Bitwise operations

From Rosetta Code
Task
Bitwise operations
You are encouraged to solve this task according to the task description, using any language you may know.

Basic Data Operation
This is a basic data operation. It represents a fundamental action on a basic data type.

You may see other such operations in the Basic Data Operations category, or:

Integer Operations
Arithmetic | Comparison

Boolean Operations
Bitwise | Logical

String Operations
Concatenation | Interpolation | Comparison | Matching

Memory Operations
Pointers & references | Addresses

Write a routine to perform a bitwise AND, OR, and XOR on two integers, a bitwise NOT on the first integer, a left shift, right shift, right arithmetic shift, left rotate, and right rotate. All shifts and rotates should be done on the first integer with a shift/rotate amount of the second integer. If any operation is not available in your language, note it.

8051 Assembly[edit]

Integer one is assumed to be a, integer two assumed to be b. Each operation affects one or both operands and would not be used sequentially. The end result of each operation resides in a. The shift and rotate operations should likely push psw and pop psw because they affect the carry flag.

; bitwise AND
anl a, b
 
; bitwise OR
orl a, b
 
; bitwise XOR
xrl a, b
 
; bitwise NOT
cpl a
 
; left shift
inc b
rrc a
loop:
rlc a
clr c
djnz b, loop
 
; right shift
inc b
rlc a
loop:
rrc a
clr c
djnz b, loop
 
; arithmetic right shift
push 20
inc b
rlc a
mov 20.0, c
loop:
rrc a
mov c, 20.0
djnz b, loop
pop 20
 
; left rotate
inc b
rr a
loop:
rl a
djnz b, loop
 
; right rotate
inc b
rl a
loop:
rr a
djnz b, loop

ACL2[edit]

Unlisted operations are not available

(defun bitwise (a b)
(list (logand a b)
(logior a b)
(logxor a b)
(lognot a)
(ash a b)
(ash a (- b))))

ActionScript[edit]

ActionScript does not support bitwise rotations.

function bitwise(a:int, b:int):void
{
trace("And: ", a & b);
trace("Or: ", a | b);
trace("Xor: ", a ^ b);
trace("Not: ", ~a);
trace("Left Shift: ", a << b);
trace("Right Shift(Arithmetic): ", a >> b);
trace("Right Shift(Logical): ", a >>> b);
}

Ada[edit]

The following program performs all required operations and prints the resulting values in base 2 for easy checking of the bit values.

with Ada.Text_Io; use Ada.Text_Io;
with Interfaces; use Interfaces;
 
procedure Bitwise is
subtype Byte is Unsigned_8;
package Byte_Io is new Ada.Text_Io.Modular_Io(Byte);
 
A : Byte := 255;
B : Byte := 170;
X : Byte := 128;
N : Natural := 1;
 
begin
Put_Line("A and B = "); Byte_Io.Put(Item => A and B, Base => 2);
Put_Line("A or B = "); Byte_IO.Put(Item => A or B, Base => 2);
Put_Line("A xor B = "); Byte_Io.Put(Item => A xor B, Base => 2);
Put_Line("Not A = "); Byte_IO.Put(Item => not A, Base => 2);
New_Line(2);
Put_Line(Unsigned_8'Image(Shift_Left(X, N))); -- Left shift
Put_Line(Unsigned_8'Image(Shift_Right(X, N))); -- Right shift
Put_Line(Unsigned_8'Image(Shift_Right_Arithmetic(X, N))); -- Right Shift Arithmetic
Put_Line(Unsigned_8'Image(Rotate_Left(X, N))); -- Left rotate
Put_Line(Unsigned_8'Image(Rotate_Right(X, N))); -- Right rotate
end bitwise;

Aikido[edit]

Translation of: Javascript

There is no rotate support built in to Aikido.

function bitwise(a, b){
println("a AND b: " + (a & b))
println("a OR b: "+ (a | b))
println("a XOR b: "+ (a ^ b))
println("NOT a: " + ~a)
println("a << b: " + (a << b)) // left shift
println("a >> b: " + (a >> b)) // arithmetic right shift
println("a >>> b: " + (a >>> b)) // logical right shift
}

ALGOL 68[edit]

Works with: ALGOL 68 version Standard - no extensions to language used
Works with: ALGOL 68G version Any - tested with release mk15-0.8b.fc9.i386

Aside from decimal, ALGOL 68 has 5 different alternative was of representing the number 170:

  • 2r00000000000000000000000010101010, 4r0000000000002222, 8r00000000252, 16r000000aa
  • and as an array of BOOL: FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFTFTFTFTF
main:(
 
PRIO SLC = 8, SRC = 8; # SLC and SRC are not built in, define and overload them here #
OP SLC = (BITS b, INT rotate) BITS: b SHL rotate OR b SHR ( bits width - rotate );
OP SRC = (BITS b, INT rotate) BITS: b SHR rotate OR b SHL ( bits width - rotate );
# SRC and SRL are non-standard, but versions are built in to ALGOL 68R's standard prelude #
 
PRIO XOR = 2;
OP XOR = (BITS p, q) BITS: p AND NOT q OR NOT p AND q;
# XOR is non-standard, but a version is built in to ALGOL 68G's standard prelude #
 
# ALGOL 68 has 5 different ways of representing a BINary BITS - Bases: 2, 4, 8, 16 and flip/flop #
FORMAT b5 = $"2r"2r32d," 4r"4r16d," 8r"8r11d," 16r"16r8d," "gl$;
OP BBBBB = (BITS b)[]BITS: (b,b,b,b,b);
 
PROC bitwise = (BITS a, BITS b, INT shift)VOID:
(
printf((
$" bits shorths: "gxgl$, bits shorths, "1 plus the number of extra SHORT BITS types",
$" bits lengths: "gxgl$, bits lengths, "1 plus the number of extra LONG BITS types",
$" max bits: "gl$, max bits,
$" long max bits: "gl$, long max bits,
$" long long max bits: "gl$, long long max bits,
$" bits width: "gxgl$, bits width, "The number of CHAR required to display BITS",
$" long bits width: "gxgl$, long bits width, "The number of CHAR required to display LONG BITS",
$" long long bits width: "gxgl$, long long bits width, "The number of CHAR required to display LONG LONG BITS",
$" bytes shorths: "gxgl$, bytes shorths, "1 plus the number of extra SHORT BYTES types",
$" bytes lengths: "gxgl$, bits lengths, "1 plus the number of extra LONG BYTES types",
$" bytes width: "gxgl$, bytes width, "The number of CHAR required to display BYTES",
$" long bytes width: "gxgl$, long bytes width, "The number of CHAR required to display LONG BYTES"
));
 
printf(($" a: "f(b5)$, BBBBB a));
printf(($" b: "f(b5)$, BBBBB b));
printf(($" a AND b: "f(b5)$, BBBBB(a AND b)));
printf(($" a OR b: "f(b5)$, BBBBB(a OR b)));
printf(($" a XOR b: "f(b5)$, BBBBB(a XOR b)));
printf(($" NOT b: "f(b5)$, BBBBB NOT a));
printf(($" a SHL "d": "f(b5)$, shift, BBBBB(a SHL shift)));
printf(($" a SHR "d": "f(b5)$, shift, BBBBB(a SHR shift)));
 
printf(($" a SLC "d": "f(b5)$, shift, BBBBB(a SLC shift)));
printf(($" a SRC "d": "f(b5)$, shift, BBBBB(a SRC shift)))
COMMENT with original ALGOL 68 character set;
printf(($" a AND b: "f(b5)$, BBBBB(a b)));
printf(($" a OR b: "f(b5)$, BBBBB(a b)));
printf(($" NOT b: "f(b5)$, BBBBB ¬ a));
printf(($" a SHL "d": "f(b5)$, shift, BBBBB(a shift)));
printf(($" a SHR "d": "f(b5)$, shift, BBBBB(a shift)));
Also:
printf(($" a AND b: "f(b5)$, BBBBB(a /\ b)));
printf(($" a OR b: "f(b5)$, BBBBB(a \/ b)));
COMMENT
);
 
bitwise(BIN 255, BIN 170, 5)
# or using alternate representations for 255 and 170 in BITS #
CO
bitwise(2r11111111,2r10101010,5);
bitwise(4r3333,4r2222,5);
bitwise(8r377,8r252,5);
bitwise(16rff,16raa,5)
END CO
)

Output:

         bits shorths:          +1 1 plus the number of extra SHORT BITS types
         bits lengths:          +3 1 plus the number of extra LONG BITS types
             max bits: TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT
        long max bits: TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT
   long long max bits: TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT
           bits width:         +32 The number of CHAR required to display BITS
      long bits width:        +116 The number of CHAR required to display LONG BITS
 long long bits width:        +232 The number of CHAR required to display LONG LONG BITS
         bytes shorths:          +1 1 plus the number of extra SHORT BYTES types
         bytes lengths:          +3 1 plus the number of extra LONG BYTES types
          bytes width:         +32 The number of CHAR required to display BYTES
     long bytes width:         +64 The number of CHAR required to display LONG BYTES
 a:       2r00000000000000000000000011111111 4r0000000000003333 8r00000000377 16r000000ff FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFTTTTTTTT
 b:       2r00000000000000000000000010101010 4r0000000000002222 8r00000000252 16r000000aa FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFTFTFTFTF
 a AND b: 2r00000000000000000000000010101010 4r0000000000002222 8r00000000252 16r000000aa FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFTFTFTFTF
 a OR b:  2r00000000000000000000000011111111 4r0000000000003333 8r00000000377 16r000000ff FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFTTTTTTTT
 a XOR b: 2r00000000000000000000000001010101 4r0000000000001111 8r00000000125 16r00000055 FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFTFTFTFT
 NOT b:   2r11111111111111111111111100000000 4r3333333333330000 8r37777777400 16rffffff00 TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTFFFFFFFF
 a SHL 5: 2r00000000000000000001111111100000 4r0000000001333200 8r00000017740 16r00001fe0 FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFTTTTTTTTFFFFF
 a SHR 5: 2r00000000000000000000000000000111 4r0000000000000013 8r00000000007 16r00000007 FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFTTT
 a SLC 5: 2r00000000000000000001111111100000 4r0000000001333200 8r00000017740 16r00001fe0 FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFTTTTTTTTFFFFF
 a SRC 5: 2r11111000000000000000000000000111 4r3320000000000013 8r37000000007 16rf8000007 TTTTTFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFTTT

Note that an INT can be widened into BITS, and BITS can be widened into an array of BOOL. eg:

# unpack (widen) some data back into an a BOOL array #
INT i := 170;
BITS j := BIN i;
[bits width]BOOL k := j;
 
printf(($g", 8r"8r4d", "8(g)l$, i, j, k[bits width-8+1:]));
 
# now pack some data back into an INT #
k[bits width-8+1:] := (FALSE, TRUE, FALSE, TRUE, FALSE, TRUE, FALSE, TRUE);
j := bits pack(k);
i := ABS j;
 
printf(($g", 8r"8r4d", "8(g)l$, i, j, k[bits width-8+1:]))

Output:

       +170, 8r0252, TFTFTFTF
        +85, 8r0125, FTFTFTFT

AutoHotkey[edit]

bitwise(3, 4)
bitwise(a, b)
{
MsgBox % "a and b: " . a & b
MsgBox % "a or b: " . a | b
MsgBox % "a xor b: " . a ^ b
MsgBox % "not a: " . ~a ; treated as unsigned integer
MsgBox % "a << b: " . a << b ; left shift
MsgBox % "a >> b: " . a >> b ; arithmetic right shift
}

AWK[edit]

Standard awk does not have bitwise operators. Gawk has built-in functions for many bitwise operations. No rotation of bits.

Works with: gawk
BEGIN {
n = 11
p = 1
print n " or " p " = " or(n,p)
print n " and " p " = " and(n,p)
print n " xor " p " = " xor(n,p)
print n " << " p " = " lshift(n, p) # left shift
print n " >> " p " = " rshift(n, p) # right shift
printf "not %d = 0x%x\n", n, compl(n) # bitwise complement
}

OpenBSD /usr/bin/awk (a variant of nawk) has these same functions, with a few differences. Gawk uses 53-bit unsigned integers, but OpenBSD awk uses 32-bit signed integers. Therefore Gawk prints not 11 = 0x1ffffffffffff4, but OpenBSD awk prints not 11 = 0xfffffff4.

Axe[edit]

Lbl BITS
r₁→A
r₂→B
Disp "AND:",A·B▶Dec,i
Disp "OR:",AᕀB▶Dec,i
Disp "XOR:",A▫B▶Dec,i
Disp "NOT:",not(A)ʳ▶Dec,i
.No language support for shifts or rotations
Return

Note that the symbols for AND, OR, and XOR are the stat plot marks near the bottom of the Catalog.

Babel[edit]

In Babel, we prefix the logic operators with a 'c' to denote that they are C-style operations, that is, they are word-width operations, not arbitrary size operations. The following program combines the numbers 5 and 9 using the various bitwise operators and then displays the results.

({5 9}) ({cand} {cor} {cnor} {cxor} {cxnor} {shl} {shr} {ashr} {rol}) cart ! {give <- cp -> compose !} over ! {eval} over ! {;} each
Output:
[val 0x1 ]
[val 0xd ]
[val 0xfffffff7 ]
[val 0xc ]
[val 0xfffffff3 ]
[val 0xa00 ]
[val 0x0 ]
[val 0x0 ]
[val 0xa00 ]

The cnot operator works on just one operand:

9 cnot ;
Output:
[val 0xfffffff6 ]

BASIC[edit]

Works with: QuickBasic version 4.5

QuickBasic does not have shift or rotate operations defined. Here are the logical operations:

SUB bitwise (a, b)
PRINT a AND b
PRINT a OR b
PRINT a XOR b
PRINT NOT a
END SUB
Works with: FreeBASIC

FreeBASIC does not have rotate operators. Shift Right operator performs arithmetic shift if the left value is signed number and logical shift if the left value is unsigned number.

