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Fractal tree

From Rosetta Code
Task
Fractal tree
You are encouraged to solve this task according to the task description, using any language you may know.

Generate and draw a fractal tree.

  1. Draw the trunk
  2. At the end of the trunk, split by some angle and draw two branches
  3. Repeat at the end of each branch until a sufficient level of branching is reached


Related tasks



AutoHotkey[edit]

Image - Link, since uploads seem to be disabled currently.

Library: GDIP
#SingleInstance, Force
#NoEnv
SetBatchLines, -1
 
; Uncomment if Gdip.ahk is not in your standard library
; #Include, Gdip.ahk
 
FileOut := A_Desktop "\MyNewFile.png"
TreeColor := 0xff0066ff ; ARGB
TrunkWidth := 10 ; Pixels
TrunkLength := 80 ; Pixels
Angle := 60 ; Degrees
ImageWidth := 670 ; Pixels
ImageHeight := 450 ; Pixels
Branches := 13
Decrease := 0.81
 
Angle := (Angle * 0.01745329252) / 2
, Points := {}
, Points[1, "Angle"] := 0
, Points[1, "X"] := ImageWidth // 2
, Points[1, "Y"] := ImageHeight - TrunkLength
 
if (!pToken := Gdip_Startup()) {
MsgBox, 48, Gdiplus error!, Gdiplus failed to start. Please ensure you have Gdiplus on your system.
ExitApp
}
OnExit, Exit
 
pBitmap := Gdip_CreateBitmap(ImageWidth, ImageHeight)
, G := Gdip_GraphicsFromImage(pBitmap)
, Gdip_SetSmoothingMode(G, 4)
, pBrush := Gdip_BrushCreateSolid(0xff000000)
, Gdip_FillRectangle(G, pBrush, -5, -5, ImageWidth + 10, ImageHeight + 10)
, Gdip_DeleteBrush(pBrush)
, pPen := Gdip_CreatePen(TreeColor, TrunkWidth/Decrease)
, Gdip_DrawLine(G, pPen, Points.1.X, Points.1.Y, Points.1.X, ImageHeight)
, Gdip_DeletePen(pPen)
 
Loop, % Branches {
NewPoints := {}
pPen := Gdip_CreatePen(TreeColor, TrunkWidth)
for Each, Point in Points {
N1 := A_Index * 2
, N2 := (A_Index * 2) + 1
, NewPoints[N1, "X"] := Point.X + (TrunkLength * Sin(NewPoints[N1, "Angle"] := Point.Angle - Angle))
, NewPoints[N1, "Y"] := Point.Y - (TrunkLength * Cos(NewPoints[N1].Angle))
, NewPoints[N2, "X"] := Point.X + (TrunkLength * Sin(NewPoints[N2, "Angle"] := Point.Angle + Angle))
, NewPoints[N2, "Y"] := Point.Y - (TrunkLength * Cos(NewPoints[N2].Angle))
, Gdip_DrawLine(G, pPen, Point.X, Point.Y, NewPoints[N1].X, NewPoints[N1].Y)
, Gdip_DrawLine(G, pPen, Point.X, Point.Y, NewPoints[N2].X, NewPoints[N2].Y)
}
TrunkWidth *= Decrease
, TrunkLength *= Decrease
, Points := NewPoints
, Gdip_DeletePen(pPen)
}
 
Gdip_SaveBitmapToFile(pBitmap, FileOut)
, Gdip_DisposeImage(pBitmap)
, Gdip_DeleteGraphics(G)
Run, % FileOut
 
Exit:
Gdip_Shutdown(pToken)
ExitApp

BASIC256[edit]

Asymmetric fractal tree image created by the BASIC-256 script
graphsize 300,300
 
level = 12 : len =63 # initial values
x = 230: y = 285
rotation = pi/2
 
A1 = pi/27 : A2 = pi/8 # constants which determine shape
C1 = 0.7 : C2 = 0.85
 
dim xs(level+1) : dim ys(level+1) # stacks
 
fastgraphics
color black
rect 0,0,graphwidth,graphheight
refresh
color green
gosub tree
refresh
imgsave "Fractal_tree_BASIC-256.png", "PNG"
end
 
tree:
xs[level] = x : ys[level] = y
gosub putline
if level>0 then
level = level - 1
len = len*C1
rotation = rotation - A1
gosub tree
len = len/C1*C2
rotation = rotation + A1 + A2
gosub tree
rotation = rotation - A2
len = len/C2
level = level + 1
end if
x = xs[level] : y = ys[level]
return
 
putline:
yn = -sin(rotation)*len + y
xn = cos(rotation)*len + x
line x,y,xn,yn
x = xn : y = yn
return

BBC BASIC[edit]

Output:
Fractal tree bbc.gif








 
Spread = 25
Scale = 0.76
SizeX% = 400
SizeY% = 300
Depth% = 10
 
 
VDU 23,22,SizeX%;SizeY%;8,16,16,128
 
PROCbranch(SizeX%, 0, SizeY%/2, 90, Depth%)
END
 
DEF PROCbranch(x1, y1, size, angle, depth%)
LOCAL x2, y2
x2 = x1 + size * COSRAD(angle)
y2 = y1 + size * SINRAD(angle)
VDU 23,23,depth%;0;0;0;
LINE x1, y1, x2, y2
IF depth% > 0 THEN
PROCbranch(x2, y2, size * Scale, angle - Spread, depth% - 1)
PROCbranch(x2, y2, size * Scale, angle + Spread, depth% - 1)
ENDIF
ENDPROC

C[edit]

Library: SDL
Library: SGE
or
Library: cairo
#include <SDL/SDL.h>
#ifdef WITH_CAIRO
#include <cairo.h>
#else
#include <SDL/sge.h>
#endif
#include <cairo.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <time.h>
#include <math.h>
 
#ifdef WITH_CAIRO
#define PI 3.1415926535
#endif
 
#define SIZE 800 // determines size of window
#define SCALE 5 // determines how quickly branches shrink (higher value means faster shrinking)
#define BRANCHES 14 // number of branches
#define ROTATION_SCALE 0.75 // determines how slowly the angle between branches shrinks (higher value means slower shrinking)
#define INITIAL_LENGTH 50 // length of first branch
 
double rand_fl(){
return (double)rand() / (double)RAND_MAX;
}
 
void draw_tree(SDL_Surface * surface, double offsetx, double offsety,
double directionx, double directiony, double size,
double rotation, int depth) {
#ifdef WITH_CAIRO
cairo_surface_t *surf = cairo_image_surface_create_for_data( surface->pixels,
CAIRO_FORMAT_RGB24,
surface->w, surface->h,
surface->pitch );
cairo_t *ct = cairo_create(surf);
 
cairo_set_line_width(ct, 1);
cairo_set_source_rgba(ct, 0,0,0,1);
cairo_move_to(ct, (int)offsetx, (int)offsety);
cairo_line_to(ct, (int)(offsetx + directionx * size), (int)(offsety + directiony * size));
cairo_stroke(ct);
#else
sge_AALine(surface,
(int)offsetx, (int)offsety,
(int)(offsetx + directionx * size), (int)(offsety + directiony * size),
SDL_MapRGB(surface->format, 0, 0, 0));
#endif
if (depth > 0){
// draw left branch
draw_tree(surface,
offsetx + directionx * size,
offsety + directiony * size,
directionx * cos(rotation) + directiony * sin(rotation),
directionx * -sin(rotation) + directiony * cos(rotation),
size * rand_fl() / SCALE + size * (SCALE - 1) / SCALE,
rotation * ROTATION_SCALE,
depth - 1);
 
// draw right branch
draw_tree(surface,
offsetx + directionx * size,
offsety + directiony * size,
directionx * cos(-rotation) + directiony * sin(-rotation),
directionx * -sin(-rotation) + directiony * cos(-rotation),
size * rand_fl() / SCALE + size * (SCALE - 1) / SCALE,
rotation * ROTATION_SCALE,
depth - 1);
}
}
 
void render(SDL_Surface * surface){
SDL_FillRect(surface, NULL, SDL_MapRGB(surface->format, 255, 255, 255));
draw_tree(surface,
surface->w / 2.0,
surface->h - 10.0,
0.0, -1.0,
INITIAL_LENGTH,
PI / 8,
BRANCHES);
SDL_UpdateRect(surface, 0, 0, 0, 0);
}
 
int main(){
SDL_Surface * screen;
SDL_Event evt;
 
SDL_Init(SDL_INIT_VIDEO);
 
srand((unsigned)time(NULL));
 
screen = SDL_SetVideoMode(SIZE, SIZE, 32, SDL_HWSURFACE);
 
render(screen);
while(1){
if (SDL_PollEvent(&evt)){
if(evt.type == SDL_QUIT) break;
}
SDL_Delay(1);
}
SDL_Quit();
return 0;
}


C++[edit]

FracTree cpp.png

 
#include <windows.h>
#include <string>
#include <math.h>
 
//--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
using namespace std;
 
//--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
const float PI = 3.1415926536f;
 
//--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
class myBitmap
{
public:
myBitmap() : pen( NULL ) {}
~myBitmap()
{
DeleteObject( pen );
DeleteDC( hdc );
DeleteObject( bmp );
}
 
bool create( int w, int h )
{
BITMAPINFO bi;
void *pBits;
ZeroMemory( &bi, sizeof( bi ) );
bi.bmiHeader.biSize = sizeof( bi.bmiHeader );
bi.bmiHeader.biBitCount = sizeof( DWORD ) * 8;
bi.bmiHeader.biCompression = BI_RGB;
bi.bmiHeader.biPlanes = 1;
bi.bmiHeader.biWidth = w;
bi.bmiHeader.biHeight = -h;
 
HDC dc = GetDC( GetConsoleWindow() );
bmp = CreateDIBSection( dc, &bi, DIB_RGB_COLORS, &pBits, NULL, 0 );
if( !bmp ) return false;
 
hdc = CreateCompatibleDC( dc );
SelectObject( hdc, bmp );
ReleaseDC( GetConsoleWindow(), dc );
 
width = w; height = h;
 
return true;
}
 
void setPenColor( DWORD clr )
{
if( pen ) DeleteObject( pen );
pen = CreatePen( PS_SOLID, 1, clr );
SelectObject( hdc, pen );
}
 
void saveBitmap( string path )
{
BITMAPFILEHEADER fileheader;
BITMAPINFO infoheader;
BITMAP bitmap;
DWORD* dwpBits;
DWORD wb;
HANDLE file;
 
