Modulinos

From Rosetta Code
(Redirected from Scripted main)
Modulinos is a draft programming task. It is not yet considered ready to be promoted as a complete task, for reasons that should be found in its talk page.

It is useful to be able to execute a main() function only when a program is run directly. This is a central feature in programming scripts. A script that behaves this way is called a modulino.

Examples from https://github.com/mcandre/modulinos

Sometimes getting the ScriptName is required in order to determine when to run main().

Care when manipulating command line arguments, due to subtle exec security constraints that may or not be enforced on implicit argv[0]. https://ryiron.wordpress.com/2013/12/16/argv-silliness/

This is still a draft task, and the current task description has caused mega confusion. See Talk:Modulinos for numerous attempts to understand the task and to rewrite the task description.
The task Executable library is written to replace this task. This task's future is in doubt as its aims are not clear enough.



11l[edit]

// life.11l

F meaning_of_life()
   R ‘*’.code

:start:
print(‘Main: The meaning of life is ’meaning_of_life())
// death.11l

print(‘Life means ’life:meaning_of_life()‘.’)
print(‘Death means nothing.’)

AppleScript[edit]

AppleScript's equivalent of a main() function is a run handler, which can be either implicit or explicit:

display dialog "Hello"

or

on run
    display dialog "Hello"
end run

A run handler's only executed when the script containing it is explicity run, either from another script or application or as an application in its own right. It's not executed when a script's simply loaded as a library, although it can subsequently be so in the unlikely event of this being desirable. Scripts saved as applications aren't recognised by the "Libraries" system introduced in Mac OS X 10.9, but can be loaded and/or run using the older load script and run script commands. Script code can tell if it's running in its own application or being executed by an external agent by comparing its file path with that of the agent:

on run
    if ((path to me) = (path to current application)) then
        display dialog "I'm running in my own application."
    else
        display dialog "I'm being run from another script or application."
    end if
end run

Arturo[edit]

Library[edit]

; modulinos - library
 
meaningOfLife: function [][
    42
]

if standalone? ->
    print ~"Library: The meaning of life is |meaningOfLife|"
Output:
Library: The meaning of life is 42

Main[edit]

do.import relative "modulinos - library.art"
 
print ~"Life means |meaningOfLife|."
print "Death means invisible scary skeletons."
Output:
Life means 42.
Death means invisible scary skeletons.

C[edit]

Works with: GCC

C programs cannot normally do scripted main, because main() is implicitly included by another program, test.c, even though scriptedmain.h omits any main() prototype. However, preprocessor instructions can hide main unless a compiler flag is explicitly set.

Example

$ make
./scriptedmain
Main: The meaning of life is 42
./test
Test: The meaning of life is

Makefile

all: scriptedmain test
	./scriptedmain
	./test

scriptedmain: scriptedmain.c scriptedmain.h
	gcc -o scriptedmain -DSCRIPTEDMAIN scriptedmain.c scriptedmain.h

test: test.c scriptedmain.h scriptedmain.c
	gcc -o test test.c scriptedmain.c scriptedmain.h

clean:
	-rm scriptedmain
	-rm test
	-rm scriptedmain.exe
	-rm test.exe

scriptedmain.h

int meaning_of_life();

scriptedmain.c

#include <stdio.h>

int meaning_of_life() {
	return 42;
}

#ifdef SCRIPTEDMAIN

int main() {
	printf("Main: The meaning of life is %d\n", meaning_of_life());

	return 0;
}

#endif

test.c

#include "scriptedmain.h"
#include <stdio.h>

extern int meaning_of_life();

int main(int argc, char **argv) {
	printf("Test: The meaning of life is %d\n", meaning_of_life());
	return 0;
}

C++[edit]

C++ programs cannot normally do scripted main, because main() is implicitly included by another program, test.c, even though scriptedmain.h omits any main() prototype. Preprocessor instructions can hide main() unless a compiler flat is explicitly set.

Example

$ make
./scriptedmain
Main: The meaning of life is 42
./test
Test: The meaning of life is 42

Makefile

all: scriptedmain test
	./scriptedmain
	./test

scriptedmain: scriptedmain.cpp scriptedmain.h
	g++ -o scriptedmain -static-libgcc -static-libstdc++ -DSCRIPTEDMAIN scriptedmain.cpp scriptedmain.h

test: test.cpp scriptedmain.h scriptedmain.cpp
	g++ -o test -static-libgcc -static-libstdc++ test.cpp scriptedmain.cpp scriptedmain.h

clean:
	-rm scriptedmain
	-rm test
	-rm scriptedmain.exe
	-rm test.exe

scriptedmain.h

int meaning_of_life();

scriptedmain.cpp

#include <iostream>

using namespace std;

int meaning_of_life() {
	return 42;
}

#ifdef SCRIPTEDMAIN

int main() {
	cout << "Main: The meaning of life is " << meaning_of_life() << endl;
	return 0;
}

#endif

test.cpp

#include "scriptedmain.h"
#include <iostream>

using namespace std;

extern int meaning_of_life();

int main() {
	cout << "Test: The meaning of life is " << meaning_of_life() << endl;
	return 0;
}

Clojure[edit]

Uses lein-exec.

scriptedmain.clj:

":";exec lein exec $0 ${1+"$@"}
":";exit

(ns scriptedmain
  (:gen-class))

(defn meaning-of-life [] 42)

(defn -main [& args]
  (println "Main: The meaning of life is" (meaning-of-life)))

(when (.contains (first *command-line-args*) *source-path*)
  (apply -main (rest *command-line-args*)))

test.clj:

":";exec lein exec $0 ${1+"$@"}
":";exit

(ns test
  (:gen-class))

(load-string (slurp "scriptedmain.clj"))

(defn -main [& args]
  (println "Test: The meaning of life is" (scriptedmain/meaning-of-life)))

(when (.contains (first *command-line-args*) *source-path*)
  (apply -main (rest *command-line-args*)))

CoffeeScript[edit]

scriptedmain.coffee:

#!/usr/bin/env coffee

meaningOfLife = () -> 42

exports.meaningOfLife = meaningOfLife

main = () ->
  console.log "Main: The meaning of life is " + meaningOfLife()

if not module.parent then main()

test.coffee:

#!/usr/bin/env coffee

sm = require "./scriptedmain"

console.log "Test: The meaning of life is " + sm.meaningOfLife()

Common Lisp[edit]

Common Lisp has few standards for POSIX operation. Shebangs and command line arguments are hacks.