SUB bitwise (a AS Integer, b AS Integer)
DIM u AS UInteger
 
PRINT "a AND b = "; a AND b
PRINT "a OR b = "; a OR b
PRINT "a XOR b = "; a XOR b
PRINT "NOT a = "; NOT a
PRINT "a SHL b = "; a SHL b
PRINT "a SHR b (arithmetic) = "; a SHR b
u = a
PRINT "a SHR b (logical) = "; u SHR b
END SUB

BASIC256[edit]

# bitwise operators - floating point numbers will be cast to integer
a = 0b00010001
b = 0b11110000
print a
print int(a * 2) # right shift (multiply by 2)
print a \ 2 # left shift (integer divide by 2)
print a | b # bitwise or on two integer values
print a & b # bitwise or on two integer values

Batch File[edit]

The SET command with the /A option supports arithmetic and bit operations on signed 8 byte integers.

The SET /? documentation claims it supports logical shift operations, but in reality it performs an arithmetic right shift.

The following script (bitops.bat) not only demonstrates the basic bit operations, it also uses bit operations to convert each integral value into a string of 32 binary digits.

 
@echo off
setlocal
set /a "a=%~1, b=%~2"
call :num2bin %a% aStr
call :num2bin %b% bStr

::AND

set /a "val=a&b"
call :display "%a% AND %b%" %val% %aStr% %bStr%

::OR

set /a "val=a|b"
call :display "%a% OR %b%" %val% %aStr% %bStr%

::XOR

set /a "val=a^b"
call :display "%a% XOR %b%" %val% %aStr% %bStr%

::NOT

set /a "val=~a"
call :display "NOT %a%" %val% %aStr%

::LEFT SHIFT

set /a "val=a<<b"
call :display "%a% Left Shift %b%" %val% %aStr%

::ARITHMETIC RIGHT SHIFT

set /a "val=a>>b"
call :display "%a% Arithmetic Right Shift %b%" %val% %aStr%

::The remaining operations do not have native support

::The implementations use additional operators
::  %% = mod
::  ! = logical negation where !(zero)=1 and !(non-zero)=0
:: * = multiplication
:: - = subtraction

::LOGICAL RIGHT SHIFT (No native support)

set /a "val=(a>>b)&~((0x80000000>>b-1)*!!b)"
call :display "%a% Logical Right Shift %b%" %val% %aStr%

::ROTATE LEFT (No native support)

set /a "val=(a<<b%%32) | (a>>32-b%%32)&~((0x80000000>>31-b%%32)*!!(32-b%%32))"
call :display "%a% Rotate Left %b%" %val% %aStr%

::ROTATE RIGHT (No native support)

set /a "val=(a<<32-b%%32) | (a>>b%%32)&~((0x80000000>>b%%32-1)*!!(b%%32)) "
call :display "%a% Rotate Right %b%" %val% %aStr%
 
exit /b
 
 
:display op result aStr [bStr]
echo(
echo %~1 = %2
echo %3
if "%4" neq "" echo %4
call :num2bin %2
exit /b
 
 
:num2bin IntVal [RtnVar]
setlocal enableDelayedExpansion
set n=%~1
set rtn=
for /l %%b in (0,1,31) do (
set /a "d=n&1, n>>=1"
set rtn=!d!!rtn!
)
(endlocal & rem -- return values
if "%~2" neq "" (set %~2=%rtn%) else echo %rtn%
)
exit /b
 

Sample output

>bitops 0x800000FE 7

-2147483394 AND 7 = 6
10000000000000000000000011111110
00000000000000000000000000000111
00000000000000000000000000000110

-2147483394 OR 7 = -2147483393
10000000000000000000000011111110
00000000000000000000000000000111
10000000000000000000000011111111

-2147483394 XOR 7 = -2147483399
10000000000000000000000011111110
00000000000000000000000000000111
10000000000000000000000011111001

NOT -2147483394 = 2147483393
10000000000000000000000011111110
01111111111111111111111100000001

-2147483394 Left Shift 7 = 32512
10000000000000000000000011111110
00000000000000000111111100000000

-2147483394 Arithmetic Right Shift 7 = -16777215
10000000000000000000000011111110
11111111000000000000000000000001

-2147483394 Logical Right Shift 7 = 16777217
10000000000000000000000011111110
00000001000000000000000000000001

-2147483394 Rotate Left 7 = 32576
10000000000000000000000011111110
00000000000000000111111101000000

-2147483394 Rotate Right 7 = -50331647
10000000000000000000000011111110
11111101000000000000000000000001

BBC BASIC[edit]

      number1% = &89ABCDEF
number2% = 8
 
PRINT ~ number1% AND number2% : REM bitwise AND
PRINT ~ number1% OR number2%  : REM bitwise OR
PRINT ~ number1% EOR number2% : REM bitwise exclusive-OR
PRINT ~ NOT number1%  : REM bitwise NOT
PRINT ~ number1% << number2%  : REM left shift
PRINT ~ number1% >>> number2% : REM right shift (logical)
PRINT ~ number1% >> number2%  : REM right shift (arithmetic)
PRINT ~ (number1% << number2%) OR (number1% >>> (32-number2%)) : REM left rotate
PRINT ~ (number1% >>> number2%) OR (number1% << (32-number2%)) : REM right rotate

beeswax[edit]

#eX~T~T_#
###>N{` AND `~{~` = `&{Nz1~3J
UXe#
##>{` OR `~{~` = `|{Nz1~5J
UXe#
##>{` XOR `~{~` = `${Nz1~7J
UXe#
##>`NOT `{` = `!{Nz1~9J
UXe#
##>{` << `~{~` = `({Nz1~9PPJ
UXe#
##>{` >>> `~{~` = `){` (logical shift right)`N7F+M~1~J
UXe#
##>{` ROL `~{~` = `[{N7F+P~1~J
UXe#
##>{` ROR `~{~` = `]{NN8F+P~1~J
UXe#
##>`Arithmetic shift right is not originally implemented in beeswax.`N q
qN`,noitagen yb dezilaer eb nac srebmun evitagen rof RSA ,yllacinhcet tuB`N<
##>`logical shift right, and negating the result again:`NN7F++~1~J
UXe# #>e#
#>~1~[&'pUX{` >> `~{~` = `){` , interpreted as (positive) signed Int64 number (MSB=0), equivalent to >>>`NN;
###
>UX`-`!P{M!` >> `~{~` = `!)!`-`M!{` , interpreted as (negative) signed Int64 number (MSB=1)`NN;
#>e#

Example:

 
julia> beeswax("Bitops.bswx",0,0.0,Int(20000))
i9223653511831486512
i48
 
9223653511831486512 AND 48 = 48
9223653511831486512 OR 48 = 9223653511831486512
9223653511831486512 XOR 48 = 9223653511831486464
NOT 9223653511831486512 = 9223090561878065103
9223653511831486512 << 48 = 13510798882111488
9223653511831486512 >>> 48 = 32769 (logical shift right)
9223653511831486512 ROL 48 = 13651540665434112
9223653511831486512 ROR 48 = 3178497
 
Arithmetic shift right is not originally implemented in beeswax.
 
But technically, ASR for negative numbers can be realized by negation,
logical shift right, and negating the result again:
 
-9223090561878065104 >> 48 = -32767 , interpreted as (negative) signed Int64 number (MSB=1)

The natural number range for beeswax is unsigned Int64, but it is easy to implement signed Int64 by realizing negative numbers by their 2’s complements or interpreting numbers as negative if their MSB is 1, as shown in the example above.

Arithmetic shift right is not originally implemented in beeswax because it does not make sense for unsigned integers, but for negative numbers, it can be realized easily with

A>>B = NOT(NOT(A)>>>B)

as demonstrated above.

In beeswax, rotate left (ROL) and rotate right (ROT) operators are implemented using modulo 64, so rotations by more than 63 bits wrap around:

A ROL B = A<<(B%64)+A>>>(64-B%64)
A ROR B = A>>>(B%64)+A<<(64-B%64)

C[edit]

void bitwise(int a, int b)
{
printf("a and b: %d\n", a & b);
printf("a or b: %d\n", a | b);
printf("a xor b: %d\n", a ^ b);
printf("not a: %d\n", ~a);
printf("a << n: %d\n", a << b); /* left shift */
printf("a >> n: %d\n", a >> b); /* on most platforms: arithmetic right shift */
/* convert the signed integer into unsigned, so it will perform logical shift */
unsigned int c = a;
printf("c >> b: %d\n", c >> b); /* logical right shift */
/* there are no rotation operators in C */
return 0;
}

To rotate an integer, you can combine a left shift and a right shift:

/* rotate x to the right by s bits */
unsigned int rotr(unsigned int x, unsigned int s)
{
return (x >> s) | (x << 32 - s);
}
With a smart enough compiler, the above actually compiles into a single machine bit rotate instruction when possible. E.g. gcc -S on IA32 produced following assembly code:
rotr:
movl 4(%esp), %eax  ; arg1: x
movl 8(%esp), %ecx  ; arg2: s
rorl  %cl, %eax  ; right rotate x by s
ret

C++[edit]

Translation of: C
#include <iostream>
 
void bitwise(int a, int b)
{
std::cout << "a and b: " << (a & b) << '\n'; // Note: parentheses are needed because & has lower precedence than <<
std::cout << "a or b: " << (a | b) << '\n';
std::cout << "a xor b: " << (a ^ b) << '\n';
std::cout << "not a: " << ~a << '\n';
std::cout << "a shl b: " << (a << b) << '\n'; // Note: "<<" is used both for output and for left shift
std::cout << "a shr b: " << (a >> b) << '\n'; // typically arithmetic right shift, but not guaranteed
unsigned int c = a;
std::cout << "c sra b: " << (c >> b) << '\n'; // logical right shift (guaranteed)
// there are no rotation operators in C++
}

C#[edit]

static void bitwise(int a, int b)
{
Console.WriteLine("a and b is {0}", a & b);
Console.WriteLine("a or b is {0}", a | b);
Console.WriteLine("a xor b is {0}", a ^ b);
Console.WriteLine("not a is {0}", ~a);
Console.WriteLine("a lshift b is {0}", a << b);
Console.WriteLine("a arshift b is {0}", a >> b); // When the left operand of the >> operator is of a signed integral type,
// the operator performs an arithmetic shift right
uint c = (uint)a;
Console.WriteLine("c rshift b is {0}", c >> b); // When the left operand of the >> operator is of an unsigned integral type,
// the operator performs a logical shift right
// there are no rotation operators in C#
}

Clojure[edit]

(bit-and x y)
(bit-or x y)
(bit-xor x y)
(bit-not x)
(bit-shift-left x n)
(bit-shift-right x n)
;;There is no built-in for rotation.

COBOL[edit]

Results are displayed in decimal.

       IDENTIFICATION DIVISION.
PROGRAM-ID. bitwise-ops.
 
DATA DIVISION.
LOCAL-STORAGE SECTION.
01 a PIC 1(32) USAGE BIT.
01 b PIC 1(32) USAGE BIT.
 
01 result PIC 1(32) USAGE BIT.
01 result-disp REDEFINES result PIC S9(9) COMP.
 
LINKAGE SECTION.
01 a-int USAGE BINARY-LONG.
01 b-int USAGE BINARY-LONG.
 
PROCEDURE DIVISION USING a-int, b-int.
MOVE FUNCTION BOOLEAN-OF-INTEGER(a-int, 32) TO a
MOVE FUNCTION BOOLEAN-OF-INTEGER(b-int, 32) TO b
 
COMPUTE result = a B-AND b
DISPLAY "a and b is " result-disp
 
COMPUTE result = a B-OR b
DISPLAY "a or b is " result-disp
 
COMPUTE result = B-NOT a
DISPLAY "Not a is " result-disp
 
COMPUTE result = a B-XOR b
DISPLAY "a exclusive-or b is " result-disp
 
*> COBOL does not have shift or rotation operators.
 
GOBACK
.
Works with: Visual COBOL
       IDENTIFICATION DIVISION.
PROGRAM-ID. mf-bitwise-ops.
 
DATA DIVISION.
LOCAL-STORAGE SECTION.
01 result USAGE BINARY-LONG.
 
78 arg-len VALUE LENGTH OF result.
 
LINKAGE SECTION.
01 a USAGE BINARY-LONG.
01 b USAGE BINARY-LONG.
 
PROCEDURE DIVISION USING a, b.
main-line.
MOVE b TO result
CALL "CBL_AND" USING a, result, VALUE arg-len
DISPLAY "a and b is " result
 
MOVE b TO result
CALL "CBL_OR" USING a, result, VALUE arg-len
DISPLAY "a or b is " result
 
MOVE a TO result
CALL "CBL_NOT" USING result, VALUE arg-len
DISPLAY "Not a is " result
 
MOVE b TO result
CALL "CBL_XOR" USING a, result, VALUE arg-len
DISPLAY "a exclusive-or b is " result
 
MOVE b TO result
CALL "CBL_EQ" USING a, result, VALUE arg-len
DISPLAY "Logical equivalence of a and b is " result
 
MOVE b TO result
CALL "CBL_IMP" USING a, result, VALUE arg-len
DISPLAY "Logical implication of a and b is " result
 
GOBACK
.