GetObject( bmp, sizeof( bitmap ), &bitmap );
 
dwpBits = new DWORD[bitmap.bmWidth * bitmap.bmHeight];
ZeroMemory( dwpBits, bitmap.bmWidth * bitmap.bmHeight * sizeof( DWORD ) );
ZeroMemory( &infoheader, sizeof( BITMAPINFO ) );
ZeroMemory( &fileheader, sizeof( BITMAPFILEHEADER ) );
 
infoheader.bmiHeader.biBitCount = sizeof( DWORD ) * 8;
infoheader.bmiHeader.biCompression = BI_RGB;
infoheader.bmiHeader.biPlanes = 1;
infoheader.bmiHeader.biSize = sizeof( infoheader.bmiHeader );
infoheader.bmiHeader.biHeight = bitmap.bmHeight;
infoheader.bmiHeader.biWidth = bitmap.bmWidth;
infoheader.bmiHeader.biSizeImage = bitmap.bmWidth * bitmap.bmHeight * sizeof( DWORD );
 
fileheader.bfType = 0x4D42;
fileheader.bfOffBits = sizeof( infoheader.bmiHeader ) + sizeof( BITMAPFILEHEADER );
fileheader.bfSize = fileheader.bfOffBits + infoheader.bmiHeader.biSizeImage;
 
GetDIBits( hdc, bmp, 0, height, ( LPVOID )dwpBits, &infoheader, DIB_RGB_COLORS );
 
file = CreateFile( path.c_str(), GENERIC_WRITE, 0, NULL, CREATE_ALWAYS, FILE_ATTRIBUTE_NORMAL, NULL );
WriteFile( file, &fileheader, sizeof( BITMAPFILEHEADER ), &wb, NULL );
WriteFile( file, &infoheader.bmiHeader, sizeof( infoheader.bmiHeader ), &wb, NULL );
WriteFile( file, dwpBits, bitmap.bmWidth * bitmap.bmHeight * 4, &wb, NULL );
CloseHandle( file );
 
delete [] dwpBits;
}
 
HDC getDC() { return hdc; }
int getWidth() { return width; }
int getHeight() { return height; }
 
private:
HBITMAP bmp;
HDC hdc;
HPEN pen;
int width, height;
};
//--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
class vector2
{
public:
vector2() { x = y = 0; }
vector2( int a, int b ) { x = a; y = b; }
void set( int a, int b ) { x = a; y = b; }
void rotate( float angle_r )
{
float _x = static_cast<float>( x ),
_y = static_cast<float>( y ),
s = sinf( angle_r ),
c = cosf( angle_r ),
a = _x * c - _y * s,
b = _x * s + _y * c;
 
x = static_cast<int>( a );
y = static_cast<int>( b );
}
 
int x, y;
};
//--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
class fractalTree
{
public:
fractalTree() { _ang = DegToRadian( 24.0f ); }
float DegToRadian( float degree ) { return degree * ( PI / 180.0f ); }
 
void create( myBitmap* bmp )
{
_bmp = bmp;
float line_len = 130.0f;
 
vector2 sp( _bmp->getWidth() / 2, _bmp->getHeight() - 1 );
MoveToEx( _bmp->getDC(), sp.x, sp.y, NULL );
sp.y -= static_cast<int>( line_len );
LineTo( _bmp->getDC(), sp.x, sp.y);
 
drawRL( &sp, line_len, 0, true );
drawRL( &sp, line_len, 0, false );
}
 
private:
void drawRL( vector2* sp, float line_len, float a, bool rg )
{
line_len *= .75f;
if( line_len < 2.0f ) return;
 
MoveToEx( _bmp->getDC(), sp->x, sp->y, NULL );
vector2 r( 0, static_cast<int>( line_len ) );
 
if( rg ) a -= _ang;
else a += _ang;
 
r.rotate( a );
r.x += sp->x; r.y = sp->y - r.y;
 
LineTo( _bmp->getDC(), r.x, r.y );
 
drawRL( &r, line_len, a, true );
drawRL( &r, line_len, a, false );
}
 
myBitmap* _bmp;
float _ang;
};
//--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
int main( int argc, char* argv[] )
{
ShowWindow( GetConsoleWindow(), SW_MAXIMIZE );
 
myBitmap bmp;
bmp.create( 640, 512 );
bmp.setPenColor( RGB( 255, 255, 0 ) );
 
fractalTree tree;
tree.create( &bmp );
 
BitBlt( GetDC( GetConsoleWindow() ), 0, 20, 648, 512, bmp.getDC(), 0, 0, SRCCOPY );
 
bmp.saveBitmap( "f://rc//fracTree.bmp" );
 
system( "pause" );
 
return 0;
}
//--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 

Clojure[edit]

Translation of: Java
Library: Swing
Library: AWT
(import '[java.awt Color Graphics]
'javax.swing.JFrame)
 
(defn deg-to-radian [deg] (* deg Math/PI 1/180))
(defn cos-deg [angle] (Math/cos (deg-to-radian angle)))
(defn sin-deg [angle] (Math/sin (deg-to-radian angle)))
 
(defn draw-tree [^Graphics g, x y angle depth]
(when (pos? depth)
(let [x2 (+ x (int (* depth 10 (cos-deg angle))))
y2 (+ y (int (* depth 10 (sin-deg angle))))]
(.drawLine g x y x2 y2)
(draw-tree g x2 y2 (- angle 20) (dec depth))
(recur g x2 y2 (+ angle 20) (dec depth)))))
 
(defn fractal-tree [depth]
(doto (proxy [JFrame] []
(paint [g]
(.setColor g Color/BLACK)
(draw-tree g 400 500 -90 depth)))
(.setBounds 100 100 800 600)
(.setResizable false)
(.setDefaultCloseOperation JFrame/DISPOSE_ON_CLOSE)
(.show)))
 
(fractal-tree 9)

Common Lisp[edit]

Translation of: Clojure
;; (require :lispbuilder-sdl)
 
(defun deg-to-radian (deg)
"converts degrees to radians"
(* deg pi 1/180))
 
(defun cos-deg (angle)
"returns cosin of the angle expressed in degress"
(cos (deg-to-radian angle)))
 
(defun sin-deg (angle)
"returns sin of the angle expressed in degress"
(sin (deg-to-radian angle)))
 
(defun draw-tree (surface x y angle depth)
"draws a branch of the tree on the sdl-surface"
(when (plusp depth)
(let ((x2 (+ x (round (* depth 10 (cos-deg angle)))))
(y2 (+ y (round (* depth 10 (sin-deg angle))))))
(sdl:draw-line-* x y x2 y2 :surface surface :color sdl:*green*)
(draw-tree surface x2 y2 (- angle 20) (1- depth))
(draw-tree surface x2 y2 (+ angle 20) (1- depth)))))
 
(defun fractal-tree (depth)
"shows a window with a fractal tree"
(sdl:with-init ()
(sdl:window 800 600 :title-caption "fractal-tree")
(sdl:clear-display sdl:*black*)
(draw-tree sdl:*default-surface* 400 500 -90 depth)
(sdl:update-display)
(sdl:with-events ()
(:video-expose-event ()
(sdl:update-display))
(:quit-event ()
t))))
 
(fractal-tree 9)
 

D[edit]

SVG Version[edit]

Translation of: Perl 6
import std.stdio, std.math;
 
enum width = 1000, height = 1000; // Image dimension.
enum length = 400; // Trunk size.
enum scale = 6.0 / 10; // Branch scale relative to trunk.
 
void tree(in double x, in double y, in double length, in double angle) {
if (length < 1)
return;
immutable x2 = x + length * angle.cos;
immutable y2 = y + length * angle.sin;
writefln("<line x1='%f' y1='%f' x2='%f' y2='%f' " ~
"style='stroke:black;stroke-width:1'/>", x, y, x2, y2);
tree(x2, y2, length * scale, angle + PI / 5);
tree(x2, y2, length * scale, angle - PI / 5);
}
 
void main() {
"<svg width='100%' height='100%' version='1.1'
xmlns='http://www.w3.org/2000/svg'>"
.writeln;
tree(width / 2.0, height, length, 3 * PI / 2);
"</svg>".writeln;
}

Turtle Version[edit]

This uses the turtle module from the Dragon Curve task, and the module from the Grayscale Image task.

