Show the epoch: Difference between revisions

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<pre>1969-12-31 19:00:00
<pre>1969-12-31 19:00:00
1969-12-31 19:00:00</pre>
1969-12-31 19:00:00</pre>

=={{header|Limbo}}==
<lang Limbo>implement Epoch;

include "sys.m"; sys: Sys;
include "draw.m";
include "daytime.m"; daytime: Daytime;
Tm: import daytime;

Epoch: module {
init: fn(nil: ref Draw->Context, nil: list of string);
};

init(nil: ref Draw->Context, nil: list of string)
{
sys = load Sys Sys->PATH;
daytime = load Daytime Daytime->PATH;
sys->print("%s\n", daytime->text(daytime->gmt(0)));
}</lang>

{{out}}
<pre>Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 GMT 1970
</pre>


=={{header|Mathematica}}==
=={{header|Mathematica}}==

Revision as of 03:37, 26 December 2013

Task
Show the epoch
You are encouraged to solve this task according to the task description, using any language you may know.

Choose popular date libraries used by your language and show the epoch those libraries use. A demonstration is preferable (e.g. setting the internal representation of the date to 0 ms/ns/etc., or another way that will still show the epoch even if it is changed behind the scenes by the implementers), but text from (with links to) documentation is also acceptable where a demonstration is impossible/impractical. For consistency's sake, show the date in UTC time where possible.

See also: Date format

Ada

In Ada, time is a private type and is implementation defined, for instance, on 64 bit GNAT, time is represented internally as nanoseconds relative to Jan 1, 2150.

However, conversion from unix epoch seconds is also supported and shown below. <lang Ada>with Ada.Text_IO; use Ada.Text_IO; with Ada.Calendar; use Ada.Calendar; with Ada.Calendar.Formatting; use Ada.Calendar.Formatting; with Ada.Calendar.Conversions; use Ada.Calendar.Conversions; procedure ShowEpoch is

  etime : Time := To_Ada_Time (0);

begin

  Put_Line (Image (Date => etime));

end ShowEpoch;</lang>

Output:
1970-01-01 00:00:00

AWK

<lang AWK>

  1. syntax: GAWK -f SHOW_THE_EPOCH.AWK
  2. requires GNU Awk 4.0.1 or later

BEGIN {

   print(strftime("%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S",0,1))
   exit(0)

} </lang>

output:

1970-01-01 00:00:00

BBC BASIC

<lang bbcbasic> INSTALL @lib$+"DATELIB"

     PRINT FN_date$(0, "dd-MMM-yyyy")</lang>

Output:

17-Nov-1858

C

<lang c>#include <time.h>

  1. include <stdio.h>

int main() {

   time_t t = 0;
   printf("%s", asctime(gmtime(&t)));
   return 0;

}</lang>

Output:
Thu Jan  1 00:00:00 1970

Windows

FileTime, from the Win32 API, uses a different epoch.

Library: Win32

<lang c>#include <windows.h>

  1. include <stdio.h>
  2. include <wchar.h>

int main() { FILETIME ft = {dwLowDateTime: 0, dwHighDateTime: 0}; /* Epoch */ SYSTEMTIME st; wchar_t date[80], time[80];

/* * Convert FILETIME (which counts 100-nanosecond intervals since * the epoch) to SYSTEMTIME (which has year, month, and so on). * * The time is in UTC, because we never call * SystemTimeToTzSpecificLocalTime() to convert it to local time. */ FileTimeToSystemTime(&ft, &st);

/* * Format SYSTEMTIME as a string. */ if (GetDateFormatW(LOCALE_USER_DEFAULT, DATE_LONGDATE, &st, NULL, date, sizeof date / sizeof date[0]) == 0 || GetTimeFormatW(LOCALE_USER_DEFAULT, 0, &st, NULL, time, sizeof time / sizeof time[0]) == 0) { fwprintf(stderr, L"Error!\n"); return 1; }

wprintf(L"FileTime epoch is %ls, at %ls (UTC).\n", date, time); return 0; }</lang>

Output:
FileTime epoch is Monday, January 01, 1601, at 12:00:00 AM (UTC).