CoffeeScript[edit]

CoffeeScript provides sugar for some JavaScript operators, but the bitwise operators are taken directly from JS. See more here: http://coffeescript.org/#operators

 
f = (a, b) ->
p "and", a & b
p "or", a | b
p "xor", a ^ b
p "not", ~a
p "<<", a << b
p ">>", a >> b
# no rotation shifts that I know of
 
p = (label, n) -> console.log label, n
 
f(10,2)
 

output

 
> coffee foo.coffee
and 2
or 10
xor 8
not -11
<< 40
>> 2
 

Common Lisp[edit]

(defun bitwise (a b)
(print (logand a b)) ; AND
(print (logior a b)) ; OR ("ior" = inclusive or)
(print (logxor a b)) ; XOR
(print (lognot a)) ; NOT
(print (ash a b)) ; arithmetic left shift (positive 2nd arg)
(print (ash a (- b))) ; arithmetic right shift (negative 2nd arg)
; no logical shift
)

Left and right logical shift may be implemented by the following functions:

 
(defun shl (x width bits)
"Compute bitwise left shift of x by 'bits' bits, represented on 'width' bits"
(logand (ash x bits)
(1- (ash 1 width))))
 
(defun shr (x width bits)
"Compute bitwise right shift of x by 'bits' bits, represented on 'width' bits"
(logand (ash x (- bits))
(1- (ash 1 width))))
 

Left and right rotation may be implemented by the following functions:

 
(defun rotl (x width bits)
"Compute bitwise left rotation of x by 'bits' bits, represented on 'width' bits"
(logior (logand (ash x (mod bits width))
(1- (ash 1 width)))
(logand (ash x (- (- width (mod bits width))))
(1- (ash 1 width)))))
 
(defun rotr (x width bits)
"Compute bitwise right rotation of x by 'bits' bits, represented on 'width' bits"
(logior (logand (ash x (- (mod bits width)))
(1- (ash 1 width)))
(logand (ash x (- width (mod bits width)))
(1- (ash 1 width)))))
 

D[edit]

T rot(T)(in T x, in int shift) pure nothrow @nogc {
return (x >>> shift) | (x << (T.sizeof * 8 - shift));
}
 
void testBit(in int a, in int b) {
import std.stdio;
writefln("Input: a = %d, b = %d", a, b);
writefln("AND  : %8b & %08b = %032b (%4d)", a, b, a & b, a & b);
writefln(" OR  : %8b | %08b = %032b (%4d)", a, b, a | b, a | b);
writefln("XOR  : %8b ^ %08b = %032b (%4d)", a, b, a ^ b, a ^ b);
writefln("LSH  : %8b << %08b = %032b (%4d)", a, b, a << b, a << b);
writefln("RSH  : %8b >> %08b = %032b (%4d)", a, b, a >> b, a >> b);
writefln("NOT  : %8s ~ %08b = %032b (%4d)", "", a, ~a, ~a);
writefln("ROT  : rot(%8b, %d) = %032b (%4d)",
a, b, rot(a, b), rot(a, b));
}
 
void main() {
immutable int a = 0b_1111_1111; // bit literal 255
immutable int b = 0b_0000_0010; // bit literal 2
 
testBit(a, b);
}
Output:
Input: a = 255, b = 2
AND  : 11111111  & 00000010 = 00000000000000000000000000000010 (   2)
 OR  : 11111111  | 00000010 = 00000000000000000000000011111111 ( 255)
XOR  : 11111111  ^ 00000010 = 00000000000000000000000011111101 ( 253)
LSH  : 11111111 << 00000010 = 00000000000000000000001111111100 (1020)
RSH  : 11111111 >> 00000010 = 00000000000000000000000000111111 (  63)
NOT  :           ~ 11111111 = 11111111111111111111111100000000 (-256)
ROT  : rot(11111111, 2)     = 11000000000000000000000000111111 (-1073741761)

Compilers are usually able to optimize the code pattern of the rot function to one CPU instruction plus loads. The DMD compiler too performs such optimization.

Delphi[edit]

program Bitwise;
 
{$APPTYPE CONSOLE}
 
begin
Writeln('2 and 3 = ', 2 and 3);
Writeln('2 or 3 = ', 2 or 3);
Writeln('2 xor 3 = ', 2 xor 3);
Writeln('not 2 = ', not 2);
Writeln('2 shl 3 = ', 2 shl 3);
Writeln('2 shr 3 = ', 2 shr 3);
// there are no built-in rotation operators in Delphi
Readln;
end.

DWScript[edit]

PrintLn('2 and 3 = '+IntToStr(2 and 3));
PrintLn('2 or 3 = '+IntToStr(2 or 3));
PrintLn('2 xor 3 = '+IntToStr(2 xor 3));
PrintLn('not 2 = '+IntToStr(not 2));
PrintLn('2 shl 3 = '+IntToStr(2 shl 3));
PrintLn('2 shr 3 = '+IntToStr(2 shr 3));

E[edit]

E provides arbitrary-size integers, so there is no distinct arithmetic and logical shift right. E does not provide bit rotate operations.

def bitwise(a :int, b :int) {
println(`Bitwise operations:
a AND b: ${a & b}
a OR b: ${a | b}
a XOR b: ${a ^ b}
NOT a: " + ${~a}
a left shift b: ${a << b}
a right shift b: ${a >> b}
`
)
}

ECL[edit]

 
BitwiseOperations(INTEGER A, INTEGER B) := FUNCTION
BitAND := A & B;
BitOR  := A | B;
BitXOR := A ^ B;
BitNOT := BNOT A;
BitSL  := A << B;
BitSR  := A >> B;
DS  := DATASET([{A,B,'Bitwise AND:',BitAND},
{A,B,'Bitwise OR:',BitOR},
{A,B,'Bitwise XOR',BitXOR},
{A,B,'Bitwise NOT A:',BitNOT},
{A,B,'ShiftLeft A:',BitSL},
{A,B,'ShiftRight A:',BitSR}],
{INTEGER AVal,INTEGER BVal,STRING15 valuetype,INTEGER val});
RETURN DS;
END;
 
BitwiseOperations(255,5);
//right arithmetic shift, left and right rotate not implemented
/*
OUTPUT:
255 5 Bitwise AND: 5
255 5 Bitwise OR: 255
255 5 Bitwise XOR 250
255 5 Bitwise NOT A: -256
255 5 ShiftLeft A: 8160
255 5 ShiftRight A: 7
 
*/
 

Elena[edit]

#import system.
#import extensions.
 
#class(extension) testOp
{
#method bitwiseTest : y
[
console writeLine:self:" and ":y:" = ":(self and:y).
console writeLine:self:" or ":y:" = ":(self or:y).
console writeLine:self:" xor ":y:" = ":(self xor:y).
console writeLine:"not ":self:" = ":(self inverted).
console writeLine:self:" shr ":y:" = ":(self shift &index:y).
console writeLine:self:" shl ":y:" = ":(self shift &index:(y negative)).
]
}
 
#symbol program =
[
console readLine:(Integer new) bitwiseTest:(console readLine:(Integer new)).
].
Output:
255 and 2 = 2
255 or 2 = 255
255 xor 2 = 253
not 255 = -256
255 shr 2 = 63
255 shl 2 = 1020

Elixir[edit]

defmodule Bitwise_operation do
use Bitwise
 
def test(a \\ 255, b \\ 170, c \\ 2) do
IO.puts "Bitwise function:"
IO.puts "band(#{a}, #{b}) = #{band(a, b)}"
IO.puts "bor(#{a}, #{b}) = #{bor(a, b)}"
IO.puts "bxor(#{a}, #{b}) = #{bxor(a, b)}"
IO.puts "bnot(#{a}) = #{bnot(a)}"
IO.puts "bsl(#{a}, #{c}) = #{bsl(a, c)}"
IO.puts "bsr(#{a}, #{c}) = #{bsr(a, c)}"
IO.puts "\nBitwise as operator:"
IO.puts "#{a} &&& #{b} = #{a &&& b}"
IO.puts "#{a} ||| #{b} = #{a ||| b}"
IO.puts "#{a} ^^^ #{b} = #{a ^^^ b}"
IO.puts "~~~#{a} = #{~~~a}"
IO.puts "#{a} <<< #{c} = #{a <<< c}"
IO.puts "#{a} >>> #{c} = #{a >>> c}"
end
end
 
Bitwise_operation.test
Output:
Bitwise function:
band(255, 170) = 170
bor(255, 170) = 255
bxor(255, 170) = 85
bnot(255) = -256
bsl(255, 2) = 1020
bsr(255, 2) = 63