In CLISP, this code only works for ./scriptedmain.lisp.

~/.clisprc.lisp

;;; Play nice with shebangs
(set-dispatch-macro-character #\# #\!
 (lambda (stream character n)
  (declare (ignore character n))
  (read-line stream nil nil t)
  nil))

scriptedmain.lisp

#!/bin/sh
#|
exec clisp -q -q $0 $0 ${1+"$@"}
exit
|#

;;; Usage: ./scriptedmain.lisp

(defun meaning-of-life () 42)

(defun main (args)
 (format t "Main: The meaning of life is ~a~%" (meaning-of-life))
 (quit))

;;; With help from Francois-Rene Rideau
;;; http://tinyurl.com/cli-args
(let ((args
       #+clisp ext:*args*
       #+sbcl sb-ext:*posix-argv*
       #+clozure (ccl::command-line-arguments)
       #+gcl si:*command-args*
       #+ecl (loop for i from 0 below (si:argc) collect (si:argv i))
       #+cmu extensions:*command-line-strings*
       #+allegro (sys:command-line-arguments)
       #+lispworks sys:*line-arguments-list*
     ))

  (if (member (pathname-name *load-truename*)
              args
              :test #'(lambda (x y) (search x y :test #'equalp)))
    (main args)))

test.lisp

#!/bin/sh
#|
exec clisp -q -q $0 $0 ${1+"$@"}
exit
|#

(load "scriptedmain.lisp")
(format t "Test: The meaning of life is ~a~%" (meaning-of-life))

D[edit]

D manages to implement scriptedmain through the use of version directives, which require special options to rdmd and dmd.

scriptedmain.d:

#!/usr/bin/env rdmd -version=scriptedmain

module scriptedmain;

import std.stdio;

int meaningOfLife() {
	return 42;
}

version (scriptedmain) {
	void main(string[] args) {
		writeln("Main: The meaning of life is ", meaningOfLife());
	}
}

test.d:

#!/usr/bin/env rdmd -version=test

import scriptedmain;
import std.stdio;

version (test) {
	void main(string[] args) {
		writeln("Test: The meaning of life is ", meaningOfLife());
	}
}

Example:

$ ./scriptedmain.d
Main: The meaning of life is 42
$ ./test.d
Test: The meaning of life is 42
$ dmd scriptedmain.d -version=scriptedmain
$ ./scriptedmain
Main: The meaning of life is 42
$ dmd test.d scriptedmain.d -version=test
$ ./test
Test: The meaning of life is 42

Dart[edit]

scriptedmain.dart:

#!/usr/bin/env dart

#library("scriptedmain");

meaningOfLife() {
	return 42;
}

main() {
	print("Main: The meaning of life is ${meaningOfLife()}");
}

test.dart:

#!/usr/bin/env dart

#import("scriptedmain.dart", prefix: "scriptedmain");

main() {
	print("Test: The meaning of life is ${scriptedmain.meaningOfLife()}");
}

Example:

$ ./scriptedmain.dart 
Main: The meaning of life is 42
$ ./test.dart 
Test: The meaning of life is 42

Emacs Lisp[edit]

Emacs has scripted main, though older versions require an obscure shebang syntax.

scriptedmain.el

:;exec emacs -batch -l $0 -f main $*

;;; Shebang from John Swaby
;;; http://www.emacswiki.org/emacs/EmacsScripts

(defun meaning-of-life () 42)

(defun main ()
 (message "Main: The meaning of life is %d" (meaning-of-life)))

test.el

:;exec emacs -batch -l $0 -f main $*

;;; Shebang from John Swaby
;;; http://www.emacswiki.org/emacs/EmacsScripts

(defun main ()
 (setq load-path (cons default-directory load-path))
 (load "scriptedmain.el" nil t)
 (message "Test: The meaning of life is %d" (meaning-of-life)))

Erlang[edit]

Erlang has scripted main by default. scriptedmain.erl must be compiled before test.erl can access its functions.

Makefile:

all: t

t: scriptedmain.beam test.beam
	erl -noshell -s scriptedmain
	erl -noshell -s test

scriptedmain.beam: scriptedmain.erl
	erlc scriptedmain.erl

test.beam: test.erl
	erlc test.erl

clean:
	-rm *.beam

scriptedmain.erl:

-module(scriptedmain).
-export([meaning_of_life/0, start/0]).

meaning_of_life() -> 42.

start() ->
  io:format("Main: The meaning of life is ~w~n", [meaning_of_life()]),
  init:stop().

test.erl:

-module(test).
-export([start/0]).
-import(scriptedmain, [meaning_of_life/0]).

start() ->
  io:format("Test: The meaning of life is ~w~n", [meaning_of_life()]),
  init:stop().

F#[edit]

Note 1: F# supports the scriptedmain behavior, but F# does not support hybrid script-compiled code files. The following programs work provided that they are compiled and then run, as .fs files, not interpreted or dotslashed as .fsx files.

Note 2: fsharpc has a backwards file ordering: Specify any dependencies BEFORE the code that depends on them.

Note 3: fsharpc also has that unpredictable DOS-flavored command line flag syntax, so the --out requires a colon between it and its value, and -h only generates an error; use --help instead.

Note 4: In Unix, mono is required to run F# executables. In Windows, mono is not required for execution.