C#

<lang csharp>using System;

class Program {

   static void Main()
   {
       Console.WriteLine(new DateTime());
   }

}</lang>

Output:
1-1-0001 0:00:00

C++

Works with: C++11
Works with: gcc version 4.5.3

Doesn't work with MSVC 10 SP1 <lang cpp>#include <iostream>

  1. include <chrono>
  2. include <ctime>

int main() {

   std::chrono::system_clock::time_point epoch;
   std::time_t t = std::chrono::system_clock::to_time_t(epoch);
   std::cout << std::asctime(std::gmtime(&t)) << '\n';
   return 0;

}</lang>

Output:
Thu Jan  1 00:00:00 1970
Library: boost

<lang cpp>#include <iostream>

  1. include <boost/date_time.hpp>

int main() {

   std::cout << boost::posix_time::ptime( boost::posix_time::min_date_time ) << '\n';
   return 0;

}</lang>

Output:
1400-Jan-01 00:00:00

Clojure

<lang clojure>(println (java.util.Date. 0))</lang> Output (since Clojure 1.5) <lang>#inst "1970-01-01T00:00:00.000-00:00"</lang>

COBOL

<lang cobol> IDENTIFICATION DIVISION.

      PROGRAM-ID. epoch.
      DATA DIVISION.
      WORKING-STORAGE SECTION.
      01  epoch-date.
          03  year                PIC 9(4).
          03  month               PIC 99.
          03  dday                PIC 99.
      PROCEDURE DIVISION.
          MOVE FUNCTION DATE-OF-INTEGER(1) TO epoch-date
          DISPLAY year "-" month "-" dday
          GOBACK
          .</lang>
Output:
1601-01-01

Common Lisp

<lang lisp>(multiple-value-bind (second minute hour day month year) (decode-universal-time 0 0)

	  (format t "~4,'0D-~2,'0D-~2,'0D ~2,'0D:~2,'0D:~2,'0D" year month day hour minute second))</lang>
Output:
1900-01-01 00:00:00

D

The Date struct of the standard library module "std.datetime" represents a date in the Proleptic Gregorian Calendar ranging from 32,768 B.C. to 32,767 A.D.

Dart

<lang dart>main() {

 print(new Date.fromEpoch(0,new TimeZone.utc()));

}</lang>

Output:
1970-01-01 00:00:00.000Z

Delphi

<lang Delphi>program ShowEpoch;

{$APPTYPE CONSOLE}

uses SysUtils;

begin

 Writeln(FormatDateTime('yyyy-mm-dd hh:nn:ss.zzz', 0));

end.</lang>

Output:
1899-12-30 00:00:00.000

Erlang

Erlang uses 2 3-tuples for time and date manipulation. It is possible to get the current values from the operating system. It is also possible to transform these values to/from gregorian seconds. Those are seconds since the date and time interpreted with the Gregorian calendar extended back to year 0. Perhaps the epoch is the date and time at gregorian seconds 0?

2> calendar:universal_time().
{{2013,9,13},{8,3,16}}
3> calendar:datetime_to_gregorian_seconds(calendar:universal_time()).
63546278932
4> calendar:gregorian_seconds_to_datetime(63546278932).
{{2013,9,13},{8,8,52}}
11> calendar:gregorian_seconds_to_datetime(0).
{{0,1,1},{0,0,0}}


F#

<lang fsharp>printfn "%s" ((new System.DateTime()).ToString("u"))</lang>

Output:
0001-01-01 00:00:00Z

Factor

<lang factor> IN: USE: calendar calendar.format IN: 0 micros>timestamp timestamp>ymdhms . "1970-01-01 00:00:00" </lang>

Forth

Works with: 4tH version 3.61.3

<lang forth>include lib/longjday.4th 0 posix>jday .longjday cr</lang>

Output:
Thursday, January 1, 1970

Go

<lang go>package main import ("fmt"; "time")

func main() {

   fmt.Println(time.Time{})

}</lang>

Output:

This is UNIX format. The 1 on the end is the full year, not two or four digit year.

Mon Jan  1 00:00:00 +0000 UTC 1

Groovy

Groovy uses the UNIX epoch. <lang groovy>def date = new Date(0) def format = new java.text.SimpleDateFormat('yyyy-MM-dd\'T\'HH:mm:ss.SSSZ') format.timeZone = TimeZone.getTimeZone('UTC') println (format.format(date))</lang>

Output:
1970-01-01T00:00:00.000+0000

Haskell

Old time library

The ClockTime type is abstract in Haskell 98, but is defined in GHC.

