""                                                    'Clear sOutput
Next

Print                                                             'Print a blank line

For siCounter = 0 To sHold.Max                                    'To loop through each coded 'Sample'
sCode = "abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz"                            'Set sCode to default setting
For Each sEach In Split(sHold[siCounter], " ")                  'For each 'code' in coded 'Sample'
sWork = Mid(sCode, Val(sEach) + 1, 1)                         'sWork = the decoded letter
sOutput &= sWork                                              'Add the decoded letter to sOutput
sCode = sWork & Replace(sCode, sWork, "")                     'sCode = the decoded letter + the rest of sCode except the letter
Next
Print sHold[siCounter] & " = " & sOutput                        'Print the coded and decoded result
sOutput = ""                                                    'Clear sOutput
Next

End```

Output:

```broood = 1 17 15 0 0 5
bananaaa = 1 1 13 1 1 1 0 0
hiphophiphop = 7 8 15 2 15 2 2 3 2 2 3 2

1 17 15 0 0 5 = broood
1 1 13 1 1 1 0 0 = bananaaa
7 8 15 2 15 2 2 3 2 2 3 2 = hiphophiphop
```

## Go

Translation of: Python
```package main

import (
"bytes"
"fmt"
)

type symbolTable string

func (symbols symbolTable) encode(s string) []byte {
seq := make([]byte, len(s))
for i, c := range []byte(s) {
seq[i] = byte(x)
}
return seq
}

func (symbols symbolTable) decode(seq []byte) string {
chars := make([]byte, len(seq))
for i, x := range seq {
chars[i] = c
}
return string(chars)
}

func main() {
m := symbolTable("abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz")
for _, s := range []string{"broood", "bananaaa", "hiphophiphop"} {
enc := m.encode(s)
dec := m.decode(enc)
fmt.Println(s, enc, dec)
if dec != s {
panic("Whoops!")
}
}
}
```
Output:
```broood [1 17 15 0 0 5] broood
bananaaa [1 1 13 1 1 1 0 0] bananaaa
hiphophiphop [7 8 15 2 15 2 2 3 2 2 3 2] hiphophiphop
```

```import Data.List (delete, elemIndex, mapAccumL)

import Data.Maybe (fromJust)

table :: String
table = ['a' .. 'z']

encode :: String -> [Int]
encode =
let f t s = (s : delete s t, fromJust (elemIndex s t))
in snd . mapAccumL f table

decode :: [Int] -> String
decode = snd . mapAccumL f table
where
f t i =
let s = (t !! i)
in (s : delete s t, s)

main :: IO ()
main =
mapM_ print \$
(,) <*> uncurry ((==) . fst) <\$> -- Test that ((fst . fst) x) == snd x)
((,) <*> (decode . snd) <\$>
((,) <*> encode <\$> ["broood", "bananaaa", "hiphophiphop"]))
```
Output:
```((("broood",[1,17,15,0,0,5]),"broood"),True)
((("bananaaa",[1,1,13,1,1,1,0,0]),"bananaaa"),True)
((("hiphophiphop",[7,8,15,2,15,2,2,3,2,2,3,2]),"hiphophiphop"),True)```

## Icon and Unicon

Works in both languages:

```procedure main(A)
every writes(s := !A, " -> [") do {
every writes(!(enc := encode(&lcase,s))," ")
writes("] -> ",s2 := decode(&lcase,enc))
write((s == s2, " (Correct)") | " (Incorrect)")
}
end

procedure encode(m,s)
enc := []
every c := !s do {
m ?:= reorder(tab(i := upto(c)),move(1),tab(0))
put(enc,i-1)   # Strings are 1-based
}
return enc
end

procedure decode(m,enc)
dec := ""
every i := 1 + !enc do {	# Lists are 1-based
dec ||:= m[i]
m ?:= reorder(tab(i),move(1),tab(0))
}
return dec
end

procedure reorder(s1,s2,s3)
return s2||s1||s3
end
```

Sample run:

```->mtfa broood bananaaa hiphophiphop
broood -> [1 17 15 0 0 5 ] -> broood (Correct)
bananaaa -> [1 1 13 1 1 1 0 0 ] -> bananaaa (Correct)
hiphophiphop -> [7 8 15 2 15 2 2 3 2 2 3 2 ] -> hiphophiphop (Correct)
->
```

## J

```spindizzy=:3 :0
'seq table'=. y
ndx=.\$0
orig=. table
for_sym. seq do.
ndx=.ndx,table i.sym
table=. sym,table-.sym
end.
ndx
assert. seq-:yzzidnips ndx;orig
)

yzzidnips=:3 :0
'ndx table'=. y
seq=.''
for_n. ndx do.
seq=.seq,sym=. n{table
table=. sym,table-.sym
end.
seq
)
```

Required examples:

```   spindizzy 'broood';'abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz'
1 17 15 0 0 5
spindizzy 'bananaaa';'abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz'
1 1 13 1 1 1 0 0
spindizzy 'hiphophiphop';'abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz'
7 8 15 2 15 2 2 3 2 2 3 2
```

It's not clear, though, why anyone would think that this is any better than lookups against an unmodified symbol table.

## Java

Works with: Java version 1.5+
```import java.util.LinkedList;
import java.util.List;

public class MTF{
public static List<Integer> encode(String msg, String symTable){
StringBuilder s = new StringBuilder(symTable);
for(char c : msg.toCharArray()){
int idx = s.indexOf("" + c);
s = s.deleteCharAt(idx).insert(0, c);
}
return output;
}

public static String decode(List<Integer> idxs, String symTable){
StringBuilder output = new StringBuilder();
StringBuilder s = new StringBuilder(symTable);
for(int idx : idxs){
char c = s.charAt(idx);
output = output.append(c);
s = s.deleteCharAt(idx).insert(0, c);
}
return output.toString();
}

private static void test(String toEncode, String symTable){
List<Integer> encoded = encode(toEncode, symTable);
System.out.println(toEncode + ": " + encoded);
String decoded = decode(encoded, symTable);
System.out.println((toEncode.equals(decoded) ? "" : "in") + "correctly decoded to " + decoded);
}

public static void main(String[] args){
String symTable = "abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz";
test("broood", symTable);
test("bananaaa", symTable);
test("hiphophiphop", symTable);
}
}```
Output:
```broood: [1, 17, 15, 0, 0, 5]
correctly decoded to broood
bananaaa: [1, 1, 13, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0]
correctly decoded to bananaaa
hiphophiphop: [7, 8, 15, 2, 15, 2, 2, 3, 2, 2, 3, 2]
correctly decoded to hiphophiphop```

## JavaScript

```var encodeMTF = function (word) {
var init = {wordAsNumbers: [], charList: 'abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz'.split('')};

return word.split('').reduce(function (acc, char) {
var charNum = acc.charList.indexOf(char); //get index of char
acc.wordAsNumbers.push(charNum); //add original index to acc
acc.charList.unshift(acc.charList.splice(charNum, 1)[0]); //put at beginning of list
return acc;
}, init).wordAsNumbers; //return number list
};

var decodeMTF = function (numList) {
var init = {word: '', charList: 'abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz'.split('')};

return numList.reduce(function (acc, num) {
acc.word += acc.charList[num];
acc.charList.unshift(acc.charList.splice(num, 1)[0]); //put at beginning of list
return acc;
}, init).word;
};

//test our algorithms
var words = ['broood', 'bananaaa', 'hiphophiphop'];
var encoded = words.map(encodeMTF);
var decoded = encoded.map(decodeMTF);

//print results
console.log("from encoded:");
console.log(encoded);
console.log("from decoded:");
console.log(decoded);
```
Output:
```from encoded:
[
[1, 17, 15, 0, 0, 5],
[1, 1, 13, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0],
[7, 8, 15, 2, 15, 2, 2, 3, 2, 2, 3, 2]
]
from decoded:
['broood', 'bananaaa', 'hiphophiphop']```

