Dot product

Dot product
You are encouraged to solve this task according to the task description, using any language you may know.

Create a function/use an in-built function, to compute the   dot product,   also known as the   scalar product   of two vectors.

If possible, make the vectors of arbitrary length.

As an example, compute the dot product of the vectors:

` [1,  3, -5] `     and
` [4, -2, -1] `

If implementing the dot product of two vectors directly:

•   each vector must be the same length
•   multiply corresponding terms from each vector
•   sum the products   (to produce the answer)

360 Assembly

`*        Dot product               03/05/2016DOTPROD  CSECT         USING  DOTPROD,R15         SR     R7,R7              p=0         LA     R6,1               i=1LOOPI    CH     R6,=AL2((B-A)/4)   do i=1 to hbound(a)         BH     ELOOPI         LR     R1,R6              i         SLA    R1,2               *4         L      R3,A-4(R1)         a(i)         L      R4,B-4(R1)         b(i)         MR     R2,R4              a(i)*b(i)         AR     R7,R3              p=p+a(i)*b(i)         LA     R6,1(R6)           i=i+1         B      LOOPIELOOPI   XDECO  R7,PG              edit p         XPRNT  PG,80              print buffer         XR     R15,R15            rc=0         BR     R14                returnA        DC     F'1',F'3',F'-5'B        DC     F'4',F'-2',F'-1'PG       DC     CL80' '            buffer         YREGS         END    DOTPROD`
Output:
```           3
```

8th

`[1,3,-5] [4,-2,-1] ' n:* ' n:+ a:dot . cr`
Output:
`3`

ABAP

`report zdot_productdata: lv_n type i,      lv_sum type i,      lt_a type standard table of i,      lt_b type standard table of i. append: '1' to lt_a, '3' to lt_a, '-5' to lt_a.append: '4' to lt_b, '-2' to lt_b, '-1' to lt_b.describe table lt_a lines lv_n. perform dot_product using lt_a lt_b lv_n changing lv_sum. write lv_sum left-justified. form dot_product using it_a like lt_a                       it_b like lt_b                       iv_n type i                 changing                       ev_sum type i.  field-symbols: <wa_a> type i, <wa_b> type i.   do iv_n times.    read table: it_a assigning <wa_a> index sy-index, it_b assigning <wa_b> index sy-index.    lv_sum = lv_sum + ( <wa_a> * <wa_b> ).  enddo.endform.`
Output:
`3`

ACL2

`(defun dotp (v u)   (if (or (endp v) (endp u))       0       (+ (* (first v) (first u))          (dotp (rest v) (rest u)))))`
```> (dotp '(1 3 -5) '(4 -2 -1))
3```

ActionScript

`function dotProduct(v1:Vector.<Number>, v2:Vector.<Number>):Number{	if(v1.length != v2.length) return NaN;	var sum:Number = 0;	for(var i:uint = 0; i < v1.length; i++)		sum += v1[i]*v2[i];	return sum;}trace(dotProduct(Vector.<Number>([1,3,-5]),Vector.<Number>([4,-2,-1])));`

`with Ada.Text_IO; use Ada.Text_IO;procedure dot_product is	type vect is array(Positive range <>) of Integer;	v1 : vect := (1,3,-5);	v2 : vect := (4,-2,-1); 	function dotprod(a: vect; b: vect) return Integer is		sum : Integer := 0;		begin		if not (a'Length=b'Length) then raise Constraint_Error; end if;		for p in a'Range loop			sum := sum + a(p)*b(p);		end loop;		return sum;	end dotprod; beginput_line(Integer'Image(dotprod(v1,v2)));end dot_product;`
Output:
`3`

Aime

`realdp(list a, list b){    real p, v;    integer i;     p = 0;    for (i, v in a) {        p += v * b[i];    }     p;} integermain(void){    o_(dp(list(1r, 3r, -5r), list(4r, -2r, -1r)), "\n");     0;}`
Output:
`3`

ALGOL 68

Translation of: C++
Works with: ALGOL 68 version Standard - with prelude inserted manually
Works with: ALGOL 68G version Any - tested with release mk15-0.8b.fc9.i386
Works with: ELLA ALGOL 68 version Any (with appropriate job cards) - tested with release 1.8.8d.fc9.i386
`MODE DOTFIELD = REAL;MODE DOTVEC = [1:0]DOTFIELD; # The "Spread Sheet" way of doing a dot product:  o Assume bounds are equal, and start at 1   o Ignore round off error#PRIO SSDOT = 7;OP SSDOT = (DOTVEC a,b)DOTFIELD: (  DOTFIELD sum := 0;  FOR i TO UPB a DO sum +:= a[i]*b[i] OD;  sum); # An improved dot-product version:  o Handles sparse vectors  o Improves summation by gathering round off error    with no additional multiplication - or LONG - operations.#OP * = (DOTVEC a,b)DOTFIELD: (  DOTFIELD sum := 0, round off error:= 0;  FOR i# Assume bounds may not be equal, empty members are zero (sparse) #    FROM LWB (LWB a > LWB b | a | b )    TO UPB (UPB a < UPB b | a | b )   DO    DOTFIELD org = sum, prod = a[i]*b[i];    sum +:= prod;    round off error +:= sum - org - prod  OD;  sum - round off error); # Test: #DOTVEC a=(1,3,-5), b=(4,-2,-1); print(("a SSDOT b = ",fixed(a SSDOT b,0,real width), new line));print(("a   *   b = ",fixed(a   *   b,0,real width), new line))`
Output:
```a SSDOT b = 3.000000000000000
a   *   b = 3.000000000000000```

ALGOL W

`begin    % computes the dot product of two equal length integer vectors            %    % (single dimension arrays ) the length of the vectors must be specified  %    % in length.                                                              %    integer procedure integerDotProduct( integer array a ( * )                                       ; integer array b ( * )                                       ; integer value length                                       ) ;    begin        integer product;        product := 0;        for i := 1 until length do product := product + ( a(i) * b(i) );        product    end integerDotProduct ;     % declare two vectors of length 3                                         %    integer array v1, v2 ( 1 :: 3 );    % initialise the vectors                                                  %    v1(1) :=  1; v1(2) :=  3; v1(3) := -5;    v2(1) :=  4; v2(2) := -2; v2(3) := -1;    % output the dot product                                                  %    write( integerDotProduct( v1, v2, 3 ) )end. `

APL

`1 3 ¯5 +.× 4 ¯2 ¯1`

Output:

`3`

AppleScript

Translation of: JavaScript
( functional version )
`-- DOT PRODUCT --------------------------------------------------------------- -- dotProduct :: [Number] -> [Number] -> Numberon dotProduct(xs, ys)    script product        on |λ|(a, b)            a * b        end |λ|    end script     if length of xs = length of ys then        sum(zipWith(product, xs, ys))    else        missing value -- arrays of differing dimension    end ifend dotProduct  -- TEST ----------------------------------------------------------------------on run     dotProduct([1, 3, -5], [4, -2, -1])     --> 3end run  -- GENERIC FUNCTIONS --------------------------------------------------------- -- foldl :: (a -> b -> a) -> a -> [b] -> aon foldl(f, startValue, xs)    tell mReturn(f)        set v to startValue        set lng to length of xs        repeat with i from 1 to lng            set v to |λ|(v, item i of xs, i, xs)        end repeat        return v    end tellend foldl -- min :: Ord a => a -> a -> aon min(x, y)    if y < x then        y    else        x    end ifend min -- Lift 2nd class handler function into 1st class script wrapper -- mReturn :: Handler -> Scripton mReturn(f)    if class of f is script then        f    else        script            property |λ| : f        end script    end ifend mReturn -- sum :: [Number] -> Numberon sum(xs)    script add        on |λ|(a, b)            a + b        end |λ|    end script     foldl(add, 0, xs)end sum -- zipWith :: (a -> b -> c) -> [a] -> [b] -> [c]on zipWith(f, xs, ys)    set lng to min(length of xs, length of ys)    set lst to {}    tell mReturn(f)        repeat with i from 1 to lng            set end of lst to |λ|(item i of xs, item i of ys)        end repeat        return lst    end tellend zipWith`
Output:
`3`

AutoHotkey

`Vet1 := "1,3,-5"Vet2 := "4 , -2 , -1"MsgBox % DotProduct( Vet1 , Vet2 ) ;--------------------------- DotProduct( VectorA , VectorB ){  Sum := 0  StringSplit, ArrayA, VectorA, `,, %A_Space%  StringSplit, ArrayB, VectorB, `,, %A_Space%  If ( ArrayA0 <> ArrayB0 )    Return ERROR  While ( A_Index <= ArrayA0 )    Sum += ArrayA%A_Index% * ArrayB%A_Index%  Return Sum}`

AWK

` # syntax: GAWK -f DOT_PRODUCT.AWKBEGIN {    v1 = "1,3,-5"    v2 = "4,-2,-1"    if (split(v1,v1arr,",") != split(v2,v2arr,",")) {      print("error: vectors are of unequal lengths")      exit(1)    }    printf("%g\n",dot_product(v1arr,v2arr))    exit(0)}function dot_product(v1,v2,  i,sum) {    for (i in v1) {      sum += v1[i] * v2[i]    }    return(sum)} `
Output:
`3`

BASIC

Applesoft BASIC

Calculates the dot product of two random vectors of length N.

