# Magic constant

Magic constant
You are encouraged to solve this task according to the task description, using any language you may know.

A magic square is a square grid containing consecutive integers from 1 to N², arranged so that every row, column and diagonal adds up to the same number. That number is a constant. There is no way to create a valid N x N magic square that does not sum to the associated constant.

EG

A 3 x 3 magic square always sums to 15.

```    ┌───┬───┬───┐
│ 2 │ 7 │ 6 │
├───┼───┼───┤
│ 9 │ 5 │ 1 │
├───┼───┼───┤
│ 4 │ 3 │ 8 │
└───┴───┴───┘```

A 4 x 4 magic square always sums to 34.

Traditionally, the sequence leaves off terms for n = 0 and n = 1 as the magic squares of order 0 and 1 are trivial; and a term for n = 2 because it is impossible to form a magic square of order 2.

Task
• Starting at order 3, show the first 20 magic constants.
• Show the 1000th magic constant. (Order 1003)
• Find and show the order of the smallest N x N magic square whose constant is greater than 10¹ through 10¹⁰.

Stretch
• Find and show the order of the smallest N x N magic square whose constant is greater than 10¹¹ through 10²⁰.

See also

## ALGOL 68

Translation of: FreeBasic

... with the inverse magic constant routine as in the Julia/Wren samples.

Works with: ALGOL 68G version Any - tested with release 2.8.3.win32

Uses ALGOL 68G's LONG LONG INT whose default precision is large enough to cope with 10^20. <lang algol68>BEGIN # find some magic constants - the row, column and diagonal sums of a magin square #

```     # translation of the Free Basic sample with the Julia/Wren inverse function #
# returns the magic constant of a magic square of order n + 2 #
PROC a     = ( INT n )LONG LONG INT:
BEGIN
LONG LONG INT n2 = n + 2;
( n2 * ( ( n2 * n2 ) + 1 ) ) OVER 2
END # a # ;
# returns the order of the magic square whose magic constant is at least x #
PROC inv a = ( LONG LONG INT x )LONG LONG INT:
ENTIER long long exp( long long ln( x * 2 ) / 3 ) + 1;
```
```   print( ( "The first 20 magic constants are " ) );
FOR n TO 20 DO
print( ( whole( a( n ), 0 ), " " ) )
OD;
print( ( newline ) );
print( ( "The 1,000th magic constant is ", whole( a( 1000 ), 0 ), newline ) );
LONG LONG INT e := 1;
FOR n TO 20 DO
e *:= 10;
print( ( "10^", whole( n, -2 ), ": ", whole( inv a( e ), -9 ), newline ) )
OD
```

END</lang>

Output:
```The first 20 magic constants are 15 34 65 111 175 260 369 505 671 870 1105 1379 1695 2056 2465 2925 3439 4010 4641 5335
The 1,000th magic constant is 503006505
10^ 1:         3
10^ 2:         6
10^ 3:        13
10^ 4:        28
10^ 5:        59
10^ 6:       126
10^ 7:       272
10^ 8:       585
10^ 9:      1260
10^10:      2715
10^11:      5849
10^12:     12600
10^13:     27145
10^14:     58481
10^15:    125993
10^16:    271442
10^17:    584804
10^18:   1259922
10^19:   2714418
10^20:   5848036
```

## Arturo

<lang rebol>a: function [n][

```   n: n+2
return (n*(1 + n^2))/2
```

]

aInv: function [x][

```   k: new 0
while [x > 2 + k*(1+k^2)/2]
-> inc 'k
return k
```

] print "The first 20 magic constants are:" print map 1..19 => a

print "" print "The 1,000th magic constant is:" print a 1000

print "" loop 1..19 'z ->

```   print ["10 ^" z "=>" aInv 10^z]</lang>
```
Output:
```The first 20 magic constants are:
15 34 65 111 175 260 369 505 671 870 1105 1379 1695 2056 2465 2925 3439 4010 4641