Example:

$ make
fsharpc --out:scriptedmain.exe ScriptedMain.fs
fsharpc --out:test.exe ScriptedMain.fs Test.fs
$ mono scriptedmain.exe 
Main: The meaning of life is 42
$ mono test.exe 
Test: The meaning of life is 42

Makefile:

all: scriptedmain.exe test.exe

scriptedmain.exe: ScriptedMain.fs
	fsharpc --nologo --out:scriptedmain.exe ScriptedMain.fs

test.exe: Test.fs ScriptedMain.fs
	fsharpc --nologo --out:test.exe ScriptedMain.fs Test.fs

clean:
	-rm *.exe

ScriptedMain.fs:

namespace ScriptedMain

module ScriptedMain =
    let meaningOfLife = 42

    let main =
        printfn "Main: The meaning of life is %d" meaningOfLife

Test.fs:

module Test =
    open ScriptedMain

    let main =
        printfn "Test: The meaning of life is %d" ScriptedMain.meaningOfLife

Factor[edit]

Note: The INCLUDE/INCLUDING macros must be added to the ~/.factor-rc configuration file.

Example:

$ ./scriptedmain.factor 
Main: The meaning of life is 42
$ ./test.factor 
Test: The meaning of life is 42

~/.factor-rc:

! INCLUDING macro that imports source code files in the current directory

USING: kernel vocabs.loader parser sequences lexer vocabs.parser ;
IN: syntax

: include-vocab ( vocab -- ) dup ".factor" append parse-file append use-vocab ;

SYNTAX: INCLUDING: ";" [ include-vocab ] each-token ;

scriptedmain.factor:

#! /usr/bin/env factor

USING: io math.parser ;
IN: scriptedmain

: meaning-of-life ( -- n ) 42 ;

: main ( -- ) meaning-of-life "Main: The meaning of life is " write number>string print ;

MAIN: main

test.factor:

#! /usr/bin/env factor

INCLUDING: scriptedmain ;
USING: io math.parser ;
IN: test

: main ( -- ) meaning-of-life "Test: The meaning of life is " write number>string print ;

MAIN: main

Forth[edit]

Given this awful running reference:

42 constant Douglas-Adams

: go ( -- )
  ." The meaning of life is " Douglas-Adams . cr ;

The bulk of Forth systems provide a way to generate an executable that enters GO (ar any word) on start.

Works with: SwiftForth version 4.0
' go 'MAIN !
program douglas-adams

Which creates a file named 'douglas-adams' that you can then run. If this is all in the same file, you can load the file, test parts of it, and then exit (or shell out) to run the executable.

A unix script requires that '#!' be a comment and that the system have some #!-compatible arguments.

Works with: gforth
#! /usr/bin/env gforth

42 constant Douglas-Adams
.( The meaning of life is ) Douglas-Adams . cr bye

Adding #! as a comment, as gforth does, is trivial. For a means by which this script could distinguish between 'scripted execution' and otherwise, a symlink like 'forthscript' could easily be used, and the zeroth OS argument tested for, but there's no convention.

Works with: gforth
#! /usr/bin/env forthscript

42 constant Douglas-Adams

s" forthscript" 0 arg compare 0= [IF]
  .( The meaning of life is ) Douglas-Adams . cr bye
[THEN]

cr .( Why aren't you running this as a script?  It only provides a constant.)


FreeBASIC[edit]

Translation of: Ring
Function meaningoflife() As Byte
    Dim As Byte y = 42
    Return y
End Function

Sub main()
    Print "Main: The meaning of life is "; meaningoflife()
End Sub

main()
Sleep
Output:
Main: The meaning of life is 42


Go[edit]

Go doesn't support scripted main directly.

Although the examples linked to above include an example for Go, this is only a work around, not an emulation. To emulate a modulino, we need to proceed as in the [Executable library] task and split the 'main' package into two.

First create these two files in the 'modulino' directory:

// modulino.go
package main

import "fmt"

func MeaningOfLife() int {
    return 42
}

func libMain() {
    fmt.Println("The meaning of life is", MeaningOfLife())
}
// modulino_main.go
package main
 
func main() {
    libMain()
}

To emulate a modulino:

Output:
$ go run modulino

The meaning of life is 42

Now create this file in the 'mol' directory:

// mol.go
package main

import "fmt"

func main() {
    fmt.Println("The meaning of life is still", MeaningOfLife())
}

and copy modulino.go to the 'mol' directory. The library can then be used in the 'normal' way:

Output:
$ go run mol

The meaning of life is still 42

Groovy[edit]

Example:

$ ./ScriptedMain.groovy 
Main: The meaning of life is 42
$ ./Test.groovy 
Test: The meaning of life is 42

ScriptedMain.groovy:

#!/usr/bin/env groovy

class ScriptedMain {
	static def meaningOfLife = 42

	static main(args) {
		println "Main: The meaning of life is " + meaningOfLife
	}
}

Test.groovy:

#!/usr/bin/env groovy

println "Test: The meaning of life is " + ScriptedMain.meaningOfLife

Haskell[edit]

Haskell has scripted main, but getting scripted main to work with compiled scripts is tricky.