Translation of: Logo
import grayscale_image, turtle;
 
void tree(Color)(Image!Color img, ref Turtle t, in uint depth,
in real step, in real scale, in real angle) {
if (depth == 0) return;
t.forward(img, step);
t.right(angle);
img.tree(t, depth - 1, step * scale, scale, angle);
t.left(2 * angle);
img.tree(t, depth - 1, step * scale, scale, angle);
t.right(angle);
t.forward(img, -step);
}
 
void main() {
auto img = new Image!Gray(330, 300);
auto t = Turtle(165, 270, -90);
img.tree(t, 10, 80, 0.7, 30);
img.savePGM("fractal_tree.pgm");
}

Alternative version[edit]

Translation of: Java

Using DFL.

import dfl.all;
import std.math;
 
class FractalTree: Form {
 
private immutable DEG_TO_RAD = PI / 180.0;
 
this() {
width = 600;
height = 500;
text = "Fractal Tree";
backColor = Color(0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF);
startPosition = FormStartPosition.CENTER_SCREEN;
formBorderStyle = FormBorderStyle.FIXED_DIALOG;
maximizeBox = false;
}
 
private void drawTree(Graphics g, Pen p, int x1, int y1, double angle, int depth) {
if (depth == 0) return;
int x2 = x1 + cast(int) (cos(angle * DEG_TO_RAD) * depth * 10.0);
int y2 = y1 + cast(int) (sin(angle * DEG_TO_RAD) * depth * 10.0);
g.drawLine(p, x1, y1, x2, y2);
drawTree(g, p, x2, y2, angle - 20, depth - 1);
drawTree(g, p, x2, y2, angle + 20, depth - 1);
}
 
protected override void onPaint(PaintEventArgs ea){
super.onPaint(ea);
Pen p = new Pen(Color(0, 0xAA, 0));
drawTree(ea.graphics, p, 300, 450, -90, 9);
}
}
 
int main() {
int result = 0;
try {
Application.run(new FractalTree);
} catch(Exception e) {
msgBox(e.msg, "Fatal Error", MsgBoxButtons.OK, MsgBoxIcon.ERROR);
result = 1;
}
return result;
}

F#[edit]

Translation of: Perl 6
let (cos, sin, pi) = System.Math.Cos, System.Math.Sin, System.Math.PI
 
let (width, height) = 1000., 1000. // image dimension
let scale = 6./10. // branch scale relative to trunk
let length = 400. // trunk size
 
let rec tree x y length angle =
if length >= 1. then
let (x2, y2) = x + length * (cos angle), y + length * (sin angle)
printfn "<line x1='%f' y1='%f' x2='%f' y2='%f' style='stroke:rgb(0,0,0);stroke-width:1'/>"
x y x2 y2
tree x2 y2 (length*scale) (angle + pi/5.)
tree x2 y2 (length*scale) (angle - pi/5.)
 
printfn "<?xml version='1.0' encoding='utf-8' standalone='no'?>
<!DOCTYPE svg PUBLIC '-//W3C//DTD SVG 1.1//EN'
'http://www.w3.org/Graphics/SVG/1.1/DTD/svg11.dtd'>
<svg width='100%%' height='100%%' version='1.1'
xmlns='http://www.w3.org/2000/svg'>"

tree (width/2.) height length (3.*pi/2.)
printfn "</svg>"

Fantom[edit]

 
using fwt
using gfx
 
class FractalCanvas : Canvas
{
new make () : super() {}
 
Void drawTree (Graphics g, Int x1, Int y1, Int angle, Int depth)
{
if (depth == 0) return
Int x2 := x1 + (angle.toFloat.toRadians.cos * depth * 10.0).toInt;
Int y2 := y1 + (angle.toFloat.toRadians.sin * depth * 10.0).toInt;
g.drawLine(x1, y1, x2, y2);
drawTree(g, x2, y2, angle - 20, depth - 1);
drawTree(g, x2, y2, angle + 20, depth - 1);
}
 
override Void onPaint (Graphics g)
{
drawTree (g, 400, 500, -90, 9)
}
}
 
class FractalTree
{
public static Void main ()
{
Window
{
title = "Fractal Tree"
size = Size(800, 600)
FractalCanvas(),
}.open
}
}
 

FreeBASIC[edit]

Translation of: BBC BASIC
' version 17-03-2017
' compile with: fbc -s gui
 
Const As Double deg2rad = Atn(1) / 45
Dim Shared As Double scale = 0.76
Dim Shared As Double spread = 25 * deg2rad ' convert degree's to rad's
 
Sub branch(x1 As ULong, y1 As ULong, size As ULong, angle As Double, depth As ULong)
 
Dim As ULong x2, y2
 
x2 = x1 + size * Cos(angle)
y2 = y1 + size * Sin(angle)
 
Line (x1,y1) - (x2,y2), 2 ' palette color green
If depth > 0 Then
branch(x2, y2, size * scale, angle - spread, depth -1)
branch(x2, y2, size * scale, angle + spread, depth -1)
End If
 
End Sub
 
' ------=< MAIN >=-----
 
Dim As Double angle = -90 * deg2rad ' make sure that the tree grows up
Dim As ULong SizeX = 800
Dim As ULong SizeY = SizeX * 3 \ 4
Dim As Double size = SizeY \ 4
Dim As ULong depth = 11
 
ScreenRes SizeX, SizeY, 8
WindowTitle ("Fractal Tree")
 
branch(SizeX\2, SizeY, size, angle, depth)
 
' empty keyboard buffer
While InKey <> "" : Wend
windowtitle ("Fractal Tree, hit any key to end program")
Sleep
End

Frege[edit]

Works with: Frege version 3.23.888-g4e22ab6
module FractalTree where
 
import Java.IO
import Prelude.Math
 
data AffineTransform = native java.awt.geom.AffineTransform where
native new :: () -> STMutable s AffineTransform
native clone :: Mutable s AffineTransform -> STMutable s AffineTransform
native rotate :: Mutable s AffineTransform -> Double -> ST s ()
native scale :: Mutable s AffineTransform -> Double -> Double -> ST s ()
native translate :: Mutable s AffineTransform -> Double -> Double -> ST s ()
 
data BufferedImage = native java.awt.image.BufferedImage where
pure native type_3byte_bgr "java.awt.image.BufferedImage.TYPE_3BYTE_BGR" :: Int
native new :: Int -> Int -> Int -> STMutable s BufferedImage
native createGraphics :: Mutable s BufferedImage -> STMutable s Graphics2D
 
data Color = pure native java.awt.Color where
pure native black "java.awt.Color.black" :: Color
pure native green "java.awt.Color.green" :: Color
pure native white "java.awt.Color.white" :: Color
pure native new :: Int -> Color
 
data BasicStroke = pure native java.awt.BasicStroke where
pure native new :: Float -> BasicStroke
 
data RenderingHints = native java.awt.RenderingHints where
pure native key_antialiasing "java.awt.RenderingHints.KEY_ANTIALIASING" :: RenderingHints_Key
pure native value_antialias_on "java.awt.RenderingHints.VALUE_ANTIALIAS_ON" :: Object
 
data RenderingHints_Key = pure native java.awt.RenderingHints.Key
 
data Graphics2D = native java.awt.Graphics2D where
native drawLine :: Mutable s Graphics2D -> Int -> Int -> Int -> Int -> ST s ()
native drawOval :: Mutable s Graphics2D -> Int -> Int -> Int -> Int -> ST s ()
native fillRect :: Mutable s Graphics2D -> Int -> Int -> Int -> Int -> ST s ()
native setColor :: Mutable s Graphics2D -> Color -> ST s ()
native setRenderingHint :: Mutable s Graphics2D -> RenderingHints_Key -> Object -> ST s ()
native setStroke :: Mutable s Graphics2D -> BasicStroke -> ST s ()
native setTransform :: Mutable s Graphics2D -> Mutable s AffineTransform -> ST s ()
 
data ImageIO = mutable native javax.imageio.ImageIO where
native write "javax.imageio.ImageIO.write" :: MutableIO BufferedImage -> String -> MutableIO File -> IO Bool throws IOException
 
drawTree :: Mutable s Graphics2D -> Mutable s AffineTransform -> Int -> ST s ()
drawTree g t i = do
let len = 10 -- ratio of length to thickness
shrink = 0.75
angle = 0.3 -- radians
i' = i - 1
g.setTransform t
g.drawLine 0 0 0 len
when (i' > 0) $ do
t.translate 0 (fromIntegral len)
t.scale shrink shrink
rt <- t.clone
t.rotate angle
rt.rotate (-angle)
drawTree g t i'
drawTree g rt i'
 
main = do
let width = 900
height = 800
initScale = 20
halfWidth = fromIntegral width / 2
buffy <- BufferedImage.new width height BufferedImage.type_3byte_bgr
g <- buffy.createGraphics
g.setRenderingHint RenderingHints.key_antialiasing RenderingHints.value_antialias_on
g.setColor Color.black
g.fillRect 0 0 width height
g.setColor Color.green
t <- AffineTransform.new ()
t.translate halfWidth (fromIntegral height)
t.scale initScale initScale
t.rotate pi
drawTree g t 16
f <- File.new "FractalTreeFrege.png"
void $ ImageIO.write buffy "png" f

Output is here due to Is file uploading blocked forever?

Go[edit]

png converted from output ppm
package main
 
// Files required to build supporting package raster are found in:
// * Bitmap
// * Grayscale image
// * Xiaolin Wu's line algorithm
// * Write a PPM file
 
import (
"math"
"raster"
)
 
const (
width = 400
height = 300
depth = 8
angle = 12
length = 50
frac = .8
)
 
func main() {
g := raster.NewGrmap(width, height)
ftree(g, width/2, height*9/10, length, 0, depth)
g.Bitmap().WritePpmFile("ftree.ppm")
}
 
func ftree(g *raster.Grmap, x, y, distance, direction float64, depth int) {
x2 := x + distance*math.Sin(direction*math.Pi/180)
y2 := y - distance*math.Cos(direction*math.Pi/180)
g.AaLine(x, y, x2, y2)
if depth > 0 {
ftree(g, x2, y2, distance*frac, direction-angle, depth-1)
ftree(g, x2, y2, distance*frac, direction+angle, depth-1)
}
}

Haskell[edit]

An elegant yet universal monoidal solution using Gloss:

import Graphics.Gloss
 
type Model = [Picture -> Picture]
 
fractal :: Int -> Model -> Picture -> Picture
fractal n model pict = pictures $ take n $ iterate (mconcat model) pict
 
main = animate (InWindow "Tree" (800, 800) (0, 0)) white $ tree1 . (* 60)

The solution gives rise to a variety of fractal geometric structures:

static binary tree:

tree1 _ = fractal 10 branches $ Line [(0,0),(0,100)]
where branches = [ Translate 0 100 . Scale 0.75 0.75 . Rotate 30
, Translate 0 100 . Scale 0.5 0.5 . Rotate (-30) ]

animated tree:

tree2 t = fractal 8 branches $ Line [(0,0),(0,100)]
where branches = [ Translate 0 100 . Scale 0.75 0.75 . Rotate t
, Translate 0 100 . Scale 0.6 0.6 . Rotate 0
, Translate 0 100 . Scale 0.5 0.5 . Rotate (-2*t) ]

animated fractal clock

circles t = fractal 10 model $ Circle 100
where model = [ Translate 0 50 . Scale 0.5 0.5 . Rotate t
, Translate 0 (-50) . Scale 0.5 0.5 . Rotate (-2*t) ]