The 1,000th magic constant is:
503006505

10 ^ 1 => 3
10 ^ 2 => 6
10 ^ 3 => 13
10 ^ 4 => 28
10 ^ 5 => 59
10 ^ 6 => 126
10 ^ 7 => 272
10 ^ 8 => 585
10 ^ 9 => 1260
10 ^ 10 => 2715
10 ^ 11 => 5849
10 ^ 12 => 12600
10 ^ 13 => 27145
10 ^ 14 => 58481
10 ^ 15 => 125993
10 ^ 16 => 271442
10 ^ 17 => 584804
10 ^ 18 => 1259922
10 ^ 19 => 2714418```

## AWK

<lang AWK>

1. syntax: GAWK -f MAGIC_CONSTANT.AWK
2. converted from FreeBASIC

BEGIN {

```   printf("The first 20 magic constants are:")
for (i=1; i<=20; i++) {
printf(" %d",a(i))
}
printf("\n")
printf("The 1,000th magic constant is: %d\n",a(1000))
for (i=1; i<=20; i++) {
printf("10^%02d: %8d\n",i,inv_a(10^i))
}
exit(0)
```

} function a(n) {

```   n += 2
return(n*(n^2+1)/2)
```

} function inv_a(x, k) {

```   while (k*(k^2+1)/2+2 < x) {
k++
}
return(k)
```

} </lang>

Output:
```The first 20 magic constants are: 15 34 65 111 175 260 369 505 671 870 1105 1379 1695 2056 2465 2925 3439 4010 4641 5335
The 1,000th magic constant is: 503006505
10^01:        3
10^02:        6
10^03:       13
10^04:       28
10^05:       59
10^06:      126
10^07:      272
10^08:      585
10^09:     1260
10^10:     2715
10^11:     5849
10^12:    12600
10^13:    27145
10^14:    58481
10^15:   125993
10^16:   271442
10^17:   584804
10^18:  1259922
10^19:  2714418
10^20:  5848036
```

## Basic

### FreeBASIC

<lang freebasic> function a(byval n as uinteger) as ulongint

```   n+=2
return n*(n^2 + 1)/2
```

end function

function inv_a(x as double) as ulongint

```   dim as ulongint k = 0
while k*(k^2+1)/2+2 < x
k+=1
wend
return k
```

end function

dim as ulongint n print "The first 20 magic constants are ": for n = 1 to 20

```   print a(n);" ";
```

next n print print "The 1,000th magic constant is ";a(1000)

for e as uinteger = 1 to 20

```   print using "10^##: #########";e;inv_a(10^cast(double,e))
```

next e</lang>

Output:
```
The first 20 magic constants are
15 34 65 111 175 260 369 505 671 870 1105 1379 1695 2056 2465 2925 3439 4010 4641 5335
The 1,000th magic constant is 503006505
10^ 1:         3
10^ 2:         6
10^ 3:        13
10^ 4:        28
10^ 5:        59
10^ 6:       126
10^ 7:       272
10^ 8:       585
10^ 9:      1260
10^10:      2715
10^11:      5849
10^12:     12600
10^13:     27145
10^14:     58481
10^15:    125993
10^16:    271442
10^17:    584804
10^18:   1259922
10^19:   2714418
10^20:   5848036

```

### QB64

<lang qbasic>\$NOPREFIX

DIM order AS INTEGER DIM target AS INTEGER64

PRINT "First 20 magic constants:" FOR i = 3 TO 22

```   PRINT USING "####,  "; MagicSum(i);
IF i MOD 5 = 2 THEN PRINT
```

NEXT i PRINT PRINT USING "1000th magic constant: ##########,"; MagicSum(1002) PRINT PRINT "Smallest order magic square with a constant greater than:" FOR i = 1 TO 13 ' 64-bit integers can take us no further, unsigned or not

```   target = 10 ^ i
DO
order = order + 1
LOOP UNTIL MagicSum(order) > target
PRINT USING "10^**: #####,"; i; order
order = order * 2 - 1
```

