# Pig the dice game/Player

**Pig the dice game/Player**

You are encouraged to solve this task according to the task description, using any language you may know.

- Task

Create a dice simulator and scorer of Pig the dice game and add to it the ability to play the game to at least one strategy.

- State here the play strategies involved.
- Show play during a game here.

As a stretch goal:

- Simulate playing the game a number of times with two players of given strategies and report here summary statistics such as, but not restricted to, the influence of going first or which strategy seems stronger.

- Game Rules

The game of Pig is a multiplayer game played with a single six-sided die. The object of the game is to reach 100 points or more. Play is taken in turns. On each person's turn that person has the option of either

**Rolling the dice**: where a roll of two to six is added to their score for that turn and the player's turn continues as the player is given the same choice again; or a roll of 1 loses the player's total points*for that turn*and their turn finishes with play passing to the next player.**Holding**: The player's score for that round is added to their total and becomes safe from the effects of throwing a one. The player's turn finishes with play passing to the next player.

- References

- Pig (dice)
- The Math of Being a Pig and Pigs (extra) - Numberphile videos featuring Ben Sparks.

## Ada

Uses Ada 2012. Uses the package Pig from Pig the dice game.

We implement parameter-driven strategies. A **strategy** is defined by two parameters: When the given points in a round reach a **Bound** these points are collected, else we roll again. But if the other player is very close to winning (less than **Final_Run** points), we switch to an all-or nothing approach, collecting points until we have won -- or rolled a 1.

The implementation reads five parameters from the command line, in that order: (1) N the number of games to play, (2) the Bound for the first player, (3) the Final_Run for the first player, (4) the Bound for the second player and (5) the Final_Run for the second player. After reading these from the command line (or accepting reasonable defaults), it plays the game N times and counts how often either player wins.

```
with Pig; with Ada.Text_IO; with Ada.Command_Line;
procedure automatic_Pig is
use Pig;
type Robot is new Actor with record
Bound: Natural := 20;
Final_Run: Natural := 0;
end record;
function Roll_More(A: Robot; Self, Opponent: Player'Class) return Boolean;
function Roll_More(A: Robot; Self, Opponent: Player'Class) return Boolean is
((Self.All_Recent < A.Bound) or
else (Opponent.Score-100 > A.Final_Run));
function Arg(Position: Positive; Default: Natural) return Natural is
package ACL renames Ada.Command_Line;
begin
return Natural'Value(ACL.Argument(Position));
exception
when Constraint_Error => return Default;
end Arg;
T: Robot := (Bound => Arg(2, 35), Final_Run => Arg(3, 0));
F: Robot := (Bound => Arg(4, 20), Final_Run => Arg(5, 30));
T_Wins: Boolean;
Win_Count: array(Boolean) of Natural := (True=> 0, False => 0);
begin
for I in 1 .. Arg(1, 1000) loop
Play(T, F, T_Wins);
Win_Count(T_Wins) := Win_Count(T_Wins) + 1;
end loop;
Ada.Text_IO.Put_Line(Natural'Image(Win_Count(True)) &
Natural'Image(Win_Count(False)));
end Automatic_Pig;
```

- Output:

The output shows that the (Bound => 25, Final_Run => 25) strategy is just as good as (Bound => 25, Final_Run => 0): whoever is first wins by the same margin:

$ ./automatic_pig 1000000 25 25 25 0 527999 472001 $ ./automatic_pig 1000000 25 0 25 25 527935 472065

## AutoHotkey

Strategies are defined at bottom of script.

Requires additional file from Pig the dice game/Player/AutoHotkey

```
#NoEnv
SetBatchLines, -1
#SingleInstance, Force
#Include Pig_the_dice_game_Optimal_Play.ahkl ; comment if you don't want to bother
Play:=10000 ; this is enough to give 2 digits of accuracy in win ratio
Wins0:=Wins1:=0
Player0(TurnSum, SumMe, SumOpp) {
Return practical(TurnSum, SumMe, SumOpp) ; set first player function name
}
Player1(TurnSum, SumMe, SumOpp) {
Return optimal(TurnSum, SumMe, SumOpp) ; set second player function name
}
Loop, % Play
{
;Random, FirstPlayer, 0, 1 ; to remove advantage of going first
CurrentPlayer := 0 ; set to FirstPlayer to compare same players with different N's
Sum0:=Sum1:=0
Loop
{
OtherPlayer:=!CurrentPlayer
If (Sum%CurrentPlayer%+TurnSum < 100
and Player%CurrentPlayer%(TurnSum, Sum%CurrentPlayer%, Sum%OtherPlayer%))
{
; Roll
Random, LastRoll, 1, 6
If (LastRoll != 1)
{
TurnSum += LastRoll
Continue
}
TurnSum := 0
}
; Hold
Sum%CurrentPlayer% += TurnSum
TurnSum := 0
If (Sum%CurrentPlayer% >= 100)
{
Wins%CurrentPlayer%++
Break
}
CurrentPlayer := !CurrentPlayer
}
}
Msgbox % "Player 0 won " Round(Wins0/Play*100,0) "%`nPlayer 1 won " Round(Wins1/Play*100,0) "%"
; Random; 1/N is ~ probablity of holding
Random(TurnSum, SumMe, SumOpp, N=9) {
Random, Roll, 0, N ; increase this last number to increase probability of rolling
Return Roll
}
; Always roll
Always(TurnSum, SumMe, SumOpp) {
Return 1
}
; Roll N times; N=6 beats all other RollNx players
RollNx(TurnSum, SumMe, SumOpp, N=6) {
Static Roll=0
Return Roll := TurnSum = 0 ? 1 : mod(Roll+1,N+1)
}
; Roll if TurnSum < N; N=19 beats all other RollToN players
RollToN(TurnSum, SumMe, SumOpp, N=19) {
Return Roll := TurnSum < N
}
; Roll if SumOpp > N or SumMe > N or TurnSum < 21 + (SumOpp - SumMe) / 8
Practical(TurnSum, SumMe, SumOpp, N=72) {
Return Roll := SumOpp > N or SumMe > N or TurnSum < 21+(SumOpp-SumMe)/8
}
; Optimal play per http://cs.gettysburg.edu/~tneller/nsf/pig/pig.pdf
Optimal(TurnSum, SumMe, SumOpp) {
Global Optimal
Roll := Optimal[SumMe,TurnSum,SumOpp+1]
Return Roll = "" ? 1 : Roll
}
```

- Output:

First
Player win percent |
Second Player: |
Always | Random N=9 |
RollNx N=6 |
RollToN N=19 |
Practical N=72 |
Optimal |

First Player: | |||||||

Always | 51% | 17% | 12% | 12% | 12% | 12% | |

Random N=9 |
84% | 52% | 30% | 29% | 27% | 26% | |

RollNx N=6 |
89% | 74% | 54% | 53% | 49% | 49% | |

RollToN N=19 |
89% | 76% | 54% | 54% | 49% | 49% | |

Practical N=72 |
88% | 77% | 58% | 58% | 53% | 53% | |

Optimal | 88% | 76% | 57% | 57% | 53% | 53% |

## C

There are four implemented players, they are similar to the ones in the C++ implementation, they are:

Player 1: They are a random player: Chooses whether or not to roll randomly, except if he has no points, in that case he rolls.A.

Player 2: Tries to score at least a quarter of the difference between their current score and MAX_POINTS in a round.

Player 3: Tries to score at least 15 points in a round.

Player 4: Behaves like player 3, but as their round score increases, they get nervous, meaning that they have a chance to hold with less points.