Pythagoras tree

pithagor _ = fractal 10 model $ rectangleWire 100 100
where model = [ Translate 50 100 . Scale s s . Rotate 45
, Translate (-50) 100 . Scale s s . Rotate (-45)]
s = 1/sqrt 2

Sierpinski pentagon

pentaflake _ = fractal 5 model $ pentagon
where model = map copy [0,72..288]
copy a = Scale s s . Rotate a . Translate 0 x
pentagon = Line [ (sin a, cos a) | a <- [0,2*pi/5..2*pi] ]
x = 2*cos(pi/5)
s = 1/(1+x)
Alternative solution using
Library: HGL
from HackageDB

Using the method of the J contribution

import Graphics.HGL.Window
import Graphics.HGL.Run
import Control.Arrow
import Control.Monad
import Data.List
 
enumBase :: Int -> Int -> [[Int]]
enumBase n = mapM (enumFromTo 0). replicate n. pred
 
psPlus (a,b) (p,q) = (a+p, b+q)
 
toInt :: Double -> Int
toInt = fromIntegral.round
 
intPoint = toInt *** toInt
 
pts n =
map (map (intPoint.psPlus (100,0)). ((0,300):). scanl1 psPlus. ((r,300):). zipWith (\h a -> (h*cos a, h*sin a)) rs) hs
where
[r,h,sr,sh] = [50, pi/5, 0.9, 0.75]
rs = take n $ map (r*) $ iterate(*sr) sr
lhs = map (map (((-1)**).fromIntegral)) $ enumBase n 2
rhs = take n $ map (h*) $ iterate(*sh) 1
hs = map (scanl1 (+). zipWith (*)rhs) lhs
 
fractalTree :: Int -> IO ()
fractalTree n =
runWindow "Fractal Tree" (500,600)
(\w -> setGraphic w (overGraphics ( map polyline $ pts (n-1))) >> getKey w)

Use e.g.:

*Main> fractalTree 10

Icon and Unicon[edit]

procedure main()
WOpen("size=800,600", "bg=black", "fg=white") | stop("*** cannot open window")
drawtree(400,500,-90,9)
WDone()
end
 
link WOpen
 
procedure drawtree(x,y,angle,depth)
if depth > 0 then {
x2 := integer(x + cos(dtor(angle)) * depth * 10)
y2 := integer(y + sin(dtor(angle)) * depth * 10)
DrawLine(x,y,x2,y2)
drawtree(x2,y2,angle-20, depth-1)
drawtree(x2,y2,angle+20, depth-1)
}
return
end

WOpen provides graphics I/O

Translation of: Java

J[edit]

require'gl2'
 
L0=: 50 NB. initial length
A0=: 1r8p1 NB. initial angle: pi divided by 8
dL=: 0.9 NB. shrink factor for length
dA=: 0.75 NB. shrink factor for angle
N=: 14 NB. number of branches
 
L=: L0*dL^1+i.N NB. lengths of line segments
 
NB. relative angles of successive line segments
A=: A0*(dA^i.N) +/\@:*("1) _1 ^ #:i.2 ^ N
 
NB. end points for each line segment
P=: 0 0+/\@,"2 +.*.inv (L0,0),"2 L,"0"1 A
 
P_C_paint=: gllines_jgl2_ bind (10 + ,/"2 P-"1<./,/P)
wd 0 :0
pc P closeok;
xywh 0 0 250 300;
cc C isigraph rightmove bottommove;
pas 0 0;
pshow;
)

See the talk page for some implementation notes.

Java[edit]

Library: Swing
Library: AWT
import java.awt.Color;
import java.awt.Graphics;
import javax.swing.JFrame;
 
public class FractalTree extends JFrame {
 
public FractalTree() {
super("Fractal Tree");
setBounds(100, 100, 800, 600);
setResizable(false);
setDefaultCloseOperation(EXIT_ON_CLOSE);
}
 
private void drawTree(Graphics g, int x1, int y1, double angle, int depth) {
if (depth == 0) return;
int x2 = x1 + (int) (Math.cos(Math.toRadians(angle)) * depth * 10.0);
int y2 = y1 + (int) (Math.sin(Math.toRadians(angle)) * depth * 10.0);
g.drawLine(x1, y1, x2, y2);
drawTree(g, x2, y2, angle - 20, depth - 1);
drawTree(g, x2, y2, angle + 20, depth - 1);
}
 
@Override
public void paint(Graphics g) {
g.setColor(Color.BLACK);
drawTree(g, 400, 500, -90, 9);
}
 
public static void main(String[] args) {
new FractalTree().setVisible(true);
}
}

JavaScript[edit]

Implementation using HTML5 canvas element to draw tree structure.

<html>
<body>
<canvas id="canvas" width="600" height="500"></canvas>
 
<script type="text/javascript">
var elem = document.getElementById('canvas');
var context = elem.getContext('2d');
 
context.fillStyle = '#000';
context.lineWidth = 1;
 
var deg_to_rad = Math.PI / 180.0;
var depth = 9;
 
function drawLine(x1, y1, x2, y2, brightness){
context.moveTo(x1, y1);
context.lineTo(x2, y2);
}
 
function drawTree(x1, y1, angle, depth){
if (depth !== 0){
var x2 = x1 + (Math.cos(angle * deg_to_rad) * depth * 10.0);
var y2 = y1 + (Math.sin(angle * deg_to_rad) * depth * 10.0);
drawLine(x1, y1, x2, y2, depth);
drawTree(x2, y2, angle - 20, depth - 1);
drawTree(x2, y2, angle + 20, depth - 1);
}
}
 
context.beginPath();
drawTree(300, 500, -90, depth);
context.closePath();
context.stroke();
</script>
 
</body>
</html>

jq[edit]

The following generates SVG, which can be viewed by following the link below.

# width and height define the outer dimensions;
# len defines the trunk size;
# scale defines the branch length relative to the trunk;
def main(width; height; len; scale):
 
def PI: (1|atan)*4;
 
def precision(n):
def pow(k): . as $in | reduce range(0;k) as $i (1; .*$in);
if . < 0 then - (-. | precision(n))
else
(10|pow(n)) as $power
| (. * 10 * $power) | floor as $x | ($x % 10) as $r
| ((if $r < 5 then $x else $x + 5 end) / 10 | floor) / $power
end;
 
def p2: precision(2);
 
def tree(x; y; len; angle):
if len < 1 then empty
else
(x + len * (angle|cos)) as $x2
| (y + len * (angle|sin)) as $y2
| (if len < 10 then 1 else 2 end) as $swidth
| (if len < 10 then "blue" else "black" end) as $stroke
| "<line x1='\(x|p2)' y1='\(y|p2)' x2='\($x2|p2)' y2='\($y2|p2)' style='stroke:\($stroke); stroke-width:\($swidth)'/>",
tree($x2; $y2; len * scale; angle + PI / 5),
tree($x2; $y2; len * scale; angle - PI / 5)
end
 ;
 
"<svg width='100%' height='100%' version='1.1'
xmlns='http://www.w3.org/2000/svg'>",
tree(width / 2; height; len; 3 * PI / 2),
"</svg>"
;
 
main(1000; 1000; 400; 6/10)
Output:

$ jq -r -n -r -f Fractal_tree_svg.jq > Fractal_tree.svg

Fractal_tree.svg


Liberty BASIC[edit]

LB includes Logo-type turtle commands, so can be drawn that way as well as that shown here.

 
NoMainWin
sw = 640 : sh = 480
WindowWidth = sw+8 : WindowHeight = sh+31
UpperLeftX = (DisplayWidth -sw)/2
UpperLeftY = (DisplayHeight-sh)/2
Open"Fractal Tree" For Graphics_nf_nsb As #g
#g "Down; Color darkgreen; TrapClose halt"
h$ = "#g"
 
'initial assignments
initAngle = Acs(-1)*1.5 'radian equivalent of 270 degrees
theta = 29 * (Acs(-1)/180) 'convert 29 degrees to radians
length = 110 'length in pixels
depth = 25 'max recursion depth
'draw the tree
Call tree h$, 320, 470, initAngle, theta, length, depth
#g "Flush; when leftButtonDown halt" 'L-click to exit
Wait
 
Sub halt handle$
Close #handle$
End
End Sub
 
Sub tree h$, x, y, initAngle, theta, length, depth
Scan
newX = Cos(initAngle) * length + x
newY = Sin(initAngle) * length + y
#h$ "Line ";x;" ";y;" ";newX;" ";newY
length = length * .78
depth = depth - 1
If depth > 0 Then
Call tree h$, newX, newY, initAngle-theta, theta, length, depth
Call tree h$, newX, newY, initAngle+theta, theta, length, depth
End If
End Sub
 

Lingo[edit]

----------------------------------------
-- Creates an image of a fractal tree
-- @param {integer} width
-- @param {integer} height
-- @param {integer} fractalDepth
-- @param {integer|float} initSize
-- @param {float} spreadAngle
-- @param {float} [scaleFactor=1.0]
-- @return {image}
----------------------------------------
on fractalTree (width, height, fractalDepth, initSize, spreadAngle, scaleFactor)
if voidP(scaleFactor) then scaleFactor = 1.0
img = image(width, height, 24)
img.fill(img.rect, rgb(0,0,0))
_drawTree(img, width/2, height, -PI/2, fractalDepth, initSize, spreadAngle, scaleFactor)
return img
end
 
on _drawTree (img, x1, y1, angle, depth, size, spreadAngle, scaleFactor)
if (depth) then
x2 = x1 + cos(angle)*depth*size
y2 = y1 + sin(angle)*depth*size
img.draw(x1, y1, x2, y2, [#color:rgb(255,255,255)])
_drawTree(img, x2, y2, angle-spreadAngle, depth-1, size*ScaleFactor, spreadAngle, scaleFactor)
_drawTree(img, x2, y2, angle+spreadAngle, depth-1, size*ScaleFactor, spreadAngle, scaleFactor)
end if
end

Usage:

fractalDepth = 10
initSize = 7.0
spreadAngle = 35*PI/180
scaleFactor = 0.95
img = fractalTree(480, 380, fractalDepth, initSize, spreadAngle, scaleFactor)