$ runhaskell scriptedmain.hs
Main: The meaning of life is 42
$ runhaskell test.hs
Test: The meaning of life is 42
$ ghc -fforce-recomp -o scriptedmain -main-is ScriptedMain scriptedmain.hs
$ ./scriptedmain
Main: The meaning of life is 42
$ ghc -fforce-recomp -o test -main-is Test test.hs scriptedmain.hs
$ ./test
Test: The meaning of life is 42

scriptedmain.hs

#!/usr/bin/env runhaskell

-- Compile:
--
-- ghc -fforce-recomp -o scriptedmain -main-is ScriptedMain scriptedmain.hs

module ScriptedMain where

meaningOfLife :: Int
meaningOfLife = 42

main :: IO ()
main = putStrLn $ "Main: The meaning of life is " ++ show meaningOfLife

test.hs

#!/usr/bin/env runhaskell

-- Compile:
--
-- ghc -fforce-recomp -o test -main-is Test test.hs scriptedmain.hs

module Test where

import ScriptedMain hiding (main)

main :: IO ()
main = putStrLn $ "Test: The meaning of life is " ++ show meaningOfLife

Io[edit]

ScriptedMain.io:

#!/usr/bin/env io

ScriptedMain := Object clone
ScriptedMain meaningOfLife := 42

if( isLaunchScript,
    "Main: The meaning of life is #{ScriptedMain meaningOfLife}" interpolate println
)

test.io:

#!/usr/bin/env io

"Test: The meaning of life is #{ScriptedMain meaningOfLife}" interpolate println
$ ./ScriptedMain.io 
Main: The meaning of life is 42
$ ./test.io
Test: The meaning of life is 42

J[edit]

modulinos.ijs:

#!/usr/bin/env ijconsole
 
meaningOfLife =: 42
 
main =: monad define
	echo 'Main: The meaning of life is ',": meaningOfLife
	exit ''
)

shouldrun =: monad define
	if. 1 e. 'modulinos.ijs' E. ;ARGV do.
		main 0
	end.
)
 
shouldrun 0

test.j:

#!/usr/bin/env jconsole

load 'modulinos.ijs'

echo 'Test: The meaning of life is ',": meaningOfLife

exit ''

Example:

$ ./modulinos.ijs
Main: The meaning of life is 42
$ ./test.j
Test: The meaning of life is 42

Java[edit]

Java has scripted main by default.

ScriptedMain.java

public class ScriptedMain {
	public static int meaningOfLife() {
		return 42;
	}

	public static void main(String[] args) {
		System.out.println("Main: The meaning of life is " + meaningOfLife());
	}
}

Test.java

public class Test {
	public static void main(String[] args) {
		System.out.println("Test: The meaning of life is " + ScriptedMain.meaningOfLife());
	}
}

JavaScript[edit]

Works with: Node.js

Node.js has scripted main.

scriptedmain.js

#!/usr/bin/env node

function meaningOfLife() { return 42; }

exports.meaningOfLife = meaningOfLife;

function main() {
	console.log("Main: The meaning of life is " + meaningOfLife());
}

if (!module.parent) { main(); }

test.js

#!/usr/bin/env node

var sm = require("./scriptedmain");

console.log("Test: The meaning of life is " + sm.meaningOfLife());

Julia[edit]

Julia does not use scripted main by default, but can be set to run as such. Modules generally use a /test unit test subdirectory instead.
In module file Divisors.jl:

module Divisors

using Primes

export properdivisors

function properdivisors(n::T) where T <: Integer
    0 < n || throw(ArgumentError("number to be factored must be ≥ 0, got $n"))
    1 < n || return T[]
    !isprime(n) || return T[one(T), n]
    f = factor(n)
    d = T[one(T)]
    for (k, v) in f
        c = T[k^i for i in 0:v]
        d = d*c'
        d = reshape(d, length(d))
    end
    sort!(d)
    return d[1:end-1]
end

function interactiveDivisors()
    println("\nFind proper divisors between two numbers.\nFirst number: ")
    lo = (x = tryparse(Int64, readline())) == nothing ? 0 : x
    println("\nSecond number: ")
    hi = (x = tryparse(Int64, readline())) == nothing ? 10 : x
    lo, hi = lo > hi ? (hi, lo) : (lo, hi)

    println("Listing the proper divisors for $lo through $hi.")
    for i in lo:hi
        println(lpad(i, 7), "  =>  ", rpad(properdivisors(i), 10))
    end
end

end

# some testing code
if occursin(r"divisors.jl"i, Base.PROGRAM_FILE)
    println("This module is running as main.\n")
    Divisors.interactiveDivisors()
end

In a user file getdivisors.jl:

include("divisors.jl")

using .Divisors

n = 708245926330
println("The proper divisors of $n are ", properdivisors(n))

LLVM[edit]

LLVM can have scripted main a la C, using the weak attribute.

$ make
llvm-as scriptedmain.ll
llc scriptedmain.bc
gcc -o scriptedmain scriptedmain.s
./scriptedmain
Main: The meaning of life is 42
llvm-as test.ll
llc test.bc
gcc -o test test.s scriptedmain.s
./test
Test: The meaning of life is 42

Makefile

EXECUTABLE_SM=scriptedmain
EXECUTABLE_TEST=test

all: test.ll scriptedmain.s
	llvm-as test.ll
	llc test.bc
	gcc -o $(EXECUTABLE_TEST) test.s scriptedmain.s
	./$(EXECUTABLE_TEST)

scriptedmain.s: scriptedmain.ll
	llvm-as scriptedmain.ll
	llc scriptedmain.bc
	gcc -o $(EXECUTABLE_SM) scriptedmain.s
	./$(EXECUTABLE_SM)

clean:
	-rm $(EXECUTABLE_TEST)
	-rm $(EXECUTABLE_SM)
	-rm test.s
	-rm test.bc
	-rm scriptedmain.s
	-rm scriptedmain.bc

scriptedmain.ll

@msg_main = internal constant [33 x i8] c"Main: The meaning of life is %d\0A\00"

declare i32 @printf(i8* noalias nocapture, ...)

define i32 @meaning_of_life() {
	ret i32 42
}

define weak i32 @main(i32 %argc, i8** %argv) {
	%meaning = call i32 @meaning_of_life()

	call i32 (i8*, ...)* @printf(i8* getelementptr inbounds ([33 x i8]* @msg_main, i32 0, i32 0), i32 %meaning)

	ret i32 0
}

test.ll

@msg_test = internal constant [33 x i8] c"Test: The meaning of life is %d\0A\00"

declare i32 @printf(i8* noalias nocapture, ...)