Finally note that the max score on the output example only goes to fifty points, for briefness sake.

```
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <time.h>
#define MAX_POINTS 100
#define PLAYER_COUNT 4
//Possible player moves.
typedef enum {
ROLL,
HOLD
} Moves;
//To allow the player definition to be used in the function definition.
typedef struct Player Player;
//This function takes the player's current score, returns 1 if the player rolls and 0 if they hold.
typedef Moves (*DeciderFunction) (Player *player);
struct Player{
unsigned int score;
unsigned int roundScore;
DeciderFunction dFunction;
};
/*
Auxiliary functions
*/
static int randrange(int min, int max){
return (rand() % (max - min + 1)) + min;
}
//Creates a player with the given decider function.
static Player *create_player(DeciderFunction dFunction) {
Player *player = malloc(sizeof(Player));
player->score = 0;
player->roundScore = 0;
player->dFunction = dFunction;
return player;
}
/*
Player functions
*/
//Randomly decides whether to hold or roll.
static Moves random_player(Player *player) {
if (player->score + player->roundScore >= MAX_POINTS)
return HOLD;
int num = randrange(0, 9);
//We do the second check to make sure the player rolls at least once.
if (num < 5 || player->roundScore == 0)
return ROLL;
return HOLD;
}
//Always tries to score at least a quarter of the difference between their score and "MAX_POINTS".
static Moves quarter_player(Player *player) {
if (player->score + player->roundScore >= MAX_POINTS)
return HOLD;
unsigned int target = (MAX_POINTS - player->score) / 4;
if (player->roundScore < target)
return ROLL;
return HOLD;
}
//Always tries to score at least fifteen points.
static Moves fifteen_player(Player *player) {
if (player->score + player->roundScore >= MAX_POINTS)
return HOLD;
if (player->roundScore < 15)
return ROLL;
return HOLD;
}
//Behaves like the fifteen player, except they get nervous when they are close to wining.
static Moves nervous_player(Player *player) {
if (player->score + player->roundScore >= MAX_POINTS)
return HOLD;
float scorePercent = (float)(1 / MAX_POINTS) * (float)(player->score + player->roundScore);
//If the player's score is more than 75% of the total score there is a chance they will hold with less points.
if (scorePercent >= 0.75 && player->roundScore > 6) {
int num = randrange(0, 9);
if (num < 5)
return ROLL;
return HOLD;
}
if (player->roundScore < 15)
return ROLL;
return HOLD;
}
/*
Game functions.
*/
//Given a player it plays as long as the decider function allows it.
static void play(Player *player) {
while (1) {
if (player->dFunction(player) == ROLL) {
int roll = randrange(1, 6);
if (roll > 1) {
player->roundScore += roll;
fprintf(stdout, "Player rolls a %d - Round score: %d\n", roll, player->roundScore);
}
else {
//If the player rolls a 1 they loose all their points.
player->score = 0;
player->roundScore = 0;
fprintf(stdout, "Player rolls a 1, they loose all their points\n");
break;
}
}
else {
player->score += player->roundScore;
player->roundScore = 0;
fprintf(stdout, "Player holds\n");
break;
}
}
fprintf(stdout, "Current score: %d\n", player->score);
}
static void game_controller(Player *players[]) {
int playFlag = 1;
while (playFlag) {
for (int i = 0; i < PLAYER_COUNT; i++) {
fprintf(stdout, "\nPlayer %d turn\n", i + 1);
play(players[i]);
//Check whether the given player has won, if so end the game and display total scores.
if (players[i]->score >= MAX_POINTS) {
fprintf(stdout, "\n\nPlayer %d has won", i + 1);
puts("\n\nThe overall scores were:");
for (int j = 0; j < PLAYER_COUNT; j++)
fprintf(stdout, "Player %d: %d points\n", j + 1, players[j]->score);
puts("");
playFlag = 0;
break;
}
}
}
}
int main () {
//Seed the random number generator with the current system time.
srand(time(0));
Player *players[PLAYER_COUNT];
players[0] = create_player(random_player);
players[1] = create_player(quarter_player);
players[2] = create_player(fifteen_player);
players[3] = create_player(nervous_player);
game_controller(players);
for (int i = 0; i < PLAYER_COUNT; i++)
free(players[i]);
return 0;
}
```

- Output:

Player 1 turn Player rolls a 1, they loose all their points Current score: 0 Player 2 turn Player rolls a 3 - Round score: 3 Player rolls a 1, they loose all their points Current score: 0 Player 3 turn Player rolls a 5 - Round score: 5 Player rolls a 5 - Round score: 10 Player rolls a 1, they loose all their points Current score: 0 Player 4 turn Player rolls a 6 - Round score: 6 Player rolls a 4 - Round score: 10 Player rolls a 6 - Round score: 16 Player holds Current score: 16 Player 1 turn Player rolls a 4 - Round score: 4 Player rolls a 6 - Round score: 10 Player rolls a 4 - Round score: 14 Player holds Current score: 14 Player 2 turn Player rolls a 6 - Round score: 6 Player rolls a 6 - Round score: 12 Player holds Current score: 12 Player 3 turn Player rolls a 1, they loose all their points Current score: 0 Player 4 turn Player rolls a 6 - Round score: 6 Player rolls a 4 - Round score: 10 Player rolls a 4 - Round score: 14 Player rolls a 5 - Round score: 19 Player holds Current score: 35 Player 1 turn Player rolls a 5 - Round score: 5 Player holds Current score: 19 Player 2 turn Player rolls a 3 - Round score: 3 Player rolls a 3 - Round score: 6 Player rolls a 3 - Round score: 9 Player holds Current score: 21 Player 3 turn Player rolls a 1, they loose all their points Current score: 0 Player 4 turn Player rolls a 5 - Round score: 5 Player rolls a 1, they loose all their points Current score: 0 Player 1 turn Player rolls a 5 - Round score: 5 Player rolls a 5 - Round score: 10 Player holds Current score: 29 Player 2 turn Player rolls a 2 - Round score: 2 Player rolls a 6 - Round score: 8 Player holds Current score: 29 Player 3 turn Player rolls a 3 - Round score: 3 Player rolls a 3 - Round score: 6 Player rolls a 2 - Round score: 8 Player rolls a 4 - Round score: 12 Player rolls a 2 - Round score: 14 Player rolls a 2 - Round score: 16 Player holds Current score: 16 Player 4 turn Player rolls a 2 - Round score: 2 Player rolls a 2 - Round score: 4 Player rolls a 5 - Round score: 9 Player rolls a 1, they loose all their points Current score: 0 Player 1 turn Player rolls a 2 - Round score: 2 Player holds Current score: 31 Player 2 turn Player rolls a 2 - Round score: 2 Player rolls a 6 - Round score: 8 Player holds Current score: 37 Player 3 turn Player rolls a 2 - Round score: 2 Player rolls a 6 - Round score: 8 Player rolls a 2 - Round score: 10 Player rolls a 4 - Round score: 14 Player rolls a 6 - Round score: 20 Player holds Current score: 36 Player 4 turn Player rolls a 3 - Round score: 3 Player rolls a 2 - Round score: 5 Player rolls a 4 - Round score: 9 Player rolls a 1, they loose all their points Current score: 0 Player 1 turn Player rolls a 2 - Round score: 2 Player holds Current score: 33 Player 2 turn Player rolls a 6 - Round score: 6 Player holds Current score: 43 Player 3 turn Player rolls a 5 - Round score: 5 Player rolls a 5 - Round score: 10 Player rolls a 3 - Round score: 13 Player rolls a 6 - Round score: 19 Player holds Current score: 55 Player 3 has won The overall scores were: Player 1: 33 points Player 2: 43 points Player 3: 55 points Player 4: 0 points

## C++

The strategies implemented here are pretty simple:

Player 1 is a random player: he chooses a random number between 0 and 9 and if this number is smaller than 5 he'll roll otherwise he holds, unless his round score is zero, in this case he'll roll.

Player 2 always tries to score at least a quarter of the difference between he's current score and MAX_POINTS in a round.

Player 3 always tries to score at least 20 points in a round.