Bitwise as operator:
255 &&& 170 = 170
255 ||| 170 = 255
255 ^^^ 170 = 85
~~~255 = -256
255 <<< 2 = 1020
255 >>> 2 = 63

Erlang[edit]

All these operations are built-in functions except right arithmetic shift, left rotate, and right rotate.

 
-module(bitwise_operations).
 
-export([test/0]).
 
test() ->
A = 255,
B = 170,
io:format("~p band ~p = ~p\n",[A,B,A band B]),
io:format("~p bor ~p = ~p\n",[A,B,A bor B]),
io:format("~p bxor ~p = ~p\n",[A,B,A bxor B]),
io:format("not ~p = ~p\n",[A,bnot A]),
io:format("~p bsl ~p = ~p\n",[A,B,A bsl B]),
io:format("~p bsr ~p = ~p\n",[A,B,A bsr B]).
 

outputs:

 
255 band 170 = 170
255 bor 170 = 255
255 bxor 170 = 85
not 255 = -256
255 bsl 170 = 381627307539845370001346183518875822092557105621893120
255 bsr 170 = 0
 


F#[edit]

let bitwise a b =
printfn "a and b: %d" (a &&& b)
printfn "a or b: %d" (a ||| b)
printfn "a xor b: %d" (a ^^^ b)
printfn "not a: %d" (~~~a)
printfn "a shl b: %d" (a <<< b)
printfn "a shr b: %d" (a >>> b) // arithmetic shift
printfn "a shr b: %d" ((uint32 a) >>> b) // logical shift
// No rotation operators.

Factor[edit]

"a=" "b=" [ write readln string>number ] bi@
{
[ bitand "a AND b: " write . ]
[ bitor "a OR b: " write . ]
[ bitxor "a XOR b: " write . ]
[ drop bitnot "NOT a: " write . ]
[ abs shift "a asl b: " write . ]
[ neg shift "a asr b: " write . ]
} 2cleave

outputs:

a=255
b=5
a AND b: 5
a OR b: 255
a XOR b: 250
NOT a: -256
a asl b: 8160
a asr b: 7

Currently rotation and logical shifts are not implemented.

FALSE[edit]

Only AND, OR, and NOT are available.

10 3
\$@$@$@$@\ { 3 copies }
"a & b = "&."
a | b = "|."
~a = "%~."
"

Forth[edit]

: arshift 0 ?do 2/ loop ;            \ 2/ is an arithmetic shift right by one bit (2* shifts left one bit)
: bitwise ( a b -- )
cr ." a = " over . ." b = " dup .
cr ." a and b = " 2dup and .
cr ." a or b = " 2dup or .
cr ." a xor b = " 2dup xor .
cr ." not a = " over invert .
cr ." a shl b = " 2dup lshift .
cr ." a shr b = " 2dup rshift .
cr ." a ashr b = " 2dup arshift .
2drop ;

Rotation is not standard, but may be provided in particular Forth implementations, or as an assembly instruction in CODE words.

Fortran[edit]

In ISO Fortran 90 and later the following BIT INTRINSIC functions are defined:

integer :: i, j = -1, k = 42
logical :: a
 
i = bit_size(j) ! returns the number of bits in the given INTEGER variable
 
! bitwise boolean operations on integers
i = iand(k, j) ! returns bitwise AND of K and J
i = ior(k, j) ! returns bitwise OR of K and J
i = ieor(k, j) ! returns bitwise EXCLUSIVE OR of K and J
i = not(j) ! returns bitwise NOT of J
 
! single-bit integer/logical operations (bit positions are zero-based)
a = btest(i, 4) ! returns logical .TRUE. if bit position 4 of I is 1, .FALSE. if 0
i = ibclr(k, 8) ! returns value of K with 8th bit position "cleared" (set to 0)
i = ibset(k, 13) ! returns value of K with 13th bit position "set" (set to 1)
 
! multi-bit integer operations
i = ishft(k, j) ! returns value of K shifted by J bit positions, with ZERO fill
! (right shift if J < 0 and left shift if J > 0).
i = ishftc(k, j) ! returns value of K shifted CIRCULARLY by J bit positions
! (right circular shift if J < 0 and left if J > 0)
i = ishftc(k, j, 20) ! returns value as before except that ONLY the 20 lowest order
! (rightmost) bits are circularly shifted
i = ibits(k, 7, 8) ! extracts 8 contiguous bits from K starting at position 7 and
! returns them as the rightmost bits of an otherwise
! zero-filled integer. For non-negative K this is
! arithmetically equivalent to: MOD((K / 2**7), 2**8)

The following INTRINSIC ELEMENTAL SUBROUTINE is also defined:

 call mvbits(k, 2, 4, j, 0)  ! copy a sequence of 4 bits from k starting at bit 2 into j starting at bit 0
 
program bits_rosetta
implicit none
 
call bitwise(14,3)
 
contains
 
subroutine bitwise(a,b)
implicit none
integer, intent(in):: a,b
character(len=*), parameter :: fmt1 = '(2(a,i10))'
character(len=*),parameter :: fmt2 = '(3(a,b32.32),i20)'
 
write(*,fmt1) 'input a=',a,' b=',b
write(*,fmt2) 'and : ', a,' & ',b,' = ',iand(a, b),iand(a, b)
write(*,fmt2) 'or  : ', a,' | ',b,' = ',ior(a, b),ior(a, b)
write(*,fmt2) 'xor : ', a,' ^ ',b,' = ',ieor(a, b),ieor(a, b)
write(*,fmt2) 'lsh : ', a,' << ',b,' = ',shiftl(a,b),shiftl(a,b) !since F2008, otherwise use ishft(a, abs(b))
write(*,fmt2) 'rsh : ', a,' >> ',b,' = ',shiftr(a,b),shiftr(a,b) !since F2008, otherwise use ishft(a, -abs(b))
write(*,fmt2) 'not : ', a,' ~ ',b,' = ',not(a),not(a)
write(*,fmt2) 'rot : ', a,' r ',b,' = ',ishftc(a,-abs(b)),ishftc(a,-abs(b))
 
end subroutine bitwise
 
end program bits_rosetta
 

Output

 
Input a= 14 b= 3
AND : 00000000000000000000000000001110 & 00000000000000000000000000000011 = 00000000000000000000000000000010 2
OR  : 00000000000000000000000000001110 | 00000000000000000000000000000011 = 00000000000000000000000000001111 15
XOR : 00000000000000000000000000001110 ^ 00000000000000000000000000000011 = 00000000000000000000000000001101 13
LSH : 00000000000000000000000000001110 << 00000000000000000000000000000011 = 00000000000000000000000001110000 112
RSH : 00000000000000000000000000001110 >> 00000000000000000000000000000011 = 00000000000000000000000000000001 1
NOT : 00000000000000000000000000001110 ~ 00000000000000000000000000000011 = 11111111111111111111111111110001 -15
ROT : 00000000000000000000000000001110 ~ 00000000000000000000000000000011 = 11000000000000000000000000000001 -1073741823
 

Go[edit]

package main
 
import "fmt"
 
func bitwise(a, b int16) {
fmt.Printf("a:  %016b\n", uint16(a))
fmt.Printf("b:  %016b\n", uint16(b))
 
// Bitwise logical operations
fmt.Printf("and: %016b\n", uint16(a&b))
fmt.Printf("or:  %016b\n", uint16(a|b))
fmt.Printf("xor: %016b\n", uint16(a^b))
fmt.Printf("not: %016b\n", uint16(^a))
 
if b < 0 {
fmt.Println("Right operand is negative, but all shifts require an unsigned right operand (shift distance).")
return
}
ua := uint16(a)
ub := uint32(b)
 
// Logical shifts (unsigned left operand)
fmt.Printf("shl: %016b\n", uint16(ua<<ub))
fmt.Printf("shr: %016b\n", uint16(ua>>ub))
 
// Arithmetic shifts (signed left operand)
fmt.Printf("las: %016b\n", uint16(a<<ub))
fmt.Printf("ras: %016b\n", uint16(a>>ub))
 
// Rotations
fmt.Printf("rol: %016b\n", uint16(a<<ub|int16(uint16(a)>>(16-ub))))
fmt.Printf("ror: %016b\n", uint16(int16(uint16(a)>>ub)|a<<(16-ub)))
}
 
func main() {
var a, b int16 = -460, 6
bitwise(a, b)
}

Output:

a:   1111111000110100
b:   0000000000000110
and: 0000000000000100
or:  1111111000110110
xor: 1111111000110010
not: 0000000111001011
shl: 1000110100000000
shr: 0000001111111000
las: 1000110100000000
ras: 1111111111111000
rol: 1000110100111111
ror: 1101001111111000

Groovy[edit]

def bitwise = { a, b ->
println """
a & b = ${a} & ${b} = ${a & b}
a | b = ${a} | ${b} = ${a | b}
a ^ b = ${a} ^ ${b} = ${a ^ b}
~ a = ~ ${a} = ${~ a}
a << b = ${a} << ${b} = ${a << b}
a >> b = ${a} >> ${b} = ${a >> b} arithmetic (sign-preserving) shift
a >>> b = ${a} >>> ${b} = ${a >>> b} logical (zero-filling) shift
"""

}

Program:

bitwise(-15,3)

Output:

a & b   = -15 & 3   = 1
a | b   = -15 | 3   = -13
a ^ b   = -15 ^ 3   = -14
~ a     = ~ -15     = 14
a << b  = -15 << 3  = -120
a >> b  = -15 >> 3  = -2         arithmetic (sign-preserving) shift
a >>> b = -15 >>> 3 = 536870910  logical (zero-filling) shift

Haskell[edit]

The operations in Data.Bits work on Int, Integer, and any of the sized integer and word types.

import Data.Bits
 
bitwise :: Int -> Int -> IO ()
bitwise a b = do
print $ a .&. b
print $ a .|. b
print $ a `xor` b
print $ complement a
print $ shiftL a b -- left shift
print $ shiftR a b -- arithmetic right shift
print $ shift a b -- You can also use the "unified" shift function; positive is for left shift, negative is for right shift
print $ shift a (-b)
print $ rotateL a b -- rotate left
print $ rotateR a b -- rotate right
print $ rotate a b -- You can also use the "unified" rotate function; positive is for left rotate, negative is for right rotate
print $ rotate a (-b)
 
main = bitwise 255 170

If you were shifting Words (unsigned integers) instead of Ints, then the shift would be automatically logical shifts:

import Data.Word
print $ shiftL (-1 :: Word) 1
print $ shiftR (-1 :: Word) 1

HicEst[edit]

There is no rotate and no shift support built in to HicEst

i = IAND(k, j)
i = IOR( k, j)
i = IEOR(k, j)
i = NOT( k )

Icon and Unicon[edit]

procedure main()
bitdemo(255,2)
bitdemo(-15,3)
end
 
procedure bitdemo(i,i2)
write()
demowrite("i",i)
demowrite("i2",i2)
demowrite("complement i",icom(i))
demowrite("i or i2",ior(i,i2))
demowrite("i and i2",iand(i,i2))
demowrite("i xor i2",ixor(i,i2))
demowrite("i shift " || i2,ishift(i,i2))
demowrite("i shift -" || i2,ishift(i,-i2))
return
end
 
procedure demowrite(vs,v)
return write(vs, ": ", v, " = ", int2bit(v),"b")
end

Icon/Unicon implements bitwise operations on integers. Because integers can be transparently large integers operations that require fixed sizes don't make sense and aren't defined. These include rotation and logical shifting (shift is arithmetic) . Please note also that 'not' is a reserved word and the negation function is 'icom'

Sample output:

i: 255 = 11111111b
i2: 2 = 10b
complement i: -256 = -100000000b
i or i2: 255 = 11111111b
i and i2: 2 = 10b
i xor i2: 253 = 11111101b
i shift 2: 1020 = 1111111100b
i shift -2: 63 = 111111b


i: -15 = -1111b
i2: 3 = 11b
complement i: 14 = 1110b
i or i2: -13 = -1101b
i and i2: 1 = 1b
i xor i2: -14 = -1110b
i shift 3: -120 = -1111000b
i shift -3: -2 = -10b

Inform 6[edit]

Inform 6 has no xor or rotate operators. It also has no shift operators, although the Z-machine, its usual target architecture, does. These can be accessed with inline assembly, which is done here.

[ bitwise a b temp;
print "a and b: ", a & b, "^";
print "a or b: ", a | b, "^";
print "not a: ", ~a, "^";
@art_shift a b -> temp;
print "a << b (arithmetic): ", temp, "^";
temp = -b;
@art_shift a temp -> temp;
print "a >> b (arithmetic): ", temp, "^";
@log_shift a b -> temp;
print "a << b (logical): ", temp, "^";
temp = -b;
@log_shift a temp -> temp;
print "a >> b (logical): ", temp, "^";
];
 

J[edit]

Here are the "bitwise operators":

bAND=:  17 b.  NB. 16+#.0 0 0 1
bOR=: 23 b. NB. 16+#.0 1 1 1
bXOR=: 22 b. NB. 16+#.0 1 1 0
b1NOT=: 28 b. NB. 16+#.1 1 0 0
bLshift=: 33 b.~ NB. see http://www.jsoftware.com/help/release/bdot.htm
bRshift=: 33 b.~ -
bRAshift=: 34 b.~ -
bLrot=: 32 b.~
bRrot=: 32 b.~ -

And here is a routine which takes a list of bitwise operators and two numbers and displays a table of results from combining those two numbers with each of the operators:

bitwise=: 1 :0
:
smoutput (((":x),"1' ',.(>u),.' '),"1":y),"1' => ',"1'.X'{~#:x u`:0 y
)

And here they are in action:

   254 bAND`bOR`bXOR`b1NOT`bLshift`bRshift`bRAshift`bLrot`bRrot bitwise 3
254 bAND 3 => ............................X.
254 bOR 3 => ......................XXXXXXXX
254 bXOR 3 => ......................XXXXXX.X
254 b1NOT 3 => XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX.......X
254 bLshift 3 => ...................XXXXXXX....
254 bRshift 3 => .........................XXXXX
254 bRAshift 3 => .........................XXXXX
254 bLrot 3 => ...................XXXXXXX....
254 bRrot 3 => .........................XXXXX

Further test

 
bXOR/ 3333 5555 7777 9999
8664
 

Java[edit]

public static void bitwise(int a, int b){
System.out.println("a AND b: " + (a & b));
System.out.println("a OR b: "+ (a | b));
System.out.println("a XOR b: "+ (a ^ b));
System.out.println("NOT a: " + ~a);
System.out.println("a << b: " + (a << b)); // left shift
System.out.println("a >> b: " + (a >> b)); // arithmetic right shift
System.out.println("a >>> b: " + (a >>> b)); // logical right shift
System.out.println("a rol b: " + Integer.rotateLeft(a, b)); //rotate left, Java 1.5+
System.out.println("a ror b: " + Integer.rotateRight(a, b)); //rotate right, Java 1.5+
}

All of the operators may be combined with the = operator to save space. For example, the following lines each do the same thing:

a <<= 3;
a = a << 3;
a *= 8; //2 * 2 * 2 = 8
a = a * 8;

JavaScript[edit]

There are no integers in Javascript, but there are still bitwise operators. They will convert their number operands into integers before performing they task. In other languages, these operators are very close to the hardware and very fast. In JavaScript, they are very far from the hardware and very slow and rarely used.

function bitwise(a, b){
alert("a AND b: " + (a & b));
alert("a OR b: "+ (a | b));
alert("a XOR b: "+ (a ^ b));
alert("NOT a: " + ~a);
alert("a << b: " + (a << b)); // left shift
alert("a >> b: " + (a >> b)); // arithmetic right shift
alert("a >>> b: " + (a >>> b)); // logical right shift
}


LFE[edit]

All these operations are built-in functions except right arithmetic shift, left rotate, and right rotate.

(defun bitwise (a b)