[edit]

to tree :depth :length :scale :angle
if :depth=0 [stop]
setpensize round :depth/2
forward :length
right :angle
tree :depth-1 :length*:scale :scale :angle
left 2*:angle
tree :depth-1 :length*:scale :scale :angle
right :angle
back :length
end
 
clearscreen
tree 10 80 0.7 30

Mathematica / Wolfram Language[edit]

fractalTree[
pt : {_, _}, \[Theta]orient_: \[Pi]/2, \[Theta]sep_: \[Pi]/9,
depth_Integer: 9] := Module[{pt2},
If[depth == 0, Return[]];
pt2 = pt + {Cos[\[Theta]orient], Sin[\[Theta]orient]}*depth;
DeleteCases[
Flatten@{
Line[{pt, pt2}],
fractalTree[pt2, \[Theta]orient - \[Theta]sep, \[Theta]sep,
depth - 1],
fractalTree[pt2, \[Theta]orient + \[Theta]sep, \[Theta]sep,
depth - 1]
},
Null
]
]
Graphics[fractalTree[{0, 0}, \[Pi]/2, \[Pi]/9]]
 

MathFractalTree.png

NetRexx[edit]

Translation of: Java
Library: Swing
Library: AWT
/* NetRexx */
options replace format comments java crossref symbols binary
 
import java.awt.Color
import java.awt.Graphics
import javax.swing.JFrame
 
class RFractalTree public extends JFrame
properties constant
isTrue = (1 == 1)
isFalse = \isTrue
-- ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
method RFractalTree() public
super('Fractal Tree')
setBounds(100, 100, 800, 600)
setResizable(isFalse)
setDefaultCloseOperation(JFrame.EXIT_ON_CLOSE)
return
-- ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
method drawTree(g = Graphics, x1 = int, y1 = int, angle = double, depth = int) private
if depth \= 0 then do
x2 = x1 + (int Math.cos(Math.toRadians(angle)) * depth * 10.0)
y2 = y1 + (int Math.sin(Math.toRadians(angle)) * depth * 10.0)
g.drawLine(x1, y1, x2, y2)
drawTree(g, x2, y2, angle - 20, depth - 1)
drawTree(g, x2, y2, angle + 20, depth - 1)
end
return
-- ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
method paint(g = Graphics) public
g.setColor(Color.BLACK)
drawTree(g, 400, 500, -90, 9)
return
-- ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
method main(args = String[])public static
RFractalTree().setVisible(isTrue)
return
 

OCaml[edit]

Library: ocaml-cairo
#directory "+cairo"
#load "bigarray.cma"
#load "cairo.cma"
 
let img_name = "/tmp/fractree.png"
let width = 480
let height = 640
 
let level = 9
let line_width = 4.0
 
let color = (1.0, 0.5, 0.0)
 
let pi = 4.0 *. atan 1.0
 
let angle_split = pi *. 0.12
let angle_rand = pi *. 0.12
 
let () =
Random.self_init();
let surf = Cairo.image_surface_create Cairo.FORMAT_RGB24 ~width ~height in
let ctx = Cairo.create surf in
Cairo.set_antialias ctx Cairo.ANTIALIAS_SUBPIXEL;
Cairo.set_line_cap ctx Cairo.LINE_CAP_ROUND;
 
let draw_line (x,y) (dx,dy) =
Cairo.move_to ctx x (float height -. y);
Cairo.line_to ctx dx (float height -. dy);
Cairo.stroke ctx;
in
let set_color (r,g,b) v =
Cairo.set_source_rgb ctx ~red:(r *. v) ~green:(g *. v) ~blue:(b *. v);
in
let trans_pos (x,y) len angle =
let _x = cos angle
and _y = sin angle in
(x +. (_x *. len),
y +. (_y *. len))
in
 
let rec loop ~level ~pos ~line_width ~line_len
~angle ~angle_split ~angle_rand ~intc =
if level > 0 then begin
(* draw the current segment *)
Cairo.set_line_width ctx line_width;
set_color color intc;
let pos_to = trans_pos pos line_len angle in
draw_line pos pos_to;
(* evolution of the parameters *)
let line_width = line_width *. 0.8
and line_len = line_len *. 0.62
and angle_split = angle_split *. 1.02
and angle_rand = angle_rand *. 1.02
and intc = intc *. 0.9
in
let next_loop =
loop ~level:(pred level) ~pos:pos_to ~intc
~line_width ~line_len ~angle_split ~angle_rand
in
(* split *)
let angle_left = angle +. angle_split +. Random.float angle_rand
and angle_right = angle -. angle_split -. Random.float angle_rand
in
next_loop ~angle:angle_left;
next_loop ~angle:angle_right
end
in
 
let pos = (float width *. 0.5, float height *. 0.1)
and line_len = float height *. 0.3
in
loop ~level ~pos ~angle:(pi /. 2.0)
~angle_split ~angle_rand
~line_width ~line_len ~intc:1.0;
 
Cairo_png.surface_write_to_file surf img_name
(*Cairo_png.surface_write_to_channel surf stdout*)

PARI/GP[edit]

Output FracTree1.png
Output FracTree2.png
Output FracTree3.png

This version with recursion, in general, is a translation of JavaScript version. Some tweaks and options were added to make it reusable and outputting different size of a tree.

Translation of: JavaScript
Works with: PARI/GP version 2.7.4 and above
 
\\ Fractal tree (w/recursion)
\\ 4/10/16 aev
plotline(x1,y1,x2,y2)={plotmove(0, x1,y1);plotrline(0,x2-x1,y2-y1);}
 
plottree(x,y,a,d)={
my(x2,y2,d2r=Pi/180.0,a1=a*d2r,d1);
if(d<=0, return(););
if(d>0, d1=d*10.0;
x2=x+cos(a1)*d1;
y2=y+sin(a1)*d1;
plotline(x,y,x2,y2);
plottree(x2,y2,a-20,d-1);
plottree(x2,y2,a+20,d-1),
return();
);
}
 
FractalTree(depth,size)={
my(dx=1,dy=0,ttlb="Fractal Tree, depth ",ttl=Str(ttlb,depth));
print1(" *** ",ttl); print(", size ",size);
plotinit(0);
plotcolor(0,6); \\green
plotscale(0, -size,size, 0,size);
plotmove(0, 0,0);
plottree(0,0,90,depth);
plotdraw([0,size,size]);
}
 
{\\ Executing:
FractalTree(9,500); \\FracTree1.png
FractalTree(12,1100); \\FracTree2.png
FractalTree(15,1500); \\FracTree3.png
}
 
Output:

 *** Fractal Tree, depth 9, size 500
 ***   last result computed in 140 ms.

 *** Fractal Tree, depth 12, size 1100
 ***   last result computed in 236 ms. 

 *** Fractal Tree, depth 15, size 1500
 ***   last result computed in 1,095 ms


Perl[edit]

using the GD::Simple module.

use GD::Simple;
 
my ($width, $height) = (1000,1000); # image dimension
my $scale = 6/10; # branch scale relative to trunk
my $length = 400; # trunk size
 
my $img = GD::Simple->new($width,$height);
$img->fgcolor('black');
$img->penSize(1,1);
 
tree($width/2, $height, $length, 270);
 
print $img->png;
 
 
sub tree
{
my ($x, $y, $len, $angle) = @_;
 
return if $len < 1;
 
$img->moveTo($x,$y);
$img->angle($angle);
$img->line($len);
 
($x, $y) = $img->curPos();
 
tree($x, $y, $len*$scale, $angle+35);
tree($x, $y, $len*$scale, $angle-35);
}


Perl 6[edit]

Image is created in SVG format.

my ($width, $height) = (1000,1000); # image dimension
my $scale = 6/10; # branch scale relative to trunk
my $length = 400; # trunk size
 
say "<?xml version='1.0' encoding='utf-8' standalone='no'?>
<!DOCTYPE svg PUBLIC '-//W3C//DTD SVG 1.1//EN'
'http://www.w3.org/Graphics/SVG/1.1/DTD/svg11.dtd'>
<svg width='100%' height='100%' version='1.1'
xmlns='http://www.w3.org/2000/svg'>"
;
 
tree($width/2, $height, $length, 3*pi/2);
 
say "</svg>";
 
multi tree($, $, $length where { $length < 1}, $) {}
multi tree($x, $y, $length, $angle)
{
my ($x2, $y2) = ( $x + $length * $angle.cos, $y + $length * $angle.sin);
say "<line x1='$x' y1='$y' x2='$x2' y2='$y2' style='stroke:rgb(0,0,0);stroke-width:1'/>";
tree($x2, $y2, $length*$scale, $angle + pi/5);
tree($x2, $y2, $length*$scale, $angle - pi/5);
}

Phix[edit]

Translation of: XPL0

Included in the distro as demo\rosetta\FractalTree.exw

include ..\pGUI\pGUI.e
 
Ihandle dlg, canvas
cdCanvas cddbuffer, cdcanvas
 
procedure drawTree(integer level, atom angle, atom len, integer x, integer y)
integer xn = x + floor(len*cos(angle))
integer yn = y + floor(len*sin(angle))
integer red = 255-level*8
integer grn = level*12+100
cdCanvasSetForeground(cddbuffer, red*#10000 + grn*#100)
cdCanvasLineWidth(cddbuffer,floor(5-level/3))
cdCanvasLine(cddbuffer, x, 480-y, xn, 480-yn)
if level<12 then
drawTree(level+1, angle-0.4, len*0.8, xn, yn) --left
drawTree(level+1, angle+0.1, len*0.8, xn, yn) --right
end if
end procedure
 
function redraw_cb(Ihandle /*ih*/, integer /*posx*/, integer /*posy*/)
cdCanvasActivate(cddbuffer)
cdCanvasClear(cddbuffer)
drawTree(0, -PI/2.0, 80.0, 360, 460)
cdCanvasFlush(cddbuffer)
return IUP_DEFAULT
end function
 
function map_cb(Ihandle ih)
cdcanvas = cdCreateCanvas(CD_IUP, ih)
cddbuffer = cdCreateCanvas(CD_DBUFFER, cdcanvas)
cdCanvasSetBackground(cddbuffer, CD_PARCHMENT)
return IUP_DEFAULT
end function
 
function esc_close(Ihandle /*ih*/, atom c)
if c=K_ESC then return IUP_CLOSE end if
return IUP_CONTINUE
end function
 
procedure main()
IupOpen("..\\pGUI\\")
 
canvas = IupCanvas(NULL)
IupSetAttribute(canvas, "RASTERSIZE", "640x480")
IupSetCallback(canvas, "MAP_CB", Icallback("map_cb"))
IupSetCallback(canvas, "ACTION", Icallback("redraw_cb"))
 
dlg = IupDialog(canvas,"RESIZE=NO")
IupSetAttribute(dlg, "TITLE", "Fractal Tree")
IupSetCallback(dlg, "K_ANY", Icallback("esc_close"))
 
IupShow(dlg)
IupMainLoop()
IupClose()
end procedure
 
main()

PHP[edit]

Image is created with GD module. Code adapted from the JavaScript version.