declare i32 @meaning_of_life()

define i32 @main(i32 %argc, i8** %argv) {
	%meaning = call i32 @meaning_of_life()

	call i32 (i8*, ...)* @printf(i8* getelementptr inbounds ([33 x i8]* @msg_test, i32 0, i32 0), i32 %meaning)

	ret i32 0
}

Lua[edit]

Lua has scripted main by default because files are largely indistinguishable from functions semantically (they compile to Lua functions.) Ellipses is Lua's var-arg syntax for functions, and, therefore, for files as well.

scriptedmain.lua

#!/usr/bin/env lua

function meaningoflife()
	return 42
end

function main(arg)
	print("Main: The meaning of life is " .. meaningoflife())
end

if type(package.loaded[(...)]) ~= "userdata" then
	main(arg)
else
	module(..., package.seeall)
end

test.lua

#!/usr/bin/env lua
sm = require("scriptedmain")
print("Test: The meaning of life is " .. sm.meaningoflife())

Make[edit]

Example

$ make -f scriptedmain.mf 
The meaning of life is 42
(Main)
$ make -f test.mf 
The meaning of life is 42
(Test)

scriptedmain.mf

all: scriptedmain

meaning-of-life:
	@echo "The meaning of life is 42"

scriptedmain: meaning-of-life
	@echo "(Main)"

test.mf

all: test

test:
	@make -f scriptedmain.mf meaning-of-life
	@echo "(Test)"

Mathematica/Wolfram Language[edit]

scriptedmain.ma

#!/usr/bin/env MathKernel -script

MeaningOfLife[] = 42

ScriptName[] = Piecewise[
	{
		{"Interpreted", Position[$CommandLine, "-script", 1] == {}}
	},
	$CommandLine[[Position[$CommandLine, "-script", 1][[1,1]] + 1]]
]

Program = ScriptName[];

If[StringMatchQ[Program, ".*scriptedmain.*"],
	Print["Main: The meaning of life is " <> ToString[MeaningOfLife[]]]
]

test.ma:

#!/usr/bin/env MathKernel -script

Get["scriptedmain.ma"]

Print["Test: The meaning of life is " <> ToString[MeaningOfLife[]]]

Example:

$ ./scriptedmain.ma
Main: The meaning of life is 42
$ ./test.ma
Test: The meaning of life is 42

In Mac and Windows, the output will be surrounded by spurious quotes.

Mozart/Oz[edit]

Makefile:

all: run

run: scriptedmain test
	./scriptedmain
	./test

scriptedmain: scriptedmain.oz
	ozc -x scriptedmain.oz

scriptedmain.ozf: scriptedmain.oz
	ozc -c scriptedmain.oz

test: scriptedmain.ozf test.oz
	ozc -x test.oz

clean:
	-rm test
	-rm scriptedmain
	-rm *.ozf
	-rm *.exe

scriptedmain.oz:

functor
export
  meaningOfLife: MeaningOfLife
import
  System
  Application
  Property
  Regex at 'x-oz://contrib/regex'
define
  fun {MeaningOfLife} 42 end

  local ScriptName = {Property.get 'application.url'} in
    if {Regex.search "scriptedmain" ScriptName} \= false then
      {System.printInfo "Main: The meaning of life is "#{Int.toString {MeaningOfLife}}#"\n"}
      {Application.exit 0}
    end
  end
end

test.oz:

functor
import
  ScriptedMain
  System
  Application
  Property
  Regex at 'x-oz://contrib/regex'
define
  local ScriptName = {Property.get 'application.url'} in
    if {Regex.search "test" ScriptName} \= false then
      {System.printInfo "Test: The meaning of life is "#{Int.toString {ScriptedMain.meaningOfLife}}#"\n"}
      {Application.exit 0}
    end
  end
end

newLISP[edit]

newLISP lacks scripted main, but the feature is easily added.

scriptedmain.lsp

#!/usr/bin/env newlisp

(context 'SM)

(define (SM:meaning-of-life) 42)

(define (main)
	(println (format "Main: The meaning of life is %d" (meaning-of-life)))
	(exit))

(if (find "scriptedmain" (main-args 1)) (main))

(context MAIN)

test.lsp

#!/usr/bin/env newlisp

(load "scriptedmain.lsp")
(println (format "Test: The meaning of life is %d" (SM:meaning-of-life)))
(exit)

Objective-C[edit]

scriptedmain.h:

#import <objc/Object.h>

@interface ScriptedMain: Object {}

+ (int)meaningOfLife;

@end

scriptedmain.m:

#import "scriptedmain.h"
#import <Foundation/Foundation.h>

@implementation ScriptedMain

+ (int)meaningOfLife {
	return 42;
}

@end

int __attribute__((weak)) main(int argc, char **argv) {
	@autoreleasepool {

		printf("Main: The meaning of life is %d\n", [ScriptedMain meaningOfLife]);

	}

	return 0;
}

test.m:

#import "scriptedmain.h"
#import <Foundation/Foundation.h>

int main(int argc, char **argv) {
	@autoreleasepool {

		printf("Test: The meaning of life is %d\n", [ScriptedMain meaningOfLife]);

	}

	return 0;
}
$ gcc -o scriptedmain -lobjc -framework foundation scriptedmain.m
$ gcc -o test -lobjc -framework foundation test.m scriptedmain.m
$ ./scriptedmain 
Main: The meaning of life is 42
$ ./test 
Test: The meaning of life is 42

OCaml[edit]

scriptedmain.ml

let meaning_of_life = 42

let main () =
  Printf.printf "Main: The meaning of life is %d\n"
    meaning_of_life

let () =
  if not !Sys.interactive then
    main ()

Invoked as a script:

$ ocaml scriptedmain.ml
Main: The meaning of life is 42

Loaded into an ocaml toplevel/utop:

$ ocaml
...
# #use "scriptedmain.ml";;
val meaning_of_life : int = 42
val main : unit -> unit = <fun>
# meaning_of_life;;
- : int = 42
#

The limit of this technique is "avoiding running something when loading a script interactively". It's not applicable to other uses, like adding an example script to a file normally used as a library, as that code will also fire when users of the library are run.