Works with: GHC

<lang haskell>import System.Time

main = putStrLn $ calendarTimeToString $ toUTCTime $ TOD 0 0</lang>

Output:
Thu Jan  1 00:00:00 UTC 1970

New time library

Works with: GHC

<lang haskell>import Data.Time

main = print $ UTCTime (ModifiedJulianDay 0) 0</lang>

Output:
1858-11-17 00:00:00 UTC

Icon and Unicon

Date and Time can be accessed via a number of keywords and functions

  • The following are available in both Icon and Unicon
    • &clock, &date, &dateline, and &time deal with current times and dates
  • The following are specific to Unicon
    • &now provides the number of seconds since the epoch, Jan 1, 1970 00:00:00
    • ctime(integer) takes the number of seconds since the epoch and returns the date and time as a string in the local timezone
    • gtime(integer) takes the number of seconds since the epoch and returns the date and time as a string in UTC
    • gettimeofday() returns a record with the current time since the epoch in seconds and microseconds
  • datetime routines use a global variable 'DateBaseYear' which defaults to Jan 1, 1970 00:00:00 but can be set if desired.
  • The example below uses only a couple of the datetime procedures

<lang Unicon>link printf,datetime

procedure main()

 # Unicon
 now := gettimeofday().sec
 if now = &now then printf("&now and gettimeofday().sec are equal\n") 
 printf("Now (UTC) %s, (local) %s\n",gtime(now),ctime(now))
 printf("Epoch %s\n",gtime(0))
 # Icon and Unicon
 now := DateToSec(&date) + ClockToSec(&clock)
 printf("Now is also %s and %s\n",SecToDate(now),SecToDateLine(now))  

end</lang>

Sample Output:
&now and gettimeofday().sec are equal
Now (UTC) Tue Aug 09 10:43:23 2011, (local) Tue Aug 09 06:43:23 2011
Epoch Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970
Now is also 2011/08/09 and Tuesday, August 9, 2011  6:43 am

J

J does not have an epoch. J's native representation of date and time is a six element list: year, month, day, hour, minute, second. For example: <lang j> 6!:0 2011 8 8 20 25 44.725</lang> (August 8, 2011, 8:25:44 pm)

That said, the 'dates' library does have an epoch: <lang j> require'dates'

  todate 0

1800 1 1</lang>

Java

DateFormat is needed to set the timezone. Printing date alone would show this date in the timezone/locale of the machine that the program is running on. The epoch used in java.util.Date (as well as java.sql.Date, which can be subbed into this example) is actually in GMT, but there isn't a significant difference between that and UTC for lots of applications (documentation for java.util.Date). <lang java>import java.text.DateFormat; import java.util.Date; import java.util.TimeZone;

public class DateTest{

   public static void main(String[] args) {
       Date date = new Date(0);
       DateFormat format = DateFormat.getDateTimeInstance();
       format.setTimeZone(TimeZone.getTimeZone("UTC"));
       System.out.println(format.format(date));
   }

}</lang>

Output:
Jan 1, 1970 12:00:00 AM

On my PC I see

01.01.1970 00:00:00

JavaScript

<lang javascript>document.write(new Date(0).toUTCString());</lang>

Output:
Thu, 01 Jan 1970 00:00:00 GMT


Lasso

<lang Lasso>date(0.00) date(0)</lang>

Output:
1969-12-31 19:00:00
1969-12-31 19:00:00

Limbo

<lang Limbo>implement Epoch;

include "sys.m"; sys: Sys; include "draw.m"; include "daytime.m"; daytime: Daytime; Tm: import daytime;

Epoch: module { init: fn(nil: ref Draw->Context, nil: list of string); };

init(nil: ref Draw->Context, nil: list of string) { sys = load Sys Sys->PATH; daytime = load Daytime Daytime->PATH; sys->print("%s\n", daytime->text(daytime->gmt(0))); }</lang>

Output:
Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 GMT 1970

Mathematica

<lang Mathematica>DateString[0]</lang> ->Mon 1 Jan 1900 00:00:00

MATLAB / Octave

Matlab and Octave store date/time number in a floating point number counting the days. <lang matlab>d = [0,1,2,3.5,-3.5,1000*365,1000*366,now+[-1,0,1]]; for k=1:length(d)

   printf('day %f\t%s\n',d(k),datestr(d(k),0))
   disp(datevec(d(k)))

end;</lang>

Output:
day 0.000000	31-Dec--001 00:00:00
   -1   12   31    0    0    0
day 1.000000	01-Jan-0000 00:00:00
   0   1   1   0   0   0
day 2.000000	02-Jan-0000 00:00:00
   0   1   2   0   0   0
day 3.500000	03-Jan-0000 12:00:00
    0    1    3   12    0    0
day -3.500000	27-Dec--001 12:00:00
   -1   12   27   12    0    0
day 365000.000000	02-May-0999 00:00:00
   999     5     2     0     0     0
day 366000.000000	27-Jan-1002 00:00:00
   1002      1     27      0      0      0
day 734908.972013	09-Feb-2012 23:19:41
   2012.0000      2.0000      9.0000     23.0000     19.0000     41.9633
day 734909.972013	10-Feb-2012 23:19:41
   2012.0000      2.0000     10.0000     23.0000     19.0000     41.9633
day 734910.972013	11-Feb-2012 23:19:41
   2012.0000      2.0000     11.0000     23.0000     19.0000     41.9633