NEXT i

FUNCTION MagicSum&& (n AS INTEGER)

```   MagicSum&& = (n * n + 1) / 2 * n
```

END FUNCTION</lang>

Output:
```First 20 magic constants:
15     34     65    111    175
260    369    505    671    870
1,105  1,379  1,695  2,056  2,465
2,925  3,439  4,010  4,641  5,335

1000th magic constant: 503,006,505

Smallest order magic square with a constant greater than:
10^*1:      3
10^*2:      6
10^*3:     13
10^*4:     28
10^*5:     59
10^*6:    126
10^*7:    272
10^*8:    585
10^*9:  1,260
10^10:  2,715
10^11:  5,849
10^12: 12,600
10^13: 27,145
```

### BASIC256

<lang BASIC256>function a(n) n = n + 2 return n*(n^2 + 1)/2 end function

function inv_a(x) k = 0 while k*(k^2+1)/2+2 < x k += 1 end while return k end function

print "The first 20 magic constants are:" for n = 1 to 20 print int(a(n));" "; next n print : print print "The 1,000th magic constant is "; int(a(1000)); chr(10)

for e = 1 to 20 print "10^"; e; ": "; chr(9); inv_a(10^e) next e end</lang>

### PureBasic

<lang PureBasic>Procedure.i a(n.i)

``` n + 2
ProcedureReturn n*(Pow(n,2) + 1)/2
```

EndProcedure

Procedure.i inv_a(x.i)

``` k.i = 0
While k*(Pow(k,2)+1)/2+2 < x
k + 1
Wend
ProcedureReturn k
```

EndProcedure

OpenConsole() PrintN("The first 20 magic constants are:") For n.i = 1 To 20

``` Print(Str(a(n)) + " ")
```

Next n PrintN("") : PrintN("") PrintN("The 1,000th magic constant is " + Str(a(1000)))

For e.i = 1 To 20

``` PrintN("10^" + Str(e) + ": " + #TAB\$ + Str(inv_a(Pow(10,e))))
```

Next e CloseConsole()</lang>

### QBasic

Works with: QBasic version 1.1
Works with: QuickBasic version 4.5

<lang QBasic>FUNCTION a (n)

```   n = n + 2
a = n * (n ^ 2 + 1) / 2
```

END FUNCTION

FUNCTION inva (x)

```   k = 0
WHILE k * (k ^ 2 + 1) / 2 + 2 < x
k = k + 1
WEND
inva = k
```

END FUNCTION

PRINT "The first 20 magic constants are: "; FOR n = 1 TO 20

```   PRINT a(n); " ";
```

NEXT n PRINT PRINT "The 1,000th magic constant is "; a(1000) PRINT FOR e = 1 TO 20

```   PRINT USING "10^##: #########"; e; inva(10 ^ e)
```

NEXT e END</lang>

### True BASIC

<lang qbasic>FUNCTION a(n)

```   LET n = n + 2
LET a = n*(n^2 + 1)/2
```

END FUNCTION

FUNCTION inv_a(x)

```   LET k = 0
DO WHILE k*(k^2+1)/2+2 < x
LET k = k + 1
LOOP
LET inv_a = k
```

END FUNCTION

PRINT "The first 20 magic constants are: "; FOR n = 1 TO 20

```   PRINT a(n);" ";
```

NEXT n PRINT PRINT "The 1,000th magic constant is "; a(1000)

FOR e = 1 TO 20

```   PRINT USING "10^##": e;
PRINT USING": #########": inv_a(10^e)
```

NEXT e END</lang>

### Yabasic

<lang yabasic>sub a(n)

```   n = n + 2
return n*(n^2 + 1)/2
```

end sub

sub inv_a(x)

```   k = 0
while k*(k^2+1)/2+2 < x
k = k + 1
wend
return k
```

end sub

print "The first 20 magic constants are: " for n = 1 to 20

```   print a(n), " ";
```

next n print "\nThe 1,000th magic constant is ", a(1000), "\n"

for e = 1 to 20

```   print "10^", e using"##", ": ", inv_a(10^e) using "#########"
```

next e end</lang>

## Factor

Works with: Factor version 0.99 2021-06-02

<lang factor>USING: formatting io kernel math math.functions.integer-logs math.ranges prettyprint sequences ;

magic ( m -- n ) dup sq 1 + 2 / * ;