Octave/MATLAB[edit]

Octave and MATLAB have scripted main by default, because only the first function listed in a program are importable by other programs.

meaningoflife.m

#!/usr/bin/env octave -qf

function y = meaningoflife()
	y = 42;
endfunction

function main()
	printf("Main: The meaning of life is %d", meaningoflife());
endfunction

main();

test.m

#!/usr/bin/env octave -qf

printf("Test: The meaning of life is %d", meaningoflife());

Pascal[edit]

Works with: Free_Pascal

Makefile:

all: scriptedmain

scriptedmain: scriptedmain.pas
	fpc -dscriptedmain scriptedmain.pas

test: test.pas scriptedmain
	fpc test.pas

clean:
	-rm test
	-rm scriptedmain
	-rm *.o
	-rm *.ppu

scriptedmain.pas:

{$IFDEF scriptedmain}
program ScriptedMain;
{$ELSE}
unit ScriptedMain;
interface
function MeaningOfLife () : integer;
implementation
{$ENDIF}
	function MeaningOfLife () : integer;
	begin
		MeaningOfLife := 42
	end;
{$IFDEF scriptedmain}
begin
	write('Main: The meaning of life is: ');
	writeln(MeaningOfLife())
{$ENDIF}
end.

test.pas:

program Test;
uses
	ScriptedMain;
begin
	write('Test: The meaning of life is: ');
	writeln(MeaningOfLife())
end.

Example:

$ make
$ ./scriptedmain 
Main: The meaning of life is: 42
$ make test
$ ./test 
Test: The meaning of life is: 42

Perl[edit]

Perl has scripted main. The code inside unless(caller) { ... } only runs when Life.pm is the main program.

#!/usr/bin/env perl

# Life.pm
package Life;

use strict;
use warnings;

sub meaning_of_life {
	return 42;
}

unless(caller) {
	print "Main: The meaning of life is " . meaning_of_life() . "\n";
}
#!/usr/bin/env perl

# death.pl
use strict;
use warnings;

use Life;

print "Life means " . Life::meaning_of_life . ".\n";
print "Death means invisible scary skeletons.\n";

Phix[edit]

There is a builtin for this, which can even be asked to skip an arbitrary number of stack frames and that way find out exactly where it was effectively called from.

without js -- (includefile)
string mori = iff(include_file()=1?"main":"an include")

PHP[edit]

PHP does not have scripted main, but the feature is easily added with a regular expression.

scriptedmain.php

<?php
function meaning_of_life() {
	return 42;
}

function main($args) {
	echo "Main: The meaning of life is " . meaning_of_life() . "\n";
}

if (preg_match("/scriptedmain/", $_SERVER["SCRIPT_NAME"])) {
	main($argv);
}
?>

test.php

<?php
require_once("scriptedmain.php");
echo "Test: The meaning of life is " . meaning_of_life() . "\n";
?>

PicoLisp[edit]

PicoLisp normally does it the other way round: It calls main from the command line with the '-' syntax if desired. Create an executable file (chmod +x) "life.l":

#!/usr/bin/picolisp /usr/lib/picolisp/lib.l

(de meaningOfLife ()
   42 )

(de lifemain ()
   (prinl "Main: The meaning of life is " (meaningOfLife))
   (bye) )

and an executable file (chmod +x) "test.l":

#!/usr/bin/picolisp /usr/lib/picolisp/lib.l

(load "life.l")

(prinl "Test: The meaning of life is " (meaningOfLife))
(bye)

Test:

$ ./life.l -lifemain
Main: The meaning of life is 42

$ ./test.l
Test: The meaning of life is 42

Python[edit]

Python has scripted main.

#!/usr/bin/env python

# life.py

def meaning_of_life():
  return 42

if __name__ == "__main__":
  print("Main: The meaning of life is %s" % meaning_of_life())
#!/usr/bin/env python

# death.py

from life import meaning_of_life

print("Life means %s." % meaning_of_life())
print("Death means invisible scary skeletons.")

R[edit]

A way to check if code is running at "top level" is to check length(sys.frames()). This value will be zero for a file being run with Rscript, the --file= argument, or at the command line, and will be greater than 0 in all other conditions (such as package loading or code being sourced from another file.)

#!/usr/bin/env Rscript

meaningOfLife <- function() {
	42
}

main <- function(args) {
	cat("Main: The meaning of life is", meaningOfLife(), "\n")
}

if (length(sys.frames()) > 0) {
        args <- commandArgs(trailingOnly = FALSE)
	main(args)
	q("no")
}

test.R

#!/usr/bin/env Rscript

source("scriptedmain.R")

cat("Test: The meaning of life is", meaningOfLife(), "\n")

q("no")

Racket[edit]

scriptedmain.rkt:

#!/usr/bin/env racket
#lang racket

(provide meaning-of-life)

(define (meaning-of-life) 42)

(module+ main (printf "Main: The meaning of life is ~a\n" (meaning-of-life)))

test.rkt:

#!/usr/bin/env racket
#lang racket

(module+ main
	(require "scriptedmain.rkt")
	(printf "Test: The meaning of life is ~a\n" (meaning-of-life)))

Raku[edit]

(formerly Perl 6) Raku automatically calls MAIN on direct invocation, but this may be a multi dispatch, so a library may have multiple "scripted mains".

class LUE {
    has $.answer = 42;
}

multi MAIN ('test') {
    say "ok" if LUE.new.answer == 42;
}

multi MAIN ('methods') {
    say ~LUE.^methods;
}

REXX[edit]

/*REXX program detects  whether or not  it is a  "scripted main"  program.              */
parse source . howInvoked @fn                    /*query REXX how this pgm got invoked. */

say 'This program  ('@fn")  was invoked as a: "    howInvoked

if howInvoked\=='COMMAND'  then do
                                say 'This program  ('@fn")  wasn't invoked via a command."
                                exit 12
                                end

    /*╔════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════╗
      ║  At this point, we know that this program was invoked via the  "command line"  ║
      ║  or a program using the  "command interface"  and  not  via another program.   ║
      ╚════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════╝*/

/*────────────────────────────── The main code follows here ... ────────────────────────*/
say
say '(from' @fn"):  and away we go ···"


Ring[edit]

# Project : Modulinos

func meaningoflife()	
       y = 42
       return y
 
func main()
       see "Main: The meaning of life is " + meaningoflife() + nl

Output:

Main: The meaning of life is 42

Ruby[edit]

Ruby has scripted main.