Player 4, just like player 3, always tries to score at least 20 points in a round. But as his round score increases, he gets a little "nervous", what increases the chances that he'll hold.

```
#include <windows.h>
#include <iostream>
#include <string>
//--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
using namespace std;
//--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
const int PLAYERS = 4, MAX_POINTS = 100;
//--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
enum Moves { ROLL, HOLD };
//--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
class player
{
public:
player() { current_score = round_score = 0; }
void addCurrScore() { current_score += round_score; }
int getCurrScore() { return current_score; }
int getRoundScore() { return round_score; }
void addRoundScore( int rs ) { round_score += rs; }
void zeroRoundScore() { round_score = 0; }
virtual int getMove() = 0;
virtual ~player() {}
protected:
int current_score, round_score;
};
//--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
class RAND_Player : public player
{
virtual int getMove()
{
if( round_score + current_score >= MAX_POINTS ) return HOLD;
if( rand() % 10 < 5 ) return ROLL;
if( round_score > 0 ) return HOLD;
return ROLL;
}
};
//--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
class Q2WIN_Player : public player
{
virtual int getMove()
{
if( round_score + current_score >= MAX_POINTS ) return HOLD;
int q = MAX_POINTS - current_score;
if( q < 6 ) return ROLL;
q /= 4;
if( round_score < q ) return ROLL;
return HOLD;
}
};
//--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
class AL20_Player : public player
{
virtual int getMove()
{
if( round_score + current_score >= MAX_POINTS ) return HOLD;
if( round_score < 20 ) return ROLL;
return HOLD;
}
};
//--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
class AL20T_Player : public player
{
virtual int getMove()
{
if( round_score + current_score >= MAX_POINTS ) return HOLD;
int d = ( 100 * round_score ) / 20;
if( round_score < 20 && d < rand() % 100 ) return ROLL;
return HOLD;
}
};
//--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
class Auto_pigGame
{
public:
Auto_pigGame()
{
_players[0] = new RAND_Player();
_players[1] = new Q2WIN_Player();
_players[2] = new AL20_Player();
_players[3] = new AL20T_Player();
}
~Auto_pigGame()
{
delete _players[0];
delete _players[1];
delete _players[2];
delete _players[3];
}
void play()
{
int die, p = 0;
bool endGame = false;
while( !endGame )
{
switch( _players[p]->getMove() )
{
case ROLL:
die = rand() % 6 + 1;
if( die == 1 )
{
cout << "Player " << p + 1 << " rolled " << die << " - current score: " << _players[p]->getCurrScore() << endl << endl;
nextTurn( p );
continue;
}
_players[p]->addRoundScore( die );
cout << "Player " << p + 1 << " rolled " << die << " - round score: " << _players[p]->getRoundScore() << endl;
break;
case HOLD:
_players[p]->addCurrScore();
cout << "Player " << p + 1 << " holds - current score: " << _players[p]->getCurrScore() << endl << endl;
if( _players[p]->getCurrScore() >= MAX_POINTS )
endGame = true;
else nextTurn( p );
}
}
showScore();
}
private:
void nextTurn( int& p )
{
_players[p]->zeroRoundScore();
++p %= PLAYERS;
}
void showScore()
{
cout << endl;
cout << "Player I (RAND): " << _players[0]->getCurrScore() << endl;
cout << "Player II (Q2WIN): " << _players[1]->getCurrScore() << endl;
cout << "Player III (AL20): " << _players[2]->getCurrScore() << endl;
cout << "Player IV (AL20T): " << _players[3]->getCurrScore() << endl << endl << endl;
system( "pause" );
}
player* _players[PLAYERS];
};
//--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
int main( int argc, char* argv[] )
{
srand( GetTickCount() );
Auto_pigGame pg;
pg.play();
return 0;
}
//--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
```

- Output:

Player 1 rolled 1 - current score: 0 Player 2 rolled 5 - round score: 5 Player 2 rolled 1 - current score: 0 Player 3 rolled 3 - round score: 3 Player 3 rolled 5 - round score: 8 Player 3 rolled 4 - round score: 12 Player 3 rolled 5 - round score: 17 Player 3 rolled 6 - round score: 23 Player 3 holds - current score: 23 Player 4 rolled 5 - round score: 5 Player 4 rolled 1 - current score: 0 Player 1 rolled 5 - round score: 5 Player 1 holds - current score: 5 Player 2 rolled 6 - round score: 6 Player 2 rolled 2 - round score: 8 Player 2 rolled 3 - round score: 11 Player 2 rolled 2 - round score: 13 Player 2 rolled 3 - round score: 16 Player 2 rolled 6 - round score: 22 Player 2 rolled 6 - round score: 28 Player 2 holds - current score: 28 Player 3 rolled 3 - round score: 3 Player 3 rolled 2 - round score: 5 Player 3 rolled 3 - round score: 8 Player 3 rolled 1 - current score: 23 Player 4 rolled 5 - round score: 5 Player 4 rolled 2 - round score: 7 Player 4 rolled 5 - round score: 12 Player 4 rolled 5 - round score: 17 Player 4 holds - current score: 17 Player 1 rolled 2 - round score: 2 Player 1 holds - current score: 7 Player 2 rolled 6 - round score: 6 Player 2 rolled 3 - round score: 9 Player 2 rolled 2 - round score: 11 Player 2 rolled 6 - round score: 17 Player 2 rolled 1 - current score: 28 Player 3 rolled 4 - round score: 4 Player 3 rolled 3 - round score: 7 Player 3 rolled 1 - current score: 23 Player 4 rolled 3 - round score: 3 Player 4 rolled 6 - round score: 9 Player 4 rolled 4 - round score: 13 Player 4 holds - current score: 30 Player 1 rolled 5 - round score: 5 Player 1 holds - current score: 12 Player 2 rolled 2 - round score: 2 Player 2 rolled 6 - round score: 8 Player 2 rolled 2 - round score: 10 Player 2 rolled 1 - current score: 28 Player 3 rolled 4 - round score: 4 Player 3 rolled 4 - round score: 8 Player 3 rolled 4 - round score: 12 Player 3 rolled 2 - round score: 14 Player 3 rolled 4 - round score: 18 Player 3 rolled 2 - round score: 20 Player 3 holds - current score: 43 Player 4 rolled 2 - round score: 2 Player 4 rolled 2 - round score: 4 Player 4 rolled 1 - current score: 30 Player 1 rolled 1 - current score: 12 Player 2 rolled 2 - round score: 2 Player 2 rolled 2 - round score: 4 Player 2 rolled 3 - round score: 7 Player 2 rolled 2 - round score: 9 Player 2 rolled 1 - current score: 28 Player 3 rolled 6 - round score: 6 Player 3 rolled 4 - round score: 10 Player 3 rolled 3 - round score: 13 Player 3 rolled 5 - round score: 18 Player 3 rolled 5 - round score: 23 Player 3 holds - current score: 66 Player 4 rolled 3 - round score: 3 Player 4 rolled 1 - current score: 30 Player 1 rolled 5 - round score: 5 Player 1 holds - current score: 17 Player 2 rolled 5 - round score: 5 Player 2 rolled 6 - round score: 11 Player 2 rolled 5 - round score: 16 Player 2 rolled 3 - round score: 19 Player 2 holds - current score: 47 Player 3 rolled 1 - current score: 66 Player 4 rolled 2 - round score: 2 Player 4 rolled 5 - round score: 7 Player 4 holds - current score: 37 Player 1 rolled 2 - round score: 2 Player 1 rolled 6 - round score: 8 Player 1 holds - current score: 25 Player 2 rolled 4 - round score: 4 Player 2 rolled 6 - round score: 10 Player 2 rolled 4 - round score: 14 Player 2 holds - current score: 61 Player 3 rolled 4 - round score: 4 Player 3 rolled 6 - round score: 10 Player 3 rolled 2 - round score: 12 Player 3 rolled 5 - round score: 17 Player 3 rolled 6 - round score: 23 Player 3 holds - current score: 89 Player 4 rolled 2 - round score: 2 Player 4 holds - current score: 39 Player 1 rolled 6 - round score: 6 Player 1 holds - current score: 31 Player 2 rolled 1 - current score: 61 Player 3 rolled 5 - round score: 5 Player 3 rolled 1 - current score: 89 Player 4 rolled 2 - round score: 2 Player 4 rolled 2 - round score: 4 Player 4 rolled 3 - round score: 7 Player 4 holds - current score: 46 Player 1 rolled 1 - current score: 31 Player 2 rolled 3 - round score: 3 Player 2 rolled 3 - round score: 6 Player 2 rolled 4 - round score: 10 Player 2 holds - current score: 71 Player 3 rolled 6 - round score: 6 Player 3 rolled 6 - round score: 12 Player 3 holds - current score: 101 Player I (RAND): 31 Player II (Q2WIN): 71 Player III (AL20): 101 Player IV (AL20T): 46