"First 20 magic constants:" print 3 22 [a,b] [ bl ] [ magic pprint ] interleave nl nl "1000th magic constant: " write 1002 magic . nl "Smallest order magic square with a constant greater than:" print 1 0 20 [

```   [ 10 * ] dip
[ dup magic pick < ] [ 1 + ] while
over integer-log10 over "10^%02d: %d\n" printf
dup + 1 -
```

] times 2drop</lang>

Output:
```First 20 magic constants:
15 34 65 111 175 260 369 505 671 870 1105 1379 1695 2056 2465 2925 3439 4010 4641 5335

1000th magic constant: 503006505

Smallest order magic square with a constant greater than:
10^01: 3
10^02: 6
10^03: 13
10^04: 28
10^05: 59
10^06: 126
10^07: 272
10^08: 585
10^09: 1260
10^10: 2715
10^11: 5849
10^12: 12600
10^13: 27145
10^14: 58481
10^15: 125993
10^16: 271442
10^17: 584804
10^18: 1259922
10^19: 2714418
10^20: 5848036
```

## jq

Adapted from Wren
Works with jq (*)
Works with gojq, the Go implementation of jq

(*) The arithmetic precision of the C implementation of jq is insufficient for the extended task.

Preliminaries <lang jq># To take advantage of gojq's arbitrary-precision integer arithmetic: def power(\$b): . as \$in | reduce range(0;\$b) as \$i (1; . * \$in);

1. nth-root

def iroot(\$n):

``` . as \$in
| if \$n == 1 then .
else (. < 0) as \$neg
| if \$neg and (n % 2) == 0
then "Cannot take the \(\$n)th root of a negative number." | error
else (\$n-1) as \$n
| {t: (if \$neg then -. else . end)}
| .s = .t + 1
| .u = .t
| until (.u >= .s;
.s = .u
| .u = ((.u * \$n) + (.t / (.u|power(\$n)))) / (\$n + 1) )
| if \$neg then - .s else .s end
end
end;
```
1. input: an array
2. output: a stream of arrays of size size except possibly for the last array

def group(size):

``` recurse( .[size:]; length>0) | .[0:size];
```

def lpad(\$len): tostring | (\$len - length) as \$l | (" " * \$l)[:\$l] + .;

def ss : ["\u2070", "\u00b9", "\u00b2", "\u00b3", "\u2074",

```         "\u2075", "\u2076", "\u2077", "\u2078", "\u2079"];

```

def superscript:

``` if . < 10 then ss[.]
elif . < 20 then ss[1] + ss[. - 10]
else ss[2] + ss[0]
end;</lang>
```

The Task <lang> def magicConstant: (.*. + 1) * . / 2;

"First 20 magic constants:",

```([range(3;23)
| magicConstant]
| group(10) | map(lpad(5)) | join(" ")),
"",
"1,000th magic constant: \( 1002| magicConstant)",
"",
"Smallest order magic square with a constant greater than:",
(range(1; 21) as \$i
| (10 | power(\$i)) as \$goal
| (((\$goal * 2)|iroot(3) + 1) | floor) as \$order
| ("10\(\$i|superscript)" | lpad(5)) + ": \(\$order|lpad(9))"  )</lang>
```
Output:

As for Wren except for commatization.

## Julia

Uses the inverse of the magic constant function for the last part of the task. <lang julia>using Lazy

magic(x) = (1 + x^2) * x ÷ 2 magics = @>> Lazy.range() map(magic) filter(x -> x > 10) # first 2 values are filtered out println("First 20 magic constants: ", Int.(take(20, magics))) println("Thousandth magic constant is: ", collect(take(1000, magics))[end])

println("Smallest magic square with constant greater than:") for expo in 1:20

```   goal = big"10"^expo
ordr = Int(floor((2 * goal)^(1/3))) + 1
println("10^", string(expo, pad=2), "    ", ordr)
```

end

</lang>

Output:
```First 20 magic constants: [15, 34, 65, 111, 175, 260, 369, 505, 671, 870, 1105, 1379, 1695, 2056, 2465, 2925, 3439, 4010, 4641, 5335]
Thousandth magic constant is: 503006505
Smallest magic square with constant greater than:
10^01    3
10^02    6
10^03    13
10^04    28
10^05    59
10^06    126
10^07    272
10^08    585
10^09    1260
10^10    2715
10^11    5849
10^12    12600
10^13    27145
10^14    58481
10^15    125993
10^16    271442
10^17    584804
10^18    1259922
10^19    2714418
10^20    5848036
```