`  100 : 110  REM  DOT PRODUCT 120 : 130  REM  INITIALIZE VECTORS OF LENGTH N 140  N = 3 150  DIM V1(N): DIM V2(N) 160  FOR I = 1 TO N 170  V1(I) =  INT ( RND (1) * 20 - 9.5) 180  V2(I) =  INT ( RND (1) * 20 - 9.5) 190  NEXT I 300 : 310  REM  CALCULATE THE DOT PRODUCT 320 : 330  FOR I = 1 TO N:DP = DP + V1(I) * V2(I): NEXT I 400 : 410  REM  DISPLAY RESULT 420 : 430  PRINT "[";: FOR I = 1 TO N: PRINT " ";V1(I);: NEXT I 440  PRINT "] . [";: FOR I = 1 TO N: PRINT " ";V2(I);: NEXT I 450  PRINT "] = ";DP `
Output:
```]RUN
[ 7 2 -2] . [ 7 -5 8] = 23
]RUN
[ -3 -4 -8] . [ -8 7 6] = -52```

BBC BASIC

BBC BASIC has a built-in dot-product operator:

`      DIM vec1(2), vec2(2), dot(0)       vec1() = 1, 3, -5      vec2() = 4, -2, -1       dot() = vec1() . vec2()      PRINT "Result is "; dot(0)`
Output:
`Result is 3`

bc

`/* Calculate the dot product of two vectors a and b (represented as * arrays) of size n. */define d(a[], b[], n) {    auto d, i     for (i = 0; i < n; i++) {        d += a[i] * b[i]    }    return(d)}     a[0] = 1a[1] = 3a[2] = -5b[0] = 4b[1] = -2b[2] = -1d(a[], b[], 3)`
Output:
`3`

Befunge 93

` v Space for variablesv Space for vector1v Space for vector2v http://rosettacode.org/wiki/Dot_product                                            >00pv>>55+":htgneL",,,,,,,,&:0`                  | v,,,,,,,"Length can't be negative."+55<>,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,@                 |!`-10<                                      >[email protected]                             v,")".g00,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Vector a(size "         <0v01g00,")".g00,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Vector b"<0pvp2g01&p01-1g01<                     "g>>         10g0`|               @.g30<(1                >03g:-03p>00g1-`     |s0      vp00-1g00p30+g30*g2-1g00g1-1g00<ip      >        v         #            zvp1g01&p01-1g01<>         ^            e>      10g0`   |        vp01-1g01.g1<                 >00g1-10p>10g:01-`   |  "                                    >  ^                                               `
Output:
```Length:
3
Vector a(size 3 )1
3
-5
1 3 -5 Vector b(size 3 )4
-2
-1

3```

Bracmat

`  ( dot  =   a A z Z    .     !arg:(%?a ?z.%?A ?Z)        & !a*!A+dot\$(!z.!Z)      | 0  )& out\$(dot\$(1 3 -5.4 -2 -1));`
Output:
`3`

C

`#include <stdio.h>#include <stdlib.h> int dot_product(int *, int *, size_t); intmain(void){        int a[3] = {1, 3, -5};        int b[3] = {4, -2, -1};         printf("%d\n", dot_product(a, b, sizeof(a) / sizeof(a[0])));         return EXIT_SUCCESS;} intdot_product(int *a, int *b, size_t n){        int sum = 0;        size_t i;         for (i = 0; i < n; i++) {                sum += a[i] * b[i];        }         return sum;}`
Output:
`3`

C#

`static void Main(string[] args){	Console.WriteLine(DotProduct(new decimal[] { 1, 3, -5 }, new decimal[] { 4, -2, -1 }));	Console.Read();} private static decimal DotProduct(decimal[] vec1, decimal[] vec2) {	if (vec1 == null)		return 0; 	if (vec2 == null)		return 0; 	if (vec1.Length != vec2.Length)		return 0; 	decimal tVal = 0;	for (int x = 0; x < vec1.Length; x++)	{		tVal += vec1[x] * vec2[x];	} 	return tVal;}`
Output:
`3`

Alternative using Linq (C# 4)

Works with: C# version 4
`public static decimal DotProduct(decimal[] a, decimal[] b) {    return a.Zip(b, (x, y) => x * y).Sum();}`

C++

`#include <iostream>#include <numeric> int main(){    int a[] = { 1, 3, -5 };    int b[] = { 4, -2, -1 };     std::cout << std::inner_product(a, a + sizeof(a) / sizeof(a[0]), b, 0) << std::endl;     return 0;}`
Output:
`3`

Alternative using std::valarray

` #include <valarray>#include <iostream> int main(){    std::valarray<double> xs = {1,3,-5};    std::valarray<double> ys = {4,-2,-1};     double result = (xs * ys).sum();     std::cout << result << '\n';     return 0;}`
Output:
`3`

Clojure

Works with: Clojure version 1.1

Preconditions are new in 1.1. The actual code also works in older Clojure versions.

`(defn dot-product [& matrix]  {:pre [(apply == (map count matrix))]}  (apply + (apply map * matrix))) (defn dot-product2 [x y] (->> (interleave x y)      (partition 2 2)      (map #(apply * %))      (reduce +))) (defn dot-product3  "Dot product of vectors. Tested on version 1.8.0."  [v1 v2]  {:pre [(= (count v1) (count v2))]}  (reduce + (map * v1 v2))) ;Example Usage(println (dot-product [1 3 -5] [4 -2 -1]))(println (dot-product2 [1 3 -5] [4 -2 -1]))(println (dot-product3 [1 3 -5] [4 -2 -1])) `

CoffeeScript

`dot_product = (ary1, ary2) ->  if ary1.length != ary2.length    throw "can't find dot product: arrays have different lengths"  dotprod = 0  for v, i in ary1    dotprod += v * ary2[i]  dotprod console.log dot_product([ 1, 3, -5 ], [ 4, -2, -1 ]) # 3try  console.log dot_product([ 1, 3, -5 ], [ 4, -2, -1, 0 ]) # exceptioncatch e  console.log e`
Output:
```> coffee foo.coffee
3

can't find dot product: arrays have different lengths```

Common Lisp

`(defun dot-product (a b)  (apply #'+ (mapcar #'* (coerce a 'list) (coerce b 'list))))`

This works with any size vector, and (as usual for Common Lisp) all numeric types (rationals, bignums, complex numbers, etc.).

Maybe it is better to do it without coercing. Then we got a cleaner code.

`(defun dot-prod (a b)  (reduce #'+ (map 'simple-vector #'* a b)))`

Component Pascal

` MODULE DotProduct;IMPORT StdLog; PROCEDURE Calculate*(x,y: ARRAY OF INTEGER): INTEGER;VAR	i,sum: INTEGER;BEGIN	sum := 0;	FOR i:= 0 TO LEN(x) - 1 DO		INC(sum,x[i] * y[i]);	END;	RETURN sumEND Calculate; PROCEDURE Test*;VAR	i,sum: INTEGER;	v1,v2: ARRAY 3 OF INTEGER;BEGIN	v1[0] := 1;v1[1] := 3;v1[2] := -5;	v2[0] := 4;v2[1] := -2;v2[2] := -1; 	StdLog.Int(Calculate(v1,v2));StdLog.LnEND Test; END DotProduct. `

Execute: ^Q DotProduct.Test

Output:
```3
```

D

`void main() {    import std.stdio, std.numeric;     [1.0, 3.0, -5.0].dotProduct([4.0, -2.0, -1.0]).writeln;}`
Output:
`3`

Using an array operation:

`void main() {    import std.stdio, std.algorithm;     double[3] a = [1.0, 3.0, -5.0];    double[3] b = [4.0, -2.0, -1.0];    double[3] c = a[] * b[];    c[].sum.writeln;}`

Dart

`num dot(List<num> A, List<num> B){  if (A.length != B.length){    throw new Exception('Vectors must be of equal size');  }  num result = 0;  for (int i = 0; i < A.length; i++){    result += A[i] * B[i];  }  return result;} void main(){  var l = [1,3,-5];  var k = [4,-2,-1];  print(dot(l,k));}`
Output:
`3`

Delphi

Works with: Lazarus
`program Project1; {\$APPTYPE CONSOLE} type  doublearray = array of Double; function DotProduct(const A, B : doublearray): Double;varI: integer;begin  assert (Length(A) = Length(B), 'Input arrays must be the same length');  Result := 0;  for I := 0 to Length(A) - 1 do    Result := Result + (A[I] * B[I]);end; var  x,y: doublearray;begin  SetLength(x, 3);  SetLength(y, 3);  x[0] := 1; x[1] := 3; x[2] := -5;  y[0] := 4; y[1] :=-2; y[2] := -1;  WriteLn(DotProduct(x,y));  ReadLn;end.`
Output:
` 3.00000000000000E+0000`

Note: Delphi does not like arrays being declared in procedure headings, so it is necessary to declare it beforehand. To use integers, modify doublearray to be an array of integer.

Déjà Vu

`dot a b:	if /= len a len b:		Raise value-error "dot product needs two vectors with the same length" 	0	while a:		+ * pop-from a pop-from b !. dot [ 1 3 -5 ] [ 4 -2 -1 ]`
Output:
`3`

DWScript

For arbitrary length vectors, using a precondition to check vector length:

`function DotProduct(a, b : array of Float) : Float;require   a.Length = b.Length;var   i : Integer;begin   Result := 0;   for i := 0 to a.High do      Result += a[i]*b[i];end; PrintLn(DotProduct([1,3,-5], [4,-2,-1]));`

Using built-in 4D Vector type:

`var a := Vector(1, 3, -5, 0);var b := Vector(4, -2, -1, 0); PrintLn(a * b);`
Ouput in both cases:
`3`

EchoLisp

` (define a #(1 3 -5))(define b #(4 -2 -1)) ;; function definition(define ( ⊗ a b) (for/sum ((x a)(y b)) (* x y)))(⊗ a b) → 3 ;; library(lib 'math)(dot-product a b) → 3 `

Eiffel

`class	APPLICATION create	make feature {NONE} -- Initialization 	make			-- Run application.		do			print(dot_product(<<1, 3, -5>>, <<4, -2, -1>>).out)		end feature -- Access 	dot_product (a, b: ARRAY[INTEGER]): INTEGER			-- Dot product of vectors `a' and `b'.		require			a.lower = b.lower			a.upper = b.upper		local			i: INTEGER		do			from				i := a.lower			until				i > a.upper			loop				Result := Result + a[i] * b[i]				i := i + 1			end		endend`
Ouput:
`3`

Ela

`open list dotp a b | length a == length b = sum (zipWith (*) a b)         | else = fail "Vector sizes must match." dotp [1,3,-5] [4,-2,-1]`
Output:
`3`

Elena

ELENA 4.x :

`import extensions;import system'routines; extension op{    method dotProduct(int[] array)        = self.zipBy(array, (x,y => x * y)).summarize();} public program(){    console.printLine(new int[]{1, 3, -5}.dotProduct(new int[]{4, -2, -1}))}`
Output:
```3
```

Elixir

Translation of: Erlang
`defmodule Vector do  def dot_product(a,b) when length(a)==length(b), do: dot_product(a,b,0)  def dot_product(_,_) do    raise ArgumentError, message: "Vectors must have the same length."  end   defp dot_product([],[],product), do: product  defp dot_product([h1|t1], [h2|t2], product), do: dot_product(t1, t2, product+h1*h2)end IO.puts Vector.dot_product([1,3,-5],[4,-2,-1])`
Output:
```3
```

Emacs Lisp

` (defun dot-product (v1 v2)  (setq res 0)  (dotimes (i (length v1))    (setq res (+ (* (elt v1 i) (elt v2 i) ) res) ))  res) (progn  (insert (format "%d\n" (dot-product [1 2 3] [1 2 3]) ))  (insert (format "%d\n" (dot-product '(1 2 3) '(1 2 3) )))) `

Output:

```
14
14
```

Erlang

`dotProduct(A,B) when length(A) == length(B) -> dotProduct(A,B,0);dotProduct(_,_) -> erlang:error('Vectors must have the same length.'). dotProduct([H1|T1],[H2|T2],P) -> dotProduct(T1,T2,P+H1*H2);dotProduct([],[],P) -> P. dotProduct([1,3,-5],[4,-2,-1]).`
Output:
`3`

Euphoria

`function dotprod(sequence a, sequence b)    atom sum    a *= b    sum = 0    for n = 1 to length(a) do        sum += a[n]    end for    return sumend function ? dotprod({1,3,-5},{4,-2,-1})`
Output:
`3`
`-- Here is an alternative method,-- using the standard Euphoria Version 4+ Math Libraryinclude std/math.esequence a = {1,3,-5}, b = {4,-2,-1}  -- Make them any length you want? sum(a * b)`
Output:
`3`

F#

`let dot_product (a:array<'a>) (b:array<'a>) =    if Array.length a <> Array.length b then failwith "invalid argument: vectors must have the same lengths"    Array.fold2 (fun acc i j -> acc + (i * j)) 0 a b`
```> dot_product [| 1; 3; -5 |] [| 4; -2; -1 |] ;;
val it : int = 3```

Factor

The built-in word `v.` is used to compute the dot product. It doesn't enforce that the vectors are of the same length, so here's a wrapper.

`USING: kernel math.vectors sequences ; : dot-product ( u v -- w )    2dup [ length ] [email protected] =    [ v. ] [ "Vector lengths must be equal" throw ] if ;`
```( scratchpad ) { 1 3 -5 } { 4 -2 -1 } dot-product .
3
```

FALSE

`[[\1-\$0=~][\$d;2*1+\-ø\\$d;2+\-ø@*@+]#]p:3d: {Vectors' length}1 3 5_ 4 2_ 1_ d;\$1+ø@*p;!%. {Output: 3}`

Fantom

Dot product of lists of Int:

`class DotProduct{  static Int dotProduct (Int[] a, Int[] b)  {    Int result := 0    [a.size,b.size].min.times |i|    {      result += a[i] * b[i]    }    return result  }   public static Void main ()  {    Int[] x := [1,2,3,4]    Int[] y := [2,3,4]     echo ("Dot product of \$x and \$y is \${dotProduct(x, y)}")  }}`

Fōrmulæ

Fōrmulæ programs are not textual, visualization/edition of programs is done showing/manipulating structures but not text (more info). Moreover, there can be multiple visual representations of the same program. Even though it is possible to have textual representation —i.e. XML, JSON— they are intended for transportation effects more than visualization and edition.

The option to show Fōrmulæ programs and their results is showing images. Unfortunately images cannot be uploaded in Rosetta Code.

Forth

`: vector create cells allot ;: th cells + ; 3 constant /vector/vector vector a/vector vector b : dotproduct                           ( a1 a2 -- n)  0 tuck ?do -rot over i th @ over i th @ * >r rot r> + loop nip nip; : vector! cells over + swap ?do i ! 1 cells +loop ; -5  3 1 a /vector vector!-1 -2 4 b /vector vector! a b /vector dotproduct . 3 ok`

Fortran

`program test_dot_product   write (*, '(i0)') dot_product ([1, 3, -5], [4, -2, -1]) end program test_dot_product`
Output:
`3`

The intrinsic function `Dot_Product(X,Y)` accepts various precisions of integer, floating-point and complex arrays (for which it is `Sum(Conjg(x)*y)`) and even logical, for which it is `Any(x .AND. y)` returning zero if either array is of length zero, or false for logical types.

FunL

`import lists.zipWith def dot( a, b )  | a.length() == b.length() = sum( zipWith((*), a, b) )  | otherwise = error( "Vector sizes must match" ) println( dot([1, 3, -5], [4, -2, -1]) )`
Output:
`3`

GAP

`# Built-in [1, 3, -5]*[4, -2, -1];# 3`

Go

Implementation

`package main import (    "errors"    "fmt"    "log") var (    v1 = []int{1, 3, -5}    v2 = []int{4, -2, -1}) func dot(x, y []int) (r int, err error) {    if len(x) != len(y) {        return 0, errors.New("incompatible lengths")    }    for i, xi := range x {        r += xi * y[i]    }    return} func main() {    d, err := dot([]int{1, 3, -5}, []int{4, -2, -1})    if err != nil {        log.Fatal(err)    }    fmt.Println(d)}`
Output:
```3
```

Library gonum/floats

`package main import (    "fmt"     "github.com/gonum/floats") var (    v1 = []float64{1, 3, -5}    v2 = []float64{4, -2, -1}) func main() {    fmt.Println(floats.Dot(v1, v2))}`
Output:
```3
```

Groovy

Solution:

`def dotProduct = { x, y ->    assert x && y && x.size() == y.size()    [x, y].transpose().collect{ xx, yy -> xx * yy }.sum()}`

Test:

`println dotProduct([1, 3, -5], [4, -2, -1])`
Output:
`3`

`dotp :: Num a => [a] -> [a] -> a dotp a b | length a == length b = sum (zipWith (*) a b)         | otherwise = error "Vector sizes must match" main = print \$ dotp [1, 3, -5] [4, -2, -1] -- prints 3`

Or, using the Maybe monad to avoid exceptions and keep things composable:

`dotp  :: Num a  => [a] -> [a] -> Maybe adotp a b  | length a == length b = Just \$ sum (zipWith (*) a b)  | otherwise = Nothing main :: IO ()main = mbPrint \$ dotp [1, 3, -5] [4, -2, -1] -- prints 3 mbPrint  :: Show a  => Maybe a -> IO ()mbPrint (Just x) = print xmbPrint n = print n`

Hy

`(defn dotp [a b]  (assert (= (len a) (len b)))  (sum (genexpr (* aterm bterm)                [(, aterm bterm) (zip a b)]))) (assert (= 3 (dotp [1 3 -5] [4 -2 -1])))`

Icon and Unicon

The procedure below computes the dot product of two vectors of arbitrary length or generates a run time error if its arguments are the wrong type or shape.