## Common Lisp

Just implemented two strategies. One is actually a variable strategy which holds until a specific value is reached and then turns the dice over. The default value is 25. The other is from "Practical Play of the Dice Game Pig" by ToddW. Neller and Clifton G.M. Presser. Their suggested strategy is "If either player’s score is 71 or higher, roll for the goal. Otherwise, hold at 21 + (j - i) / 8" where j is the other player's score and i is the strategizing player's score. The scoring is handled by generic functions on the player type.

```
(defclass player ()
((score :initform 0 :accessor score)
(name :initarg :name :accessor name)))
(defun make-player (name)
(make-instance 'player :name name))
(defmethod has-won ((player player))
(>= (score player) 100))
(defclass score-based (player)
((score-base :initarg :score-base :initform 25 :accessor score-base)))
(defun make-score-based (name &optional (base 25))
(make-instance 'score-based :score-base base :name name))
(defmethod roll-again ((player score-based) other turn-score)
(declare (ignorable other))
(< turn-score (score-base player)))
(defclass neller (player) ())
(defun make-neller (name) (make-instance 'neller :name name))
(defmethod roll-again ((player neller) other turn-score)
(let ((other-score (score other)) (my-score (score player)))
(or
(> other-score 71)
(> my-score 71)
(< turn-score (+ 21 (/ (- other-score my-score) 8))))))
(defun query-turn (player other roll added-score)
(format t "~A: Rolled a ~A - Turn: ~A Current Score: ~A Keep rolling (Y, N or Q)?"
(name player)
roll
added-score
(+ added-score (score player)))
(let ((ret (roll-again player other added-score)))
(if ret (format t "Y~%") (format t "N~%"))
ret))
(defun do-turns (player other)
(do ((new-score 0)
(take-turn t))
((not take-turn) (setf (score player) (+ (score player) new-score)))
(let ((roll (+ 1 (random 6))))
(cond
((>= (+ (score player) roll new-score) 100)
(format t "~A rolls a ~A and WINS!~%" (name player) roll)
(setf new-score (+ new-score roll))
(setf take-turn nil))
((eql 1 roll)
(format t "Ooh! Sorry - ~A rolled a 1 and busted!~%" (name player))
(setf new-score 0)
(setf take-turn nil))
(t
(setf new-score (+ new-score roll))
(setf take-turn (query-turn player other roll new-score)))))))
(defun play-pig-winner (p1 p2)
(do* ((otherplayer p2 curplayer)
(curplayer p1 (if (eql curplayer p1) p2 p1)))
((has-won otherplayer) otherplayer)
(do-turns curplayer otherplayer)))
(defun play-pig-player (player1 player2)
(catch 'quit (format t "Hooray! ~A won the game!"
```

Output:

```
Darrell: Rolled a 4 - Turn: 4 Current Score: 4 Keep rolling (Y, N or Q)?Y
Darrell: Rolled a 3 - Turn: 7 Current Score: 7 Keep rolling (Y, N or Q)?Y
Darrell: Rolled a 3 - Turn: 10 Current Score: 10 Keep rolling (Y, N or Q)?Y
Ooh! Sorry - Darrell rolled a 1 and busted!
Marvin: Rolled a 3 - Turn: 3 Current Score: 3 Keep rolling (Y, N or Q)?Y
Marvin: Rolled a 6 - Turn: 9 Current Score: 9 Keep rolling (Y, N or Q)?Y
Marvin: Rolled a 3 - Turn: 12 Current Score: 12 Keep rolling (Y, N or Q)?Y
Marvin: Rolled a 4 - Turn: 16 Current Score: 16 Keep rolling (Y, N or Q)?Y
Ooh! Sorry - Marvin rolled a 1 and busted!
Darrell: Rolled a 2 - Turn: 2 Current Score: 2 Keep rolling (Y, N or Q)?Y
Darrell: Rolled a 4 - Turn: 6 Current Score: 6 Keep rolling (Y, N or Q)?Y
Ooh! Sorry - Darrell rolled a 1 and busted!
Marvin: Rolled a 3 - Turn: 3 Current Score: 3 Keep rolling (Y, N or Q)?Y
Marvin: Rolled a 2 - Turn: 5 Current Score: 5 Keep rolling (Y, N or Q)?Y
Ooh! Sorry - Marvin rolled a 1 and busted!
Darrell: Rolled a 3 - Turn: 3 Current Score: 3 Keep rolling (Y, N or Q)?Y
Darrell: Rolled a 2 - Turn: 5 Current Score: 5 Keep rolling (Y, N or Q)?Y
Ooh! Sorry - Darrell rolled a 1 and busted!
Ooh! Sorry - Marvin rolled a 1 and busted!
Darrell: Rolled a 6 - Turn: 6 Current Score: 6 Keep rolling (Y, N or Q)?Y
Darrell: Rolled a 5 - Turn: 11 Current Score: 11 Keep rolling (Y, N or Q)?Y
Darrell: Rolled a 2 - Turn: 13 Current Score: 13 Keep rolling (Y, N or Q)?Y
Ooh! Sorry - Darrell rolled a 1 and busted!
Marvin: Rolled a 5 - Turn: 5 Current Score: 5 Keep rolling (Y, N or Q)?Y
Marvin: Rolled a 6 - Turn: 11 Current Score: 11 Keep rolling (Y, N or Q)?Y
Marvin: Rolled a 3 - Turn: 14 Current Score: 14 Keep rolling (Y, N or Q)?Y
Marvin: Rolled a 2 - Turn: 16 Current Score: 16 Keep rolling (Y, N or Q)?Y
Marvin: Rolled a 3 - Turn: 19 Current Score: 19 Keep rolling (Y, N or Q)?Y
Marvin: Rolled a 2 - Turn: 21 Current Score: 21 Keep rolling (Y, N or Q)?Y
Marvin: Rolled a 5 - Turn: 26 Current Score: 26 Keep rolling (Y, N or Q)?N
Darrell: Rolled a 3 - Turn: 3 Current Score: 3 Keep rolling (Y, N or Q)?Y
Darrell: Rolled a 2 - Turn: 5 Current Score: 5 Keep rolling (Y, N or Q)?Y
Ooh! Sorry - Darrell rolled a 1 and busted!
Ooh! Sorry - Marvin rolled a 1 and busted!
Ooh! Sorry - Darrell rolled a 1 and busted!
Ooh! Sorry - Marvin rolled a 1 and busted!
Darrell: Rolled a 6 - Turn: 6 Current Score: 6 Keep rolling (Y, N or Q)?Y
Darrell: Rolled a 2 - Turn: 8 Current Score: 8 Keep rolling (Y, N or Q)?Y
Darrell: Rolled a 3 - Turn: 11 Current Score: 11 Keep rolling (Y, N or Q)?Y
Darrell: Rolled a 6 - Turn: 17 Current Score: 17 Keep rolling (Y, N or Q)?Y
Darrell: Rolled a 3 - Turn: 20 Current Score: 20 Keep rolling (Y, N or Q)?Y
Darrell: Rolled a 3 - Turn: 23 Current Score: 23 Keep rolling (Y, N or Q)?Y
Darrell: Rolled a 5 - Turn: 28 Current Score: 28 Keep rolling (Y, N or Q)?N
Marvin: Rolled a 6 - Turn: 6 Current Score: 32 Keep rolling (Y, N or Q)?Y
Marvin: Rolled a 5 - Turn: 11 Current Score: 37 Keep rolling (Y, N or Q)?Y
Ooh! Sorry - Marvin rolled a 1 and busted!
Darrell: Rolled a 6 - Turn: 6 Current Score: 34 Keep rolling (Y, N or Q)?Y
Darrell: Rolled a 5 - Turn: 11 Current Score: 39 Keep rolling (Y, N or Q)?Y
Darrell: Rolled a 6 - Turn: 17 Current Score: 45 Keep rolling (Y, N or Q)?Y
Darrell: Rolled a 4 - Turn: 21 Current Score: 49 Keep rolling (Y, N or Q)?N
Marvin: Rolled a 5 - Turn: 5 Current Score: 31 Keep rolling (Y, N or Q)?Y
Marvin: Rolled a 3 - Turn: 8 Current Score: 34 Keep rolling (Y, N or Q)?Y
Marvin: Rolled a 5 - Turn: 13 Current Score: 39 Keep rolling (Y, N or Q)?Y
Marvin: Rolled a 5 - Turn: 18 Current Score: 44 Keep rolling (Y, N or Q)?Y
Marvin: Rolled a 5 - Turn: 23 Current Score: 49 Keep rolling (Y, N or Q)?Y
Marvin: Rolled a 5 - Turn: 28 Current Score: 54 Keep rolling (Y, N or Q)?N
Darrell: Rolled a 6 - Turn: 6 Current Score: 55 Keep rolling (Y, N or Q)?Y
Darrell: Rolled a 5 - Turn: 11 Current Score: 60 Keep rolling (Y, N or Q)?Y
Darrell: Rolled a 6 - Turn: 17 Current Score: 66 Keep rolling (Y, N or Q)?Y
Ooh! Sorry - Darrell rolled a 1 and busted!
Ooh! Sorry - Marvin rolled a 1 and busted!
Darrell: Rolled a 6 - Turn: 6 Current Score: 55 Keep rolling (Y, N or Q)?Y
Darrell: Rolled a 5 - Turn: 11 Current Score: 60 Keep rolling (Y, N or Q)?Y
Darrell: Rolled a 4 - Turn: 15 Current Score: 64 Keep rolling (Y, N or Q)?Y
Darrell: Rolled a 5 - Turn: 20 Current Score: 69 Keep rolling (Y, N or Q)?Y
Ooh! Sorry - Darrell rolled a 1 and busted!
Marvin: Rolled a 2 - Turn: 2 Current Score: 56 Keep rolling (Y, N or Q)?Y
Marvin: Rolled a 5 - Turn: 7 Current Score: 61 Keep rolling (Y, N or Q)?Y
Marvin: Rolled a 4 - Turn: 11 Current Score: 65 Keep rolling (Y, N or Q)?Y
Marvin: Rolled a 5 - Turn: 16 Current Score: 70 Keep rolling (Y, N or Q)?Y
Marvin: Rolled a 2 - Turn: 18 Current Score: 72 Keep rolling (Y, N or Q)?Y
Ooh! Sorry - Marvin rolled a 1 and busted!
Ooh! Sorry - Darrell rolled a 1 and busted!
Marvin: Rolled a 6 - Turn: 6 Current Score: 60 Keep rolling (Y, N or Q)?Y
Ooh! Sorry - Marvin rolled a 1 and busted!
Darrell: Rolled a 4 - Turn: 4 Current Score: 53 Keep rolling (Y, N or Q)?Y
Darrell: Rolled a 6 - Turn: 10 Current Score: 59 Keep rolling (Y, N or Q)?Y
Darrell: Rolled a 6 - Turn: 16 Current Score: 65 Keep rolling (Y, N or Q)?Y
Darrell: Rolled a 2 - Turn: 18 Current Score: 67 Keep rolling (Y, N or Q)?Y
Darrell: Rolled a 4 - Turn: 22 Current Score: 71 Keep rolling (Y, N or Q)?N
Marvin: Rolled a 5 - Turn: 5 Current Score: 59 Keep rolling (Y, N or Q)?Y
Marvin: Rolled a 5 - Turn: 10 Current Score: 64 Keep rolling (Y, N or Q)?Y
Marvin: Rolled a 5 - Turn: 15 Current Score: 69 Keep rolling (Y, N or Q)?Y
Marvin: Rolled a 6 - Turn: 21 Current Score: 75 Keep rolling (Y, N or Q)?Y
Marvin: Rolled a 4 - Turn: 25 Current Score: 79 Keep rolling (Y, N or Q)?N
Darrell: Rolled a 2 - Turn: 2 Current Score: 73 Keep rolling (Y, N or Q)?Y
Darrell: Rolled a 4 - Turn: 6 Current Score: 77 Keep rolling (Y, N or Q)?Y
Darrell: Rolled a 2 - Turn: 8 Current Score: 79 Keep rolling (Y, N or Q)?Y
Darrell: Rolled a 3 - Turn: 11 Current Score: 82 Keep rolling (Y, N or Q)?Y
Darrell: Rolled a 4 - Turn: 15 Current Score: 86 Keep rolling (Y, N or Q)?Y
Ooh! Sorry - Darrell rolled a 1 and busted!
Marvin: Rolled a 4 - Turn: 4 Current Score: 83 Keep rolling (Y, N or Q)?Y
Ooh! Sorry - Marvin rolled a 1 and busted!
Darrell: Rolled a 5 - Turn: 5 Current Score: 76 Keep rolling (Y, N or Q)?Y
Darrell: Rolled a 3 - Turn: 8 Current Score: 79 Keep rolling (Y, N or Q)?Y
Darrell: Rolled a 5 - Turn: 13 Current Score: 84 Keep rolling (Y, N or Q)?Y
Darrell: Rolled a 3 - Turn: 16 Current Score: 87 Keep rolling (Y, N or Q)?Y
Darrell: Rolled a 6 - Turn: 22 Current Score: 93 Keep rolling (Y, N or Q)?Y
Darrell: Rolled a 2 - Turn: 24 Current Score: 95 Keep rolling (Y, N or Q)?Y
Darrell: Rolled a 2 - Turn: 26 Current Score: 97 Keep rolling (Y, N or Q)?Y
Darrell rolls a 3 and WINS!
Hooray! Darrell won the game!
NIL
```