## jq

Works with: jq version q.4
```# Input is the string to be encoded, st is the initial symbol table (an array)
# Output: the encoded string (an array)
def m2f_encode(st):
reduce explode[] as \$ch
( [ [], st];                  # state: [ans, st]
(.[1]|index(\$ch)) as \$ix
| .[1] as \$st
| [ (.[0] + [ \$ix ]),  [\$st[\$ix]] + \$st[0:\$ix] + \$st[\$ix+1:] ] )
| .[0];

# Input should be the encoded string (an array)
# and st should be the initial symbol table (an array)
def m2f_decode(st):
reduce .[] as \$ix
( [ [], st];                  # state: [ans, st]
.[1] as \$st
| [ (.[0] + [ \$st[\$ix] ]),  [\$st[\$ix]] + \$st[0:\$ix] + \$st[\$ix+1:] ] )
| .[0]
| implode;```

Example:

```("abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz" | explode) as \$ST
| ("broood", "bananaaa", "hiphophiphop")
| . as \$string
| m2f_encode(\$ST)
| . as \$encoded
| m2f_decode(\$ST) as \$decoded
| if \$string == \$decoded then "\(\$string) => \(\$encoded) => \(\$decoded)"
else "INTERNAL ERROR: encoding of \(\$string) => \(\$encoded) => \(\$decoded)"
end```
Output:
```\$ jq -r -n -f move_to_front.jq
broood => [1,17,15,0,0,5] => broood
bananaaa => [1,1,13,1,1,1,0,0] => bananaaa
hiphophiphop => [7,8,15,2,15,2,2,3,2,2,3,2] => hiphophiphop
```

## Julia

Works with: Julia version 0.6
```function encodeMTF(str::AbstractString, symtable::Vector{Char}=collect('a':'z'))
function encode(ch::Char)
r = findfirst(symtable, ch)
deleteat!(symtable, r)
prepend!(symtable, ch)
return r
end
collect(encode(ch) for ch in str)
end

function decodeMTF(arr::Vector{Int}, symtable::Vector{Char}=collect('a':'z'))
function decode(i::Int)
r = symtable[i]
deleteat!(symtable, i)
prepend!(symtable, r)
return r
end
join(decode(i) for i in arr)
end

testset = ["broood", "bananaaa", "hiphophiphop"]
encoded = encodeMTF.(testset)
decoded = decodeMTF.(encoded)
for (str, enc, dec) in zip(testset, encoded, decoded)
println("Test string: \$str\n -> Encoded: \$enc\n -> Decoded: \$dec")
end

using Base.Test
@testset "Decoded string equal to original" begin
for (str, dec) in zip(testset, decoded)
@test str == dec
end
end
```
Output:
```Test string: broood
-> Encoded: [2, 18, 16, 1, 1, 6]
-> Decoded: broood
Test string: bananaaa
-> Encoded: [2, 2, 14, 2, 2, 2, 1, 1]
-> Decoded: bananaaa
Test string: hiphophiphop
-> Encoded: [8, 9, 16, 3, 16, 3, 3, 4, 3, 3, 4, 3]
-> Decoded: hiphophiphop
Test Summary:                    | Pass  Total
Decoded string equal to original |    3      3```

## Kotlin

```// version 1.1.2

fun encode(s: String): IntArray {
if (s.isEmpty()) return intArrayOf()
val symbols = "abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz".toCharArray()
val result = IntArray(s.length)
for ((i, c) in s.withIndex()) {
val index = symbols.indexOf(c)
if (index == -1)
throw IllegalArgumentException("\$s contains a non-alphabetic character")
result[i] = index
if (index == 0) continue
for (j in index - 1 downTo 0) symbols[j + 1] = symbols[j]
symbols[0] = c
}
return result
}

fun decode(a: IntArray): String {
if (a.isEmpty()) return ""
val symbols = "abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz".toCharArray()
val result = CharArray(a.size)
for ((i, n) in a.withIndex()) {
if (n !in 0..25)
throw IllegalArgumentException("\${a.contentToString()} contains an invalid number")
result[i] = symbols[n]
if (n == 0) continue
for (j in n - 1 downTo 0) symbols[j + 1] = symbols[j]
symbols[0] = result[i]
}
return result.joinToString("")
}

fun main(args: Array<String>) {
val strings = arrayOf("broood", "bananaaa", "hiphophiphop")
val encoded = Array<IntArray?>(strings.size) { null }
for ((i, s) in strings.withIndex()) {
encoded[i] = encode(s)
}
println()
val decoded = Array<String?>(encoded.size) { null }
for ((i, a) in encoded.withIndex()) {
decoded[i] = decode(a!!)
println(" -> \${if (decoded[i] == strings[i]) "correct" else "incorrect"}")
}
}
```
Output:
```broood       -> [1, 17, 15, 0, 0, 5]
bananaaa     -> [1, 1, 13, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0]
hiphophiphop -> [7, 8, 15, 2, 15, 2, 2, 3, 2, 2, 3, 2]

[1, 17, 15, 0, 0, 5]                   -> broood       -> correct
[1, 1, 13, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0]              -> bananaaa     -> correct
[7, 8, 15, 2, 15, 2, 2, 3, 2, 2, 3, 2] -> hiphophiphop -> correct
```

## Lua

```-- Return table of the alphabet in lower case
function getAlphabet ()
local letters = {}
for ascii = 97, 122 do table.insert(letters, string.char(ascii)) end
return letters
end

-- Move the table value at ind to the front of tab
function moveToFront (tab, ind)
local toMove = tab[ind]
for i = ind - 1, 1, -1 do tab[i + 1] = tab[i] end
tab[1] = toMove
end

-- Perform move-to-front encoding on input
function encode (input)
local symbolTable, output, index = getAlphabet(), {}
for pos = 1, #input do
for k, v in pairs(symbolTable) do
if v == input:sub(pos, pos) then index = k end
end
moveToFront(symbolTable, index)
table.insert(output, index - 1)
end
return table.concat(output, " ")
end

-- Perform move-to-front decoding on input
function decode (input)
local symbolTable, output = getAlphabet(), ""
for num in input:gmatch("%d+") do
output = output .. symbolTable[num + 1]
moveToFront(symbolTable, num + 1)
end
return output
end

-- Main procedure
local testCases, output = {"broood", "bananaaa", "hiphophiphop"}
for _, case in pairs(testCases) do
output = encode(case)
print("Original string: " .. case)
print("Encoded: " .. output)
print("Decoded: " .. decode(output))
print()
end
```
Output:
```Original string: broood
Encoded: 1 17 15 0 0 5
Decoded: broood

Original string: bananaaa
Encoded: 1 1 13 1 1 1 0 0
Decoded: bananaaa

Original string: hiphophiphop
Encoded: 7 8 15 2 15 2 2 3 2 2 3 2
Decoded: hiphophiphop```

edit

## M2000 Interpreter

In Encode\$() we use a string of parameters (function Quote\$() make this)

Function Param() get the string with parameters and place it in code (inline).

In Decode\$ we use current stack (first we flush to ensure that isn't some other arguments on it, M2000 has no signature control over the call of user functions, we can place anything)

For deleting and inserting characters in a string we use Insert. Insert of "" in a place of 1 char means delete it. So Insert k, 1 SymbolTable\$="" means that in k position, for one char we place empty string.