`procedure main()write("a dot b := ",dotproduct([1, 3, -5],[4, -2, -1]))end procedure dotproduct(a,b)   #: return dot product of vectors a & b or errorif *a ~= *b & type(a) == type(b) == "list" then runerr(205,a) # invalid valueevery (dp := 0) +:= a[i := 1 to *a] * b[i]return dpend`

IDL

` a = [1, 3, -5]b = [4, -2, -1]c = a#TRANSPOSE(b)c = TOTAL(a*b,/PRESERVE_TYPE) `

Idris

`module Main import Data.Vect dotProduct : (Num a) => Vect n a -> Vect n a -> adotProduct = (sum .) . zipWith (*) main : IO ()main = printLn \$ dotProduct [1,2,3] [1,2,3] `

J

`   1 3 _5  +/ . * 4 _2 _13   dotp=: +/ . *                  NB. Or defined as a verb (function)   1 3 _5  dotp 4 _2 _13`

Note also: The verbs built using the conjunction ` .` generally apply to matricies and arrays of higher dimensions and can be built with verbs (functions) other than sum ( `+/` ) and product ( `*` ).

Spelling issue: The conjunction ` .` needs to be preceded by a space. This is because J's spelling rules say that if the character '.' is preceded by any other character, it is included in the same parser token that included that other character. In other words, `1.23e4`, `'...'` and `/.` are each examples of "parser tokens".

Java

`public class DotProduct { 	public static void main(String[] args) {		double[] a = {1, 3, -5};		double[] b = {4, -2, -1}; 		System.out.println(dotProd(a,b));	} 	public static double dotProd(double[] a, double[] b){		if(a.length != b.length){			throw new IllegalArgumentException("The dimensions have to be equal!");		}		double sum = 0;		for(int i = 0; i < a.length; i++){			sum += a[i] * b[i];		}		return sum;	}}`
Output:
`3.0`

JavaScript

ES5

`function dot_product(ary1, ary2) {    if (ary1.length != ary2.length)        throw "can't find dot product: arrays have different lengths";    var dotprod = 0;    for (var i = 0; i < ary1.length; i++)        dotprod += ary1[i] * ary2[i];    return dotprod;} print(dot_product([1,3,-5],[4,-2,-1])); // ==> 3print(dot_product([1,3,-5],[4,-2,-1,0])); // ==> exception`

We could also use map and reduce in lieu of iteration,

`function dotp(x,y) {    function dotp_sum(a,b) { return a + b; }    function dotp_times(a,i) { return x[i] * y[i]; }    if (x.length != y.length)        throw "can't find dot product: arrays have different lengths";    return x.map(dotp_times).reduce(dotp_sum,0);} dotp([1,3,-5],[4,-2,-1]); // ==> 3dotp([1,3,-5],[4,-2,-1,0]); // ==> exception`

ES6

Composing functional primitives into a dotProduct() which returns undefined (rather than an error) when the array lengths are unmatched.

`(() => {    'use strict';     // dotProduct :: [Int] -> [Int] -> Int    const dotProduct = (xs, ys) => {        const sum = xs => xs ? xs.reduce((a, b) => a + b, 0) : undefined;         return xs.length === ys.length ? (            sum(zipWith((a, b) => a * b, xs, ys))        ) : undefined;    }     // zipWith :: (a -> b -> c) -> [a] -> [b] -> [c]    const zipWith = (f, xs, ys) => {        const ny = ys.length;        return (xs.length <= ny ? xs : xs.slice(0, ny))            .map((x, i) => f(x, ys[i]));    }     return dotProduct([1, 3, -5], [4, -2, -1]);})();`
Output:
`3`

jq

The dot-product of two arrays, x and y, can be computed using dot(x;y) defined as follows:

` def dot(x; y):  reduce range(0;x|length) as \$i (0; . + x[\$i] * y[\$i]); `

Suppose however that we are given an array of objects, each of which has an "x" field and a "y" field, and that we wish to compute SIGMA( x * y ) where the sum is taken over the array, and where x and y denote the values in the "x" and "y" fields respectively.

This can most usefully be accomplished in jq with the aid of SIGMA(f) defined as follows:
`def SIGMA( f ): reduce .[] as \$o (0; . + (\$o | f )) ;`

Given the array of objects as input, the dot-product is then simply `SIGMA( .x * .y )`.

Example:
`dot( [1, 3, -5]; [4, -2, -1]) # => 3 [ {"x": 1, "y": 4},  {"x": 3, "y": -2},  {"x": -5, "y": -1} ]  | SIGMA( .x * .y ) # => 3`

Julia

Dot products and many other linear-algebra functions are built-in functions in Julia (and are largely implemented by calling functions from LAPACK).

`x = [1, 3, -5]y = [4, -2, -1]z = dot(x, y)z = x'*y`

K

`   +/1 3 -5 * 4 -2 -13    1 3 -5 _dot 4 -2 -13`

Kotlin

Works with: Kotlin version 1.0+
`fun dot(v1: Array<Double>, v2: Array<Double>) =    v1.zip(v2).map { it.first * it.second }.reduce { a, b -> a + b } fun main(args: Array<String>) {    dot(arrayOf(1.0, 3.0, -5.0), arrayOf(4.0, -2.0, -1.0)).let { println(it) }}`
Output:
`3.0`

LFE

`(defun dot-product (a b)  (: lists foldl #'+/2 0    (: lists zipwith #'*/2 a b))) `

Liberty BASIC

`vectorA\$ = "1, 3, -5"vectorB\$ = "4, -2, -1"print "DotProduct of ";vectorA\$;" and "; vectorB\$;" is ";print DotProduct(vectorA\$, vectorB\$) 'arbitrary lengthvectorA\$ = "3, 14, 15, 9, 26"vectorB\$ = "2, 71, 18, 28, 1"print "DotProduct of ";vectorA\$;" and "; vectorB\$;" is ";print DotProduct(vectorA\$, vectorB\$) end function DotProduct(a\$, b\$)    DotProduct = 0    i = 1    while 1        x\$=word\$( a\$, i, ",")        y\$=word\$( b\$, i, ",")        if x\$="" or y\$="" then exit function        DotProduct = DotProduct + val(x\$)*val(y\$)        i = i+1    wendend function `

Logo

`to dotprod :a :b  output apply "sum (map "product :a :b)end show dotprod [1 3 -5] [4 -2 -1]    ; 3`

Logtalk

`dot_product(A, B, Sum) :-    dot_product(A, B, 0, Sum). dot_product([], [], Sum, Sum).dot_product([A| As], [B| Bs], Acc, Sum) :-    Acc2 is Acc + A*B,    dot_product(As, Bs, Acc2, Sum).`

Lua

`function dotprod(a, b)  local ret = 0  for i = 1, #a do    ret = ret + a[i] * b[i]  end  return retend print(dotprod({1, 3, -5}, {4, -2, 1}))`

M2000 Interpreter

` Module dot_product {      A=(1,3,-5)      B=(4,-2,-1)      Function Dot(a, b) {            if len(a)<>len(b) Then Error "not same length"            if len(a)=0 then Error "empty vectors"            Let a1=each(a), b1=each(b), sum=0            While a1, b1 {sum+=array(a1)*array(b1)}            =sum      }      Print Dot(A, B)      Print Dot((1,3,-5), (4,-2,-1))}Module dot_product `

Maple

Between Arrays, Vectors, or Matrices you can use the dot operator:

`<1,2,3> . <4,5,6>`
`Array([1,2,3]) . Array([4,5,6])`

Between any of the above or lists, you can use the `LinearAlgebra[DotProduct]` function:

`LinearAlgebra( <1,2,3>, <4,5,6> )`
`LinearAlgebra( Array([1,2,3]), Array([4,5,6]) )`
`LinearAlgebra([1,2,3], [4,5,6] )`

Mathematica / Wolfram Language

`{1,3,-5}.{4,-2,-1}`

MATLAB

The dot product operation is a built-in function that operates on vectors of arbitrary length.

`A = [1 3 -5]B = [4 -2 -1]C = dot(A,B)`

For the Octave implimentation:

`function C = DotPro(A,B)  C = sum( A.*B );end`

Maxima

`[1, 3, -5] . [4, -2, -1];/* 3 */`

Mercury

This will cause a software_error/1 exception if the lists are of different lengths.

`:- module dot_product.:- interface. :- import_module io.:- pred main(io::di, io::uo) is det. :- implementation.:- import_module int, list. main(!IO) :-    io.write_int([1, 3, -5] `dot_product` [4, -2, -1], !IO),    io.nl(!IO). :- func dot_product(list(int), list(int)) = int. dot_product(As, Bs) =    list.foldl_corresponding((func(A, B, Acc) = Acc + A * B), As, Bs, 0).`

МК-61/52

`С/П	*	ИП0	+	П0	С/П	БП	00`

Input: В/О x1 С/П x2 С/П y1 С/П y2 С/П ...