## D

```
import std.stdio, std.random;
enum nPlayers = 4, maxPoints = 100;
enum Moves { roll, hold }
abstract class Player {
public:
final void addCurrScore() pure nothrow {
current_score += round_score;
}
final int getCurrScore() const pure nothrow {
return current_score;
}
final int getRoundScore() const pure nothrow {
return round_score;
}
final void addRoundScore(in int rs) pure nothrow {
round_score += rs;
}
final void zeroRoundScore() pure nothrow {
round_score = 0;
}
Moves getMove();
protected int current_score, round_score;
}
final class PlayerRand: Player {
override Moves getMove() {
if (round_score + current_score >= maxPoints)
return Moves.hold;
if (uniform(0, 2) == 0)
return Moves.roll;
if (round_score > 0)
return Moves.hold;
return Moves.roll;
}
}
final class PlayerQ2Win: Player {
override Moves getMove() {
if (round_score + current_score >= maxPoints)
return Moves.hold;
int q = maxPoints - current_score;
if (q < 6)
return Moves.roll;
q /= 4;
if (round_score < q)
return Moves.roll;
return Moves.hold;
}
}
final class PlayerAL20: Player {
override Moves getMove() {
if (round_score + current_score >= maxPoints)
return Moves.hold;
if (round_score < 20)
return Moves.roll;
return Moves.hold;
}
}
final class PlayerAL20T: Player {
override Moves getMove() {
if (round_score + current_score >= maxPoints)
return Moves.hold;
immutable d = (100 * round_score) / 20;
if (round_score < 20 && d < uniform(0, 100))
return Moves.roll;
return Moves.hold;
}
}
void main() {
auto players = [new PlayerRand, new PlayerQ2Win,
new PlayerAL20, new PlayerAL20T];
void nextTurn(ref uint p) nothrow {
players[p].zeroRoundScore;
p = (p + 1) % nPlayers;
}
uint p = 0;
bool endGame = false;
while (!endGame) {
final switch (players[p].getMove) {
case Moves.roll:
immutable die = uniform(1, 7);
if (die == 1) {
writeln("Player ", p + 1, " rolled ", die,
" - current score: ",
players[p].getCurrScore, "\n");
nextTurn(p);
continue;
}
players[p].addRoundScore(die);
writeln("Player ", p + 1, " rolled ", die,
" - round score: ",
players[p].getRoundScore);
break;
case Moves.hold:
players[p].addCurrScore;
writeln("Player ", p + 1,
" holds - current score: ",
players[p].getCurrScore, "\n");
if (players[p].getCurrScore >= maxPoints)
endGame = true;
else
nextTurn(p);
}
}
writeln;
writeln("Player I (Rand): ", players[0].getCurrScore);
writeln("Player II (Q2Win): ", players[1].getCurrScore);
writeln("Player III (AL20): ", players[2].getCurrScore);
writeln("Player IV (AL20T): ", players[3].getCurrScore, "\n\n");
}
```

The output is similar to the C++ entry.

## Erlang

Four players take turns starting. Their strategy is how long to wait before holding. They aim for 5, 10, 15 and 20 rolls. Player20 managed better than I thought it would.

```
-module( pig_dice_player ).
-export( [task/0] ).
task() ->
Goal = pig_dice:goal(),
Players_holds = [{"Player"++ erlang:integer_to_list(X), X} || X <- [5, 10, 15, 20]],
Fun = fun ({Player, Total}, Dict) when Total >= Goal -> dict:update_counter( Player, 1, Dict );
(_Player_total, Dict) -> Dict
end,
Dict = lists:foldl( Fun, dict:new(), task_play(Players_holds, Goal, []) ),
display( dict:to_list(Dict) ).
display( Results ) ->
[{Name, Total} | Rest] = lists:reverse( lists:keysort(2, Results) ),
io:fwrite( "Winner is ~p with total of ~p wins~n", [Name, Total] ),
io:fwrite( "Then follows: " ),
[io:fwrite("~p with ~p~n", [N, T]) || {N, T} <- Rest].
is_goal_reached( Score, Player, Goal, Player, Game ) ->
Score + proplists:get_value(Player, pig_dice:players_totals(Game)) >= Goal;
is_goal_reached( _Score, _Other_player, _Goal, _Player, _Game ) -> false.
loop( Hold, Hold, Goal, Player, Game ) ->
pig_dice:hold( Player, Game ),
loop( 1, Hold, Goal, Player, Game );
loop( N, Hold, Goal, Player, Game ) ->
loop_await_my_turn( pig_dice:player_name(Game), Player, Game ),
pig_dice:roll( Player, Game ),
Is_goal_reached = is_goal_reached( pig_dice:score(Game), pig_dice:player_name(Game), Goal, Player, Game ),
loop_done( Is_goal_reached, N, Hold, Goal, Player, Game ).
loop_await_my_turn( Player, Player, _Game ) -> ok;
loop_await_my_turn( _Other, Player, Game ) -> loop_await_my_turn( pig_dice:player_name(Game), Player, Game ).
loop_done( true, _N, _Hold, _Goal, Player, Game ) -> pig_dice:hold( Player, Game );
loop_done( false, N, Hold, Goal, Player, Game ) -> loop( N + 1, Hold, Goal, Player, Game ).
rotate( [H | T] ) -> T ++ [H].
task_play( Players_holds, _Goal, Acc ) when erlang:length(Players_holds) =:= erlang:length(Acc) -> lists:flatten( Acc );
task_play( Players_holds, Goal, Acc ) ->
Results = [task_play_n(Players_holds, Goal) || _X <- lists:seq(1, 100)],
task_play( rotate(Players_holds), Goal, [Results | Acc] ).
task_play_n( Players_holds, Goal ) ->
Game = pig_dice:game( [X || {X, _Y} <- Players_holds] ),
Pids = [erlang:spawn(fun() -> loop(1, Y, Goal, X, Game) end) || {X, Y} <- Players_holds],
receive
{pig, Result, Game} ->
[erlang:exit(X, kill) || X <- [Game | Pids]],
Result
end.
```