Maxima

<lang maxima>timedate(0); "1900-01-01 10:00:00+10:00"</lang>

NetRexx

Translation of: Java

<lang NetRexx>/* NetRexx */ options replace format comments java crossref symbols nobinary

import java.text.DateFormat

edate = Date(0) zulu = DateFormat.getDateTimeInstance() zulu.setTimeZone(TimeZone.getTimeZone('UTC')) say zulu.format(edate) return </lang> Output:

Jan 1, 1970 12:00:00 AM

NewLISP

<lang NewLISP>(date 0) ->"Thu Jan 01 01:00:00 1970"</lang>

Objective-C

<lang objc>#import <Foundation/Foundation.h>

int main(int argc, const char *argv[]) {

 NSAutoreleasePool *pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init];
 NSDate *t = [NSDate dateWithTimeIntervalSinceReferenceDate:0];
 NSDateFormatter *dateFormatter = [[[NSDateFormatter alloc] init] autorelease];
 [dateFormatter setTimeZone:[NSTimeZone timeZoneWithName:@"UTC"]];
 [dateFormatter setDateFormat:@"yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ss ZZ"];
 NSLog(@"%@", [dateFormatter stringFromDate:t]);
 [pool release];
 return 0;

}</lang>

Log:
2001-01-01 00:00:00 +0000

OCaml

<lang ocaml>open Unix

let months = [| "January"; "February"; "March"; "April"; "May"; "June";

     "July"; "August"; "September"; "October"; "November"; "December" |]

let () =

 let t = Unix.gmtime 0.0 in
 Printf.printf "%s %d, %d\n" months.(t.tm_mon) t.tm_mday (1900 + t.tm_year)</lang>
Execution:
$ ocaml unix.cma epoch.ml
January 1, 1970

Pascal

This works with Free Pascal: <lang pascal>Program ShowEpoch;

uses

 SysUtils;

begin

 Writeln(FormatDateTime('yyyy-mm-dd hh:nn:ss.zzz', Now));
 Writeln(FormatDateTime('yyyy-mm-dd hh:nn:ss.zzz', 0));

end.</lang>

Output:
:> ./SelfDescribingNumber
2011-12-13 00:57:41.378
1899-12-30 00:00:00.000

Perl

<lang perl>print scalar gmtime 0, "\n";</lang>

Output:
Thu Jan  1 00:00:00 1970

Perl 6

<lang perl6>say DateTime.new(0)</lang>

Output:
1970-01-01T00:00:00Z

PHP

<lang php><?php echo gmdate('r', 0), "\n"; ?></lang>

Output:
Thu, 01 Jan 1970 00:00:00 +0000

PicoLisp

The 'date' function in PicoLisp returns a day number, starting first of March of the year zero. Calculated according to the gregorian calendar (despite that that calendar wasn't used in 0 AD yet). <lang PicoLisp>: (date 1) -> (0 3 1) # Year zero, March 1st</lang>

PL/I

<lang pli>*process source attributes xref;

epoch: Proc Options(main);
/*********************************************************************
* 20.08.2013 Walter Pachl  shows that PL/I uses 15 Oct 1582 as epoch
* DAYS returns a FIXED BINARY(31,0) value which is the number of days
* (in Lilian format) corresponding to the date d.
*********************************************************************/
Dcl d Char(17);
Put Edit(datetime(),days(datetime()))
        (Skip,a,f(15));
d='15821015000000000';
Put Edit(d         ,days(d))
        (Skip,a,f(15));
d='15821014000000000';
Put Edit(d         ,days(d))
        (Skip,a,f(15));
End;</lang>

Result:

20130820072642956         157365
15821015000000000              1
15821014000000000
IBM0512I  ONCODE=2112  X in SECS(X,Y) or DAYS(X,Y) was outside the
          supported range.
   At offset +00000283 in procedure with entry EPOCH