Modula-2

`MODULE DotProduct;FROM RealStr IMPORT RealToStr;FROM Terminal IMPORT WriteString,WriteLn,ReadChar; TYPE Vector =    RECORD        x,y,z : REAL    END; PROCEDURE DotProduct(u,v : Vector) : REAL;BEGIN    RETURN u.x*v.x + u.y*v.y + u.z*v.zEND DotProduct; VAR    buf : ARRAY[0..63] OF CHAR;    dp : REAL;BEGIN    dp := DotProduct(Vector{1.0,3.0,-5.0},Vector{4.0,-2.0,-1.0});    RealToStr(dp, buf);    WriteString(buf);    WriteLn;     ReadCharEND DotProduct.`

MUMPS

`DOTPROD(A,B) ;Returns the dot product of two vectors. Vectors are assumed to be stored as caret-delimited strings of numbers. ;If the vectors are not of equal length, a null string is returned. QUIT:\$LENGTH(A,"^")'=\$LENGTH(B,"^") "" NEW I,SUM SET SUM=0 FOR I=1:1:\$LENGTH(A,"^") SET SUM=SUM+(\$PIECE(A,"^",I)*\$PIECE(B,"^",I)) KILL I QUIT SUM`

Nemerle

This will cause an exception if the arrays are different lengths.

`using System;using System.Console;using Nemerle.Collections.NCollectionsExtensions; module DotProduct{    DotProduct(x : array[int], y : array[int]) : int    {        \$[(a * b)|(a, b) in ZipLazy(x, y)].FoldLeft(0, _+_);        }     Main() : void    {        def arr1 = array[1, 3, -5]; def arr2 = array[4, -2, -1];        WriteLine(DotProduct(arr1, arr2));    }}`

NetRexx

`/* NetRexx */options replace format comments java crossref savelog symbols binary whatsTheVectorVictor = [[double 1.0, 3.0, -5.0], [double 4.0, -2.0, -1.0]]dotProduct = Rexx dotProduct(whatsTheVectorVictor)say dotProduct.format(null, 2) return method dotProduct(vec1 = double[], vec2 = double[]) public constant returns double signals IllegalArgumentException  if vec1.length \= vec2.length then signal IllegalArgumentException('Vectors must be the same length')   scalarProduct = double 0.0  loop e_ = 0 to vec1.length - 1    scalarProduct = vec1[e_] * vec2[e_] + scalarProduct    end e_   return scalarProduct method dotProduct(vecs = double[,]) public constant returns double signals IllegalArgumentException  return dotProduct(vecs[0], vecs[1])`

newLISP

`(define (dot-product x y)   (apply + (map * x y))) (println (dot-product '(1 3 -5) '(4 -2 -1)))`

Nim

`# Compile time error when a and b are differently sized arrays# Runtime error when a and b are differently sized seqsproc dotp[T](a,b: T): int =  assert a.len == b.len  for i in a.low..a.high:    result += a[i] * b[i] echo dotp([1,3,-5], [4,-2,-1])echo dotp(@[1,2,3],@[4,5,6])`

Oberon-2

Works with: oo2c version 2
` MODULE DotProduct;IMPORT  Out := NPCT:Console; VAR  x,y: ARRAY 3 OF LONGINT; PROCEDURE DotProduct(a,b: ARRAY OF LONGINT): LONGINT;VAR   resp, i: LONGINT;BEGIN  ASSERT(LEN(a) = LEN(b));  resp := 0;  FOR i := 0 TO LEN(x) - 1 DO    INC(resp,x[i]*y[i])  END;  RETURN respEND DotProduct; BEGIN  x[0] := 1;y[0] := 4;  x[1] := 3;y[1] := -2;  x[2] := -5;y[2] := -1;   Out.Int(DotProduct(x,y),0);Out.LnEND DotProduct. `
Output:
```3
```

Objective-C

`#import <stdio.h>#import <stdint.h>#import <stdlib.h>#import <string.h>#import <Foundation/Foundation.h> // this class exists to return a result between two// vectors: if vectors have different "size", valid// must be NO@interface VResult : NSObject{ @private  double value;  BOOL valid;}+(instancetype)new: (double)v isValid: (BOOL)y;-(instancetype)init: (double)v isValid: (BOOL)y;-(BOOL)isValid;-(double)value;@end @implementation VResult+(instancetype)new: (double)v isValid: (BOOL)y{  return [[self alloc] init: v isValid: y];}-(instancetype)init: (double)v isValid: (BOOL)y{  if ((self == [super init])) {    value = v;    valid = y;  }  return self;}-(BOOL)isValid { return valid; }-(double)value { return value; }@end  @interface RCVector : NSObject{ @private  double *vec;  uint32_t size;}+(instancetype)newWithArray: (double *)v ofLength: (uint32_t)l; -(instancetype)initWithArray: (double *)v ofLength: (uint32_t)l;-(VResult *)dotProductWith: (RCVector *)v;-(uint32_t)size;-(double *)array;-(void)free;@end @implementation RCVector+(instancetype)newWithArray: (double *)v ofLength: (uint32_t)l{  return [[self alloc] initWithArray: v ofLength: l];}-(instancetype)initWithArray: (double *)v ofLength: (uint32_t)l{  if ((self = [super init])) {    size = l;    vec = malloc(sizeof(double) * l);    if ( vec == NULL )      return nil;    memcpy(vec, v, sizeof(double)*l);  }  return self;}-(void)dealloc{  free(vec);}-(uint32_t)size { return size; }-(double *)array { return vec; }-(VResult *)dotProductWith: (RCVector *)v{  double r = 0.0;  uint32_t i, s;  double *v1;  if ( [self size] != [v size] ) return [VResult new: r isValid: NO];  s = [self size];  v1 = [v array];  for(i = 0; i < s; i++) {    r += vec[i] * v1[i];  }  return [VResult new: r isValid: YES];}@end double val1[] = { 1, 3, -5 };double val2[] = { 4,-2, -1 };  int main(){  @autoreleasepool {    RCVector *v1 = [RCVector newWithArray: val1 ofLength: sizeof(val1)/sizeof(double)];    RCVector *v2 = [RCVector newWithArray: val2 ofLength: sizeof(val1)/sizeof(double)];    VResult *r = [v1 dotProductWith: v2];    if ( [r isValid] ) {      printf("%lf\n", [r value]);    } else {      fprintf(stderr, "length of vectors differ\n");    }  }  return 0;}`

Objeck

`bundle Default {  class DotProduct {    function : Main(args : String[]) ~ Nil {      DotProduct([1, 3, -5], [4, -2, -1])->PrintLine();    }     function : DotProduct(array_a : Int[], array_b : Int[]) ~ Int {      if(array_a = Nil) {        return 0;      };       if(array_b = Nil) {        return 0;      };       if(array_a->Size() <> array_b->Size()) {        return 0;      };       val := 0;      for(x := 0; x < array_a->Size(); x += 1;) {        val += (array_a[x] * array_b[x]);      };       return val;    }  }}`

OCaml

With lists:

`let dot = List.fold_left2 (fun z x y -> z +. x *. y) 0. (*# dot [1.0; 3.0; -5.0] [4.0; -2.0; -1.0];;- : float = 3.*)`

With arrays:

`let dot v u =  if Array.length v <> Array.length u  then invalid_arg "Different array lengths";  let times v u =    Array.mapi (fun i v_i -> v_i *. u.(i)) v  in Array.fold_left (+.) 0. (times v u) (*# dot [| 1.0; 3.0; -5.0 |] [| 4.0; -2.0; -1.0 |];;- : float = 3.*)`

Octave

See Dot product#MATLAB for an implementation. If we have a row-vector and a column-vector, we can use simply *.

`a = [1, 3, -5]b = [4, -2, -1] % or [4; -2; -1] and avoid transposition with 'disp( a * b' )  % ' means transpose`

Oforth

`: dotProduct  zipWith(#*) sum ;`
Output:
```>[ 1, 3, -5] [ 4, -2, -1 ] dotProduct .
3
```

Ol

` (define (dot-product a b)  (apply + (map * a b))) (print (dot-product '(1 3 -5) '(4 -2 -1))); ==> 3 `

Oz

Vectors are represented as lists in this example.

`declare  fun {DotProduct Xs Ys}     {Length Xs} = {Length Ys} %% assert     {List.foldL {List.zip Xs Ys Number.'*'} Number.'+' 0}  endin  {Show {DotProduct [1 3 ~5] [4 ~2 ~1]}}`

PARI/GP

`dot(u,v)={  sum(i=1,#u,u[i]*v[i])};`

See Delphi

Perl

`sub dotprod{        my(\$vec_a, \$vec_b) = @_;        die "they must have the same size\n" unless @\$vec_a == @\$vec_b;        my \$sum = 0;        \$sum += \$vec_a->[\$_] * \$vec_b->[\$_] for 0..\$#\$vec_a;        return \$sum;} my @vec_a = (1,3,-5);my @vec_b = (4,-2,-1); print dotprod(\@vec_a,\@vec_b), "\n"; # 3`

Perl 6

Works with: Rakudo version 2010.07

We use the square-bracket meta-operator to turn the infix operator `+` into a reducing list operator, and the guillemet meta-operator to vectorize the infix operator `*`. Length validation is automatic in this form.