- Output:

115> pig_dice_player:task(). Winner is "Player10" with total of 121 wins Then follows: "Player15" with 120 "Player20" with 85 "Player5" with 74

## Go

```
package pig
import (
"fmt"
"math/rand"
"time"
)
type (
PlayerID int
MessageID int
StrategyID int
PigGameData struct {
player PlayerID
turnCount int
turnRollCount int
turnScore int
lastRoll int
scores [2]int
verbose bool
}
)
const (
// Status messages
gameOver = iota
piggedOut
rolls
pointSpending
holds
turn
gameOverSummary
// Players
player1 = PlayerID(0)
player2 = PlayerID(1)
noPlayer = PlayerID(-1)
// Max score
maxScore = 100
// Strategies
scoreChaseStrat = iota
rollCountStrat
)
// Returns "s" if n != 1
func pluralS(n int) string {
if n != 1 {
return "s"
}
return ""
}
// Creates an intializes a new PigGameData structure, returns a *PigGameData
func New() *PigGameData {
return &PigGameData{0, 0, 0, 0, 0, [2]int{0, 0}, false}
}
// Create a status message for a given message ID
func (pg *PigGameData) statusMessage(id MessageID) string {
var msg string
switch id {
case gameOver:
msg = fmt.Sprintf("Game is over after %d turns", pg.turnCount)
case piggedOut:
msg = fmt.Sprintf(" Pigged out after %d roll%s", pg.turnRollCount, pluralS(pg.turnRollCount))
case rolls:
msg = fmt.Sprintf(" Rolls %d", pg.lastRoll)
case pointSpending:
msg = fmt.Sprintf(" %d point%s pending", pg.turnScore, pluralS(pg.turnScore))
case holds:
msg = fmt.Sprintf(" Holds after %d turns, adding %d points for a total of %d", pg.turnRollCount, pg.turnScore, pg.PlayerScore(noPlayer))
case turn:
msg = fmt.Sprintf("Player %d's turn:", pg.player+1)
case gameOverSummary:
msg = fmt.Sprintf("Game over after %d turns\n player 1 %d\n player 2 %d\n", pg.turnCount, pg.PlayerScore(player1), pg.PlayerScore(player2))
}
return msg
}
// Print a status message, if pg.Verbose is true
func (pg *PigGameData) PrintStatus(id MessageID) {
if pg.verbose {
fmt.Println(pg.statusMessage(id))
}
}
// Play a given strategy
func (pg *PigGameData) Play(id StrategyID) (keepPlaying bool) {
if pg.GameOver() {
pg.PrintStatus(gameOver)
return false
}
if pg.turnCount == 0 {
pg.player = player2
pg.NextPlayer()
}
pg.lastRoll = rand.Intn(6) + 1
pg.PrintStatus(rolls)
pg.turnRollCount++
if pg.lastRoll == 1 {
pg.PrintStatus(piggedOut)
pg.NextPlayer()
} else {
pg.turnScore += pg.lastRoll
pg.PrintStatus(pointSpending)
success := false
switch id {
case scoreChaseStrat:
success = pg.scoreChaseStrategy()
case rollCountStrat:
success = pg.rollCountStrategy()
}
if success {
pg.Hold()
pg.NextPlayer()
}
}
return true
}
// Get the score for a given player
func (pg *PigGameData) PlayerScore(id PlayerID) int {
if id == noPlayer {
return pg.scores[pg.player]
}
return pg.scores[id]
}
// Check if the game is over
func (pg *PigGameData) GameOver() bool {
return pg.scores[player1] >= maxScore || pg.scores[player2] >= maxScore
}
// Returns the Player ID if there is a winner, or -1
func (pg *PigGameData) Winner() PlayerID {
for index, score := range pg.scores {
if score >= maxScore {
return PlayerID(index)
}
}
return noPlayer
}
// Get the ID of the other player
func (pg *PigGameData) otherPlayer() PlayerID {
// 0 becomes 1, 1 becomes 0
return 1 - pg.player
}
func (pg *PigGameData) Hold() {
pg.scores[pg.player] += pg.turnScore
pg.PrintStatus(holds)
pg.turnRollCount, pg.turnScore = 0, 0
}
func (pg *PigGameData) NextPlayer() {
pg.turnCount++
pg.turnRollCount, pg.turnScore = 0, 0
pg.player = pg.otherPlayer()
pg.PrintStatus(turn)
}
func (pg *PigGameData) rollCountStrategy() bool {
return pg.turnRollCount >= 3
}
func (pg *PigGameData) scoreChaseStrategy() bool {
myScore := pg.PlayerScore(pg.player)
otherScore := pg.PlayerScore(pg.otherPlayer())
myPendingScore := pg.turnScore + myScore
return myPendingScore >= maxScore || myPendingScore > otherScore || pg.turnRollCount >= 5
}
// Run the simulation
func main() {
// Seed the random number generator
rand.Seed(time.Now().UnixNano())
// Start a new game
pg := New()
pg.verbose = true
strategies := [2]StrategyID{scoreChaseStrat, rollCountStrat}
// Play until game over
for !pg.GameOver() {
pg.Play(strategies[pg.player])
}
pg.PrintStatus(gameOverSummary)
}
```

Sample run, player one just tries to keep ahead, while player two always tries to take three rolls, no more.