 
<?php
header("Content-type: image/png");
 
$width = 512;
$height = 512;
$img = imagecreatetruecolor($width,$height);
$bg = imagecolorallocate($img,255,255,255);
imagefilledrectangle($img, 0, 0, $width, $width, $bg);
 
$depth = 8;
function drawTree($x1, $y1, $angle, $depth){
 
global $img;
 
if ($depth != 0){
$x2 = $x1 + (int)(cos(deg2rad($angle)) * $depth * 10.0);
$y2 = $y1 + (int)(sin(deg2rad($angle)) * $depth * 10.0);
 
imageline($img, $x1, $y1, $x2, $y2, imagecolorallocate($img,0,0,0));
 
drawTree($x2, $y2, $angle - 20, $depth - 1);
drawTree($x2, $y2, $angle + 20, $depth - 1);
}
}
 
drawTree($width/2, $height, -90, $depth);
 
imagepng($img);
imagedestroy($img);
?>
 

PicoLisp[edit]

This uses the 'brez' line drawing function from Bitmap/Bresenham's line algorithm#PicoLisp.

(load "@lib/math.l")
 
(de fractalTree (Img X Y A D)
(unless (=0 D)
(let (R (*/ A pi 180.0) DX (*/ (cos R) D 0.2) DY (*/ (sin R) D 0.2))
(brez Img X Y DX DY)
(fractalTree Img (+ X DX) (+ Y DY) (+ A 30.0) (dec D))
(fractalTree Img (+ X DX) (+ Y DY) (- A 30.0) (dec D)) ) ) )
 
(let Img (make (do 300 (link (need 400 0)))) # Create image 400 x 300
(fractalTree Img 200 300 -90.0 10) # Draw tree
(out "img.pbm" # Write to bitmap file
(prinl "P1")
(prinl 400 " " 300)
(mapc prinl Img) ) )

PostScript[edit]

%!PS
%%BoundingBox: 0 0 300 300
%%EndComments
/origstate save def
/ld {load def} bind def
/m /moveto ld /g /setgray ld /t /translate ld
/r /rotate ld /l /lineto ld
/rl /rlineto ld /s /scale ld
%%EndProlog
/PerturbateAngle {} def
/PerturbateLength {} def
% ** To add perturbations, define properly PerturbateAngle and PerturbateLength, e.g.
% /PerturbateAngle {realtime 20 mod realtime 2 mod 1 eq {add} {sub} ifelse} def
% /PerturbateLength {realtime 10 mod 100 div realtime 2 mod 1 eq {add} {sub} ifelse} def
/fractree { % [INITLENGTH, SPLIT, SFACTOR, BRANCHES]
dup 3 get 0 gt
{
0 0 m dup 0 get 0 exch l
gsave
dup 0 get 0 exch t
dup 1 get PerturbateAngle r
dup 2 get dup PerturbateLength s
dup aload pop 1 sub 4 array astore fractree stroke
grestore
gsave
dup 0 get 0 exch t
dup 1 get neg PerturbateAngle r
dup 2 get dup PerturbateLength s
dup aload pop 1 sub 4 array astore fractree stroke
grestore
} if pop
} def
%
/BRANCHES 14 def
/INITLENGTH 50 def
/SPLIT 35 def
/SFACTOR .75 def
%
% BB check
%0 0 m 300 0 rl 0 300 rl -300 0 rl closepath stroke
%
0 g 150 0 t
[INITLENGTH SPLIT SFACTOR BRANCHES] fractree stroke
%
showpage origstate restore
%%EOF
Shorter version:
%!PS-Adobe-3.0
%%BoundingBox: 0 0 300 300
/!0 { dup 1 sub dup 0 gt } def
/trunk { 0 0 moveto 0 60 translate 0 0 lineto stroke } def
 
/branch { gsave scale rotate dup d exch sub d div setgray tree grestore } def
/L { 30 .8 .8 branch } def
/M {-10 .7 .7 branch } def
/R {-35 .7 .7 branch } def
/tree { trunk !0 { L M R } if pop } def
 
/d 10 def 5 setlinewidth 1 setlinecap 170 20 translate d tree pop
%%EOF

POV-Ray[edit]

#include "colors.inc"
#include "transforms.inc"
 
#declare CamLoc = <0, 5, 0>;
#declare CamLook = <0,0,0>;
camera
{
location CamLoc
look_at CamLook
rotate y*90
}
 
light_source
{
CamLoc
color White
}
 
#declare Init_Height = 10;
#declare Spread_Ang = 35;
#declare Branches = 14;
#declare Scaling_Factor = 0.75;
 
#macro Stick(P0, P1)
cylinder {
P0, P1, 0.02
texture { pigment { Green } }
}
#end
 
#macro FractalTree(O, D, S, R, B)
#if (B > 0)
Stick(O, O+D*S)
FractalTree(O+D*S, vtransform(D, transform{rotate y*R}),
S*Scaling_Factor, R, B-1)
FractalTree(O+D*S, vtransform(D, transform{rotate -y*R}),
S*Scaling_Factor, R, B-1)
#end
#end
 
union {
FractalTree(<-2,0,0>, <1,0,0>, 1, Spread_Ang, Branches)
}

Prolog[edit]

SWI-Prolog has a graphic interface : XPCE.

fractal :-
new(D, window('Fractal')),
send(D, size, size(800, 600)),
drawTree(D, 400, 500, -90, 9),
send(D, open).
 
 
drawTree(_D, _X, _Y, _Angle, 0).
 
drawTree(D, X1, Y1, Angle, Depth) :-
X2 is X1 + cos(Angle * pi / 180.0) * Depth * 10.0,
Y2 is Y1 + sin(Angle * pi / 180.0) * Depth * 10.0,
new(Line, line(X1, Y1, X2, Y2, none)),
send(D, display, Line),
A1 is Angle - 30,
A2 is Angle + 30,
De is Depth - 1,
drawTree(D, X2, Y2, A1, De),
drawTree(D, X2, Y2, A2, De).
 
 

PureBasic[edit]

#Spread_Ang     = 35
#Scaling_Factor = 0.75
#Deg_to_Rad = #PI / 180
#SizeH = 500
#SizeV = 375
#Init_Size = 100
 
Procedure drawTree(x1, y1, Size, theta, depth)
Protected x2 = x1 + Cos(theta * #Deg_to_Rad) * Size, y2 = y1 + Sin(theta * #Deg_to_Rad) * Size
LineXY(x1, y1, x2, y2, RGB(255, 255, 255))
If depth <= 0
ProcedureReturn
EndIf
;draw left branch
drawTree(x2, y2, Size * #Scaling_Factor, theta - #Spread_Ang, depth - 1)
;draw right branch
drawTree(x2, y2, Size * #Scaling_Factor, theta + #Spread_Ang, depth - 1)
EndProcedure
 
 
OpenWindow(0, 0, 0, #SizeH, #SizeV, "Fractal Tree", #PB_Window_SystemMenu)
Define fractal = CreateImage(#PB_Any, #SizeH, #SizeV, 32)
ImageGadget(0, 0, 0, 0, 0, ImageID(fractal))
 
If StartDrawing(ImageOutput(fractal))
drawTree(#SizeH / 2, #SizeV, #Init_Size, -90, 9)
StopDrawing()
SetGadgetState(0, ImageID(fractal))
EndIf
 
Repeat: Until WaitWindowEvent(10) = #PB_Event_CloseWindow

PB FractalTree.png

Python[edit]

Library: pygame
import pygame, math
 
pygame.init()
window = pygame.display.set_mode((600, 600))
pygame.display.set_caption("Fractal Tree")
screen = pygame.display.get_surface()
 
def drawTree(x1, y1, angle, depth):
if depth:
x2 = x1 + int(math.cos(math.radians(angle)) * depth * 10.0)
y2 = y1 + int(math.sin(math.radians(angle)) * depth * 10.0)
pygame.draw.line(screen, (255,255,255), (x1, y1), (x2, y2), 2)
drawTree(x2, y2, angle - 20, depth - 1)
drawTree(x2, y2, angle + 20, depth - 1)
 
def input(event):
if event.type == pygame.QUIT:
exit(0)
 
drawTree(300, 550, -90, 9)
pygame.display.flip()
while True:
input(pygame.event.wait())

Racket[edit]

Tree-racket.png
 
#lang racket
(require graphics/turtles)
 
(define (tree n)
(when (> n 1)
(draw (/ n 2))
(tprompt (split* (turn 60) (turn -60))
(tree (/ n 2)))
(draw (/ n 2))
(turn 5)
(tree (- n 1))))
 
(turtles #t) (move 100) (turn 90) (move -200)
(tree 35)
(save-turtle-bitmap "tree.png" 'png)
 