PowerShell

PowerShell uses .NET's DateTime structure and an integer can simply be casted appropriately: <lang powershell>[datetime] 0</lang>

Output:
Monday, January 01, 0001 12:00:00 AM

PureBasic

<lang purebasic>If OpenConsole()

 PrintN(FormatDate("Y = %yyyy  M = %mm  D = %dd, %hh:%ii:%ss", 0))
 
 Print(#CRLF$ + #CRLF$ + "Press ENTER to exit"): Input()
 CloseConsole()

EndIf</lang>

Output:
Y = 1970  M = 01  D = 01, 00:00:00

Python

<lang python>>>> import time >>> time.asctime(time.gmtime(0)) 'Thu Jan 1 00:00:00 1970' >>></lang>

R

<lang R>> epoch <- 0 > class(epoch) <- class(Sys.time()) > format(epoch, "%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S %Z") [1] "1970-01-01 00:00:00 UTC"</lang>

Racket

<lang racket>

  1. lang racket

(require racket/date) (date->string (seconds->date 0 #f)) </lang>

Output:

"Thursday, January 1st, 1970"

REXX

The epoch for the REXX language built-in function DATE is January 1st, year 1. <lang rexx>/*REXX program shows the # of days since the epoch for the DATE function*/

say ' today is' date() /*today's is format: mm MON YYYY */

days=date('Basedate') /*only 1st char of option is used*/ say right(days,35) "days since the REXX base date of January 1st, year 1"

say 'and today is:' date(,days,'B') /*this should be today (still). */

     /*──────── The above statement is only valid for the newer REXXes,*/
     /*──────── older versions don't support the 2nd and 3rd arguments.*/</lang>

output

     today is 3 Aug 2012
                             734717 days since the REXX base date of January 1st, year 1
and today is: 3 Aug 2012

Ruby

<lang ruby>irb(main):001:0> Time.at(0).utc => 1970-01-01 00:00:00 UTC</lang>

Run BASIC

<lang runbasic>eDate$ = date$("01/01/0001") cDate$ = date$(0) ' 01/01/1901 sDate$ = date$("01/01/1970")</lang>

Scala

<lang scala>import java.util.{Date, TimeZone, Locale} import java.text.DateFormat

val df=DateFormat.getDateTimeInstance(DateFormat.LONG, DateFormat.LONG, Locale.ENGLISH) df.setTimeZone(TimeZone.getTimeZone("UTC")) println(df.format(new Date(0)))</lang>

Output:
January 1, 1970 12:00:00 AM UTC

Seed7

The Seed7 library time.s7i defines the type time, which describes times and dates. For dates the proleptic Gregorian calendar is used (which assumes that the Gregorian calendar was even in effect at dates preceding its official introduction). This convention is used according to ISO 8601, which also defines that positive and negative years exist and that the year preceding 1 is 0. Therefore the epoch is the beginning of the year 0. <lang seed7>$ include "seed7_05.s7i";

 include "time.s7i";

const proc: main is func

 begin
   writeln(time.value);
 end func;</lang>
Output:
0000-01-01 00:00:00 UTC

Standard ML

<lang sml>- Date.toString (Date.fromTimeUniv Time.zeroTime); val it = "Thu Jan 1 00:00:00 1970" : string</lang>

Tcl

<lang tcl>% clock format 0 -gmt 1 Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 GMT 1970</lang>

TUSCRIPT

<lang tuscript>$$ MODE TUSCRIPT - epoch number=1 dayofweeknr=DATE (date,day,month,year,number) epoch=JOIN(year,"-",month,day) PRINT "epoch: ", epoch," (daynumber ",number,")" - today's daynumber dayofweeknr=DATE (today,day,month,year,number) date=JOIN (year,"-",month,day) PRINT "today's date: ", date," (daynumber ", number,")"</lang>

Output:
epoch: 1-1-1 (daynumber 1)
today's date: 2011-12-14 (daynumber 734487) 

UNIX Shell

The nonstandard option date -r takes seconds from the epoch, and prints date and time. See date(1) manual.

Works with: OpenBSD

<lang bash>$ date -ur 0 Thu Jan 1 00:00:00 UTC 1970</lang>

On systems with GNU date, you can do <lang bash> $ TZ=UTC date --date "$(date +%s) seconds ago" Thu Jan 1 00:00:00 UTC 1970 </lang>

Visual Basic

<lang vb>Sub Main()

   Debug.Print Format(0, "dd mmm yyyy hh:mm")

End Sub</lang>

Output (in debug window):
30 Dec 1899 00:00