Player 1's turn: Rolls 4 4 points pending Holds after 1 turns, adding 4 points for a total of 4 Player 2's turn: Rolls 4 4 points pending Rolls 1 Pigged out after 2 rolls Player 1's turn: Rolls 6 6 points pending Holds after 1 turns, adding 6 points for a total of 10 Player 2's turn: Rolls 6 6 points pending Rolls 3 9 points pending Rolls 4 13 points pending Holds after 3 turns, adding 13 points for a total of 13 Player 1's turn: Rolls 4 4 points pending Holds after 1 turns, adding 4 points for a total of 14 Player 2's turn: Rolls 4 4 points pending Rolls 6 10 points pending Rolls 1 Pigged out after 3 rolls Player 1's turn: Rolls 4 4 points pending Holds after 1 turns, adding 4 points for a total of 18 Player 2's turn: Rolls 3 3 points pending Rolls 4 7 points pending Rolls 2 9 points pending Holds after 3 turns, adding 9 points for a total of 22 Player 1's turn: Rolls 2 2 points pending Rolls 1 Pigged out after 2 rolls Player 2's turn: Rolls 1 Pigged out after 1 roll Player 1's turn: Rolls 4 4 points pending Rolls 1 Pigged out after 2 rolls Player 2's turn: Rolls 5 5 points pending Rolls 1 Pigged out after 2 rolls Player 1's turn: Rolls 5 5 points pending Holds after 1 turns, adding 5 points for a total of 23 Player 2's turn: Rolls 5 5 points pending Rolls 4 9 points pending Rolls 4 13 points pending Holds after 3 turns, adding 13 points for a total of 35 Player 1's turn: Rolls 1 Pigged out after 1 roll Player 2's turn: Rolls 3 3 points pending Rolls 3 6 points pending Rolls 2 8 points pending Holds after 3 turns, adding 8 points for a total of 43 Player 1's turn: Rolls 1 Pigged out after 1 roll Player 2's turn: Rolls 6 6 points pending Rolls 4 10 points pending Rolls 1 Pigged out after 3 rolls Player 1's turn: Rolls 4 4 points pending Rolls 1 Pigged out after 2 rolls Player 2's turn: Rolls 2 2 points pending Rolls 4 6 points pending Rolls 2 8 points pending Holds after 3 turns, adding 8 points for a total of 51 Player 1's turn: Rolls 1 Pigged out after 1 roll Player 2's turn: Rolls 4 4 points pending Rolls 2 6 points pending Rolls 3 9 points pending Holds after 3 turns, adding 9 points for a total of 60 Player 1's turn: Rolls 2 2 points pending Rolls 6 8 points pending Rolls 3 11 points pending Rolls 6 17 points pending Rolls 4 21 points pending Holds after 5 turns, adding 21 points for a total of 44 Player 2's turn: Rolls 4 4 points pending Rolls 2 6 points pending Rolls 3 9 points pending Holds after 3 turns, adding 9 points for a total of 69 Player 1's turn: Rolls 6 6 points pending Rolls 5 11 points pending Rolls 6 17 points pending Rolls 5 22 points pending Rolls 4 26 points pending Holds after 5 turns, adding 26 points for a total of 70 Player 2's turn: Rolls 5 5 points pending Rolls 4 9 points pending Rolls 2 11 points pending Holds after 3 turns, adding 11 points for a total of 80 Player 1's turn: Rolls 6 6 points pending Rolls 6 12 points pending Holds after 2 turns, adding 12 points for a total of 82 Player 2's turn: Rolls 2 2 points pending Rolls 3 5 points pending Rolls 3 8 points pending Holds after 3 turns, adding 8 points for a total of 88 Player 1's turn: Rolls 5 5 points pending Rolls 2 7 points pending Holds after 2 turns, adding 7 points for a total of 89 Player 2's turn: Rolls 3 3 points pending Rolls 2 5 points pending Rolls 5 10 points pending Holds after 3 turns, adding 10 points for a total of 98 Player 1's turn: Rolls 6 6 points pending Rolls 3 9 points pending Rolls 6 15 points pending Holds after 3 turns, adding 15 points for a total of 104 Player 2's turn: Game over after 32 turns player 1 104 player 2 98

## Haskell

Implemented 4 strategies:

- player1 always rolls until he gets 20 or more - player2 always rolls four times - player3 rolls three times until she gets more than 60 points, then she rolls until she gets 20 or more - player4 rolls 3/4 of the time, 1/4 he holds, but if he gets a score more than 75 he goes for the win

```
{-# LANGUAGE ViewPatterns #-}
module Main where
import System.Random (randomRIO)
import Text.Printf (printf)
data PInfo = PInfo { stack :: Int
, score :: Int
, rolls :: Int
, next :: Bool
, won :: Bool
, name :: String
}
type Strategy = [PInfo] -> IO ()
roll :: [PInfo] -> IO [PInfo]
roll (pinfo:xs) = do
face <- randomRIO (1, 6)
case (face, face + stack pinfo + score pinfo) of
(1,_) -> do
printf "%s rolled 1 - stack is being resetted\n\n" (name pinfo)
return $ pinfo { stack = 0, rolls = 0, next = True } : xs
(_,x) | x >= 100 -> do
printf "%s rolled %i - stack is now %i + score %i => %i - I won!\n" (name pinfo) face (face + stack pinfo) (score pinfo) x
return $ pinfo { won = True } : xs
(_,_) -> do
printf "%s rolled %i - stack is now %i\n" (name pinfo) face (face + (stack pinfo))
return $ pinfo { stack = face + (stack pinfo), rolls = 1 + (rolls pinfo) } : xs
hold :: [PInfo] -> IO [PInfo]
hold (pinfo:xs) = do
let score' = stack pinfo + score pinfo
printf "%s holds - score is now %i\n\n" (name pinfo) score'
return $ pinfo { score = score', stack = 0, rolls = 0, next = True } : xs
logic :: Strategy -> Strategy -> Strategy
logic _ _ ((won -> True) : xs) = return ()
logic _ strat2 (p@(next -> True) : xs) = strat2 $ xs ++ [p { next = False }]
logic strat1 _ (pinfo : xs) = strat1 (pinfo : xs)
strat1 :: Strategy
strat1 (pinfo:xs)
| stack pinfo < 20 = roll (pinfo:xs) >>= logic strat1 strat2
| otherwise = hold (pinfo:xs) >>= logic strat1 strat2
strat2 :: Strategy
strat2 (pinfo:xs)
| rolls pinfo < 4 = roll (pinfo:xs) >>= logic strat2 strat3
| otherwise = hold (pinfo:xs) >>= logic strat2 strat3
strat3 :: Strategy
strat3 (pinfo:xs)
| rolls pinfo < 3 && score pinfo < 60 = roll (pinfo:xs) >>= logic strat3 strat4
| stack pinfo < 20 = roll (pinfo:xs) >>= logic strat3 strat4
| otherwise = hold (pinfo:xs) >>= logic strat3 strat4
strat4 :: Strategy
strat4 (pinfo:xs) | score pinfo > 75 = roll (pinfo:xs) >>= logic strat4 strat1
strat4 (pinfo:xs) = do
chance <- randomRIO (0, 3) :: IO Int
case chance of
0 -> hold (pinfo:xs) >>= logic strat4 strat1
_ -> roll (pinfo:xs) >>= logic strat4 strat1
main :: IO ()
main = do
let pInfo = PInfo 0 0 0 False False ""
p1 = pInfo { name = "Peter" }
p2 = pInfo { name = "Mia" }
p3 = pInfo { name = "Liz" }
p4 = pInfo { name = "Stephen" }
strat1 [p1, p2, p3, p4]
```

Example output:

Peter rolled 5 - stack is now 5 Peter rolled 5 - stack is now 10 Peter rolled 4 - stack is now 14 Peter rolled 6 - stack is now 20 Peter holds - score is now 20 Mia rolled 4 - stack is now 4 Mia rolled 1 - stack is being resetted Liz rolled 4 - stack is now 4 Liz rolled 6 - stack is now 10 Liz rolled 4 - stack is now 14 Liz rolled 3 - stack is now 17 Liz rolled 3 - stack is now 20 Liz holds - score is now 20 Stephen rolled 6 - stack is now 6 Stephen rolled 1 - stack is being resetted Peter rolled 3 - stack is now 3 Peter rolled 6 - stack is now 9 ... Stephen rolled 1 - stack is being resetted Peter rolled 4 - stack is now 4 Peter rolled 2 - stack is now 6 Peter rolled 5 - stack is now 11 Peter rolled 2 - stack is now 13 Peter rolled 5 - stack is now 18 Peter rolled 6 - stack is now 24 Peter holds - score is now 87 Mia rolled 5 - stack is now 5 Mia rolled 1 - stack is being resetted Liz rolled 3 - stack is now 3 Liz rolled 1 - stack is being resetted Stephen rolled 6 - stack is now 6 Stephen rolled 2 - stack is now 8 Stephen rolled 5 - stack is now 13 Stephen rolled 4 - stack is now 17 Stephen holds - score is now 43 Peter rolled 4 - stack is now 4 Peter rolled 2 - stack is now 6 Peter rolled 5 - stack is now 11 Peter rolled 6 - stack is now 17 + score 87 => 104 - I won!

To test the distribution by yourself (in parallel):

```
-- add this to the top
import Control.Concurrent.ParallelIO.Global (parallel, stopGlobalPool)
import Data.List (sort, group)
-- replace "logic _ _ ((won -> True) : xs) = return ()" with
logic _ _ (p@(won -> True) : xs) = return $ name p
-- replace strat1 [p1, p2, p3, p4] in main with
let lists = replicate 100000 [p1, p2, p3, p4]
results <- parallel $ map strat1 lists
stopGlobalPool
print $ map length $ group $ sort results
-- replace type Strategy = [PInfo] -> IO () with
type Strategy = [PInfo] -> IO String
-- comment every printf in "roll" and "hold"
-- compile with
-- ghc FILENAME.hs -O2 -threaded -with-rtsopts="-N4" -o dice
```

Distribution:

Strat1 = 31878 => ~ 32% Strat2 = 21953 => ~ 22% Strat3 = 39022 => ~ 39% Strat4 = 7147 => ~ 7% out of 100 000 tests.

## J

This is a partial implementation of the current task.

This is a routine to estimate the value of rolling, given the current total of rolls which the player is building (left argument) and the current total of rolls which are a permanent part of the player's score (right argument).