## Perl

<lang perl>#!/usr/bin/perl

use strict; # https://rosettacode.org/wiki/Magic_constant use warnings;

my @twenty = map \$_ * ( \$_ ** 2 + 1 ) / 2, 3 .. 22; print "first twenty: @twenty\n\n" =~ s/.{50}\K /\n/gr;

my \$thousandth = 1002 * ( 1002 ** 2 + 1 ) / 2; print "thousandth: \$thousandth\n\n";

print "10**N order\n"; for my \$i ( 1 .. 20 )

``` {
printf "%3d %9d\n", \$i, (10 ** \$i * 2) ** ( 1 / 3 ) + 1;
}</lang>
```
Output:
```first twenty: 15 34 65 111 175 260 369 505 671 870
1105 1379 1695 2056 2465 2925 3439 4010 4641 5335

thousandth: 503006505

10**N   order
1         3
2         6
3        13
4        28
5        59
6       126
7       272
8       585
9      1260
10      2715
11      5849
12     12600
13     27145
14     58481
15    125993
16    271442
17    584804
18   1259922
19   2714418
20   5848036
```

## Phix

```with javascript_semantics

function magic(integer nth)
integer order = nth+2
return (order*order+1)/2 * order
end function
printf(1,"First 20 magic constants: %V\n",{apply(tagset(20),magic)})
printf(1,"1000th magic constant: %,d\n",{magic(1000)})

include mpfr.e

mpz {goal, order} = mpz_inits(2)
for i=1 to 20 do
mpz_ui_pow_ui(goal,10,i)
mpz_mul_si(order,goal,2)
mpz_nthroot(order,order,3)
mpz_add_si(order,order,1)
printf(1,"1e%d: %s\n",{i,mpz_get_str(order,10,true)})
end for
```
Output:
```First 20 magic constants: {15,34,65,111,175,260,369,505,671,870,1105,1379,1695,2056,2465,2925,3439,4010,4641,5335}
1000th magic constant: 503,006,505
1e1: 3
1e2: 6
1e3: 13
1e4: 28
1e5: 59
1e6: 126
1e7: 272
1e8: 585
1e9: 1,260
1e10: 2,715
1e11: 5,849
1e12: 12,600
1e13: 27,145
1e14: 58,481
1e15: 125,993
1e16: 271,442
1e17: 584,804
1e18: 1,259,922
1e19: 2,714,418
1e20: 5,848,036
```

## Prolog

Minimalistic, efficient approach <lang prolog> m(X,Y):- Y is X*(X*X+1)/2.

l(L,R,T,X):- L > R -> X is L; M is div(L+R,2), m(M,F),

```   (T < F -> R_ is M-1, l(L,R_,T,X); L_ is M+1, l(L_,R,T,X)).
```

l(B,X):- l(1,B,B,X).

task:-

```   write("First 20 magic constants are:"), forall(between(3,22,N), (m(N,X), format(" ~d",X))), nl,
write("The 1000th magic constant is:"), forall(m(1002,X), format(" ~d",X)), nl,
forall(between(1,20,N), (l(10**N,X), format("10^~d:\t~d\n",[N,X]))).
```

</lang>

Output:
```?- task.
First 20 magic constants are: 15 34 65 111 175 260 369 505 671 870 1105 1379 1695 2056 2465 2925 3439 4010 4641 5335
The 1000th magic constant is: 503006505
10^1:   3
10^2:   6
10^3:   13
10^4:   28
10^5:   59
10^6:   126
10^7:   272
10^8:   585
10^9:   1260
10^10:  2715
10^11:  5849
10^12:  12600
10^13:  27145
10^14:  58481
10^15:  125993
10^16:  271442
10^17:  584804
10^18:  1259922
10^19:  2714418
10^20:  5848036
true.
```