(io:format '"~p~n" (list (band a b)))
(io:format '"~p~n" (list (bor a b)))
(io:format '"~p~n" (list (bxor a b)))
(io:format '"~p~n" (list (bnot a)))
(io:format '"~p~n" (list (bsl a b)))
(io:format '"~p~n" (list (bsr a b))))
 
(defun d2b
(x) (integer_to_list x 2))
 
(defun bitwise
((a b 'binary)
(io:format '"(~s ~s ~s): ~s~n"
(list "band" (d2b a) (d2b b) (d2b (band a b))))
(io:format '"(~s ~s ~s): ~s~n"
(list "bor" (d2b a) (d2b b) (d2b (bor a b))))
(io:format '"(~s ~s ~s): ~s~n"
(list "bxor" (d2b a) (d2b b) (d2b (bxor a b))))
(io:format '"(~s ~s): ~s~n"
(list "bnot" (d2b a) (d2b (bnot a))))
(io:format '"(~s ~s ~s): ~s~n"
(list "bsl" (d2b a) (d2b b) (d2b (bsl a b))))
(io:format '"(~s ~s ~s): ~s~n"
(list "bsr" (d2b a) (d2b b) (d2b (bsr a b))))))
 

Example usage:

 
> (bitwise 255 170)
170
255
85
-256
381627307539845370001346183518875822092557105621893120
0
ok
> (bitwise 255 170 'binary)
(band 11111111 10101010): 10101010
(bor 11111111 10101010): 11111111
(bxor 11111111 10101010): 1010101
(bnot 11111111): -100000000
(bsl 11111111 10101010): 1111111100000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
(bsr 11111111 10101010): 0
ok
>
 

Liberty BASIC[edit]

Written as functions.

 
' bitwise operations on byte-sized variables
 
v =int( 256 *rnd( 1))
 
s = 1
 
print "Shift ="; s; " place."
print
print "Number as dec. = "; v; " & as 8-bits byte = ", dec2Bin$( v)
print "NOT as dec. = "; bitInvert( v), dec2Bin$( bitInvert( v))
print "Shifted left as dec. = "; shiftLeft( v, s), dec2Bin$( shiftLeft( v, s))
print "Shifted right as dec. = "; shiftRight( v, s), dec2Bin$( shiftRight( v, s))
print "Rotated left as dec. = "; rotateLeft( v, s), dec2Bin$( rotateLeft( v, s))
print "Rotated right as dec. = "; rotateRight( v, s), dec2Bin$( rotateRight( v, s))
 
end
 
function shiftLeft( b, n)
shiftLeft =( b *2^n) and 255
end function
 
function shiftRight( b, n)
shiftRight =int(b /2^n)
end function
 
function rotateLeft( b, n)
rotateLeft = (( 2^n *b) mod 256) or ( b >127)
end function
 
function rotateRight( b, n)
rotateRight = (128*( b and 1)) or int( b /2)
end function
 
function bitInvert( b)
bitInvert =b xor 255
end function
 
function dec2Bin$( num) ' Given an integer decimal 0 <--> 255, returns binary equivalent as a string
n =num
dec2Bin$ =""
while ( num >0)
dec2Bin$ =str$( num mod 2) +dec2Bin$
num =int( num /2)
wend
dec2Bin$ =right$( "00000000" +dec2Bin$, 8)
end function
 

LiveCode[edit]

put "and:" && (255 bitand 2) & comma into bitops
put " or:" && (255 bitor 2) & comma after bitops
put " xor:" && (255 bitxor 2) & comma after bitops
put " not:" && (bitnot 255) after bitops
put bitops
 
-- Ouput
and: 2, or: 255, xor: 253, not: 4294967040

LiveCode does not provide built-in bit-shift operations.

LLVM[edit]

; ModuleID = 'test.o'
;e means little endian
;p: { pointer size : pointer abi : preferred alignment for pointers }
;i same for integers
;v is for vectors
;f for floats
;a for aggregate types
;s for stack objects
;n: {size:size:size...}, best integer sizes
target datalayout = "e-p:32:32:32-i1:8:8-i8:8:8-i16:16:16-i32:32:32-i64:64:64-f32:32:32-f64:64:64-v64:64:64-v128:128:128-a0:0:64-f80:32:32-n8:16:32"
;this was compiled with mingw32; thus it must be linked to an ABI compatible c library
target triple = "i386-mingw32"
 
@.str = private constant [13 x i8] c"a and b: %d\0A\00", align 1 ; <[13 x i8]*> [#uses=1]
@.str1 = private constant [12 x i8] c"a or b: %d\0A\00", align 1 ; <[12 x i8]*> [#uses=1]
@.str2 = private constant [13 x i8] c"a xor b: %d\0A\00", align 1 ; <[13 x i8]*> [#uses=1]
@.str3 = private constant [11 x i8] c"not a: %d\0A\00", align 1 ; <[11 x i8]*> [#uses=1]
@.str4 = private constant [12 x i8] c"a << n: %d\0A\00", align 1 ; <[12 x i8]*> [#uses=1]
@.str5 = private constant [12 x i8] c"a >> n: %d\0A\00", align 1 ; <[12 x i8]*> [#uses=1]
@.str6 = private constant [12 x i8] c"c >> b: %d\0A\00", align 1 ; <[12 x i8]*> [#uses=1]
 
;A function that will do many bitwise opreations to two integer arguments, %a and %b
define void @bitwise(i32 %a, i32 %b) nounwind {
;entry block
entry:
;Register to store (a & b)
%0 = and i32 %b, %a ; <i32> [#uses=1]
;print the results
%1 = tail call i32 (i8*, ...)* @printf(i8* getelementptr inbounds ([13 x i8]* @.str, i32 0, i32 0), i32 %0) nounwind ; <i32> [#uses=0]
;Register to store (a | b)
%2 = or i32 %b, %a ; <i32> [#uses=1]
;print the results
%3 = tail call i32 (i8*, ...)* @printf(i8* getelementptr inbounds ([12 x i8]* @.str1, i32 0, i32 0), i32 %2) nounwind ; <i32> [#uses=0]
;Register to store (a ^ b)
%4 = xor i32 %b, %a ; <i32> [#uses=1]
;print the results
%5 = tail call i32 (i8*, ...)* @printf(i8* getelementptr inbounds ([13 x i8]* @.str2, i32 0, i32 0), i32 %4) nounwind ; <i32> [#uses=0]
;Register to store (~a)
%not = xor i32 %a, -1 ; <i32> [#uses=1]
;print the results
%6 = tail call i32 (i8*, ...)* @printf(i8* getelementptr inbounds ([11 x i8]* @.str3, i32 0, i32 0), i32 %not) nounwind ; <i32> [#uses=0]
;Register to store (a << b)
%7 = shl i32 %a, %b ; <i32> [#uses=1]
;print the results
%8 = tail call i32 (i8*, ...)* @printf(i8* getelementptr inbounds ([12 x i8]* @.str4, i32 0, i32 0), i32 %7) nounwind ; <i32> [#uses=0]
;Register to store (a >> b) (a is signed)
%9 = ashr i32 %a, %b ; <i32> [#uses=1]
;print the results
%10 = tail call i32 (i8*, ...)* @printf(i8* getelementptr inbounds ([12 x i8]* @.str5, i32 0, i32 0), i32 %9) nounwind ; <i32> [#uses=0]
;Register to store (c >> b), where c is unsiged (eg. logical right shift)
%11 = lshr i32 %a, %b ; <i32> [#uses=1]
;print the results
%12 = tail call i32 (i8*, ...)* @printf(i8* getelementptr inbounds ([12 x i8]* @.str6, i32 0, i32 0), i32 %11) nounwind ; <i32> [#uses=0]
 
;terminator instruction
ret void
}
 
;Declare external fuctions
declare i32 @printf(i8* nocapture, ...) nounwind

[edit]

Works with: UCB Logo
to bitwise :a :b
(print [a and b:] BitAnd :a :b)
(print [a or b:] BitOr :a :b)
(print [a xor b:] BitXor :a :b)
(print [not a:] BitNot :a)
 ; shifts are to the left if positive, to the right if negative
(print [a lshift b:] LShift :a :b)
(print [a lshift -b:] LShift :a minus :b)
(print [-a ashift -b:] AShift minus :a minus :b)
end
bitwise 255 5

The output of this program is:

a and b: 5
a or b: 255
a xor b: 250
not a: -256
a lshift b: 8160
a lshift -b: 7
-a ashift -b: -8

Lua[edit]

LuaBitOp implements bitwise functionality for Lua:

local bit = require"bit"
 
local vb = {
0, 1, -1, 2, -2, 0x12345678, 0x87654321,
0x33333333, 0x77777777, 0x55aa55aa, 0xaa55aa55,
0x7fffffff, 0x80000000, 0xffffffff
}
 
local function cksum(name, s, r)
local z = 0
for i=1,#s do z = (z + string.byte(s, i)*i) % 2147483629 end
if z ~= r then
error("bit."..name.." test failed (got "..z..", expected "..r..")", 0)
end
end
 
local function check_unop(name, r)
local f = bit[name]
local s = ""
if pcall(f) or pcall(f, "z") or pcall(f, true) then
error("bit."..name.." fails to detect argument errors", 0)
end
for _,x in ipairs(vb) do s = s..","..tostring(f(x)) end
cksum(name, s, r)
end
 
local function check_binop(name, r)
local f = bit[name]
local s = ""
if pcall(f) or pcall(f, "z") or pcall(f, true) then
error("bit."..name.." fails to detect argument errors", 0)
end
for _,x in ipairs(vb) do
for _,y in ipairs(vb) do s = s..","..tostring(f(x, y)) end
end
cksum(name, s, r)
end
 
local function check_binop_range(name, r, yb, ye)
local f = bit[name]
local s = ""
if pcall(f) or pcall(f, "z") or pcall(f, true) or pcall(f, 1, true) then
error("bit."..name.." fails to detect argument errors", 0)
end
for _,x in ipairs(vb) do
for y=yb,ye do s = s..","..tostring(f(x, y)) end
end
cksum(name, s, r)
end
 
local function check_shift(name, r)
check_binop_range(name, r, 0, 31)
end
 
-- Minimal sanity checks.
assert(0x7fffffff == 2147483647, "broken hex literals")
assert(0xffffffff == -1 or 0xffffffff == 2^32-1, "broken hex literals")
assert(tostring(-1) == "-1", "broken tostring()")
assert(tostring(0xffffffff) == "-1" or tostring(0xffffffff) == "4294967295", "broken tostring()")
 
-- Basic argument processing.
assert(bit.tobit(1) == 1)
assert(bit.band(1) == 1)
assert(bit.bxor(1,2) == 3)
assert(bit.bor(1,2,4,8,16,32,64,128) == 255)
 

The RiscLua dialect, for RISC OS, has 32-bit integers as the default number type. It provides binary operations & (and), | (or), ^^ (xor), << (logical shift left), >> (logical shift right) and a unary operation ~ (negate).

LSE64[edit]

This example is incorrect. No reason given. Please fix the code and remove this message.
over : 2 pick
2dup : over over
 
bitwise : \
" A=" ,t over ,h sp " B=" ,t dup ,h nl \
" A and B=" ,t 2dup & ,h nl \
" A or B=" ,t 2dup | ,h nl \
" A xor B=" ,t over ^ ,h nl \
" not A=" ,t ~ ,h nl
 
\ a \ 7 bitwise # hex literals

Mathematica/ Wolfram Language[edit]

Most functions are built-in or can be made really easily:

(*and xor and or*)
BitAnd[integer1, integer2]
BitXor[integer1, integer2]
BitOr[integer1, integer2]
 
(*logical not*)
BitNot[integer1]
 
(*left and right shift*)
BitShiftLeft[integer1]
BitShiftRight[integer1]
 
(*rotate digits left and right*)
FromDigits[RotateLeft[IntegerDigits[integer1, 2]], 2]
FromDigits[RotateRight[IntegerDigits[integer1, 2]], 2]
 
(*right arithmetic shift*)
FromDigits[Prepend[Most[#], #[[1]]], 2] &[IntegerDigits[integer1, 2]]

The function BitShiftLeft, BitShiftRight, RotateRight, RotateLeft all take a second argument, which is the displacement, by default it is set to 1. BitAnd, BitXor and BitOr can handle more than 2 arguments:

BitXor[3333, 5555, 7777, 9999]

gives back:

8664

MATLAB / Octave[edit]

Newer versions of MATLAB have even more bitwise operations than those demonstrated here. A complete list of bitwise operations for the newest version of MATLAB can be found at MathWorks

function bitwiseOps(a,b)
 
disp(sprintf('%d and %d = %d', [a b bitand(a,b)]));
disp(sprintf('%d or %d = %d', [a b bitor(a,b)]));
disp(sprintf('%d xor %d = %d', [a b bitxor(a,b)]));
disp(sprintf('%d << %d = %d', [a b bitshift(a,b)]));
disp(sprintf('%d >> %d = %d', [a b bitshift(a,-b)]));
 
end

Output:

>> bitwiseOps(255,2)
255 and 2 = 2
255 or 2 = 255
255 xor 2 = 253
255 << 2 = 1020
255 >> 2 = 63

Maxima[edit]

load(functs)$
 
a: 3661$
b: 2541$
 
logor(a, b);
/* 4077 */
 
logand(a, b);
/* 2125 */
 
logxor(a, b);
/* 1952 */
 
/* NOT(x) is simply -x - 1
-a - 1;
/* -3662 */
 
logor(a, -a - 1);
/* -1 */
 
logand(a, -a - 1);
/* 0 */

MAXScript[edit]

fn bitwise a b =
(
format "a and b: %\n" (bit.and a b)
format "a or b: %\n" (bit.or a b)
format "a xor b: %\n" (bit.xor a b)
format "not a: %\n" (bit.not a)
format "Left shift a: %\n" (bit.shift a b)
format "Right shift a: %\n" (bit.shift a -b)
)
 
bitwise 255 170

MAXScript doesn't have arithmetic shift or rotate operations.

ML/I[edit]

ML/I only supports bitwise AND and OR operations. These are available from version CKD onwards.

MCSKIP "WITH" NL
"" Bitwise operations
"" assumes macros on input stream 1, terminal on stream 2
MCSKIP MT,<>
MCINS %.
MCDEF SL SPACES NL AS <MCSET T1=%A1.
MCSET T2=%A2.
a and b = %%T1.&%T2..
a or b = %%T1.|%T2..
The other operators are not supported.
MCSET S10=0
>
MCSKIP SL WITH *
MCSET S1=1
*MCSET S10=2
 

Modula-3[edit]

MODULE Bitwise EXPORTS Main;
 
IMPORT IO, Fmt, Word;
 
VAR c: Word.T;
 
PROCEDURE Bitwise(a, b: INTEGER) =
BEGIN
IO.Put("a AND b: " & Fmt.Int(Word.And(a, b)) & "\n");
IO.Put("a OR b: " & Fmt.Int(Word.Or(a, b)) & "\n");
IO.Put("a XOR b: " & Fmt.Int(Word.Xor(a, b)) & "\n");
IO.Put("NOT a: " & Fmt.Int(Word.Not(a)) & "\n");
c := a;
IO.Put("c LeftShift b: " & Fmt.Unsigned(Word.LeftShift(c, b)) & "\n");
IO.Put("c RightShift b: " & Fmt.Unsigned(Word.RightShift(c, b)) & "\n");
IO.Put("c LeftRotate b: " & Fmt.Unsigned(Word.LeftRotate(c, b)) & "\n");
IO.Put("c RightRotate b: " & Fmt.Unsigned(Word.RightRotate(c, b)) & "\n");
END Bitwise;
 
BEGIN
Bitwise(255, 5);
END Bitwise.

Output:

a AND b: 5
a OR b: 255
a XOR b: 250
NOT a: -256
c LeftShift b: 1fe0
c RightShift b: 7
c LeftRotate b: 1fe0
c RightRotate b: f8000007

Nemerle[edit]

def i = 255;
def j = 2;
 
WriteLine($"$i and $j is $(i & j)");
WriteLine($"$i or $j is $(i | j)");
WriteLine($"$i xor $j is $(i ^ j)");
WriteLine($"not $i is $(~i)");
WriteLine($"$i lshift $j is $(i << j)");
WriteLine($"$i arshift $j is $(i >> j)"); // When the left operand of the >> operator is of a signed integral type,
// the operator performs an arithmetic shift right
WriteLine($"$(i :> uint) rshift $j is $(c >> j)"); // When the left operand of the >> operator is of an unsigned integral type,
// the operator performs a logical shift right
// there are no rotation operators in Nemerle, but you could define your own w/ a macro if you really wanted it

Nim[edit]

proc bitwise(a, b) =
echo "a and b: " , a and b
echo "a or b: ", a or b
echo "a xor b: ", a xor b
echo "not a: ", not a
echo "a << b: ", a shl b
echo "a >> b: ", a shr b

NSIS[edit]

All bitwise operations in NSIS are handled by the IntOp instruction.