To extract information to clipboard we use global variables, is handy;

Number pop a number from stack of values, if no number found then raise error.

```Module CheckIt {
Global All\$, nl\$
Document All\$
Nl\$<={
}
Function Encode\$(Inp\$) {
Def SymbolTable\$="abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz", Out\$=""
For i=1 to Len(Inp\$)
c\$=Mid\$(Inp\$, i, 1)
k=Instr(SymbolTable\$, c\$)
Insert k, 1 SymbolTable\$=""
Out\$=If\$(Out\$="" -> Quote\$(k-1),Quote\$(Param(Out\$), k-1))
Insert 1 SymbolTable\$=c\$
\\ we use <= for globals
All\$<=Format\$("   {0} {1:30} {2}", c\$, Out\$, SymbolTable\$)+nl\$
Next i
=Out\$
}
Function Decode\$(Inp\$) {
Def SymbolTable\$="abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz", Out\$=""
flush
Data Param(Inp\$)
While not empty {
k=Number+1
c\$=Mid\$(SymbolTable\$, k, 1)
Out\$+=c\$
Insert k, 1 SymbolTable\$=""  ' erase at position k
Insert 1 SymbolTable\$=c\$
All\$<=Format\$("{0::-2} {1} {2:30} {3}", k-1, c\$, Out\$, SymbolTable\$)+nl\$
}
=Out\$
}
TryThis("broood")
TryThis("bananaaa")
TryThis("hiphophiphop")
ClipBoard All\$
Sub TryThis(a\$)
Local Out\$=Encode\$(a\$)
Local final\$=Decode\$(Out\$)
Print final\$, final\$=a\$
End Sub
}
CheckIt```
Output:
```broood       True
bananaaa     True
hiphophiphop True
```

From clipboard

```   b 1                              bacdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz
r 1,17                           rbacdefghijklmnopqstuvwxyz
o 1,17,15                        orbacdefghijklmnpqstuvwxyz
o 1,17,15,0                      orbacdefghijklmnpqstuvwxyz
o 1,17,15,0,0                    orbacdefghijklmnpqstuvwxyz
d 1,17,15,0,0,5                  dorbacefghijklmnpqstuvwxyz
1 b b                              bacdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz
17 r br                             rbacdefghijklmnopqstuvwxyz
15 o bro                            orbacdefghijklmnpqstuvwxyz
0 o broo                           orbacdefghijklmnpqstuvwxyz
0 o brooo                          orbacdefghijklmnpqstuvwxyz
5 d broood                         dorbacefghijklmnpqstuvwxyz
b 1                              bacdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz
a 1,1                            abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz
n 1,1,13                         nabcdefghijklmopqrstuvwxyz
a 1,1,13,1                       anbcdefghijklmopqrstuvwxyz
n 1,1,13,1,1                     nabcdefghijklmopqrstuvwxyz
a 1,1,13,1,1,1                   anbcdefghijklmopqrstuvwxyz
a 1,1,13,1,1,1,0                 anbcdefghijklmopqrstuvwxyz
a 1,1,13,1,1,1,0,0               anbcdefghijklmopqrstuvwxyz
1 b b                              bacdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz
1 a ba                             abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz
13 n ban                            nabcdefghijklmopqrstuvwxyz
1 a bana                           anbcdefghijklmopqrstuvwxyz
1 n banan                          nabcdefghijklmopqrstuvwxyz
1 a banana                         anbcdefghijklmopqrstuvwxyz
0 a bananaa                        anbcdefghijklmopqrstuvwxyz
0 a bananaaa                       anbcdefghijklmopqrstuvwxyz
h 7                              habcdefgijklmnopqrstuvwxyz
i 7,8                            ihabcdefgjklmnopqrstuvwxyz
p 7,8,15                         pihabcdefgjklmnoqrstuvwxyz
h 7,8,15,2                       hpiabcdefgjklmnoqrstuvwxyz
o 7,8,15,2,15                    ohpiabcdefgjklmnqrstuvwxyz
p 7,8,15,2,15,2                  pohiabcdefgjklmnqrstuvwxyz
h 7,8,15,2,15,2,2                hpoiabcdefgjklmnqrstuvwxyz
i 7,8,15,2,15,2,2,3              ihpoabcdefgjklmnqrstuvwxyz
p 7,8,15,2,15,2,2,3,2            pihoabcdefgjklmnqrstuvwxyz
h 7,8,15,2,15,2,2,3,2,2          hpioabcdefgjklmnqrstuvwxyz
o 7,8,15,2,15,2,2,3,2,2,3        ohpiabcdefgjklmnqrstuvwxyz
p 7,8,15,2,15,2,2,3,2,2,3,2      pohiabcdefgjklmnqrstuvwxyz
7 h h                              habcdefgijklmnopqrstuvwxyz
8 i hi                             ihabcdefgjklmnopqrstuvwxyz
15 p hip                            pihabcdefgjklmnoqrstuvwxyz
2 h hiph                           hpiabcdefgjklmnoqrstuvwxyz
15 o hipho                          ohpiabcdefgjklmnqrstuvwxyz
2 p hiphop                         pohiabcdefgjklmnqrstuvwxyz
2 h hiphoph                        hpoiabcdefgjklmnqrstuvwxyz
3 i hiphophi                       ihpoabcdefgjklmnqrstuvwxyz
2 p hiphophip                      pihoabcdefgjklmnqrstuvwxyz
2 h hiphophiph                     hpioabcdefgjklmnqrstuvwxyz
3 o hiphophipho                    ohpiabcdefgjklmnqrstuvwxyz
2 p hiphophiphop                   pohiabcdefgjklmnqrstuvwxyz
```

## Mathematica/Wolfram Language

```mtf[word_]:=Module[{f,f2,p,q},
f[{output_,symList_},next_]:=Module[{index},index=Position[symList,next][[1,1]]-1;
{output~Append~index,Prepend[Delete[symList,index+1],next]}];
p=Fold[f,{{},CharacterRange["a","z"]},Characters[ToString[word]]][[1]];
f2[{output_,symList_},next_]:=Module[{index},index=symList[[next+1]];
{output~Append~index,Prepend[DeleteCases[symList,ToString[index]],index]}];
q=Fold[f2,{{},CharacterRange["a","z"]},p][[1]];
Print["'", word,"' encodes to: ",p, " - "  ,p," decodes to: '",StringJoin@q,"' - Input equals Output: " ,word===StringJoin@q];]
```

Testing out the function:

```mtf /@ {"broood", "bananaaa", "hiphophiphop"}
```
Output:
```'broood' encodes to: {1,17,15,0,0,5} - {1,17,15,0,0,5} decodes to: 'broood' - Input equals Output: True
'bananaaa' encodes to: {1,1,13,1,1,1,0,0} - {1,1,13,1,1,1,0,0} decodes to: 'bananaaa' - Input equals Output: True
'hiphophiphop' encodes to: {7,8,15,2,15,2,2,3,2,2,3,2} - {7,8,15,2,15,2,2,3,2,2,3,2} decodes to: 'hiphophiphop' - Input equals Output: True```

## MATLAB

```function testMTF
symTable = 'abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz';
inStr = {'broood' 'bananaaa' 'hiphophiphop'};
for k = 1:length(inStr)
outArr = encodeMTF(inStr{k}, symTable);
outStr = decodeMTF(outArr, symTable);
fprintf('%s: [ %s]\n', inStr{k}, sprintf('%d ', outArr))
fprintf('%scorrectly decoded to %s\n', char('in'.*~strcmp(outStr, inStr{k})), outStr)
end
end

function arr = encodeMTF(str, symTable)
n = length(str);
arr = zeros(1, n);
for k = 1:n
arr(k) = find(str(k) == symTable, 1);
symTable = [symTable(arr(k)) symTable(1:arr(k)-1) symTable(arr(k)+1:end)];
end
arr = arr-1; % Change to zero-indexed array
end

function str = decodeMTF(arr, symTable)
arr = arr+1; % Change to one-indexed array
n = length(arr);
str = char(zeros(1, n));
for k = 1:n
str(k) = symTable(arr(k));
symTable = [symTable(arr(k)) symTable(1:arr(k)-1) symTable(arr(k)+1:end)];
end
end
```
Output:
```broood: [ 1 17 15 0 0 5 ]
correctly decoded to broood
bananaaa: [ 1 1 13 1 1 1 0 0 ]
correctly decoded to bananaaa
hiphophiphop: [ 7 8 15 2 15 2 2 3 2 2 3 2 ]
correctly decoded to hiphophiphop```

## Nim