## Python

<lang python>#!/usr/bin/python

def a(n):

```   n += 2
return n*(n**2 + 1)/2

```

def inv_a(x):

```   k = 0
while k*(k**2+1)/2+2 < x:
k+=1
return k
```

if __name__ == '__main__':

```   print("The first 20 magic constants are:");
for n in range(1, 20):
print(int(a(n)), end = " ");
print("\nThe 1,000th magic constant is:",int(a(1000)));

for e in range(1, 20):
print(f'10^{e}: {inv_a(10**e)}');</lang>
```
Output:
```The first 20 magic constants are:
15 34 65 111 175 260 369 505 671 870 1105 1379 1695 2056 2465 2925 3439 4010 4641
The 1,000th magic constant is: 503006505.0
10^1: 3
10^2: 6
10^3: 13
10^4: 28
10^5: 59
10^6: 126
10^7: 272
10^8: 585
10^9: 1260
10^10: 2715
10^11: 5849
10^12: 12600
10^13: 27145
10^14: 58481
10^15: 125993
10^16: 271442
10^17: 584804
10^18: 1259922
10^19: 2714418```

## Quackery

<lang Quackery> [ 3 + dup 3 ** + 2 / ] is magicconstant ( n --> n )

``` 20 times [ i^ magicconstant echo sp ] cr cr

1000 magicconstant echo cr cr

0 1
[ over magicconstant over > if
[ over 3 + echo cr
10 * ]
dip 1+
[ 10 21 ** ] constant
over = until ]
2drop</lang>
```
Output:
```15 34 65 111 175 260 369 505 671 870 1105 1379 1695 2056 2465 2925 3439 4010 4641 5335

504514015

3
4
6
13
28
59
126
272
585
1260
2715
5849
12600
27145
58481
125993
271442
584804
1259922
2714418
5848036```

## Raku

<lang perl6>use Lingua::EN::Numbers:ver<2.8+>;

my @magic-constants = lazy (3..∞).hyper.map: { (1 + .²) * \$_ / 2 };

put "First 20 magic constants: ", @magic-constants[^20]»., say "1000th magic constant: ", @magic-constants[999]., say "\nSmallest order magic square with a constant greater than:";

(1..20).map: -> \$p {printf "10%-2s: %s\n", \$p.&super, comma 3 + @magic-constants.first( * > exp(\$p, 10), :k ) }</lang>

Output:
```First 20 magic constants: 15 34 65 111 175 260 369 505 671 870 1,105 1,379 1,695 2,056 2,465 2,925 3,439 4,010 4,641 5,335
1000th magic constant: 503,006,505

Smallest order magic square with a constant greater than:
10¹ : 3
10² : 6
10³ : 13
10⁴ : 28
10⁵ : 59
10⁶ : 126
10⁷ : 272
10⁸ : 585
10⁹ : 1,260
10¹⁰: 2,715
10¹¹: 5,849
10¹²: 12,600
10¹³: 27,145
10¹⁴: 58,481
10¹⁵: 125,993
10¹⁶: 271,442
10¹⁷: 584,804
10¹⁸: 1,259,922
10¹⁹: 2,714,418
10²⁰: 5,848,036```

## Sidef

<lang ruby>func f(n) {

```   (n+2) * ((n+2)**2 + 1) / 2
```

}

func order(n) {

```   iroot(2*n, 3) + 1
```

}

say ("First 20 terms: ", f.map(1..20).join(' ')) say ("1000th term: ", f(1000), " with order ", order(f(1000)))

for n in (1 .. 20) {