Function Bitwise
Push $0
Push $1
Push $2
StrCpy $0 7
StrCpy $1 2
 
IntOp $2 $0 & $1
DetailPrint "Bitwise AND: $0 & $1 = $2"
IntOp $2 $0 | $1
DetailPrint "Bitwise OR: $0 | $1 = $2"
IntOp $2 $0 ^ $1
DetailPrint "Bitwise XOR: $0 ^ $1 = $2"
IntOp $2 $0 ~
DetailPrint "Bitwise NOT (negate in NSIS docs): ~$0 = $2"
DetailPrint "There are no Arithmetic shifts in NSIS"
IntOp $2 $0 >> $1
DetailPrint "Right Shift: $0 >> 1 = $2"
IntOp $2 $0 << $1
DetailPrint "Left Shift: $0 << $1 = $2"
DetailPrint "There are no Rotates in NSIS"
 
 
Pop $2
Pop $1
Pop $0
FunctionEnd

Oberon-2[edit]

Works with: oo2c version 2
 
MODULE Bitwise;
IMPORT
SYSTEM,
Out;
 
PROCEDURE Do(a,b: LONGINT);
VAR
x,y: SET;
BEGIN
x := SYSTEM.VAL(SET,a);y := SYSTEM.VAL(SET,b);
Out.String("a and b :> ");Out.Int(SYSTEM.VAL(LONGINT,x * y),0);Out.Ln;
Out.String("a or b  :> ");Out.Int(SYSTEM.VAL(LONGINT,x + y),0);Out.Ln;
Out.String("a xor b :> ");Out.Int(SYSTEM.VAL(LONGINT,x / y),0);Out.Ln;
Out.String("a and ~b:> ");Out.Int(SYSTEM.VAL(LONGINT,x - y),0);Out.Ln;
Out.String("~a  :> ");Out.Int(SYSTEM.VAL(LONGINT,-x),0);Out.Ln;
Out.String("a left shift b :> ");Out.Int(SYSTEM.VAL(LONGINT,SYSTEM.LSH(x,b)),0);Out.Ln;
Out.String("a right shift b :> ");Out.Int(SYSTEM.VAL(LONGINT,SYSTEM.LSH(x,-b)),0);Out.Ln;
Out.String("a left rotate b :> ");Out.Int(SYSTEM.VAL(LONGINT,SYSTEM.ROT(x,b)),0);Out.Ln;
Out.String("a right rotate b :> ");Out.Int(SYSTEM.VAL(LONGINT,SYSTEM.ROT(x,-b)),0);Out.Ln;
Out.String("a arithmetic left shift b :> ");Out.Int(SYSTEM.VAL(LONGINT,ASH(a,b)),0);Out.Ln;
Out.String("a arithmetic right shift b :> ");Out.Int(SYSTEM.VAL(LONGINT,ASH(a,-b)),0);Out.Ln
END Do;
 
BEGIN
Do(10,2);
END Bitwise.
 
Output:
a and b :> 2
a or b  :> 10
a xor b :> 8
a and ~b:> 8
~a      :> -11
a left shift b :> 40
a right shift b :> 2
a left rotate b :> 40
a right rotate b :> -2147483646
a arithmetic left shift b :> 40
a arithmetic right shift b :> 2

Objeck[edit]

use IO;
 
bundle Default {
class Test {
function : Main(args : String[]) ~ Nil {
BitWise(3, 4);
}
 
function : BitWise(a : Int, b : Int) ~ Nil {
Console->GetInstance()->Print("a and b: ")->PrintLine(a and b);
Console->GetInstance()->Print("a or b: ")->PrintLine(a or b);
Console->GetInstance()->Print("a xor b: ")->PrintLine(a xor b);
# shift left & right are supported by the compiler and VM but not
# exposed to end-users; those instructions are used for optimizations
}
}
}

OCaml[edit]

let bitwise a b =
Printf.printf "a and b: %d\n" (a land b);
Printf.printf "a or b: %d\n" (a lor b);
Printf.printf "a xor b: %d\n" (a lxor b);
Printf.printf "not a: %d\n" (lnot a);
Printf.printf "a lsl b: %d\n" (a lsl b); (* left shift *)
Printf.printf "a asr b: %d\n" (a asr b); (* arithmetic right shift *)
Printf.printf "a lsr b: %d\n" (a lsr b); (* logical right shift *)
;;

Octave[edit]

There's no arithmetic shift nor rotation (and the not can be done through a xor)

function bitops(a, b)
s = sprintf("%s %%s %s = %%s\n", dec2bin(a), dec2bin(b));
printf(s, "or", dec2bin(bitor(a, b)));
printf(s, "and", dec2bin(bitand(a, b)));
printf(s, "xor", dec2bin(bitxor(a, b)));
printf(s, "left shift", dec2bin(bitshift(a, abs(b))));
printf(s, "right shift", dec2bin(bitshift(a, -abs(b))));
printf("simul not %s = %s", dec2bin(a), dec2bin(bitxor(a, 0xffffffff)));
endfunction
 
bitops(0x1e, 0x3);

Oforth[edit]

There is no built-in for not and rotation

: bitwise(a, b)
a b bitAnd println
a b bitOr println
a b bitXor println
a bitLeft(b) println
a bitRight(b) println ;

ooRexx[edit]

/* ooRexx *************************************************************
/ Bit Operations work as in Rexx (of course)
* Bit operations are performed up to the length of the shorter string.
* The rest of the longer string is copied to the result.
* ooRexx introduces the possibility to specify a padding character
* to be used for expanding the shorter string.
* 10.11.2012 Walter Pachl taken over from REXX and extended for ooRexx
**********************************************************************/

a=21
b=347
Say ' a :'c2b(a) ' 'c2x(a)
Say ' b :'c2b(b) c2x(b)
Say 'bitand(a,b) :'c2b(bitand(a,b)) c2x(bitand(a,b))
Say 'bitor(a,b)  :'c2b(bitor(a,b)) c2x(bitor(a,b))
Say 'bitxor(a,b) :'c2b(bitxor(a,b)) c2x(bitxor(a,b))
p='11111111'B
Say 'ooRexx only:'
Say 'a~bitor(b,p):'c2b(a~bitor(b,p)) c2x(a~bitor(b,p))
Exit
c2b: return x2b(c2x(arg(1)))

Output:

          a :0011001000110001         3231
          b :001100110011010000110111 333437
bitand(a,b) :001100100011000000110111 323037
bitor(a,b)  :001100110011010100110111 333537
bitxor(a,b) :000000010000010100110111 010537
ooRexx only:
a~bitor(b,p):001100110011010111111111 3335FF

OpenEdge/Progress[edit]

The only bit operators available in OpenEdge are the GET-BITS() and PUT-BITS() functions. These functions can be used to implement all bitwise operators.

PARI/GP[edit]

Pari does not support bitwise rotations, which have no obvious meaning with arbitrary-precision integers. See also bitnegimply for another bitwise operator. For shifts, see also shiftmul.

bo(a,b)={
print("And: "bitand(a,b));
print("Or: "bitor(a,b));
print("Not: "bitneg(a));
print("Xor: "bitxor(a,b));
print("Left shift: ",a<<b);
print("Right shift: ",a>>b);
}

Pascal[edit]

While Standard Pascal does not have bitwise operations, most Pascal implementations (including Turbo Pascal and Delphi) extend the standard logical operators to also provide bitwise operations:

var
a, b: integer;
begin
a := 10; { binary 1010 }
b := 12; { binary 1100 }
writeln('a and b = ', a and b); { 8 = 1000 }
writeln('a or b = ', a or b); { 14 = 1110 }
writeln('a xor b = ', a xor b) { 6 = 0110 }
end.

Perl[edit]

use integer;
 
sub bitwise($$) {
($a, $b) = @_;
print 'a and b: '. ($a & $b) ."\n";
print 'a or b: '. ($a | $b) ."\n";
print 'a xor b: '. ($a ^ $b) ."\n";
print 'not a: '. (~$a) ."\n";
print 'a >> b: ', $a >> $b, "\n"; # logical right shift
 
use integer; # "use integer" enables bitwise operations to return signed ints
print "after use integer:\n";
print 'a << b: ', $a << $b, "\n"; # left shift
print 'a >> b: ', $a >> $b, "\n"; # arithmetic right shift
}

Perl 6[edit]

Works with: Rakudo version 2015.12
constant MAXINT = uint.Range.max;
constant BITS = MAXINT.base(2).chars;
 
# define rotate ops for the fun of it
multi sub infix:<>(Int:D \a, Int:D \b) { :2[(a +& MAXINT).polymod(2 xx BITS-1).list.rotate(b).reverse] }
multi sub infix:<>(Int:D \a, Int:D \b) { :2[(a +& MAXINT).polymod(2 xx BITS-1).reverse.rotate(b)] }
 
sub int-bits (Int $a, Int $b) {
say '';
say_bit "$a", $a;
say '';
say_bit "2's complement $a", +^$a;
say_bit "$a and $b", $a +& $b;
say_bit "$a or $b", $a +| $b;
say_bit "$a xor $b", $a +^ $b;
say_bit "$a unsigned shift right $b", ($a +& MAXINT) +> $b;
say_bit "$a signed shift right $b", $a +> $b;
say_bit "$a rotate right $b", $a$b;
say_bit "$a shift left $b", $a +< $b;
say_bit "$a rotate left $b", $a$b;
}
 
int-bits(7,2);
int-bits(-65432,31);
 
sub say_bit ($message, $value) {
printf("%30s: %{'0' ~ BITS}b\n", $message, $value +& MAXINT);
}
Output:
                             7: 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000111

              2's complement 7: 1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111000
                       7 and 2: 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000010
                        7 or 2: 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000111
                       7 xor 2: 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000101
      7 unsigned shift right 2: 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000001
        7 signed shift right 2: 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000001
              7 rotate right 2: 1100000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000001
                7 shift left 2: 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000011100
               7 rotate left 2: 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000011100

                        -65432: 1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111110000000001101000

         2's complement -65432: 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000001111111110010111
                 -65432 and 31: 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000001000
                  -65432 or 31: 1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111110000000001111111
                 -65432 xor 31: 1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111110000000001110111
-65432 unsigned shift right 31: 0000000000000000000000000000000111111111111111111111111111111111
  -65432 signed shift right 31: 1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111
        -65432 rotate right 31: 1111111111111110000000001101000111111111111111111111111111111111
          -65432 shift left 31: 1111111111111111100000000011010000000000000000000000000000000000
         -65432 rotate left 31: 1111111111111111100000000011010001111111111111111111111111111111

Phix[edit]

Phix has four builtin bitwise operations (and/or/xor/not), all of which have sequence variants. There are no builtin shift or rotate operations, but it would be easy to devise one using / or * powers of 2 [which the compiler often optimises to single machine instructions] and the builtins, see C for an example, or use inline assembly as shown below.

enum SHL, SAR, SHR, ROL, ROR
function bitop(atom a, integer b, integer op)
atom res
#ilASM{
[32]
mov eax,[a]
call :%pLoadMint
mov ecx,[b]
mov edx,[op]
cmp dl,SHL
jne @f
shl eax,cl
jmp :storeres
@@:
cmp dl,SAR
jne @f
sar eax,cl
jmp :storeres
@@:
cmp dl,SHR
jne @f
shr eax,cl
jmp :storeres
@@:
cmp dl,ROL
jne @f
rol eax,cl
jmp :storeres
@@:
cmp dl,ROR
jne @f
ror eax,cl
jmp :storeres
@@:
int3
 ::storeres
lea edi,[res]
call :%pStoreMint
[64]
mov rax,[a]
mov rcx,[b]
mov edx,[op]
cmp dl,SHL
jne @f
shl rax,cl
jmp :storeres
@@:
cmp dl,SAR
jne @f
sar rax,cl
jmp :storeres
@@:
cmp dl,SHR
jne @f
shr rax,cl
jmp :storeres
@@:
cmp dl,ROL
jne @f
rol rax,cl
jmp :storeres
@@:
cmp dl,ROR
jne @f
ror eax,cl
jmp :storeres
@@:
int3
 ::storeres
lea rdi,[res]
call :%pStoreMint
}
return res
end function
 
procedure bitwise(atom a, atom b)
printf(1,"and_bits(%b,%b) = %032b\n",{a,b,and_bits(a,b)})
printf(1," or_bits(%b,%b) = %032b\n",{a,b, or_bits(a,b)})
printf(1,"xor_bits(%b,%b) = %032b\n",{a,b,xor_bits(a,b)})
printf(1,"not_bits(%b) = %032b\n",{a,not_bits(a)})
printf(1," shl(%b,%b) = %032b\n",{a,b,bitop(a,b,SHL)})
printf(1," sar(%b,%b) = %032b\n",{a,b,bitop(a,b,SAR)})
printf(1," shr(%b,%b) = %032b\n",{a,b,bitop(a,b,SHR)})
printf(1," rol(%b,%b) = %032b\n",{a,b,bitop(a,b,ROL)})
printf(1," ror(%b,%b) = %032b\n",{a,b,bitop(a,b,ROR)})
end procedure
 
bitwise(0x800000FE,7)
Output:
and_bits(10000000000000000000000011111110,111) = 00000000000000000000000000000110
 or_bits(10000000000000000000000011111110,111) = 10000000000000000000000011111111
xor_bits(10000000000000000000000011111110,111) = 10000000000000000000000011111001
not_bits(10000000000000000000000011111110)     = 01111111111111111111111100000001
     shl(10000000000000000000000011111110,111) = 00000000000000000111111100000000
     sar(10000000000000000000000011111110,111) = 11111111000000000000000000000001
     shr(10000000000000000000000011111110,111) = 00000001000000000000000000000001
     rol(10000000000000000000000011111110,111) = 00000000000000000111111101000000
     ror(10000000000000000000000011111110,111) = 11111101000000000000000000000001

PHP[edit]

function bitwise($a, $b)
{
function zerofill($a,$b) {
if($a>=0) return $a>>$b;
if($b==0) return (($a>>1)&0x7fffffff)*2+(($a>>$b)&1); // this line shifts a 0 into the sign bit for compatibility, replace with "if($b==0) return $a;" if you need $b=0 to mean that nothing happens
return ((~$a)>>$b)^(0x7fffffff>>($b-1));
 
echo '$a AND $b: ' . $a & $b . '\n';
echo '$a OR $b: ' . $a | $b . '\n';
echo '$a XOR $b: ' . $a ^ $b . '\n';
echo 'NOT $a: ' . ~$a . '\n';
echo '$a << $b: ' . $a << $b . '\n'; // left shift
echo '$a >> $b: ' . $a >> $b . '\n'; // arithmetic right shift
echo 'zerofill($a, $b): ' . zerofill($a, $b) . '\n'; // logical right shift
}

PicoLisp[edit]

PicoLisp has no specific word size. Numbers grow to arbitrary length. Therefore, bitwise NOT, logical (non-arithmetic) SHIFTs, and rotate operations do not make sense.

Bitwise AND:

: (& 6 3)
-> 2
 
: (& 7 3 1)
-> 1

Bitwise AND-Test (tests if all bits in the first argument are set in the following arguments):

: (bit? 1 2)
-> NIL
 
: (bit? 6 3)
-> NIL
 
: (bit? 6 15 255)
-> 6

Bitwise OR:

: (| 1 2)
-> 3
 
: (| 1 2 4 8)
-> 15

Bitwise XOR:

: (x| 2 7)
-> 5
 
: (x| 2 7 1)
-> 4

Shift (right with a positive count, left with a negative count):

: (>> 1 8)
-> 4
 
: (>> 3 16)
-> 2
 
: (>> -3 16)
-> 128
 
: (>> -1 -16)
-> -32

PL/I[edit]

/* PL/I can perform bit operations on binary integers. */
k = iand(i,j);
k = ior(i,j);