`say [+] (1, 3, -5) »*« (4, -2, -1);`

Phix

`?sum(sq_mul({1,3,-5},{4,-2,-1}))`
Output:
```3
```

PHP

`<?phpfunction dot_product(\$v1, \$v2) {  if (count(\$v1) != count(\$v2))    throw new Exception('Arrays have different lengths');  return array_sum(array_map('bcmul', \$v1, \$v2));} echo dot_product(array(1, 3, -5), array(4, -2, -1)), "\n";?>`

PicoLisp

`(de dotProduct (A B)   (sum * A B) ) (dotProduct (1 3 -5) (4 -2 -1))`
Output:
`-> 3`

PL/I

`get (n);begin;   declare (A(n), B(n)) float;   declare dot_product float;    get list (A);   get list (B);   dot_product = sum(a*b);   put (dot_product);end;`

PostScript

`/dotproduct{/x exch def/y exch def/sum 0 def/i 0 defx length y length eq %Check if both arrays have the same length{x length{/sum x i get y i get mul sum add def/i i 1 add def}repeatsum ==}{-1 ==}ifelse}def`

PowerShell

` function dotproduct( \$a, \$b) {    \$a | foreach -Begin {\$i = \$res = 0} -Process { \$res += \$_*\$b[\$i++] } -End{\$res}} dotproduct (1..2) (1..2) dotproduct (1..10) (11..20) `

Output:

```
5
935
```

Prolog

Works with SWI-Prolog.

`dot_product(L1, L2, N) :-	maplist(mult, L1, L2, P),	sumlist(P, N). mult(A,B,C) :-	C is A*B.`

Example :

``` ?- dot_product([1,3,-5], [4,-2,-1], N).
N = 3.```

PureBasic

`Procedure dotProduct(Array a(1),Array b(1))  Protected i, sum, length = ArraySize(a())   If ArraySize(a()) = ArraySize(b())    For i = 0 To length      sum + a(i) * b(i)    Next  EndIf   ProcedureReturn sumEndProcedure If OpenConsole()  Dim a(2)  Dim b(2)   a(0) = 1 : a(1) = 3 : a(2) = -5  b(0) = 4 : b(1) = -2 : b(2) = -1   PrintN(Str(dotProduct(a(),b())))   Print(#CRLF\$ + #CRLF\$ + "Press ENTER to exit"): Input()  CloseConsole()EndIf`

Python

`def dotp(a,b):    assert len(a) == len(b), 'Vector sizes must match'    return sum(aterm * bterm for aterm,bterm in zip(a, b)) if __name__ == '__main__':    a, b = [1, 3, -5], [4, -2, -1]    assert dotp(a,b) == 3`

Option types can provide a composable alternative to assertions and error-handling. Here is an example of an Either type, which returns either a computed value (in a Right wrapping), or an explanatory string (in a Left wrapping).

A higher order either function can apply one of two supplied functions to an Either value - one for Left Either values, and one for Right Either values:

Works with: Python version 3
`'''Dot product''' from operator import (mul)  # dotProduct :: Num a => [a] -> [a] -> Either String adef dotProduct(xs):    '''Either the dot product of xs and ys,       or a string reporting unmatched vector sizes.'''    return lambda ys: Left('vector sizes differ') if (        len(xs) != len(ys)    ) else Right(sum(zipWith(mul)(xs)(ys)))  # main :: IO ()def main():    '''Test'''    print(        tabulated('Dot product of other vectors with [1, 3, -5]:')(            compose(                either(lambda msg: 'Undefined :: ' + msg)(                    str                )            )(dotProduct([1, 3, -5]))        )([[4, -2, -1, 8], [4, -2], [4, 2, -1], [4, -2, -1]])    )  # GENERIC ------------------------------------------------- # compose (<<<) :: (b -> c) -> (a -> b) -> a -> cdef compose(g):    '''Right to left function composition.'''    return lambda f: lambda x: g(f(x))  # Left :: a -> Either a bdef Left(x):    '''Constructor for an empty Either (option type) value       with an associated string.'''    return {'type': 'Either', 'Right': None, 'Left': x}  # Right :: b -> Either a bdef Right(x):    '''Constructor for a populated Either (option type) value'''    return {'type': 'Either', 'Left': None, 'Right': x}  # either :: (a -> c) -> (b -> c) -> Either a b -> cdef either(fl):    '''The application of fl to e if e is a Left value,       or the application of fr to e if e is a Right value.'''    return lambda fr: lambda e: fl(e['Left']) if (        None is e['Right']    ) else fr(e['Right'])  # tabulated :: String -> (a -> b) -> [a] -> Stringdef tabulated(s):    '''heading -> function -> input List -> tabulated output string'''    def go(f, xs):         def width(x):            return len(str(x))        w = width(max(xs, key=width))         def fromTo(x):            return str(x).rjust(w, ' ') + ' -> ' + str(f(x))        return s + '\n' + '\n'.join(map(fromTo, xs))     return lambda f: lambda xs: go(f, xs)  # zipWith :: (a -> b -> c) -> [a] -> [b] -> [c]def zipWith(f):    '''A list constructed by zipping with a       custom function, rather than with the       default tuple constructor.'''    return lambda xs: lambda ys: (        map(f, xs, ys)    )  # MAIN ---if __name__ == '__main__':    main()`
Output:
```Dot product of other vectors with [1, 3, -5]:
[4, -2, -1, 8] -> Undefined :: vector sizes differ
[4, -2] -> Undefined :: vector sizes differ
[4, 2, -1] -> 15
[4, -2, -1] -> 3```

R

Here are several ways to do the task.

`x <- c(1, 3, -5)y <- c(4, -2, -1) sum(x*y)  # compute products, then do the sumx %*% y   # inner product # loop implementationdotp <- function(x, y) {	n <- length(x)	if(length(y) != n) stop("invalid argument")	s <- 0	for(i in 1:n) s <- s + x[i]*y[i]	s} dotp(x, y)`

Racket

` #lang racket(define (dot-product l r) (for/sum ([x l] [y r]) (* x y))) (dot-product '(1 3 -5) '(4 -2 -1)) ;; dot-product works on sequences such as vectors:(dot-product #(1 2 3) #(4 5 6)) `

Rascal

`import List; public int dotProduct(list[int] L, list[int] M){	result = 0;	if(size(L) == size(M)) {		while(size(L) >= 1) {		    result += (head(L) * head(M));		    L = tail(L);		    M = tail(M);	        }	        return result; 	}	else {		throw "vector sizes must match";	}}`

Alternative solution

If a matrix is represented by a relation of <x-coordinate, y-coordinate, value>, then function below can be used to find the Dot product.

`import Prelude; public real matrixDotproduct(rel[real x, real y, real v] column1, rel[real x, real y, real v] column2){	return (0.0 | it + v1*v2 | <x1,y1,v1> <- column1, <x2,y2,v2> <- column2, y1==y2);} //a matrix, given by a relation of x-coordinate, y-coordinate, value.public rel[real x, real y, real v] matrixA = {<0.0,0.0,12.0>, <0.0,1.0, 6.0>, <0.0,2.0,-4.0>, <1.0,0.0,-51.0>, <1.0,1.0,167.0>, <1.0,2.0,24.0>, <2.0,0.0,4.0>, <2.0,1.0,-68.0>, <2.0,2.0,-41.0>};`

REBOL

`rebol [] a: [1 3 -5]b: [4 -2 -1] dot-product: function [v1 v2] [sum] [    if (length? v1) != (length? v2) [        make error! "error: vector sizes must match"    ]    sum: 0    repeat i length? v1 [        sum: sum + ((pick v1 i) * (pick v2 i))     ]] dot-product a b`

REXX

no error checking

`/*REXX program  computes  the   dot product   of  two equal size vectors  (of any size).*/                     vectorA =  '  1   3  -5  '  /*populate vector  A  with some numbers*/                     vectorB =  '  4  -2  -1  '  /*    "       "    B    "    "     "   */say  'vector A = '   vectorA                     /*display the elements in the vector A.*/say  'vector B = '   vectorB                     /*   "     "     "      "  "    "    B.*/p=.Prod(vectorA, vectorB)                        /*invoke function & compute dot product*/say                                              /*display a blank line for readability.*/say  'dot product = '   p                        /*display the dot product to terminal. */exit                                             /*stick a fork in it,  we're all done. *//*──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────*/.Prod:  procedure;  parse arg A,B                /*this function compute the dot product*/        \$=0                                      /*initialize the sum to  0 (zero).     */                    do j=1  for words(A)         /*multiply each number in the vectors. */                    \$=\$+word(A,j) * word(B,j)    /*  ··· and add the product to the sum.*/                    end   /*j*/        return \$                                 /*return the sum to function's invoker.*/`

output   using the default (internal) inputs:

```vector A =   1   3  -5
vector B =   4  -2  -1

dot product =  3
```

with error checking

`/*REXX program  computes  the   dot product   of  two equal size vectors  (of any size).*/                     vectorA =  '  1   3  -5  '  /*populate vector  A  with some numbers*/                     vectorB =  '  4  -2  -1  '  /*    "       "    B    "    "     "   */say  'vector A = '   vectorA                     /*display the elements in the vector A.*/say  'vector B = '   vectorB                     /*   "     "     "      "  "    "    B.*/p=.prod(vectorA, vectorB)                        /*invoke function & compute dot product*/say                                              /*display a blank line for readability.*/say  'dot product = '   p                        /*display the dot product to terminal. */exit                                             /*stick a fork in it,  we're all done. *//*──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────*/.prod: procedure;  parse arg A,B                 /*this function compute the dot product*/       lenA = words(A);           @.1= 'A'       /*the number of numbers in vector  A.  */       lenB = words(B);           @.2= 'B'       /* "     "    "    "     "    "    B.  */                                                 /*Also, define 2 literals to hold names*/       if lenA\==lenB  then do;   say "***error*** vectors aren't the same size:" /*oops*/                                  say '            vector  A  length = '   lenA                                  say '            vector  B  length = '   lenB                                  exit 13        /*exit pgm with bad─boy return code 13.*/                            end       \$=0                                       /*initialize the  sum  to   0  (zero). */                 do j=1  for lenA                /*multiply each number in the vectors. */                 #.1=word(A,j)                   /*use array to hold 2 numbers at a time*/                 #.2=word(B,j)                                  do k=1  for 2;   if datatype(#.k,'N')  then iterate                                  say "***error*** vector "      @.k      ' element'    j,                                      " isn't numeric: "     n.k;                  exit 13                                  end   /*k*/                 \$=\$ + #.1 * #.2                 /*  ··· and add the product to the sum.*/                 end      /*j*/       return \$                                  /*return the sum to function's invoker.*/`

output   is the same as the 1st REXX version.