```import algorithm, sequtils, strformat

const SymbolTable = toSeq('a'..'z')

func encode(s: string): seq[int] =
var symtable: seq[char] = SymbolTable
for c in s:
let idx = symtable.find(c)
symtable.rotateLeft(0..idx, -1)

func decode(s: seq[int]): string =
var symtable = SymbolTable
for idx in s:
symtable.rotateLeft(0..idx, -1)

for word in ["broood", "babanaaa", "hiphophiphop"]:
let encoded = word.encode()
let decoded = encoded.decode()
let status = if decoded == word: "correctly" else: "incorrectly"
echo &"'{word}' encodes to {encoded} which {status} decodes to '{decoded}'."
```
Output:
```'broood' encodes to @[1, 17, 15, 0, 0, 5] which correctly decodes to 'broood'.
'babanaaa' encodes to @[1, 1, 1, 1, 13, 1, 0, 0] which correctly decodes to 'babanaaa'.
'hiphophiphop' encodes to @[7, 8, 15, 2, 15, 2, 2, 3, 2, 2, 3, 2] which correctly decodes to 'hiphophiphop'.```

## Perl

```use strict;
use warnings;
sub encode {
my (\$str) = @_;
my \$table = join '', 'a' .. 'z';
map {
\$table =~ s/(.*?)\$_/\$_\$1/ or die;
length(\$1);
} split //, \$str;
}

sub decode {
my \$table = join '', 'a' .. 'z';
join "", map {
\$table =~ s/(.{\$_})(.)/\$2\$1/ or die;
\$2;
} @_;
}

for my \$test ( qw(broood bananaaa hiphophiphop) ) {
my @encoded = encode(\$test);
print "\$test: @encoded\n";
my \$decoded = decode(@encoded);
print "in" x ( \$decoded ne \$test );
print "correctly decoded to \$decoded\n";
}
```
Output:
```broood: 1 17 15 0 0 5
correctly decoded to broood
bananaaa: 1 1 13 1 1 1 0 0
correctly decoded to bananaaa
hiphophiphop: 7 8 15 2 15 2 2 3 2 2 3 2
correctly decoded to hiphophiphop
```

## Phix

Equivalent longhand versions of the symtab reordering left in as comments

```with javascript_semantics
function encode(string s)
string symtab = "abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz"
sequence res = {}
for i=1 to length(s) do
integer ch = s[i], k = find(ch,symtab)
res &= k-1
--      for j=k to 2 by -1 do
--          symtab[j] = symtab[j-1]
--      end for
--      symtab[1] = ch
symtab[1..k] = ch&symtab[1..k-1]
end for
return res
end function

function decode(sequence s)
string symtab = "abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz"
string res = ""
for i=1 to length(s) do
integer k = s[i]+1
integer ch = symtab[k]
res &= ch
--      for j=k to 2 by -1 do
--          symtab[j] = symtab[j-1]
--      end for
--      symtab[1] = ch
symtab[1..k] = ch&symtab[1..k-1]
end for
return res
end function

procedure test(string s)
sequence e = encode(s)
string d = decode(e)
?{s,e,d,{"**ERROR**","ok"}[(s=d)+1]}
end procedure
test("broood")
test("bananaaa")
test("hiphophiphop")
```
Output:
```{"broood",{1,17,15,0,0,5},"broood","ok"}
{"bananaaa",{1,1,13,1,1,1,0,0},"bananaaa","ok"}
{"hiphophiphop",{7,8,15,2,15,2,2,3,2,2,3,2},"hiphophiphop","ok"}
```

## PHP

```<?php

function symbolTable() {
\$symbol = array();
for (\$c = ord('a') ; \$c <= ord('z') ; \$c++) {
\$symbol[\$c - ord('a')] = chr(\$c);
}
return \$symbol;
}

function mtfEncode(\$original, \$symbol) {
\$encoded = array();
for (\$i = 0 ; \$i < strlen(\$original) ; \$i++) {
\$char = \$original[\$i];
\$position = array_search(\$char, \$symbol);
\$encoded[] = \$position;
\$mtf = \$symbol[\$position];
unset(\$symbol[\$position]);
array_unshift(\$symbol, \$mtf);
}
return \$encoded;
}

function mtfDecode(\$encoded, \$symbol) {
\$decoded = '';
foreach (\$encoded AS \$position) {
\$char = \$symbol[\$position];
\$decoded .= \$char;
unset(\$symbol[\$position]);
array_unshift(\$symbol, \$char);
}
return \$decoded;
}

foreach (array('broood', 'bananaaa', 'hiphophiphop') AS \$original) {
\$encoded = mtfEncode(\$original, symbolTable());
\$decoded = mtfDecode(\$encoded, symbolTable());
echo
\$original,
' -> [', implode(',', \$encoded), ']',
' -> ', \$decoded,
' : ', (\$original === \$decoded ? 'OK' : 'Error'),
PHP_EOL;
}
```
Output:
```broood -> [1,17,15,0,0,5] -> broood : OK
bananaaa -> [1,1,13,1,1,1,0,0] -> bananaaa : OK
hiphophiphop -> [7,8,15,2,15,2,2,3,2,2,3,2] -> hiphophiphop : OK```

## Picat

Picat has 1-based index so some adjustments was necessary.

```import util.

go =>
Strings = ["broood", "bananaaa", "hiphophiphop"],
foreach(String in Strings)
check(String)
end,
nl.

encode(String) = [Pos,Table] =>
Table = "abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz",
Pos = [],
Len = String.length,
foreach({C,I} in zip(String,1..Len))
Pos := Pos ++ [find_first_of(Table,C)-1],
if Len > I then
Table := [C] ++ delete(Table,C)
end
end.

decode(Pos) = String =>
Table = "abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz",
String = [],
foreach(P in Pos)
C = Table[P+1],
Table := [C] ++ delete(Table,C),
String := String ++ [C]
end.

% Check the result
check(String) =>
[Pos,Table] = encode(String),
String2 = decode(Pos),
if length(String) < 100 then
println(pos=Pos),
println(table=Table),
println(string2=String2)
else
printf("String is too long to print (%d chars)\n", length(String))
end,
println(cond(String != String2, "not ", "") ++ "same"),
nl.```
Output:
```pos = [1,17,15,0,0,5]
table = orbacdefghijklmnpqstuvwxyz
string2 = broood
same

pos = [1,1,13,1,1,1,0,0]
table = anbcdefghijklmopqrstuvwxyz
string2 = bananaaa
same

pos = [7,8,15,2,15,2,2,3,2,2,3,2]
table = ohpiabcdefgjklmnqrstuvwxyz
string2 = hiphophiphop
same```

## PicoLisp

```(de encode (Str)
(let Table (chop "abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz")
(mapcar
'((C)
(dec
(prog1
(index C Table)
(rot Table @) ) ) )
(chop Str) ) ) )

(de decode (Lst)
(let Table (chop "abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz")
(pack
(mapcar
'((N)
(prog1
(get Table (inc 'N))
(rot Table N) ) )
Lst ) ) ) )```