# life.rb

def meaning_of_life
  42
end

if __FILE__ == $0
  puts "Main: The meaning of life is #{meaning_of_life}"
end
# death.rb

require 'life'

puts "Life means #{meaning_of_life}."
puts "Death means invisible scary skeletons."

Rust[edit]

Note: this code is deprecated, and does not compile with Rust 1.0.0 and newer.

Makefile:

all: scriptedmain

scriptedmain: scriptedmain.rs
	rustc scriptedmain.rs

test: test.rs scriptedmain.rs
	rustc --lib scriptedmain.rs
	rustc test.rs -L .

clean:
	-rm test
	-rm -rf *.dylib
	-rm scriptedmain
	-rm -rf *.dSYM

scriptedmain.rs:

#[link(name = "scriptedmain")];

use std;

fn meaning_of_life() -> int {
	ret 42;
}

fn main() {
	std::io::println("Main: The meaning of life is " + core::int::to_str(meaning_of_life(), 10u));
}

test.rs:

use scriptedmain;
use std;

fn main() {
	std::io::println("Test: The meaning of life is " + core::int::to_str(scriptedmain::meaning_of_life(), 10u));
}

Example:

$ make
$ make test
$ ./scriptedmain
Main: The meaning of life is 42
$ ./test
Test: The meaning of life is 42

SAC[edit]

Makefile:

all: scriptedmain

scriptedmain: ScriptedMain.sac
	sac2c -o scriptedmain ScriptedMain.sac -Dscriptedmain

test: test.sac ScriptedMain.sac
	sac2c ScriptedMain.sac
	sac2c -o test test.sac

clean:
	-rm test
	-rm test.c
	-rm libScriptedMainTree.so
	-rm libScriptedMainMod.so
	-rm libScriptedMainMod.a
	-rm scriptedmain
	-rm scriptedmain.c

ScriptedMain.sac:

#ifndef scriptedmain
module ScriptedMain;
#endif

use StdIO: all;
use Array: all;
export all;

int meaning_of_life() {
	return(42);
}

#ifdef scriptedmain
int main() {
	printf("Main: The meaning of life is %d\n", meaning_of_life());
	return(0);
}
#endif

test.sac:

use StdIO: all;
use Array: all;
use ScriptedMain: all;

int main() {
	printf("Test: The meaning of life is %d\n", meaning_of_life());
	return(0);
}

Example:

$ make
$ make test
$ ./scriptedmain 
Main: The meaning of life is 42
$ ./test 
Test: The meaning of life is 42

Scala[edit]

Library: Scala
Works with: Scala version 2.10.2

Unix shell script[edit]

This code must be stored as a shell script.

#!/bin/sh
exec scala "$0" "$@"
!#
  def hailstone(n: Int): Stream[Int] =
       n #:: (if (n == 1) Stream.empty else hailstone(if (n % 2 == 0) n / 2 else n * 3 + 1))

  val nr = argv.headOption.map(_.toInt).getOrElse(27)
  val collatz = hailstone(nr)
  println(s"Use the routine to show that the hailstone sequence for the number: $nr.")
  println(collatz.toList)
  println(s"It has ${collatz.length} elements.")

Windows Command Script[edit]

This code must be stored as a Windows Command Script e.g. Hailstone.cmd

::#!
@echo off
call scala %0 %*
pause
goto :eof
::!#
  def hailstone(n: Int): Stream[Int] =
       n #:: (if (n == 1) Stream.empty else hailstone(if (n % 2 == 0) n / 2 else n * 3 + 1))

  val nr = argv.headOption.map(_.toInt).getOrElse(27)
  val collatz = hailstone(nr)
  println(s"Use the routine to show that the hailstone sequence for the number: $nr.")
  println(collatz.toList)
  println(s"It has ${collatz.length} elements.")
Output:
C:\>Hailstone.cmd 42
Use the routine to show that the hailstone sequence for the number: 42.
List(42, 21, 64, 32, 16, 8, 4, 2, 1)
It has 9 elements.

Scheme[edit]

Works with: Chicken Scheme

Chicken Scheme has the {{{ -ss }}} flag for the interpreter, but compiled Chicken Scheme programs do not have scripted main unless the behavior is added manually to the code.

scriptedmain.scm

#!/bin/sh
#|
exec csi -ss $0 ${1+"$@"}
exit
|#

(use posix)
(require-extension srfi-1) ; lists

(define (meaning-of-life) 42)

(define (main args)
	(display (format "Main: The meaning of life is ~a\n" (meaning-of-life)))
	(exit))

(define (program)
	(if (string=? (car (argv)) "csi")
		(let ((s-index (list-index (lambda (x) (string-contains x "-s")) (argv))))
			(if (number? s-index)
				(cons 'interpreted (list-ref (argv) (+ 1 s-index)))
				(cons 'unknown "")))
		(cons 'compiled (car (argv)))))

(if (equal? (car (program)) 'compiled)
	(main (cdr (argv))))

test.scm

#!/bin/sh
#|
exec csi -ss $0 ${1+"$@"}
exit
|#
(define (main args)
	(load "scriptedmain.scm")
	(display (format "Test: The meaning of life is ~a\n" (meaning-of-life)))
	(exit))

Sidef[edit]

# Life.sm

func meaning_of_life {
    42
}

if (__FILE__ == __MAIN__) {
    say "Main: The meaning of life is #{meaning_of_life()}"
}
# test.sf

include Life

say "Test: The meaning of life is #{Life::meaning_of_life()}."