Ring

` aVector = [2, 3, 5]bVector = [4, 2, 1]sum = 0see dotProduct(aVector, bVector) func dotProduct cVector, dVector     for n = 1 to len(aVector)         sum = sum + cVector[n] * dVector[n]     next     return sum `

RLaB

In its simplest form dot product is a composition of two functions: element-by-element multiplication '.*' followed by sumation of an array. Consider an example:

`x = rand(1,10);y = rand(1,10);s = sum( x .* y );`

Warning: element-by-element multiplication is matrix optimized. As the interpretation of the matrix optimization is quite general, and unique to RLaB, any two matrices can be so multiplied irrespective of their dimensions. It is up to user to check whether in his/her case the matrix optimization needs to be restricted, and then to implement restrictions in his/her code.

Ruby

With the standard library, require 'matrix' and call Vector#inner_product.

`irb(main):001:0> require 'matrix'=> trueirb(main):002:0> Vector[1, 3, -5].inner_product Vector[4, -2, -1]=> 3`

Or implement dot product.

`class Array  def dot_product(other)    raise "not the same size!" if self.length != other.length    self.zip(other).inject(0) {|dp, (a, b)| dp += a*b}  endend p [1, 3, -5].dot_product [4, -2, -1]   # => 3`

Run BASIC

`v1\$ = "1, 3, -5"v2\$ = "4, -2, -1" print "DotProduct of ";v1\$;" and "; v2\$;" is ";dotProduct(v1\$,v2\$)end function dotProduct(a\$, b\$)    while word\$(a\$,i + 1,",") <> ""       i = i + 1       v1\$=word\$(a\$,i,",")       v2\$=word\$(b\$,i,",")       dotProduct = dotProduct + val(v1\$) * val(v2\$)    wendend function`

Rust

Implemented as a simple function with check for equal length of vectors.

`// alternatively, fn dot_product(a: &Vec<u32>, b: &Vec<u32>)// but using slices is more general and rusticfn dot_product(a: &[i32], b: &[i32]) -> Option<i32> {    if a.len() != b.len() { return None }    Some(        a.iter()            .zip( b.iter() )            .fold(0, |sum, (el_a, el_b)| sum + el_a*el_b)    )}  fn main() {    let v1 = vec![1, 3, -5];    let v2 = vec![4, -2, -1];     println!("{}", dot_product(&v1, &v2).unwrap());}`

Alternatively as a very generic function which works for any two types that can be multiplied to result in a third type which can be added with itself. Works with any argument convertible to an Iterator of known length (ExactSizeIterator).

Uses an unstable feature.

`#![feature(zero_one)] // <-- unstable featureuse std::ops::{Add, Mul};use std::num::Zero; fn dot_product<T1, T2, U, I1, I2>(lhs: I1, rhs: I2) -> Option<U>    where T1: Mul<T2, Output = U>,          U: Add<U, Output = U> + Zero,          I1: IntoIterator<Item = T1>,          I2: IntoIterator<Item = T2>,          I1::IntoIter: ExactSizeIterator,          I2::IntoIter: ExactSizeIterator,{    let (iter_lhs, iter_rhs) = (lhs.into_iter(), rhs.into_iter());    match (iter_lhs.len(), iter_rhs.len()) {        (0, _) | (_, 0) => None,        (a,b) if a != b => None,        (_,_) => Some( iter_lhs.zip(iter_rhs)           .fold(U::zero(), |sum, (a, b)| sum + (a * b)) )    }}   fn main() {    let v1 = vec![1, 3, -5];    let v2 = vec![4, -2, -1];     println!("{}", dot_product(&v1, &v2).unwrap());}`

S-lang

`print(sum([1, 3, -5] * [4, -2, -1]));`
Output:
`3.0`

[sum() returns a double from integer arrays]

Sather

Built-in class VEC "implements" euclidean (geometric) vectors.

`class MAIN is  main is    x ::= #VEC(|1.0, 3.0, -5.0|);    y ::= #VEC(|4.0, -2.0, -1.0|);    #OUT + x.dot(y) + "\n";  end;end;`

Scala

Library: Scala
`class Dot[T](v1: Seq[T])(implicit n: Numeric[T]) {  import n._ // import * operator  def dot(v2: Seq[T]) = {    require(v1.size == v2.size)    (v1 zip v2).map{ Function.tupled(_ * _)}.sum  }} object Main extends App {  implicit def toDot[T: Numeric](v1: Seq[T]) = new Dot(v1)   val v1 = List(1, 3, -5)  val v2 = List(4, -2, -1)  println(v1 dot v2)}`

Seed7

`\$ include "seed7_05.s7i"; \$ syntax expr: .().dot.() is  -> 6;  # priority of dot operator const func integer: (in array integer: a) dot (in array integer: b) is func  result    var integer: sum is 0;  local    var integer: index is 0;  begin    if length(a) <> length(b) then      raise RANGE_ERROR;    else      for index range 1 to length(a) do        sum +:= a[index] * b[index];      end for;    end if;  end func; const proc: main is func  begin    writeln([](1, 3, -5) dot [](4, -2, -1));  end func;`

Sidef

`func dot_product(a, b) {    (a »*« b)«+»;};say dot_product([1,3,-5], [4,-2,-1]);   # => 3`

Scheme

Works with: Scheme version R${\displaystyle ^{5}}$RS
`(define (dot-product a b)  (apply + (map * a b))) (display (dot-product '(1 3 -5) '(4 -2 -1)))(newline)`
Output:
`3`

Scilab

`A = [1 3 -5]B = [4 -2 -1]C = sum(A.*B)`

Slate

`[email protected](Vector traits) <dot> [email protected](Vector traits)"Dot-product."[  (0 below: (v size min: w size)) inject: 0 into:    [| :sum :index | sum + ((v at: index) * (w at: index))]].`

Smalltalk

Works with: GNU Smalltalk
`Array extend[  * anotherArray [       |acc| acc := 0.       self with: anotherArray collect: [ :a :b |          acc := acc + ( a * b )       ].       ^acc  ]] ( #(1 3 -5) * #(4 -2 -1 ) ) printNl.`

SNOBOL4

`        define("dotp(a,b)sum,i")        :(dotp_end)dotp    i = 1; sum = 0      loop    sum = sum + (a<i> * b<i>)        i = i + 1 ?a<i> :s(loop)        dotp = sum      :(return)dotp_end         a = array(3); a<1> = 1; a<2> = 3; a<3> = -5;         b = array(3); b<1> = 4; b<2> = -2; b<3> = -1;        output = dotp(a,b)end`

SPARK

Works with SPARK GPL 2010 and GPS GPL 2010.

By defining numeric subtypes with suitable ranges we can prove statically that there will be no run-time errors. (The Simplifier leaves 2 VCs unproven, but these are clearly provable by inspection.)

The precondition enforces equality of the ranges of the two vectors.

`with Spark_IO;--# inherit Spark_IO;--# main_program;procedure Dot_Product_Main--# global in out Spark_IO.Outputs;--# derives Spark_IO.Outputs from *;is   Limit : constant := 1000;   type V_Elem is range -Limit .. Limit;   V_Size : constant := 100;   type V_Index is range 1 .. V_Size;   type Vector is array(V_Index range <>) of V_Elem;    type V_Prod is range -(Limit**2)*V_Size .. (Limit**2)*V_Size;   --# assert V_Prod'Base is Integer;    subtype Index3 is V_Index range 1 .. 3;   subtype Vector3 is Vector(Index3);   Vect1 : constant Vector3 := Vector3'(1, 3, -5);   Vect2 : constant Vector3 := Vector3'(4, -2, -1);    function Dot_Product(V1, V2 : Vector) return V_Prod   --# pre  V1'First = V2'First   --#  and V1'Last  = V2'Last;   is      Sum : V_Prod := 0;   begin      for I in V_Index range V1'Range      --# assert Sum in -(Limit**2)*V_Prod(I-1) .. (Limit**2)*V_Prod(I-1);      loop         Sum := Sum + V_Prod(V1(I)) * V_Prod(V2(I));      end loop;      return Sum;   end Dot_Product; begin   Spark_IO.Put_Integer(File  => Spark_IO.Standard_Output,                        Item  => Integer(Dot_Product(Vect1, Vect2)),                        Width => 6,                        Base  => 10);end Dot_Product_Main;`
Output:
`     3`

SQL

ANSI sql does not support functions and is missing some other concepts that would be needed for a general case implementation of inner product (column names and tables would need to be first class in SQL -- capable of being passed to functions).