Test:

```(test (1 17 15 0 0 5)
(encode "broood") )
(test "broood"
(decode (1 17 15 0 0 5)) )

(test (1 1 13 1 1 1 0 0)
(encode "bananaaa") )
(test "bananaaa"
(decode (1 1 13 1 1 1 0 0)) )

(test (7 8 15 2 15 2 2 3 2 2 3 2)
(encode "hiphophiphop") )
(test "hiphophiphop"
(decode (7 8 15 2 15 2 2 3 2 2 3 2)) )```

## PL/I

```*process source attributes xref or(!);
/*********************************************************************
* 25.5.2014 Walter Pachl translated from REXX
*********************************************************************/
ed: Proc Options(main);
Call enc_dec('broood');
Call enc_dec('bananaaa');
Call enc_dec('hiphophiphop');

enc_dec: Proc(in);
Dcl in  Char(*);
Dcl out Char(20) Var Init('');
Dcl st Char(26) Init('abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz');
Dcl sta Char(26) Init((st));
Dcl enc(20) Bin Fixed(31);
Dcl encn Bin Fixed(31) Init(0);
Dcl (i,p.k) Bin Fixed(31);
Dcl c       Char(1);
Do i=1 To length(in);
c=substr(in,i,1);
p=index(st,c);
encn+=1;
enc(encn)=p-1;
st=c!!left(st,p-1)!!substr(st,p+1);
End;
Put Skip List(' in='!!in);
Put Skip List('sta='!!sta!!' original symbol table');
Put Skip Edit('enc=',(enc(i) do i=1 To encn))(a,20(F(3)));
Put Skip List(' st='!!st!!' symbol table after encoding');
Do i=1 To encn;
k=enc(i)+1;
out=out!!substr(sta,k,1);
sta=substr(sta,k,1)!!left(sta,k-1)!!substr(sta,k+1);
End;
Put Skip List('out='!!out);
Put Skip List(' ');
If out=in Then;
Else
Put Skip List('all wrong!!');
End;```
Output:
``` in=broood
sta=abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz original symbol table
enc=  1 17 15  0  0  5
st=dorbacefghijklmnpqstuvwxyz symbol table after encoding
out=broood

in=bananaaa
sta=abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz original symbol table
enc=  1  1 13  1  1  1  0  0
st=anbcdefghijklmopqrstuvwxyz symbol table after encoding
out=bananaaa

in=hiphophiphop
sta=abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz original symbol table
enc=  7  8 15  2 15  2  2  3  2  2  3  2
st=pohiabcdefgjklmnqrstuvwxyz symbol table after encoding
out=hiphophiphop```

## PowerShell

```Function Test-MTF
{
[CmdletBinding()]
Param
(
[Parameter(Mandatory=\$true,Position=0)]
[string]\$word,

[Parameter(Mandatory=\$false)]
[string]\$SymbolTable = 'abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz'
)
Begin
{
Function Encode
{
Param
(
[Parameter(Mandatory=\$true,Position=0)]
[string]\$word,

[Parameter(Mandatory=\$false)]
[string]\$SymbolTable = 'abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz'
)
foreach (\$letter in \$word.ToCharArray())
{
\$index = \$SymbolTable.IndexOf(\$letter)

\$prop = [ordered]@{
Input = \$letter
Output = [int]\$index
SymbolTable = \$SymbolTable
}
New-Object PSobject -Property \$prop
\$SymbolTable = \$SymbolTable.Remove(\$index,1).Insert(0,\$letter)
}
}
Function Decode
{
Param
(
[Parameter(Mandatory=\$true,Position=0)]
[int[]]\$index,

[Parameter(Mandatory=\$false)]
[string]\$SymbolTable = 'abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz'
)
foreach (\$i in \$index)
{
#Write-host \$i -ForegroundColor Red
\$letter = \$SymbolTable.Chars(\$i)

\$prop = [ordered]@{
Input = \$i
Output = \$letter
SymbolTable = \$SymbolTable
}
New-Object PSObject -Property \$prop
\$SymbolTable = \$SymbolTable.Remove(\$i,1).Insert(0,\$letter)
}
}
}
Process
{
#Encoding
Write-Host "Encoding \$word" -NoNewline
\$Encoded = (Encode -word \$word).output
Write-Host -NoNewline ": \$(\$Encoded -join ',')"

#Decoding
Write-Host "`nDecoding \$(\$Encoded -join ',')" -NoNewline
\$Decoded = (Decode -index \$Encoded).output -join ''
Write-Host -NoNewline ": \$Decoded`n"
}
End{}
}
```
Output:
```Test-MTF -word broood
Test-MTF -word bananaaa
Test-MTF -word hiphophiphop
Encoding broood: 1,17,15,0,0,5
Decoding 1,17,15,0,0,5: broood
Encoding bananaaa: 1,1,13,1,1,1,0,0
Decoding 1,1,13,1,1,1,0,0: bananaaa
Encoding hiphophiphop: 7,8,15,2,15,2,2,3,2,2,3,2
Decoding 7,8,15,2,15,2,2,3,2,2,3,2: hiphophiphop```

## Python

### Python: Procedural

```from __future__ import print_function
from string import ascii_lowercase

SYMBOLTABLE = list(ascii_lowercase)

def move2front_encode(strng, symboltable):
for char in strng:
sequence.append(indx)
return sequence

def move2front_decode(sequence, symboltable):
for indx in sequence:
chars.append(char)
return ''.join(chars)

if __name__ == '__main__':
for s in ['broood', 'bananaaa', 'hiphophiphop']:
encode = move2front_encode(s, SYMBOLTABLE)
print('%14r encodes to %r' % (s, encode), end=', ')
decode = move2front_decode(encode, SYMBOLTABLE)
print('which decodes back to %r' % decode)
assert s == decode, 'Whoops!'
```
Output:
```      'broood' encodes to [1, 17, 15, 0, 0, 5], which decodes back to 'broood'
'bananaaa' encodes to [1, 1, 13, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0], which decodes back to 'bananaaa'
'hiphophiphop' encodes to [7, 8, 15, 2, 15, 2, 2, 3, 2, 2, 3, 2], which decodes back to 'hiphophiphop'```

### Python: Functional

From the procedural version note that through the encoding or decoding loops both the final output is accumulated as well as the symbol table being rearranged.
For the functional forms a 2-item list of output to be accumulated and symboltable manipulation is calculated then only the former accumulated as the later works to transform the symbol table in-place.

```def m2f_e(s, st):
return [[st.index(ch), st.insert(0, st.pop(st.index(ch)))][0] for ch in s]

def m2f_d(sq, st):
return ''.join([st[i], st.insert(0, st.pop(i))][0] for i in sq)

ST = list('abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz')
for s in ['broood', 'bananaaa', 'hiphophiphop']:
encode = m2f_e(s, ST[::])
print('%14r encodes to %r' % (s, encode), end=', ')
decode = m2f_d(encode, ST[::])
print('decodes back to %r' % decode)
assert s == decode, 'Whoops!'
```
Output:

Similar to that of the procedural version above.

## Quackery

```  [ []
26 times
[ char a i^ +
join ] ] constant is symbols (   --> \$ )

[ [] symbols rot
witheach
[ over find
tuck pluck
swap join
dip join ]
drop ]                 is encode  ( \$ --> [ )

[ \$ "" symbols rot
witheach
[ pluck
dup rot join
dip join ]
drop ]                 is decode  ( [ --> \$ )

[ dup echo\$
say " --> "
dup encode
dup echo
say " --> "
decode
dup echo\$
= iff
[ say " :-)" ]
else
[ say " :-(" ]
cr cr ]                is task    ( \$ -->   )