Ring[edit]

 
load "guilib.ring"
 
new qapp
{
win1 = new qwidget() {
setwindowtitle("drawing using qpainter")
setgeometry(100,100,500,500)
label1 = new qlabel(win1) {
setgeometry(10,10,400,400)
settext("")
}
draw()
show()
}
exec()
}
 
func draw
p1 = new qpicture()
color = new qcolor() {
setrgb(0,0,255,255)
}
pen = new qpen() {
setcolor(color)
setwidth(1)
}
new qpainter() {
begin(p1)
setpen(pen)
 
sizex = 400
sizey = 200
depth = 10
 
tree(self, sizex, 0, sizey/2, 90, depth)
 
endpaint()
}
label1 { setpicture(p1) show() }
 
func tree myObj, x1, y1, size, angle, depth
myObj{
scale = 0.76
spread = 25
x2 = x1 + size * cos(angle)
y2 = y1 + size * sin(angle)
drawline(x1, y1, x2, y2)
if depth > 0
tree(self, x2, y2, size * scale, angle - spread, depth - 1)
tree(self, x2, y2, size * scale, angle + spread, depth - 1) ok}
 

Output:

CalmoSoftFractalTree.jpg

Ruby[edit]

Library: Shoes
Shoes.app(:title => "Fractal Tree", :width => 600, :height => 600) do
background "#fff"
stroke "#000"
@deg_to_rad = Math::PI / 180.0
 
def drawTree(x1, y1, angle, depth)
if depth != 0
x2 = x1 + (Math.cos(angle * @deg_to_rad) * depth * 10.0).to_i
y2 = y1 + (Math.sin(angle * @deg_to_rad) * depth * 10.0).to_i
 
line x1, y1, x2, y2
 
drawTree(x2, y2, angle - 20, depth - 1)
drawTree(x2, y2, angle + 20, depth - 1)
end
end
 
drawTree(300,550,-90,9)
end

Scala[edit]

Adapted from the Java version. Screenshot below.

import swing._
import java.awt.{RenderingHints, BasicStroke, Color}
 
object FractalTree extends SimpleSwingApplication {
val DEPTH = 9
 
def top = new MainFrame {
contents = new Panel {
preferredSize = new Dimension(600, 500)
 
override def paintComponent(g: Graphics2D) {
draw(300, 460, -90, DEPTH)
 
def draw(x1: Int, y1: Int, angle: Double, depth: Int) {
if (depth > 0) {
val x2 = x1 + (math.cos(angle.toRadians) * depth * 10).toInt
val y2 = y1 + (math.sin(angle.toRadians) * depth * 10).toInt
 
g.setColor(Color.getHSBColor(0.25f - depth * 0.125f / DEPTH, 0.9f, 0.6f))
g.setStroke(new BasicStroke(depth))
g.setRenderingHint(RenderingHints.KEY_ANTIALIASING, RenderingHints.VALUE_ANTIALIAS_ON)
g.drawLine(x1, y1, x2, y2)
 
draw(x2, y2, angle - 20, depth - 1)
draw(x2, y2, angle + 20, depth - 1)
}
}
}
}
}
}

ScalaTree.png

Scheme[edit]

The tree is created as a list of line segments, which can then be drawn on a required device. For this program, the tree is output to an eps file.

 
(import (scheme base)
(scheme file)
(scheme inexact)
(scheme write))
 
(define *scale* 10) ; controls overall size of tree
(define *split* 20) ; controls angle of split (in degrees)
 
;; construct lines for tree as list of 5-tuples (x1 y1 x2 y2 depth)
;; - x1 y1 is start point
;; - angle of this line, in radians
;; - depth, depth within tree (controls length of line)
(define (create-tree x1 y1 angle depth)
(define (degrees->radians d)
(let ((pi 3.14159265358979323846264338327950288419716939937510582097))
(* d pi 1/180)))
;
(if (zero? depth)
'()
(let ((x2 (+ x1 (* (cos (degrees->radians angle)) depth *scale*)))
(y2 (+ y1 (* (sin (degrees->radians angle)) depth *scale*))))
(append (list (map truncate (list x1 y1 x2 y2 depth)))
(create-tree x2 y2 (- angle *split*) (- depth 1))
(create-tree x2 y2 (+ angle *split*) (- depth 1))))))
 
;; output the tree to an eps file
(define (output-tree-as-eps filename tree)
(when (file-exists? filename) (delete-file filename))
(with-output-to-file
filename
(lambda ()
(display "%!PS-Adobe-3.0 EPSF-3.0\n%%BoundingBox: 0 0 800 800\n")
 
;; add each line - sets linewidth based on depth in tree
(for-each (lambda (line)
(display
(string-append "newpath\n"
(number->string (list-ref line 0)) " "
(number->string (list-ref line 1)) " "
"moveto\n"
(number->string (list-ref line 2)) " "
(number->string (list-ref line 3)) " "
"lineto\n"
(number->string (truncate (/ (list-ref line 4) 2)))
" setlinewidth\n"
"stroke\n"
)))
tree)
(display "\n%%EOF"))))
 
(output-tree-as-eps "fractal.eps" (create-tree 400 200 90 9))
 

Seed7[edit]

$ include "seed7_05.s7i";
include "float.s7i";
include "math.s7i";
include "draw.s7i";
include "keybd.s7i";
 
const float: DEG_TO_RAD is PI / 180.0;
 
const proc: drawTree (in integer: x1, in integer: y1, in float: angle, in integer: depth) is func
local
var integer: x2 is 0;
var integer: y2 is 0;
begin
if depth <> 0 then
x2 := x1 + trunc(cos(angle * DEG_TO_RAD) * flt(depth * 10));
y2 := y1 + trunc(sin(angle * DEG_TO_RAD) * flt(depth * 10));
lineTo(x1, y1, x2, y2, white);
drawTree(x2, y2, angle - 20.0, depth - 1);
drawTree(x2, y2, angle + 20.0, depth - 1);
end if;
end func;
 
const proc: main is func
begin
screen(600, 500);
clear(curr_win, black);
KEYBOARD := GRAPH_KEYBOARD;
drawTree(300, 470, -90.0, 9);
ignore(getc(KEYBOARD));
end func;

Original source: [1]

Sidef[edit]

Translation of: Perl
func tree(img, x, y, scale=6/10, len=400, angle=270) {
 
len < 1 && return()
 
img.moveTo(x, y)
img.angle(angle)
img.line(len)
 
var (x1, y1) = img.curPos
tree(img, x1, y1, scale, len*scale, angle+35)
tree(img, x1, y1, scale, len*scale, angle-35)
}
 
require('GD::Simple')
 
var (width=1000, height=1000)
var img = %s|GD::Simple|.new(width, height)
img.fgcolor('black')
img.penSize(1, 1)
 
tree(img, width/2, height)
 
File('tree.png').write(img.png, :raw)

Smalltalk[edit]

This example is coded for Squeak Smalltalk.

 
Object subclass: #FractalTree
instanceVariableNames: ''
classVariableNames: ''
poolDictionaries: ''
category: 'RosettaCode'
 

Methods for FractalTree class:

 
tree: aPoint length: aLength angle: anAngle
| p a |
 
(aLength > 10) ifTrue: [
p := Pen new.
p up.
p goto: aPoint.
p turn: anAngle.
p down.
5 timesRepeat: [
p go: aLength / 5.
p turn: 5.
].
a := anAngle - 30.
3 timesRepeat: [
self tree: p location length: aLength * 0.7 angle: a.
a := a + 30.
]
].
 
draw
Display restoreAfter: [
Display fillWhite.
self tree: 700@700 length: 200 angle: 0.
]
 

Now open a new Workspace and enter:

 
FractalTree new draw.
 


SVG[edit]

Fractal tree.svg

In the same style as Dragon curve#SVG. SVG has no parameterized definitions, so the recursion must be unrolled.

<?xml version="1.0" standalone="yes"?>
<!DOCTYPE svg PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD SVG 20010904//EN"
"http://www.w3.org/TR/2001/REC-SVG-20010904/DTD/svg10.dtd">
<svg xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg"
xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink"
width="400" height="320">
<style type="text/css"><![CDATA[
line { stroke: black; stroke-width: .05; }
circle { fill: black; }
]]></style>
 
<defs>
<g id="stem"> <line x1="0" y1="0" x2="0" y2="-1"/> </g>
 
<g id="l0"><use xlink:href="#stem"/></g>
<!-- These are identical except for the id and href. -->
<g id="l1"> <use xlink:href="#l0" transform="translate(0, -1) rotate(-35) scale(.7)"/>
<use xlink:href="#l0" transform="translate(0, -1) rotate(+35) scale(.7)"/>
<use xlink:href="#stem"/></g>
<g id="l2"> <use xlink:href="#l1" transform="translate(0, -1) rotate(-35) scale(.7)"/>
<use xlink:href="#l1" transform="translate(0, -1) rotate(+35) scale(.7)"/>
<use xlink:href="#stem"/></g>
<g id="l3"> <use xlink:href="#l2" transform="translate(0, -1) rotate(-35) scale(.7)"/>
<use xlink:href="#l2" transform="translate(0, -1) rotate(+35) scale(.7)"/>
<use xlink:href="#stem"/></g>
<g id="l4"> <use xlink:href="#l3" transform="translate(0, -1) rotate(-35) scale(.7)"/>
<use xlink:href="#l3" transform="translate(0, -1) rotate(+35) scale(.7)"/>
<use xlink:href="#stem"/></g>
<g id="l5"> <use xlink:href="#l4" transform="translate(0, -1) rotate(-35) scale(.7)"/>
<use xlink:href="#l4" transform="translate(0, -1) rotate(+35) scale(.7)"/>
<use xlink:href="#stem"/></g>
<g id="l6"> <use xlink:href="#l5" transform="translate(0, -1) rotate(-35) scale(.7)"/>
<use xlink:href="#l5" transform="translate(0, -1) rotate(+35) scale(.7)"/>
<use xlink:href="#stem"/></g>
<g id="l7"> <use xlink:href="#l6" transform="translate(0, -1) rotate(-35) scale(.7)"/>
<use xlink:href="#l6" transform="translate(0, -1) rotate(+35) scale(.7)"/>
<use xlink:href="#stem"/></g>
<g id="l8"> <use xlink:href="#l7" transform="translate(0, -1) rotate(-35) scale(.7)"/>
<use xlink:href="#l7" transform="translate(0, -1) rotate(+35) scale(.7)"/>
<use xlink:href="#stem"/></g>
<g id="l9"> <use xlink:href="#l8" transform="translate(0, -1) rotate(-35) scale(.7)"/>
<use xlink:href="#l8" transform="translate(0, -1) rotate(+35) scale(.7)"/>
<use xlink:href="#stem"/></g>
</defs>
 