k = inot(i,j);
k = ieor(i,j);
k = isll(i,n); /* unsigned shifts i left by n places. */
k = isrl(i,n); /* unsigned shifts i right by n places. */
k = lower2(i, n); /* arithmetic right shift i by n places. */
k = raise2(i, n); /* arithmetic left shift i by n places. */
 
/* PL/I can also perform boolean operations on bit strings */
/* of any length: */
 
declare (s, t, u) bit (*);
 
u = s & t; /* logical and */
u = s | t; /* logical or */
u = ^ s; /* logical not */
u = s ^ t; /* exclusive or */
 
Built-in rotate functions are not available.
They can be readily implemented by the user, though:
 
u = substr(s, length(s), 1) || substr(s, 1, length(s)-1); /* implements rotate right. */
u = substr(s, 2) || substr(s, 1, 1); /* implements rotate left. */
 

Pop11[edit]

define bitwise(a, b);
printf(a && b, 'a and b = %p\n');
printf(a || b, 'a or b = %p\n');
printf(a ||/& b, 'a xor b = %p\n');
printf(~~ a, 'not a = %p\n');
printf(a << b, 'left shift of a by b = %p\n');
printf(a >> b, 'arithmetic right shift of a by b = %p\n');
enddefine;

Conceptually in Pop11 integers have infinite precision, in particular negative numbers conceptually have infinitely many leading 1's in two's complement notation. Hence, logical right shift is not defined. If needed, logical right shift can be simulated by masking high order bits.

Similarly, on infinitely precise numbers rotation is undefined.

PureBasic[edit]

Procedure Bitwise(a, b)
Debug a & b ; And
Debug a | b ;Or
Debug a ! b ; XOr
Debug ~a ;Not
Debug a << b ; shift left
Debug a >> b ; arithmetic shift right
; Logical shift right and rotates are not available
; You can of use inline ASM to achieve this:
Define Temp
; logical shift right
!mov edx, dword [p.v_a]
!mov ecx, dword [p.v_b]
!shr edx, cl
!mov dword [p.v_Temp], edx
Debug Temp
; rotate left
!mov edx, dword [p.v_a]
!mov ecx, dword [p.v_b]
!rol edx, cl
!mov dword [p.v_Temp], edx
Debug Temp
; rotate right
!mov edx, dword [p.v_a]
!mov ecx, dword [p.v_b]
!ror edx, cl
!mov dword [p.v_Temp], edx
Debug Temp
EndProcedure

PowerShell[edit]

Logical right shift and rotations are not supported in PowerShell.

Works with: PowerShell version 2.0
$X -band $Y
$X -bor $Y
$X -bxor $Y
-bnot $X
Works with: PowerShell version 3.0
$X -shl $Y
# Arithmetic right shift
$X -shr $Y
 
# Requires quite a stretch of the imagination to call this "native" support of right rotate, but it works
[System.Security.Cryptography.SHA256Managed].GetMethod('RotateRight', 'NonPublic, Static', $null, @([UInt32], [Int32]), $null).Invoke($null, @([uint32]$X, $Y))

Python[edit]

def bitwise(a, b):
print 'a and b:', a & b
print 'a or b:', a | b
print 'a xor b:', a ^ b
print 'not a:', ~a
print 'a << b:', a << b # left shift
print 'a >> b:', a >> b # arithmetic right shift

Python does not have built in rotate or logical right shift operations.

Note: Newer Python versions (circa 2.4?) will automatically promote integers into "long integers" (arbitrary length, bounded by available memory). This can be noticed especially when using left shift operations. When using bitwise operations one usually wants to keep these bounded to specific sizes such as 8, 16, 32 or 64 bit widths. To do these we use the AND operator with specific values (bitmasks). For example:

# 8-bit bounded shift:
x = x << n & 0xff
# ditto for 16 bit:
x = x << n & 0xffff
# ... and 32-bit:
x = x << n & 0xffffffff
# ... and 64-bit:
x = x << n & 0xffffffffffffffff

We can easily implement our own rotation functions. For left rotations this is down by ORing the left shifted and masked lower bits against the right shifted upper bits. For right rotations we perform the converse operations, ORing a set of right shifted lower bits against the appropriate number of left shifted upper bits.

def bitstr(n, width=None):
"""return the binary representation of n as a string and
optionally zero-fill (pad) it to a given length
"""

result = list()
while n:
result.append(str(n%2))
n = int(n/2)
if (width is not None) and len(result) < width:
result.extend(['0'] * (width - len(result)))
result.reverse()
return ''.join(result)
 
def mask(n):
"""Return a bitmask of length n (suitable for masking against an
int to coerce the size to a given length)
"""

if n >= 0:
return 2**n - 1
else:
return 0
 
def rol(n, rotations=1, width=8):
"""Return a given number of bitwise left rotations of an integer n,
for a given bit field width.
"""

rotations %= width
if rotations < 1:
return n
n &= mask(width) ## Should it be an error to truncate here?
return ((n << rotations) & mask(width)) | (n >> (width - rotations))
 
def ror(n, rotations=1, width=8):
"""Return a given number of bitwise right rotations of an integer n,
for a given bit field width.
"""

rotations %= width
if rotations < 1:
return n
n &= mask(width)
return (n >> rotations) | ((n << (width - rotations)) & mask(width))

In this example we show a relatively straightforward function for converting integers into strings of bits, and another simple mask() function to create arbitrary lengths of bits against which we perform our masking operations. Also note that the implementation of these functions defaults to single bit rotations of 8-bit bytes. Additional arguments can be used to over-ride these defaults. Any case where the number of rotations modulo the width is zero represents a rotation of all bits back to their starting positions. This implementation should handle any integer number of rotations over bitfields of any valid (positive integer) length.

R[edit]

Native functions in R 3.x[edit]

# Since R 3.0.0, the base package provides bitwise operators, see ?bitwAnd
 
a <- 35
b <- 42
bitwAnd(a, b)
bitwOr(a, b)
bitwXor(a, b)
bitwNot(a)
bitwShiftL(a, 2)
bitwShiftR(a, 2)
 
# See also http://cran.r-project.org/src/base/NEWS.html

Using as.hexmode or as.octmode[edit]

a <- as.hexmode(35)
b <- as.hexmode(42)
as.integer(a & b) # 34
as.integer(a | b) # 43
as.integer(xor(a, b)) # 9

Using intToBits[edit]

The logical operators in R, namely &, | and !, are designed to work on logical vectors rather than bits. It is possible to convert from integer to logical vector and back to make these work as required, e.g.

intToLogicalBits <- function(intx) as.logical(intToBits(intx))
logicalBitsToInt <- function(lb) as.integer(sum((2^(0:31))[lb]))
"%AND%" <- function(x, y)
{
logicalBitsToInt(intToLogicalBits(x) & intToLogicalBits(y))
}
"%OR%" <- function(x, y)
{
logicalBitsToInt(intToLogicalBits(x) | intToLogicalBits(y))
}
 
35 %AND% 42 # 34
35 %OR% 42 # 42

Using bitops package[edit]

library(bitops)
bitAnd(35, 42) # 34
bitOr(35, 42) # 43
bitXor(35, 42) # 9
bitFlip(35, bitWidth=8) # 220
bitShiftL(35, 1) # 70
bitShiftR(35, 1) # 17
# Note that no bit rotation is provided in this package

Using hidden native functions from base package[edit]

# As one can see from
getDLLRegisteredRoutines(getLoadedDLLs()$base)
# R knows functions bitwiseAnd, bitwiseOr, bitwiseXor and bitwiseNot.
# Here is how to call them (see ?.Call for the calling mechanism):
 
.Call("bitwiseOr", as.integer(12), as.integer(10))
.Call("bitwiseXor", as.integer(12), as.integer(10))
.Call("bitwiseAnd", as.integer(12), as.integer(10))
.Call("bitwiseNot", as.integer(12))
 
# It would be easy to embed these calls in R functions, for better readability
# Also, it's possible to call these functions on integer vectors:
 
.Call("bitwiseOr", c(5L, 2L), c(3L, 8L))

Racket[edit]

 
#lang racket
(define a 255)
(define b 5)
(list (bitwise-and a b)
(bitwise-ior a b)
(bitwise-xor a b)
(bitwise-not a)
(arithmetic-shift a b)  ; left shift
(arithmetic-shift a (- b))) ; right shift
 

Output:

'(5 255 250 -256 8160 7)

Retro[edit]

There is no predefined arithmetic shifts in Retro.

 
: bitwise ( ab- )
cr
over "a = %d\n" puts
dup "b = %d\n" puts
2over and "a and b = %d\n" puts
2over or "a or b = %d\n" puts
2over xor "a xor b = %d\n" puts
over not "not a = %d\n" puts
2over << "a << b = %d\n" puts
2over >> "a >> b = %d\n" puts
2drop ;

REXX[edit]

  ╔════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════╗
  ║ Since REXX stores numbers (indeed, all values) as characters, it makes no sense to ║
  ║ "rotate"  a value,  since there aren't any boundaries for the value.  I.E.:  there ║
  ║ isn't any 32─bit word "container"  or  "cell"  (for instance)  to store an integer.║
  ╚════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════╝
/*REXX program performs  bitwise operations  on integers:   &   |   &&   ¬   «L   »R    */
numeric digits 1000 /*be able to handle some big integers. */
say center('decimal', 9) center("value", 9) center('bits', 50)
say copies('─' , 9) copies("─" , 9) copies('─', 50)
 
a = 21  ; call show a , 'A' /* show & tell A */
b = 3  ; call show b , 'B' /* show & tell B */
 
call show bAnd(a,b) , 'A & B' /* and */
call show bOr( a,b) , 'A | B' /* or */
call show bXOr(a,b) , 'A && B' /* xor */
call show bNot(a) , '¬ A' /* not */
call show bShiftL(a,b) , 'A [«B]' /* shift left */
call show bShiftR(a,b) , 'A [»B]' /* shirt right */
exit /*stick a fork in it, we're all done. */
/*──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────*/
show: procedure; parse arg x,t; say right(x,9) center(t,9) right(d2b(x),50); return
d2b: return x2b(d2x(arg(1))) +0 /*some REXXes have the D2B BIF. */
b2d: return x2d(b2x(arg(1))) /* " " " " B2D " */
bNot: return b2d(translate(d2b(arg(1)), 10, 01)) +0 /*+0 ≡ normalizes the number*/
bShiftL: return (b2d(d2b(arg(1)) || copies(0, arg(2)))) +0 /* " " " " " */
bAnd: procedure; parse arg x,y; return c2d(bitand(d2c(x), d2c(y)))
bOr: procedure; parse arg x,y; return c2d(bitor( d2c(x), d2c(y)))
bXor: procedure; parse arg x,y; return c2d(bitxor(d2c(x), d2c(y)))
/*──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────*/
bShiftR: procedure; parse arg x,y; $=substr(reverse(d2b(x)), y+1)
if $=='' then $=0; return b2d(reverse($))

output

 decimal    value                          bits
───────── ───────── ──────────────────────────────────────────────────
       21     A                                                  10101
        3     B                                                     11
        1   A & B                                                    1
       23   A | B                                                10111
       22  A && B                                                10110
       10    ¬ A                                                  1010
      168  A [«B]                                             10101000
        2  A [»B]                                                   10

Ring[edit]

 
x = 8
y = 2
 
see "x & y - Binary AND : " + (x & y) + nl
see "x | y - Binary OR : " + (x | y) + nl
see "x ^ y - Binary XOR : " + (x ^ y) +nl
see "~x - Binary Ones Complement : " + (~x) + nl
see "x << y - Binary Left Shift : " + (x << y) + nl
see "x >> y - Binary Right Shift : " + (x >> y) + nl
 

RLaB[edit]

In RLaB the bitwise operations are available for integers type of numbers. For the operations below if both arguments are integers then the result of the operation is an integer as well.

>> x = int(3);
>> y = int(1);
>> z = x && y; printf("0x%08x\n",z); // logical 'and'
0x00000001
>> z = x || y; printf("0x%08x\n",z); // logical 'or'
0x00000003
>> z = !x; printf("0x%08x\n",z); // logical 'not'
0xfffffffc
>> i2 = int(2);
>> z = x * i2; printf("0x%08x\n",z); // left-shift is multiplication by 2 where both arguments are integers
0x00000006
>> z = x / i2; printf("0x%08x\n",z); // right-shift is division by 2 where both arguments are integers
0x00000001

Ruby[edit]

def bitwise(a, b)
form = "%1$7s:%2$6d  %2$016b"
puts form % ["a", a]
puts form % ["b", b]
puts form % ["a and b", a & b]
puts form % ["a or b ", a | b]
puts form % ["a xor b", a ^ b]
puts form % ["not a ", ~a]
puts form % ["a << b ", a << b] # left shift
puts form % ["a >> b ", a >> b] # arithmetic right shift
end
 
bitwise(14,3)
Output:
      a:    14  0000000000001110
      b:     3  0000000000000011
a and b:     2  0000000000000010
a or b :    15  0000000000001111
a xor b:    13  0000000000001101
not a  :   -15  ..11111111110001
a << b :   112  0000000001110000
a >> b :     1  0000000000000001

Rust[edit]

fn main() {
let a: u8 = 105;
let b: u8 = 91;
println!("a = {:0>8b}", a);
println!("b = {:0>8b}", b);
println!("a | b = {:0>8b}", a | b);
println!("a & b = {:0>8b}", a & b);
println!("a ^ b = {:0>8b}", a ^ b);
println!("!a = {:0>8b}", !a);
println!("a << 3 = {:0>8b}", a << 3);
println!("a >> 3 = {:0>8b}", a >> 3);
}

Output:

a      = 01101001
b      = 01011011
a | b  = 01111011
a & b  = 01001001
a ^ b  = 00110010
!a     = 10010110
a << 3 = 01001000
a >> 3 = 00001101

SAS[edit]

/* rotations are not available, but are easy to implement with the other bitwise operators */
data _null_;
a=105;
b=91;
c=bxor(a,b);
d=band(a,b);
e=bor(a,b);
f=bnot(a); /* on 32 bits */
g=blshift(a,1);
h=brshift(a,1);
put _all_;
run;


Scala[edit]