\$ "broood bananaaa hiphophiphop"
Output:
```broood --> [ 1 17 15 0 0 5 ] --> broood :-)

bananaaa --> [ 1 1 13 1 1 1 0 0 ] --> bananaaa :-)

hiphophiphop --> [ 7 8 15 2 15 2 2 3 2 2 3 2 ] --> hiphophiphop :-)
```

## Racket

```#lang racket
(define default-symtab "abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz")

(define (move-to-front:encode in (symtab default-symtab))
(define inner-encode
(match-lambda**
[((? string? (app string->list in)) st acc) ; make input all listy
(inner-encode in st acc)]
[(in (? string? (app string->list st)) acc) ; make symtab all listy
(inner-encode in st acc)]
[((list) _ (app reverse rv)) ; nothing more to encode
rv]
[((list a tail ...) (list left ... a right ...) acc) ; encode and recur
(inner-encode tail `(,a ,@left ,@right) (cons (length left) acc))]))
(inner-encode in symtab null))

(define (move-to-front:decode in (symtab default-symtab))
(define inner-decode
(match-lambda**
[(in (? string? (app string->list st)) acc) ; make symtab all listy
(inner-decode in st acc)]
[((list) _ (app (compose list->string reverse) rv)) ; nothing more to encode
rv]
[((list a tail ...) symbols acc) ; decode and recur
(match/values
(split-at symbols a)
[(l (cons ra rd))
(inner-decode tail (cons ra (append l rd)) (cons ra acc))])]))
(inner-decode in symtab null))

(module+ test
;; Test against the example in the task
(require rackunit)
(check-equal? (move-to-front:encode "broood") '(1 17 15 0 0 5))
(check-equal? (move-to-front:decode '(1 17 15 0 0 5)) "broood")
(check-equal? (move-to-front:decode (move-to-front:encode "broood")) "broood"))

(module+ main
(define (encode+decode-string str)
(define enc (move-to-front:encode str))
(define dec (move-to-front:decode enc))
(define crt (if (equal? dec str) "correctly" "incorrectly"))
(printf "~s encodes to ~s, which decodes ~s to ~s.~%" str enc crt dec))

(for-each encode+decode-string '("broood" "bananaaa" "hiphophiphop")))
```
Output:
```"broood" encodes to (1 17 15 0 0 5), which decodes "correctly" to "broood".
"bananaaa" encodes to (1 1 13 1 1 1 0 0), which decodes "correctly" to "bananaaa".
"hiphophiphop" encodes to (7 8 15 2 15 2 2 3 2 2 3 2), which decodes "correctly" to "hiphophiphop".```

## Raku

(formerly Perl 6)

Works with: rakudo version 2015-09-24
```sub encode ( Str \$word ) {
my @sym = 'a' .. 'z';
gather for \$word.comb -> \$c {
@sym[0 .. take (@sym ... \$c).end] .= rotate(-1);
}
}

sub decode ( @enc ) {
my @sym = 'a' .. 'z';
[~] gather for @enc -> \$pos {
take @sym[\$pos];
@sym[0..\$pos] .= rotate(-1);
}
}

use Test;
plan 3;
for <broood bananaaa hiphophiphop> -> \$word {
my \$enc = encode(\$word);
my \$dec = decode(\$enc);
is \$word, \$dec, "\$word.fmt('%-12s') (\$enc[])";
}
```
Output:
```1..3
ok 1 - broood       (1 17 15 0 0 5)
ok 2 - bananaaa     (1 1 13 1 1 1 0 0)
ok 3 - hiphophiphop (7 8 15 2 15 2 2 3 2 2 3 2)```

## REXX

### version 1

```/* REXX ***************************************************************
* 25.05.2014 Walter Pachl
**********************************************************************/
Call enc_dec 'broood'
Call enc_dec 'bananaaa'
Call enc_dec 'hiphophiphop'
Exit
enc_dec: Procedure
Parse Arg in
st='abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz'
sta=st /* remember this for decoding */
enc=''
Do i=1 To length(in)
c=substr(in,i,1)
p=pos(c,st)
enc=enc (p-1)
st=c||left(st,p-1)substr(st,p+1)
End
Say ' in='in
Say 'sta='sta 'original symbol table'
Say 'enc='enc
Say ' st='st  'symbol table after encoding'
out=''
Do i=1 To words(enc)
k=word(enc,i)+1
out=out||substr(sta,k,1)
sta=substr(sta,k,1)left(sta,k-1)substr(sta,k+1)
End
Say 'out='out
Say ' '
If out==in Then Nop
Else
Say 'all wrong!!'
Return
```
Output:
``` in=broood
sta=abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz original symbol table
enc= 1 17 15 0 0 5
st=dorbacefghijklmnpqstuvwxyz symbol table after encoding
out=broood

in=bananaaa
sta=abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz original symbol table
enc= 1 1 13 1 1 1 0 0
st=anbcdefghijklmopqrstuvwxyz symbol table after encoding
out=bananaaa

in=hiphophiphop
sta=abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz original symbol table
enc= 7 8 15 2 15 2 2 3 2 2 3 2
st=pohiabcdefgjklmnqrstuvwxyz symbol table after encoding
out=hiphophiphop```

### version 2

Programming note:   the two REXX statements that add/subtract   one   deal with the task's requirement that the symbol table be   zero-indexed   (the REXX language uses   unity-based   strings).

```/*REXX program demonstrates the  move─to─front  algorithm  encode/decode  symbol table. */
parse arg xxx;   if xxx=''  then xxx= 'broood bananaaa hiphophiphop'  /*use the default?*/
one= 1                          /*(offset) for this task's requirement.*/
do j=1  for words(xxx);    x= word(xxx, j)     /*process a single word at a time.     */
@= 'abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz';      @@= @    /*symbol table: the lowercase alphabet */
\$=                                             /*set the decode string to a   null.   */
do k=1  for length(x); z= substr(x, k, 1)  /*encrypt a symbol in the word.        */
_= pos(z, @);      if _==0  then iterate   /*the symbol position in symbol table. */
\$= \$  (_ - one);   @= z || delstr(@, _, 1) /*(re─)adjust the symbol table string. */
end   /*k*/                                /* [↑]   the  move─to─front  encoding. */
!=                                             /*set the encode string to a   null.   */
do m=1  for words(\$);  n= word(\$, m) + one /*decode the sequence table string.    */
y= substr(@@, n, 1);   != !  ||  y         /*the decode symbol for the   N   word.*/
@@= y || delstr(@@, n, 1)                  /*rebuild the symbol table string.     */
end   /*m*/                                /* [↑]   the  move─to─front  decoding. */
say '     word: '  left(x, 20)  "encoding:"  left(\$, 35)   word('wrong OK', 1 + (!==x) )
end       /*j*/                                /*stick a fork in it,  we're all done. */
```
output   when using the default input:
```     word:  broood               encoding:  1 17 15 0 0 5                      OK
word:  bananaaa             encoding:  1 1 13 1 1 1 0 0                   OK
word:  hiphophiphop         encoding:  7 8 15 2 15 2 2 3 2 2 3 2          OK
```

## Ring

```# Project : Move-to-front algorithm

test("broood")
test("bananaaa")
test("hiphophiphop")

func encode(s)
symtab = "abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz"
res = ""
for i=1 to len(s)
ch = s[i]
k = substr(symtab, ch)
res = res + " " + (k-1)
for j=k to 2 step -1
symtab[j] = symtab[j-1]
next
symtab[1] = ch
next
return res

func decode(s)
s = str2list( substr(s, " ", nl) )
symtab = "abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz"
res = ""
for i=1 to len(s)
k = number(s[i]) + 1
ch = symtab[k]
res = res + " " + ch
for j=k to 2 step -1
symtab[j] = symtab[j-1]
next
symtab[1] = ch
next
return right(res, len(res)-2)

func test(s)
e = encode(s)
d = decode(e)
see "" + s + " => " + "(" + right(e, len(e) - 1) + ") " + " => " + substr(d, " ", "") + nl```