However, inner product is fairly simple to specify in SQL.

Given two tables `A` and `B` where A has key columns `i` and `j` and B has key columns `j` and `k` and both have value columns `N`, the inner product of A and B would be:

`SELECT i, k, SUM(A.N*B.N) AS N        FROM A INNER JOIN B ON A.j=B.j        GROUP BY i, k`

Standard ML

With lists:

`val dot = ListPair.foldlEq Real.*+ 0.0 (*- dot ([1.0, 3.0, ~5.0], [4.0, ~2.0, ~1.0]);val it = 3.0 : real*)`

With vectors:

`fun dot (v, u) = (  if Vector.length v <> Vector.length u then    raise ListPair.UnequalLengths  else ();  Vector.foldli (fn (i, v_i, z) => v_i * Vector.sub (u, i) + z) 0.0 v  ) (*- dot (#[1.0, 3.0, ~5.0], #[4.0, ~2.0, ~1.0]);val it = 3.0 : real*)`

Stata

With row vectors:

`matrix a=1,3,-5matrix b=4,-2,-1matrix c=a*b'di el("c",1,1)`

With column vectors:

`matrix a=1\3\-5matrix b=4\-2\-1matrix c=a'*bdi el("c",1,1)`

Mata

With row vectors:

`a=1,3,-5b=4,-2,-1a*b'`

With column vectors:

`a=1\3\-5b=4\-2\-1a'*b`

In both cases, one cas also write

`sum(a:*b)`

Swift

Works with: Swift version 1.2+
`func dot(v1: [Double], v2: [Double]) -> Double {  return reduce(lazy(zip(v1, v2)).map(*), 0, +)} println(dot([1, 3, -5], [4, -2, -1]))`
Output:
`3.0`

Tcl

Library: Tcllib (Package: math::linearalgebra)
`package require math::linearalgebra  set a {1 3 -5}set b {4 -2 -1}set dotp [::math::linearalgebra::dotproduct \$a \$b]proc pp vec {return \[[join \$vec ,]\]}puts "[pp \$a] \u2219 [pp \$b] = \$dotp"`
Output:
`[1,3,-5] ∙ [4,-2,-1] = 3.0`

TI-83 BASIC

To perform a matrix dot product on TI-83, the trick is to use lists (and not to use matrices).

`sum({1,3,–5}*{4,–2,–1})`
Output:
```3
```

TI-89 BASIC

`dotP([1, 3, –5], [4, –2, –1])`
Output:
```3
```

Ursala

A standard library function for dot products of floating point numbers exists, but a new one can be defined for integers as shown using the map operator (`*`) with the zip suffix (`p`) to construct a "zipwith" operator (`*p`), which operates on the integer `product` function. A catchable exception is thrown if the list lengths are unequal. This function is then composed (`+`) with a cumulative summation function, which is constructed from the binary `sum` function, and the reduction operator (`:-`) with `0` specified for the vacuous sum.

`#import int dot = sum:-0+ product*p #cast %z test = dot(<1,3,-5>,<4,-2,-1>)`
Output:
`3`

VBA

`Private Function dot_product(x As Variant, y As Variant) As Double    dot_product = WorksheetFunction.SumProduct(x, y)End Function Public Sub main()    Debug.Print dot_product([{1,3,-5}], [{4,-2,-1}])End Sub`
Output:
` 3`

VBScript

` WScript.Echo DotProduct("1,3,-5","4,-2,-1") Function DotProduct(vector1,vector2)	arrv1 = Split(vector1,",")	arrv2 = Split(vector2,",")	If UBound(arrv1) <> UBound(arrv2) Then		WScript.Echo "The vectors are not of the same length."		Exit Function	End If	DotProduct = 0	For i = 0 To UBound(arrv1)		DotProduct = DotProduct + (arrv1(i) * arrv2(i))	NextEnd Function `
Output:
`3`

Visual Basic

Works with: Visual Basic version 6
`Option Explicit Function DotProduct(a() As Long, b() As Long) As LongDim l As Long, u As Long, i As Long  Debug.Assert DotProduct = 0 'return value automatically initialized with 0  l = LBound(a())  If l = LBound(b()) Then    u = UBound(a())    If u = UBound(b()) Then      For i = l To u        DotProduct = DotProduct + a(i) * b(i)      Next i    Exit Function    End If  End If  Err.Raise vbObjectError + 123, , "invalid input"End Function Sub Main()Dim a() As Long, b() As Long, x As Long  ReDim a(2)  a(0) = 1  a(1) = 3  a(2) = -5  ReDim b(2)  b(0) = 4  b(1) = -2  b(2) = -1  x = DotProduct(a(), b())  Debug.Assert x = 3  ReDim Preserve a(3)  a(3) = 10  ReDim Preserve b(3)  b(3) = 2  x = DotProduct(a(), b())  Debug.Assert x = 23  ReDim Preserve a(4)  a(4) = 10  On Error Resume Next  x = DotProduct(a(), b())  Debug.Assert Err.Number = vbObjectError + 123  Debug.Assert Err.Description = "invalid input"End Sub `

Visual Basic .NET

Translation of: C#
`Module Module1     Function DotProduct(a As Decimal(), b As Decimal()) As Decimal        Return a.Zip(b, Function(x, y) x * y).Sum()    End Function     Sub Main()        Console.WriteLine(DotProduct({1, 3, -5}, {4, -2, -1}))        Console.ReadLine()    End Sub End Module`
Output:
`3`

Wart

`def (dot_product x y)  (sum+map (*) x y)`

`+` is punned (overloaded) here; when applied to functions it denotes composition. Also, `(*)` is used to skip infix expansion.

Output:
```(dot_product '(1 3 -5) '(4 -2 -1))
=> 3```

X86 Assembly

Using FASM. Targets x64 Microsoft Windows.

`format PE64 consoleentry start     include 'win64a.inc' section '.text' code readable executable     start:        stdcall dotProduct, vA, vB        invoke printf, msg_num, rax         stdcall dotProduct, vA, vC        invoke printf, msg_num, rax         invoke ExitProcess, 0     proc dotProduct vectorA, vectorB        mov rax, [rcx]        cmp rax, [rdx]        je .calculate         invoke printf, msg_sizeMismatch        mov rax, 0        ret         .calculate:        mov r8, rcx        add r8, 8        mov r9, rdx        add r9, 8        mov rcx, rax        mov rax, 0        mov rdx, 0         .next:            mov rbx, [r9]            imul rbx, [r8]            add rax, rbx            add r8, 8            add r9, 8            loop .next         ret    endp section '.data' data readable     msg_num db "%d", 0x0D, 0x0A, 0    msg_sizeMismatch db "Size mismatch; can't calculate.", 0x0D, 0x0A, 0     struc Vector [symbols] {        common        .length dq (.end - .symbols) / 8        .symbols dq symbols        .end:    }     vA Vector 1, 3, -5    vB Vector 4, -2, -1    vC Vector 7, 2, 9, 0 section '.idata' import data readable writeable     library kernel32, 'KERNEL32.DLL',\            msvcrt, 'MSVCRT.DLL'     include 'api/kernel32.inc'     import  msvcrt,\            printf, 'printf'`
Output:
`3Size mismatch; can't calculate.0`

XPL0

`include c:\cxpl\codes; func DotProd(U, V, L);int U, V, L;int S, I;[S:= 0;for I:= 0 to L-1 do S:= S + U(I)*V(I);return S;]; [IntOut(0, DotProd([1, 3, -5], [4, -2, -1], 3));CrLf(0);]`
Output:
`3`

Yabasic

` sub sq_mul(a(), b(), c())	local n, i 	n = arraysize(a(), 1) 	for i = 1 to n		c(i) = a(i) * b(i)	next iend sub sub sq_sum(a())	local n, i, r 	n = arraysize(a(), 1) 	for i = 1 to n		r = r + a(i)	next i	return rend sub dim a(3), b(3), c(3) a(1) = 1 : a(2) = 3 : a(3) = -5b(1) = 4 : b(2) = -2 : b(3) = -1sq_mul(a(), b(), c()) print sq_sum(c()) `

zkl

`fcn dotp(a,b){Utils.zipWith('*,a,b).sum()}`

zipWith stops at the shortest of the lists

Output:
`dotp(T(1,3,-5),T(4,-2,-1,666)) //-->3`

If exact length is a requirement

`fcn dotp2(a,b){if(a.len()!=b.len())throw(Exception.ValueError);   Utils.zipWith('*,a,b).sum()}`

ZX Spectrum Basic

`10 DIM a(3): LET a(1)=1: LET a(2)=3: LET a(3)=-520 DIM b(3): LET b(1)=4: LET b(2)=-2: LET b(3)=-130 LET sum=040 FOR i=1 TO 3: LET sum=sum+a(i)*b(i): NEXT i50 PRINT sum`