Smalltalk[edit]

Note that the ScriptedMain package must be installed in order for test.st to access code from scriptedmain.st.

Example

$ gst-package -t ~/.st package.xml &>/dev/null

$ ./scriptedmain.st
Main: The meaning of life is 42

$ ./test.st
Test: The meaning of life is 42

package.xml

<packages>
<package>
	<name>ScriptedMain</name>
	<filein>scriptedmain.st</filein>
	<file>scriptedmain.st</file>
</package>
</packages>

scriptedmain.st

"exec" "gst" "-f" "$0" "$0" "$@"
"exit"

Object subclass: ScriptedMain [
	ScriptedMain class >> meaningOfLife [ ^42 ]
]

| main |

main := [
	Transcript show: 'Main: The meaning of life is ', ((ScriptedMain meaningOfLife) printString); cr.
].

(((Smalltalk getArgc) > 0) and: [ ((Smalltalk getArgv: 1) endsWith: 'scriptedmain.st') ]) ifTrue: [
	main value.
].

test.st

"exec" "gst" "-f" "$0" "$0" "$@"
"exit"

"
PackageLoader fileInPackage: 'ScriptedMain'.

Transcript show: 'Test: The meaning of life is ', ((ScriptedMain meaningOfLife) printString); cr.

Swift[edit]

Swift requires a number of hacks and boilerplate, but it is possible to write a modulino nevertheless.

Example

$ make
mkdir -p bin/
swiftc -D SCRIPTEDMAIN -o bin/ScriptedMain ScriptedMain.swift
swiftc -emit-library -module-name ScriptedMain -emit-module ScriptedMain.swift
mkdir -p bin/
swiftc -D TEST -o bin/Test Test.swift -I "." -L "." -lScriptedMain -module-link-name ScriptedMain
bin/ScriptedMain
Main: The meaning of life is 42
bin/Test
Test: The meaning of life is 42

Makefile

all: bin/ScriptedMain bin/Test
	bin/ScriptedMain
	bin/Test

bin/ScriptedMain: ScriptedMain.swift
	mkdir -p bin/
	swiftc -D SCRIPTEDMAIN -o bin/ScriptedMain ScriptedMain.swift

ScriptedMain.swiftmodule: ScriptedMain.swift
	swiftc -emit-library -module-name ScriptedMain -emit-module ScriptedMain.swift

bin/Test: Test.swift ScriptedMain.swiftmodule
	mkdir -p bin/
	swiftc -D TEST -o bin/Test Test.swift -I "." -L "." -lScriptedMain -module-link-name ScriptedMain

clean:
	-rm -rf bin/
	-rm *.swiftmodule
	-rm *.swiftdoc
	-rm *.dylib

ScriptedMain.swift

import Foundation

public class ScriptedMain {
  public var meaningOfLife = 42

  public init() {}

  public class func main() {
    var meaning = ScriptedMain().meaningOfLife

    println("Main: The meaning of life is \(meaning)")
  }
}

#if SCRIPTEDMAIN
@objc class ScriptedMainAutoload {
  @objc class func load() {
    ScriptedMain.main()
  }
}
#endif

Test.swift

import Foundation
import ScriptedMain

public class Test {
  public class func main() {
    var meaning = ScriptedMain().meaningOfLife

    println("Test: The meaning of life is \(meaning)")
  }
}

#if TEST
@objc class TestAutoload {
  @objc class func load() {
    Test.main()
  }
}
#endif

Tcl[edit]

proc main {args} {
    puts "Directory: [pwd]"
    puts "Program: $::argv0"
    puts "Number of args: [llength $args]"
    foreach arg $args {puts "Arg: $arg"}
}

if {$::argv0 eq [info script]} {
    main {*}$::argv
}

UNIX Shell[edit]

Bash has scripted main.

scriptedmain.sh

#!/usr/bin/env sh

meaning_of_life() {
	return 42
}

main() {
	meaning_of_life
	echo "Main: The meaning of life is $?"
}

if [[ "$BASH_SOURCE" == "$0" ]]
then
    main
fi

test.sh

#!/bin/bash

path=$(dirname -- "$0")
source "$path/scriptedmain"

meaning_of_life
echo "Test: The meaning of life is $?"

Wren[edit]

As far as Wren is concerned, a modulino and an executable library seem to be different names for the same thing. This therefore uses the same technique as the Executable_library#Wren task to create a simple modulino.

Note that Wren doesn't need or normally use a main() function to start a script, though we use one here to make the example clearer.

First we create a module for our modulino:

/* modulino.wren */

var MeaningOfLife = Fn.new { 42 }

var main = Fn.new {
    System.print("The meaning of life is %(MeaningOfLife.call()).")
}

// Check if it's being used as a library or not.
import "os" for Process
if (Process.allArguments[1] == "modulino.wren") {  // if true, not a library
    main.call()
}

and run it to make sure it works OK when run directly:

Output:
The meaning of life is 42.

Next we create another module which imports the modulino:

/* modulino_main.wren */

import "/modulino" for MeaningOfLife

var main = Fn.new {
    System.print("Who says the meaning of life is %(MeaningOfLife.call())?")
}

main.call()

and run this to make sure the modulino's main() function doesn't run:

Output:
Who says the meaning of life is 42?

ZX Spectrum Basic[edit]

On the ZX Spectrum, there is no main function as such, however a saved program can be made to start running from a particular line number by providing the line number as a parameter to save command. If the program is being merged as a module, then it does not run automatically. The following example will save the program in memory so that it starts running from line 500:

SAVE "MYPROG" LINE 500: REM For a program with main code starting at line 500