Output:

```broood => (1 17 15 0 0 5)  => broood
bananaaa => (1 1 13 1 1 1 0 0)  => bananaaa
hiphophiphop => (7 8 15 2 15 2 2 3 2 2 3 2)  => hiphophiphop
```

## Ruby

Use a module as namespace:

```module MoveToFront

ABC = ("a".."z").to_a.freeze

def self.encode(str)
ar = ABC.dup
str.chars.each_with_object([]) do |char, memo|
memo << (i = ar.index(char))
ar = m2f(ar,i)
end
end

def self.decode(indices)
ar = ABC.dup
indices.each_with_object("") do |i, str|
str << ar[i]
ar = m2f(ar,i)
end
end

private
def self.m2f(ar,i)
[ar.delete_at(i)] + ar
end

end

['broood', 'bananaaa', 'hiphophiphop'].each do |word|
p word == MoveToFront.decode(p MoveToFront.encode(p word))
end
```
Output:
```"broood"
[1, 17, 15, 0, 0, 5]
true
"bananaaa"
[1, 1, 13, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0]
true
"hiphophiphop"
[7, 8, 15, 2, 15, 2, 2, 3, 2, 2, 3, 2]
true
```

## Rust

```fn main() {
let examples = vec!["broood", "bananaaa", "hiphophiphop"];
for example in examples {
let encoded = encode(example);
let decoded = decode(&encoded);
println!(
"{} encodes to {:?} decodes to {}",
example, encoded, decoded
);
}
}

fn get_symbols() -> Vec<u8> {
(b'a'..b'z').collect()
}

fn encode(input: &str) -> Vec<usize> {
input
.as_bytes()
.iter()
.fold((Vec::new(), get_symbols()), |(mut o, mut s), x| {
let i = s.iter().position(|c| c == x).unwrap();
let c = s.remove(i);
s.insert(0, c);
o.push(i);
(o, s)
})
.0
}

fn decode(input: &[usize]) -> String {
input
.iter()
.fold((Vec::new(), get_symbols()), |(mut o, mut s), x| {
o.push(s[*x]);
let c = s.remove(*x);
s.insert(0, c);
(o, s)
})
.0
.into_iter()
.map(|c| c as char)
.collect()
}
```
Output:
```broood encodes to [1, 17, 15, 0, 0, 5] decodes to broood
bananaaa encodes to [1, 1, 13, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0] decodes to bananaaa
hiphophiphop encodes to [7, 8, 15, 2, 15, 2, 2, 3, 2, 2, 3, 2] decodes to hiphophiphop
```

## Scala

Works with: Scala version 2.11.8+
```package rosetta

import scala.annotation.tailrec

object MoveToFront {
/**
*/
private val R = 256

/**
*  Default symbol table
*/
private def symbolTable = (0 until R).map(_.toChar).mkString

/**
*  Apply move-to-front encoding using default symbol table.
*/
def encode(s: String): List[Int] = {
encode(s, symbolTable)
}

/**
*  Apply move-to-front encoding using symbol table <tt>symTable</tt>.
*/
def encode(s: String, symTable: String): List[Int] = {
val table = symTable.toCharArray

@inline @tailrec def moveToFront(ch: Char, index: Int, tmpout: Char): Int = {
val tmpin = table(index)
table(index) = tmpout
if (ch != tmpin)
moveToFront(ch, index + 1, tmpin)
else {
table(0) = ch
index
}
}

@tailrec def encodeString(output: List[Int], s: List[Char]): List[Int] = s match {
case Nil => output
case x :: xs => {
encodeString(moveToFront(x, 0, table(0)) :: output, s.tail)
}
}
encodeString(Nil, s.toList).reverse
}

/**
*  Apply move-to-front decoding using default symbol table.
*/
def decode(ints: List[Int]): String = {
decode(ints, symbolTable)
}

/**
*  Apply move-to-front decoding using symbol table <tt>symTable</tt>.
*/
def decode(lst: List[Int], symTable: String): String = {
val table = symTable.toCharArray

@inline def moveToFront(c: Char, index: Int) {
for (i <- index-1 to 0 by -1)
table(i+1) = table(i)
table(0) = c
}

@tailrec def decodeList(output: List[Char], lst: List[Int]): List[Char] = lst match {
case Nil => output
case x :: xs => {
val c = table(x)
moveToFront(c, x)
decodeList(c :: output, xs)
}
}
decodeList(Nil, lst).reverse.mkString
}

def test(toEncode: String, symTable: String) {
val encoded = encode(toEncode, symTable)
println(toEncode + ": " + encoded)
val decoded = decode(encoded, symTable)
if (toEncode != decoded)
print("in")
println("correctly decoded to " + decoded)
}
}

/**
* Unit tests the <tt>MoveToFront</tt> data type.
*/
object RosettaCodeMTF extends App {
val symTable = "abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz"
MoveToFront.test("broood", symTable)
MoveToFront.test("bananaaa", symTable)
MoveToFront.test("hiphophiphop", symTable)
}
```
Output:
```broood: List(1, 17, 15, 0, 0, 5)
correctly decoded to broood
bananaaa: List(1, 1, 13, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0)
correctly decoded to bananaaa
hiphophiphop: List(7, 8, 15, 2, 15, 2, 2, 3, 2, 2, 3, 2)
correctly decoded to hiphophiphop```

## Sidef

Translation of: Perl

Implemented using regular expressions:

```func encode(str) {
var table = ('a'..'z' -> join);
str.chars.map { |c|
var s = '';
table.sub!(Regex('(.*?)' + c), {|s1| s=s1; c + s1});
s.len;
}
}

func decode(nums) {
var table = ('a'..'z' -> join);
nums.map { |n|
var s = '';
table.sub!(Regex('(.{' + n + '})(.)'), {|s1, s2| s=s2; s2 + s1});
s;
}.join;
}

%w(broood bananaaa hiphophiphop).each { |test|
var encoded = encode(test);
say "#{test}: #{encoded}";
var decoded = decode(encoded);
print "in" if (decoded != test);
say "correctly decoded to #{decoded}";
}
```

Alternatively, implemented as a module, using arrays:

```module MoveToFront {

define ABC = @("a".."z")

func m2f(ar,i) {
[ar.delete_index(i)] + ar
}

func encode(str) {
var ar = ABC+[]
gather {
str.each_char { |char|
take(var i = ar.index(char))
ar = m2f(ar, i);
}
}
}

func decode(indices) {
var ar = ABC+[]
gather {
indices.each { |i|
take ar[i];
ar = m2f(ar, i)
}
}.join
}
}

%w(broood bananaaa hiphophiphop).each { |test|
var encoded = MoveToFront::encode(test);
say "#{test}: #{encoded}";
var decoded = MoveToFront::decode(encoded);
print "in" if (decoded != test);
say "correctly decoded to #{decoded}";
}
```
Output:
```broood: 1 17 15 0 0 5
correctly decoded to broood
bananaaa: 1 1 13 1 1 1 0 0
correctly decoded to bananaaa
hiphophiphop: 7 8 15 2 15 2 2 3 2 2 3 2
correctly decoded to hiphophiphop
```

## Swift

```var str="broood"
var number:[Int]=[1,17,15,0,0,5]

//function to encode the string
func encode(st:String)->[Int]
{

var array:[Character]=["a","b","c","d","e","f","g","h","i","j","k","l","m","n","o","p","q","r","s","t","u","v","w","x","y","z"]

var num:[Int]=[]
var temp:Character="a"
var i1:Int=0
for i in st.characters
{
for j in 0...25
{
if i==array[j]
{
num.append(j)
temp=array[j]
i1=j
while(i1>0)
{
array[i1]=array[i1-1]
i1=i1-1