```   printf("order(10^%-2s) = %s\n", n, order(10**n))
```

}</lang>

Output:
```First 20 terms: 15 34 65 111 175 260 369 505 671 870 1105 1379 1695 2056 2465 2925 3439 4010 4641 5335
1000th term: 503006505 with order 1003
order(10^1 ) = 3
order(10^2 ) = 6
order(10^3 ) = 13
order(10^4 ) = 28
order(10^5 ) = 59
order(10^6 ) = 126
order(10^7 ) = 272
order(10^8 ) = 585
order(10^9 ) = 1260
order(10^10) = 2715
order(10^11) = 5849
order(10^12) = 12600
order(10^13) = 27145
order(10^14) = 58481
order(10^15) = 125993
order(10^16) = 271442
order(10^17) = 584804
order(10^18) = 1259922
order(10^19) = 2714418
order(10^20) = 5848036
```

## Wren

Library: Wren-seq
Library: Wren-fmt

This uses Julia's approach for the final parts. <lang ecmascript>import "./seq" for Lst import "./fmt" for Fmt

var magicConstant = Fn.new { |n| (n*n + 1) * n / 2 }

var ss = ["\u2070", "\u00b9", "\u00b2", "\u00b3", "\u2074",

```         "\u2075", "\u2076", "\u2077", "\u2078", "\u2079"]

```

var superscript = Fn.new { |n| (n < 10) ? ss[n] : (n < 20) ? ss[1] + ss[n - 10] : ss[2] + ss[0] }

System.print("First 20 magic constants:") var mc20 = (3..22).map { |n| magicConstant.call(n) }.toList for (chunk in Lst.chunks(mc20, 10)) Fmt.print("\$5d", chunk)

Fmt.print("\n1,000th magic constant: \$,d", magicConstant.call(1002))

System.print("\nSmallest order magic square with a constant greater than:") for (i in 1..20) {

```   var goal = 10.pow(i)
var order = (goal * 2).cbrt.floor + 1
Fmt.print("10\$-2s : \$,9d", superscript.call(i), order)
```

}</lang>

Output:
```First 20 magic constants:
15    34    65   111   175   260   369   505   671   870
1105  1379  1695  2056  2465  2925  3439  4010  4641  5335

1,000th magic constant: 503,006,505

Smallest order magic square with a constant greater than:
10¹  :         3
10²  :         6
10³  :        13
10⁴  :        28
10⁵  :        59
10⁶  :       126
10⁷  :       272
10⁸  :       585
10⁹  :     1,260
10¹⁰ :     2,715
10¹¹ :     5,849
10¹² :    12,600
10¹³ :    27,145
10¹⁴ :    58,481
10¹⁵ :   125,993
10¹⁶ :   271,442
10¹⁷ :   584,804
10¹⁸ : 1,259,922
10¹⁹ : 2,714,418
10²⁰ : 5,848,036
```

## XPL0

A magic square of side N contains N^2 items. The sum of a sequence 1..N^2 is given by: Sum = (N^2+1) * N^2 / 2. A grid row adds to the magic constant, and N rows add to the Sum. Thus the magic constant = Sum/N = (N^3+N)/2. <lang XPL0>int N, X; real M, Thresh, MC; [Text(0, "First 20 magic constants:^M^J"); for N:= 3 to 20+3-1 do

```   [IntOut(0, (N*N*N+N)/2);  ChOut(0, ^ )];
```

CrLf(0); Text(0, "1000th magic constant: "); N:= 1000+3-1; IntOut(0, (N*N*N+N)/2); CrLf(0); Text(0, "Smallest order magic square with a constant greater than:^M^J"); Thresh:= 10.; M:= 3.; Format(1, 0); for X:= 1 to 10 do

```   [repeat MC:= (M*M*M+M)/2.;
M:= M+1.;
until   MC > Thresh;
Text(0, "10^^");
if X < 10 then ChOut(0, ^0);
IntOut(0, X);
Text(0, ": ");
RlOut(0, M-1.);
CrLf(0);
Thresh:= Thresh*10.;
];
```

]</lang>

Output:
```First 20 magic constants:
15 34 65 111 175 260 369 505 671 870 1105 1379 1695 2056 2465 2925 3439 4010 4641 5335
1000th magic constant: 503006505
Smallest order magic square with a constant greater than:
10^01: 3
10^02: 6
10^03: 13
10^04: 28
10^05: 59
10^06: 126
10^07: 272
10^08: 585
10^09: 1260
10^10: 2715
```