<g transform="translate(200, 320) scale(100)">
<use xlink:href="#l9"/>
</g>
 
</svg>

Swift[edit]

Image - Link, since uploads seem to be disabled currently. In a playground:

 
import UIKit
 
extension CGFloat {
func degrees_to_radians() -> CGFloat {
return CGFloat(M_PI) * self / 180.0
}
}
 
extension Double {
func degrees_to_radians() -> Double {
return Double(M_PI) * self / 180.0
}
 
}
 
 
class Tree: UIView {
 
 
func drawTree(x1: CGFloat, y1: CGFloat, angle: CGFloat, depth:Int){
if depth == 0 {
return
}
let ang = angle.degrees_to_radians()
let x2:CGFloat = x1 + ( cos(ang) as CGFloat) * CGFloat(depth) * (self.frame.width / 60)
let y2:CGFloat = y1 + ( sin(ang) as CGFloat) * CGFloat(depth) * (self.frame.width / 60)
 
let line = drawLine(x1, y1: y1, x2: x2, y2: y2)
 
line.stroke()
drawTree(x2, y1: y2, angle: angle - 20, depth: depth - 1)
drawTree(x2, y1: y2, angle: angle + 20, depth: depth - 1)
}
 
func drawLine(x1:CGFloat, y1:CGFloat, x2:CGFloat, y2:CGFloat) -> UIBezierPath
{
 
let path = UIBezierPath()
path.moveToPoint(CGPoint(x: x1,y: y1))
path.addLineToPoint(CGPoint(x: x2,y: y2))
path.lineWidth = 1
return path
}
 
override func drawRect(rect: CGRect) {
 
let color = UIColor(red: 1.0, green: 0.0, blue: 0.0, alpha: 1.0)
color.set()
drawTree(self.frame.width / 2 , y1: self.frame.height * 0.8, angle: -90 , depth: 9 )
}
 
 
}
 
 
let tree = Tree(frame: CGRectMake(0, 0, 300, 300))
tree
 

Tcl[edit]

Library: Tk
package require Tk
 
set SIZE 800
set SCALE 4.0
set BRANCHES 14
set ROTATION_SCALE 0.85
set INITIAL_LENGTH 50.0
 
proc draw_tree {w x y dx dy size theta depth} {
global SCALE ROTATION_SCALE
$w create line $x $y [expr {$x + $dx*$size}] [expr {$y + $dy*$size}]
if {[incr depth -1] >= 0} {
set x [expr {$x + $dx*$size}]
set y [expr {$y + $dy*$size}]
set ntheta [expr {$theta * $ROTATION_SCALE}]
 
# Draw left branch
draw_tree $w $x $y \
[expr {$dx*cos($theta) + $dy*sin($theta)}] \
[expr {$dy*cos($theta) - $dx*sin($theta)}] \
[expr {$size * (rand() + $SCALE - 1) / $SCALE}] $ntheta $depth
# Draw right branch
draw_tree $w $x $y \
[expr {$dx*cos(-$theta) + $dy*sin(-$theta)}] \
[expr {$dy*cos(-$theta) - $dx*sin(-$theta)}] \
[expr {$size * (rand() + $SCALE - 1) / $SCALE}] $ntheta $depth
}
}
 
pack [canvas .c -width $SIZE -height $SIZE]
draw_tree .c [expr {$SIZE/2}] [expr {$SIZE-10}] 0.0 -1.0 $INITIAL_LENGTH \
[expr {3.1415927 / 8}] $BRANCHES

TUSCRIPT[edit]

Image is created in SVG-format

 
$$ MODE TUSCRIPT
dest="fracaltree.svg"
ERROR/STOP CREATE (dest,fdf-o,-std-)
ACCESS d: WRITE/ERASE/RECORDS/UTF8 $dest s,text
MODE DATA
$$ header=*
<?xml version="1.0" standalone="yes"?>
<!DOCTYPE svg PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD SVG 20010904//EN"
"http://www.w3.org/TR/2001/REC-SVG-20010904/DTD/svg10.dtd">
<svg xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg"
xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink"
width="400" height="320">
<style type="text/css"><![CDATA[
line { stroke: brown; stroke-width: .05; }
]]></style>
$$ WRITE/NEXT d header
$$ defsbeg=*
<defs>
<g id="stem"> <line x1="0" y1="0" x2="0" y2="-1"/> </g>
<g id="l"><use xlink:href="#stem"/></g>
$$ WRITE/NEXT d defsbeg
$$ LOOP n=10,21
$$ id=n+1,lastnr=VALUE(n)
$$ g=*
<g id="{id}"> <use xlink:href="#{n}" transform="translate(0, -1) rotate(-35) scale(.7)"/>
<use xlink:href="#{n}" transform="translate(0, -1) rotate(+35) scale(.7)"/> <use xlink:href="#stem"/></g>
$$ WRITE/NEXT d g
$$ ENDLOOP
$$ defsend = *
</defs>
<g transform="translate(200, 320) scale(100)">
<use xlink:href="#{lastnr}"/>
</g>
$$ MODE TUSCRIPT
WRITE/NEXT d defsend
WRITE/NEXT d "</svg>"
ENDACCESS d
 

TypeScript[edit]

Translation of: JavaScript
// Set up canvas for drawing
var canvas: HTMLCanvasElement = document.createElement('canvas')
canvas.width = 600
canvas.height = 500
document.body.appendChild(canvas)
var ctx: CanvasRenderingContext2D = canvas.getContext('2d')
ctx.fillStyle = '#000'
ctx.lineWidth = 1
 
// constants
const degToRad: number = Math.PI / 180.0
const totalDepth: number = 9
 
/** Helper function that draws a line on the canvas */
function drawLine(x1: number, y1: number, x2: number, y2: number): void {
ctx.moveTo(x1, y1)
ctx.lineTo(x2, y2)
}
 
/** Draws a branch at the given point and angle and then calls itself twice */
function drawTree(x1: number, y1: number, angle: number, depth: number): void {
if (depth !== 0) {
let x2: number = x1 + (Math.cos(angle * degToRad) * depth * 10.0)
let y2: number = y1 + (Math.sin(angle * degToRad) * depth * 10.0)
drawLine(x1, y1, x2, y2)
drawTree(x2, y2, angle - 20, depth - 1)
drawTree(x2, y2, angle + 20, depth - 1)
}
}
 
// actual drawing of tree
ctx.beginPath()
drawTree(300, 500, -90, totalDepth)
ctx.closePath()
ctx.stroke()
 
 

XPL0[edit]

Output
include c:\cxpl\codes;
 
proc DrawBranch(Lev, Dir, Len, X, Y);
int Lev; real Dir, Len; int X, Y;
int Red, Grn;
[Move(X, Y);
X:= X + fix(Len*Cos(Dir));
Y:= Y + fix(Len*Sin(Dir));
Red:= 255-Lev*8; Grn:= Lev*12+100;
Line(X, Y, Red<<16+Grn<<8);
if Lev < 12 then \limit level of recursion
[DrawBranch(Lev+1, Dir-0.4, Len*0.8, X, Y); \left
DrawBranch(Lev+1, Dir+0.1, Len*0.8, X, Y); \right
];
];
 
[SetVid($112); \set 640x480x24 video graphics mode
DrawBranch(0, -3.14159/2.0, 80.0, 360, 460);
if ChIn(1) then []; \wait for keystroke
SetVid(3); \restore normal text mode
]

zkl[edit]

Uses the PPM class from http://rosettacode.org/wiki/Bitmap/Bresenham%27s_line_algorithm#zkl

Translation of: BBC BASIC
Translation of: XPL0
FractalTree.zkl.jpg
fcn fractalTree(){
scale:=0.76;
sizeX:=400; sizeY:=300;
bitmap:=PPM(sizeX*2,sizeY*2,0xFF|FF|FF);
branch:='wrap(x1,y1,size,angle,depth){
ar:=angle.toRad();
x2:=x1 - size*ar.cos();
y2:=y1 + size*ar.sin();
color:=(0xff-depth*8).shiftLeft(16) + (depth*12+100).shiftLeft(8);
bitmap.line(x1,y1, x2,y2, color);
if(depth){
self.fcn(x2,y2,scale*size,angle - 30,depth - 1,vm.pasteArgs(5));
self.fcn(x2,y2,scale*size,angle + 8, depth - 1,vm.pasteArgs(5));
}
};
branch(sizeX,0,sizeY/2,90.0,10);
bitmap.write(File("foo.ppm","wb"));
}();

The funkyness (pasteArgs) in the recursion (self.fcn) is due to the closure ('wrap): the closed over args are stashed in the arglist, they need to be added to the parameters when recursing.

ZX Spectrum Basic[edit]

Translation of: BASIC256
10 LET level=12: LET LONG=45
20 LET x=127: LET y=0
30 LET rotation=PI/2
40 LET a1=PI/9: LET a2=PI/9
50 LET c1=0.75: LET c2=0.75
60 DIM x(level): DIM y(level)
70 BORDER 0: PAPER 0: INK 4: CLS
80 GO SUB 100
90 STOP
100 REM Tree
110 LET x(level)=x: LET y(level)=y
120 GO SUB 1000
130 IF level=1 THEN GO TO 240
140 LET level=level-1
150 LET LONG=LONG*c1
160 LET rotation=rotation-a1
170 GO SUB 100
180 LET LONG=LONG/c1*c2
190 LET rotation=rotation+a1+a2
200 GO SUB 100
210 LET rotation=rotation-a2
220 LET LONG=LONG/c2
230 LET level=level+1
240 LET x=x(level): LET y=y(level)
250 RETURN
1000 REM Draw
1010 LET yn=-SIN rotation*LONG+y
1020 LET xn=COS rotation*LONG+x
1030 PLOT x,y: DRAW xn-x,y-yn
1040 LET x=xn: LET y=yn
1050 RETURN