}
array[0]=temp
}

}

}

return num

}

func decode(s:[Int])->[Character]
{

var st1:[Character]=[]
var alph:[Character]=["a","b","c","d","e","f","g","h","i","j","k","l","m","n","o","p","q","r","s","t","u","v","w","x","y","z"]
var temp1:Character="a"
var i2:Int=0
for i in 0...s.character.count-1
{
i2=s[i]
st1.append(alph[i2])
temp1=alph[i2]

while(i2>0)
{
alph[i2]=alph[i2-1]
i2=i2-1

}
alph[0]=temp1

}
return st1

}

var encarr:[Int]=encode(st:str)
var decarr:[Character]=decode(s:number)
print(encarr)
print(decarr)
```

## Tcl

Works with: Tcl version 8.6
```package require Tcl 8.6

oo::class create MoveToFront {
variable symbolTable
constructor {symbols} {
set symbolTable [split \$symbols ""]
}

method MoveToFront {table index} {
list [lindex \$table \$index] {*}[lreplace \$table \$index \$index]
}
method encode {text} {
set t \$symbolTable
set r {}
foreach c [split \$text ""] {
set i [lsearch -exact \$t \$c]
lappend r \$i
set t [my MoveToFront \$t \$i]
}
return \$r
}
method decode {numbers} {
set t \$symbolTable
set r ""
foreach n \$numbers {
append r [lindex \$t \$n]
set t [my MoveToFront \$t \$n]
}
return \$r
}
}

MoveToFront create mtf "abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz"
foreach tester {"broood" "bananaaa" "hiphophiphop"} {
set enc [mtf encode \$tester]
set dec [mtf decode \$enc]
puts [format "'%s' encodes to %s. This decodes to '%s'. %s" \
\$tester \$enc \$dec [expr {\$tester eq \$dec ? "Correct!" : "WRONG!"}]]
}
```
Output:
```'broood' encodes to 1 17 15 0 0 5. This decodes to 'broood'. Correct!
'bananaaa' encodes to 1 1 13 1 1 1 0 0. This decodes to 'bananaaa'. Correct!
'hiphophiphop' encodes to 7 8 15 2 15 2 2 3 2 2 3 2. This decodes to 'hiphophiphop'. Correct!
```

## VBScript

```Function mtf_encode(s)
'create the array list and populate it with the initial symbol position
Set symbol_table = CreateObject("System.Collections.ArrayList")
For j = 97 To 122 'a to z in decimal.
Next
output = ""
For i = 1 To Len(s)
char = Mid(s,i,1)
If i = Len(s) Then
output = output & symbol_table.IndexOf(char,0)
symbol_table.RemoveAt(symbol_table.LastIndexOf(char))
symbol_table.Insert 0,char
Else
output = output & symbol_table.IndexOf(char,0) & " "
symbol_table.RemoveAt(symbol_table.LastIndexOf(char))
symbol_table.Insert 0,char
End If
Next
mtf_encode = output
End Function

Function mtf_decode(s)
'break the function argument into an array
code = Split(s," ")
'create the array list and populate it with the initial symbol position
Set symbol_table = CreateObject("System.Collections.ArrayList")
For j = 97 To 122 'a to z in decimal.
Next
output = ""
For i = 0 To UBound(code)
char = symbol_table(code(i))
output = output & char
If code(i) <> 0 Then
symbol_table.RemoveAt(symbol_table.LastIndexOf(char))
symbol_table.Insert 0,char
End If
Next
mtf_decode = output
End Function

'Testing the functions
wordlist = Array("broood","bananaaa","hiphophiphop")
For Each word In wordlist
WScript.StdOut.Write word & " encodes as " & mtf_encode(word) & " and decodes as " &_
mtf_decode(mtf_encode(word)) & "."
WScript.StdOut.WriteBlankLines(1)
Next```
Output:
```broood encodes as 1 17 15 0 0 5 and decodes as broood.
bananaaa encodes as 1 1 13 1 1 1 0 0 and decodes as bananaaa.
hiphophiphop encodes as 7 8 15 2 15 2 2 3 2 2 3 2 and decodes as hiphophiphop.
```

## Wren

Translation of: Kotlin
Library: Wren-fmt
Library: Wren-seq
```import "./fmt" for Fmt
import "./seq" for Lst

var encode = Fn.new { |s|
if (s.isEmpty) return []
var symbols = "abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz".toList
var result = List.filled(s.count, 0)
var i = 0
for (c in s) {
var index = Lst.indexOf(symbols, c)
if (index == -1) Fiber.abort("%(s) contains a non-alphabetic character")
result[i] = index
if (index > 0) {
for (j in index-1..0) symbols[j + 1] = symbols[j]
symbols[0] = c
}
i = i + 1
}
return result
}

var decode = Fn.new { |a|
if (a.isEmpty) return ""
var symbols = "abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz".toList
var result = List.filled(a.count, "")
var i = 0
for (n in a) {
if (n < 0 || n > 25) Fiber.abort("%(a) contains an invalid number")
result[i] = symbols[n]
if (n > 0) {
for (j in n-1..0) symbols[j + 1] = symbols[j]
symbols[0] = result[i]
}
i = i + 1
}
return result.join()
}

var strings = ["broood", "bananaaa", "hiphophiphop"]
var encoded = List.filled(strings.count, null)
var i = 0
for (s in strings) {
encoded[i] = encode.call(s)
Fmt.print("\$-12s -> \$n", s, encoded[i])
i = i + 1
}
System.print()
var decoded = List.filled(encoded.count, null)
i = 0
for (a in encoded) {
decoded[i] = decode.call(a)
var correct = (decoded[i] == strings[i]) ? "correct" : "incorrect"
Fmt.print("\$-38n -> \$-12s -> \$s", a, decoded[i], correct)
i = i + 1
}
```
Output:
```broood       -> [1, 17, 15, 0, 0, 5]
bananaaa     -> [1, 1, 13, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0]
hiphophiphop -> [7, 8, 15, 2, 15, 2, 2, 3, 2, 2, 3, 2]

[1, 17, 15, 0, 0, 5]                   -> broood       -> correct
[1, 1, 13, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0]              -> bananaaa     -> correct
[7, 8, 15, 2, 15, 2, 2, 3, 2, 2, 3, 2] -> hiphophiphop -> correct
```

## zkl

```fcn encode(text){ //-->List
st:=["a".."z"].pump(Data);	//"abcd..z" as byte array
text.reduce(fcn(st,c,sink){
n:=st.index(c); sink.write(n); st.del(n).insert(0,c); },st,sink:=L());
sink;
}```

Strings are immutable so we create a bit bucket (which is mutable) to hold the symbol table which can then be modified in place.

```fcn decode(list){ //-->String
st:=["a".."z"].pump(String);		//"abcd..z"
sink:=Sink(String);
list.reduce('wrap(st,n){ c:=st[n]; sink.write(c); c+st.del(n); },st);
sink.close();
}```

Here, we create a new symbol table each round as we would have to convert the byte we got from the bit bucket to string (so it is a wash garbage wise).

```texts:=T("broood","bananaaa","hiphophiphop");
out:=texts.apply(encode);
texts.zipWith(fcn(t,e){ println(t,"-->",e) },out);

out.apply(decode).println();
texts.zipWith('==,out.apply(decode)).println();```
Output:
```broood-->L(1,17,15,0,0,5)
bananaaa-->L(1,1,13,1,1,1,0,0)
hiphophiphop-->L(7,8,15,2,15,2,2,3,2,2,3,2)
L("broood","bananaaa","hiphophiphop")
L(True,True,True)
```