def bitwise(a: Int, b: Int) {
println("a and b: " + (a & b))
println("a or b: " + (a | b))
println("a xor b: " + (a ^ b))
println("not a: " + (~a))
println("a << b: " + (a << b)) // left shift
println("a >> b: " + (a >> b)) // arithmetic right shift
println("a >>> b: " + (a >>> b)) // unsigned right shift
println("a rot b: " + Integer.rotateLeft(a, b)) // Rotate Left
println("a rol b: " + Integer.rotateRight(a, b)) // Rotate Right
}

Scheme[edit]

Works with: Scheme version RRS
(import (rnrs arithmetic bitwise (6)))
 
(define (bitwise a b)
(display (bitwise-and a b))
(newline)
(display (bitwise-ior a b))
(newline)
(display (bitwise-xor a b))
(newline)
(display (bitwise-not a))
(newline)
(display (bitwise-arithmetic-shift-right a b))
(newline))
 
(bitwise 255 5)

Output:

5
255
250
-256
7

Note: bitwise operations were also described in SRFI-60, with additional aliases (and previously discussed in SRFI-33 which remained draft).

Seed7[edit]

The type integer is intended for arithmetic operations. Besides arithmetic shifts, which are seen as multiplication and division by powers of two, no bitwise operations are supported. The type bin32 is intended for bit-pattern operations. Bin32 has the same internal representation as integer. That way conversions between them don't cause an overhead. Right shifting of bin32 values is done with logical shifts.

$ include "seed7_05.s7i";
include "bin32.s7i";
 
const proc: bitwise (in integer: a, in integer: b) is func
begin
writeln("a: " <& a radix 2 lpad0 32);
writeln("b: " <& b radix 2 lpad0 32);
writeln("integer operations:");
writeln("a << b: " <& a << b radix 2 lpad0 32); # left shift
writeln("a >> b: " <& a >> b radix 2 lpad0 32); # arithmetic right shift
end func;
 
const proc: bitwise (in bin32: a, in bin32: b) is func
begin
writeln("bin32 operations:");
writeln("a and b: " <& a & b radix 2 lpad0 32);
writeln("a or b: " <& a | b radix 2 lpad0 32);
writeln("a xor b: " <& a >< b radix 2 lpad0 32);
writeln("not a: " <& ~a radix 2 lpad0 32);
writeln("a << b: " <& a << ord(b) radix 2 lpad0 32); # left shift
writeln("a >> b: " <& a >> ord(b) radix 2 lpad0 32); # logical right shift
writeln("a rotL b: " <& rotLeft(a, ord(b)) radix 2 lpad0 32); # Rotate Left
writeln("a rolR b: " <& rotRight(a, ord(b)) radix 2 lpad0 32); # Rotate Right
end func;
 
const proc: main is func
begin
bitwise(65076, 6);
bitwise(bin32(65076), bin32(6));
end func;
Output:
a:        00000000000000001111111000110100
b:        00000000000000000000000000000110
integer operations:
a << b:   00000000001111111000110100000000
a >> b:   00000000000000000000001111111000
bin32 operations:
a and b:  00000000000000000000000000000100
a or b:   00000000000000001111111000110110
a xor b:  00000000000000001111111000110010
not a:    11111111111111110000000111001011
a << b:   00000000001111111000110100000000
a >> b:   00000000000000000000001111111000
a rotL b: 00000000001111111000110100000000
a rolR b: 11010000000000000000001111111000

Sidef[edit]

func bitwise(a, b) {
 
# Make sure they are integers
a.to_int!;
b.to_int!;
 
say ('a and b : ', a & b);
say ('a or b  : ', a | b);
say ('a xor b : ', a ^ b);
say ('not a  : ', ~a);
say ('a << b  : ', a << b); # left shift
say ('a >> b  : ', a >> b); # arithmetic right shift
}
 
bitwise(14,3)
Output:
a and b : 2
a or b  : 15
a xor b : 13
not a   : -15
a << b  : 112
a >> b  : 1

Slate[edit]

[ |:a :b |
 
inform: (a bitAnd: b) printString.
inform: (a bitOr: b) printString.
inform: (a bitXor: b) printString.
inform: (a bitNot) printString.
inform: (a << b) printString.
inform: (a >> b) printString.
 
] applyTo: {8. 12}.

Bold text

Smalltalk[edit]

Works with: GNU Smalltalk
Works with: Smalltalk/X

Since GNU Smalltalk by default runs without a graphical user interface, I wrote the program in that dialect. The actual methods for bitwise operations (bitAnd:, etc.) are the same in all implementations.

| testBitFunc |
testBitFunc := [ :a :b |
('%1 and %2 is %3' % { a. b. (a bitAnd: b) }) displayNl.
('%1 or %2 is %3' % { a. b. (a bitOr: b) }) displayNl.
('%1 xor %2 is %3' % { a. b. (a bitXor: b) }) displayNl.
('not %1 is %2' % { a. (a bitInvert) }) displayNl.
('%1 left shift %2 is %3' % { a. b. (a bitShift: b) }) displayNl.
('%1 right shift %2 is %3' % { a. b. (a bitShift: (b negated)) }) displayNl.
].
testBitFunc value: 16r7F value: 4 .

in addition to the above,

Works with: Smalltalk/X
(a bitClear: b) "mask out bits"
(a bitAt: index) "retrieve a bit (bit-index, one-based)"
(a setBit: index) "set a bit (bit-index)"
(a clearBit: index) "clear a bit (bit-index)"
(a invertBit: index) "invert a bit (bit index)"
lowBit "find the index of the lowest one-bit; zero if none"
highBit "find the index of the highest one-bit; zero if none"
bitCount "count the one-bits"

Notice that all of those work on arbitrarily large integers (i.e. 1000 factorial lowBit -> 995).

Standard ML[edit]

For integers, IntInfs provide bitwise operations:

fun bitwise_ints (a, b) = (
print ("a and b: " ^ IntInf.toString (IntInf.andb (IntInf.fromInt a, IntInf.fromInt b)) ^ "\n");
print ("a or b: " ^ IntInf.toString (IntInf.orb (IntInf.fromInt a, IntInf.fromInt b)) ^ "\n");
print ("a xor b: " ^ IntInf.toString (IntInf.xorb (IntInf.fromInt a, IntInf.fromInt b)) ^ "\n");
print ("not a: " ^ IntInf.toString (IntInf.notb (IntInf.fromInt a )) ^ "\n");
print ("a lsl b: " ^ IntInf.toString (IntInf.<< (IntInf.fromInt a, Word.fromInt b )) ^ "\n"); (* left shift *)
print ("a asr b: " ^ IntInf.toString (IntInf.~>> (IntInf.fromInt a, Word.fromInt b )) ^ "\n") (* arithmetic right shift *)
)

More shifts are available for words (unsigned ints):

fun bitwise_words (a, b) = (
print ("a and b: " ^ Word.fmt StringCvt.DEC (Word.andb (a, b)) ^ "\n");
print ("a or b: " ^ Word.fmt StringCvt.DEC (Word.orb (a, b)) ^ "\n");
print ("a xor b: " ^ Word.fmt StringCvt.DEC (Word.xorb (a, b)) ^ "\n");
print ("not a: " ^ Word.fmt StringCvt.DEC (Word.notb a ) ^ "\n");
print ("a lsl b: " ^ Word.fmt StringCvt.DEC (Word.<< (a, b) ) ^ "\n"); (* left shift *)
print ("a asr b: " ^ Word.fmt StringCvt.DEC (Word.~>> (a, b) ) ^ "\n"); (* arithmetic right shift *)
print ("a asr b: " ^ Word.fmt StringCvt.DEC (Word.>> (a, b) ) ^ "\n") (* logical right shift *)
)

Swift[edit]

func bitwise(a: Int, b: Int) {
// All bitwise operations (including shifts)
// require both operands to be the same type
println("a AND b: \(a & b)")
println("a OR b: \(a | b)")
println("a XOR b: \(a ^ b)")
println("NOT a: \(~a)")
println("a << b: \(a << b)") // left shift
// for right shifts, if the operands are unsigned, Swift performs
// a logical shift; if signed, an arithmetic shift.
println("a >> b: \(a >> b)") // arithmetic right shift
println("a lsr b: \(Int(bitPattern: UInt(bitPattern: a) >> UInt(bitPattern: b)))") // logical right shift
}
 
bitwise(-15,3)
Output:
a AND b: 1
a OR b: -13
a XOR b: -14
NOT a: 14
a << b: -120
a >> b: -2
a lsr b: 2305843009213693950

SystemVerilog[edit]

Verilog, being a hardware description language, had pretty comprehensive support for bit twiddling; though rotation is still a slightly manual operation. Just to be different, I decided to use a couple of 53-bit integers:

program main;
 
initial begin
bit [52:0] a,b,c;
a = 53'h123476547890fe;
b = 53'h06453bdef23ca6;
 
c = a & b; $display("%h & %h = %h", a,b,c);
c = a | b; $display("%h | %h = %h", a,b,c);
c = a ^ b; $display("%h ^ %h = %h", a,b,c);
c = ~ a; $display("~%h = %h", a, c);
 
c = a << 5; $display("%h << 5 = %h", a, c);
c = a >> 5; $display("%h >> 5 = %h", a, c);
 
c = { a[53-23:0], a[52-:23] }; $display("%h rotate-left 23 = %h", a, c);
c = { a[1:0], a[52:2] }; $display("%h rotate-right 2 = %h", a, c);
end
 
endprogram

If we want to do a variable bit rotation, then we need to think in hardware terms, and build a mux structure (this could be a function, but using a module allows it to be parameterized:

module rotate(in, out, shift);
 
parameter BITS = 32;
parameter SHIFT_BITS = 5;
 
input [BITS-1:0] in;
output [BITS-1:0] out;
input [SHIFT_BITS-1:0] shift;
 
always_comb foreach (out[i]) out[i] = in[ (i+shift) % BITS ];
 
endmodule

of course, one could always write the foreach loop inline.

Tcl[edit]

proc bitwise {a b} {
puts [format "a and b: %#08x" [expr {$a & $b}]]
puts [format "a or b: %#08x" [expr {$a | $b}]]
puts [format "a xor b: %#08x" [expr {$a ^ $b}]]
puts [format "not a: %#08x" [expr {~$a}]]
puts [format "a << b: %#08x" [expr {$a << $b}]]
puts [format "a >> b: %#08x" [expr {$a >> $b}]]
}

There are no built-in operations for arithmetic right shift or for bit rotation. Indeed, rotation precludes the use of arbitrary-width integers and can only be defined with respect to a particular width. However, we can simulate these operations for 32-bit values (requires Tcl 8.5):

proc bitwiseUnsupported {a b} {
set bits 0xFFFFFFFF
# Force interpretation as a 32-bit unsigned value
puts [format "a ArithRightShift b: %#08x" [expr {($a & $bits) >> $b}]]
puts [format "a RotateRight b: %#08x" [expr {
(($a >> $b) & ($bits >> $b)) |
(($a << (32-$b)) & ($bits ^ ($bits >> $b)))
}]]
puts [format "a RotateLeft b: %#08x" [expr {
(($a << $b) & $bits & ($bits << $b)) |
(($a >> (32-$b)) & ($bits ^ ($bits << $b)))
}]]
}

TI-89 BASIC[edit]

While the TI-89 supports arbitrary-size integers, all bitwise arithmetic is performed on the rightmost 32 bits of the integers' two's complement representation.

The right shift operation fills the new leftmost bit with a copy of the old leftmost bit.

bitwise(a,b)
Prgm
Local show, oldbase
Define show(label, x)=Prgm
Local r
setMode("Base","DEC")
string(x) → r
setMode("Base","HEX")
Disp label & r & " " & string(x)
EndPrgm
getMode("Base") → oldbase
show("", {a, b})
show("And ", a and b)
show("Or ", a or b)
show("Xor ", a xor b)
show("Not ", not a)
Pause "[Press ENTER]"
show("LSh ", shift(a,b))
show("RSh ", shift(a,–b))
show("LRo ", rotate(a,b))
show("RRo ", rotate(a,–b))
setMode("Base",oldbase)
EndPrgm

Visual Basic .NET[edit]

Sub Test(a as Integer, b as Integer)
WriteLine("And " & a And b)
WriteLine("Or " & a Or b)
WriteLine("Xor " & a Xor b)
WriteLine("Not " & Not a)
WriteLine("Left Shift " & a << 2)
WriteLine("Right Shift " & a >> 2)
End Sub

Visual Basic doesn't have built-in support for bitwise rotation.

x86 Assembly[edit]

Works with: nasm

It must be linked with the libc and "start" code; lazyly a gcc bitops.o works, being bitops.o produced by nasm -f elf bitops.asm (I've chosen ELF since I am on a GNU/Linux box)

	extern printf
global main
 
section .text
main
mov eax, dword [_a]
mov ecx, dword [_b]
push ecx
push eax
 
and eax, ecx
mov ebx, _opand
call out_ops
 
call get_nums
or eax, ecx
mov ebx, _opor
call out_ops
 
call get_nums
xor eax, ecx
mov ebx, _opxor
call out_ops
 
call get_nums
shr eax, cl
mov ebx, _opshr
call out_ops
 
call get_nums
shl eax, cl
mov ebx, _opshl
call out_ops
 
call get_nums
rol eax, cl
mov ebx, _oprol
call out_ops
 
call get_nums
ror eax, cl
mov ebx, _opror
call out_ops
 
call get_nums
sal eax, cl
mov ebx, _opsal
call out_ops
 
call get_nums
sar eax, cl
mov ebx, _opsar
call out_ops
 
mov eax, dword [esp+0]
not eax
push eax
not eax
push eax
push _opnot
push _null
push _testn
call printf
add esp, 20
 
add esp, 8
ret
 
out_ops
push eax
push ecx
push ebx
push dword [_a]
push _test
call printf
add esp, 20
ret
 
get_nums
mov eax, dword [esp+4]
mov ecx, dword [esp+8]
ret
 
section .data
 
_a dd 11
_b dd 3
 
section .rodata
_test db '%08x %s %08x = %08x', 10, 0
_testn db '%08s %s %08x = %08x', 10, 0
_opand db 'and', 0
_opor db 'or ', 0
_opxor db 'xor', 0
_opshl db 'shl', 0
_opshr db 'shr', 0
_opror db 'ror', 0
_oprol db 'rol', 0
_opnot db 'not', 0
_opsal db 'sal', 0
_opsar db 'sar', 0
_null db 0
 
end

XPL0[edit]

Text(0, "A and B = ");  HexOut(0, A and B);  CrLf(0);   \alternate symbol: &
Text(0, "A or B = "); HexOut(0, A or B); CrLf(0); \alternate symbol: !
Text(0, "A xor B = "); HexOut(0, A xor B); CrLf(0); \alternate symbol: |
Text(0, "not A = "); HexOut(0, not A); CrLf(0); \alternate symbol: ~
Text(0, "A << B = "); HexOut(0, A << B); CrLf(0);
Text(0, "A >> B logical = "); HexOut(0, A >> B); CrLf(0);
Text(0, "A >> B arithmetic = "); HexOut(0, A ->> B); CrLf(0);
 
\Rotate operations must be done by calling a function such as:
func ROR(A, B); int A, B; return A>>B ! A<<(32-B);
 
Text(0, "A ror B = "); HexOut(0, ROR(A,B)); CrLf(0);

The reason the "!" and "|" symbols may seem reversed is that the OR operator was introduced at a time when only uppercase characters were available (such as on the Apple II). The XOR operator was added later.

zkl[edit]

No bitwise rotates. Shifts are unsigned.

(7).bitAnd(1) //-->1
(8).bitOr(1) //-->9
(7).bitXor(1) //-->6
(1).bitNot() : "%,x".fmt(_) //-->ff|ff|ff|ff|ff|ff|ff|fe
(7).shiftRight(1) //-->3
(7).shiftLeft(1) //-->0xe
(-1).toString(16) //-->ffffffffffffffff
(-1).shiftRight(1).toString(16) //-->7fffffffffffffff