If the expected value is positive, it's probably in the best interest of the player to take the roll. That said, a more sophisticated strategy might play cautiously when a player is sufficiently ahead of the other player(s).

```
pigval=:4 :0
(+/%#)(-x),}.(1+i.6)<.100-y+x
)
```

Examples:

```
10 pigval 90
_1.66667
```

If we have 10 points from our current rolls and have 90 permanent points, rolling again is a bad idea.

```
0 5 10 15 20 pigval"0/60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100
3.33333 3.33333 3.33333 3.33333 3.33333 3.33333 3.33333 3.16667 0
2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.33333 _0.833333 _5
1.66667 1.66667 1.66667 1.66667 1.66667 1.5 _1.66667 _5.83333 _10
0.833333 0.833333 0.833333 0.833333 0.666667 _2.5 _6.66667 _10.8333 _15
0 0 0 _0.166667 _3.33333 _7.5 _11.6667 _15.8333 _20
```

If we have 70 permanent points (or less) we should probably re-roll when our uncommitted rolls total to less than 20.

```
(1+i.19) ([,:1+i:~) +/ 0 < pigval"0/~ 1+i.100
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
98 97 96 95 93 92 91 90 89 87 86 85 84 82 81 80 78 77 75
```

This is a table of decision points. First row represents sum of our current uncommitted rolls. Second row represents the maximum permanent score where you should roll again with that number of uncommitted points, if we are using this estimation mechanism to choose our actions. Note that the first four columns here should have some obvious validity -- for example, if we have 96 permanent points and we have rolled 4 uncommitted points, we have won the game and we gain nothing from rerolling... Note also that this decision mechanism says we should never reroll if we have at least 20 uncommitted points.

## Java

This is a full implementation of pig dice with 4 built in bots. Their behavior can easily be modified and additional bots can be added as well.

This is the main file, Pigdice.java

```
import java.util.Scanner;
public class Pigdice {
public static void main(String[] args) {
Scanner scan = new Scanner(System.in);
int players = 0;
//Validate the input
while(true) {
//Get the number of players
System.out.println("Hello, welcome to Pig Dice the game! How many players? ");
if(scan.hasNextInt()) {
//Gotta be more than 0
int nextInt = scan.nextInt();
if(nextInt > 0) {
players = nextInt;
break;
}
}
else {
System.out.println("That wasn't an integer. Try again. \n");
scan.next();
}
}
System.out.println("Alright, starting with " + players + " players. \n");
//Start the game
play(players, scan);
scan.close();
}
public static void play(int group, Scanner scan) {
//Set the number of strategies available.
final int STRATEGIES = 5;
//Construct the dice- accepts an int as an arg for number of sides, but defaults to 6.
Dice dice = new Dice();
//Create an array of players and initialize them to defaults.
Player[] players = new Player[group];
for(int count = 0; count < group; count++) {
players[count] = new Player(count);
System.out.println("Player " + players[count].getNumber() + " is alive! ");
}
/*****Print strategy options here. Modify Player.java to add strategies. *****/
System.out.println("Each strategy is numbered 0 - " + (STRATEGIES - 1) + ". They are as follows: ");
System.out.println(">> Enter '0' for a human player. ");
System.out.println(">> Strategy 1 is a basic strategy where the AI rolls until 20+ points and holds unless the current max is 75+.");
System.out.println(">> Strategy 2 is a basic strategy where the AI, after 3 successful rolls, will randomly decide to roll or hold. ");
System.out.println(">> Strategy 3 is similar to strategy 2, except it's a little gutsier and will attempt 5 successful rolls. ");
System.out.println(">> Strategy 4 is like a mix between strategies 1 and 3. After turn points are >= 20 and while max points are still less than 75, it will randomly hold or roll. ");
//Get the strategy for each player
for(Player player : players) {
System.out.println("\nWhat strategy would you like player " + player.getNumber() + " to use? ");
//Validate the strategy is a real strategy.
while(true) {
if(scan.hasNextInt()) {
int nextInt = scan.nextInt();
if (nextInt < Strategy.STRATEGIES.length) {
player.setStrategy(Strategy.STRATEGIES[nextInt]);
break;
}
}
else {
System.out.println("That wasn't an option. Try again. ");
scan.next();
}
}
}
//Here is where the rules for the game are programmatically defined.
int max = 0;
while(max < 100) {
//Begin the round
for(Player player : players) {
System.out.println(">> Beginning Player " + player.getNumber() + "'s turn. ");
//Set the points for the turn to 0
player.setTurnPoints(0);
//Determine whether the player chooses to roll or hold.
player.setMax(max);
while(true) {
Move choice = player.choose();
if(choice == Move.ROLL) {
int roll = dice.roll();
System.out.println(" A " + roll + " was rolled. ");
player.setTurnPoints(player.getTurnPoints() + roll);
//Increment the player's built in iterator.
player.incIter();
//If the player rolls a 1, their turn is over and they gain 0 points this round.
if(roll == 1) {
player.setTurnPoints(0);
break;
}
}
//Check if the player held or not.
else {
System.out.println(" The player has held. ");
break;
}
}
//End the turn and add any accumulated points to the player's pool.
player.addPoints(player.getTurnPoints());
System.out.println(" Player " + player.getNumber() + "'s turn is now over. Their total is " + player.getPoints() + ". \n");
//Reset the player's built in iterator.
player.resetIter();
//Update the max score if necessary.
if(max < player.getPoints()) {
max = player.getPoints();
}
//If someone won, stop the game and announce the winner.
if(max >= 100) {
System.out.println("Player " + player.getNumber() + " wins with " + max + " points! End scores: ");
//Announce the final scores.
for(Player p : players) {
System.out.println("Player " + p.getNumber() + " had " + p.getPoints() + " points. ");
}
break;
}
}
}
}
}
```

This is the Player.java class file.

```
public class Player {
private int points = 0;
private int turnPoints = 0;
private Strategy strategy = null;
private int max = 0;
private int number;
private int iter = 0;
public Player(int val) {
number = val;
}
public int getPoints() {
return points;
}
public int getTurnPoints() {
return turnPoints;
}
public int getMax() {
return max;
}
public int getNumber() {
return number;
}
public int getIter() {
return iter;
}
public void addPoints(int val) {
points += val;
}
public void setTurnPoints(int val) {
turnPoints = val;
}
public void setStrategy(Strategy strat) {
strategy = strat;
}
public void setMax(int val) {
max = val;
}
public void setNumber(int val) {
number = val;
}
public void resetIter() {
iter = 0;
}
public void incIter() {
iter++;
}
public void aiIntro() {
System.out.println(" Player " + getNumber() + "'s turn points are " + getTurnPoints() + ". Their total is " + getPoints() + ". ");
System.out.println(" The max points any player currently has is " + getMax() + ". ");
}
public Move choose() {
return strategy.choose(this);
}
}
```

This is the Move.java class file.

```
public enum Move { ROLL, HOLD }
```

This is the Strategy.java class file.

```
import java.util.Scanner;
public interface Strategy {
Move choose(Player player);
static final Scanner str = new Scanner(System.in);
static final Dice die = new Dice(2);
static final int ROOF = 75;
static final int FLOOR = 20;
static final int BASEMENT = 10;
/*****MODIFY THIS AREA TO MODIFY THE STRATEGIES*****/
//Determine whether to roll or hold based on the strategy for this player.
public static final Strategy[] STRATEGIES = {
//Strategy 0 is a user-defined strategy
player -> {
System.out.println(" Your turn points are " + player.getTurnPoints() + ". Your total is " + player.getPoints() + ". ");
System.out.println(" The max points any player currently has is " + player.getMax() + ". (H)old or (R)oll?");
System.out.println(" Enter 'h' to hold and 'r' to roll. ");
while(true) {
String input = null;
if(str.hasNextLine()) {
input = str.nextLine();
}
if(input.contains("r")) {
return Move.ROLL;
}
else if(input.contains("h")) {
return Move.HOLD;
}
else {
System.out.println(" Enter an h or an r. \n");
System.out.println(input);
}
}
},
//Strategy 1 is a basic strategy where the AI rolls until 20+ points and holds unless the current max is 75+.
player -> {
player.aiIntro();
if(player.getTurnPoints() < FLOOR || player.getMax() >= ROOF) {
if(player.getTurnPoints() >= (100 - player.getPoints())) {
return Move.HOLD;
}
else {
return Move.ROLL;
}
}
else {
return Move.HOLD;
}
},
//Strategy 2 is a basic strategy where the AI, after 3 successful rolls, will randomly decide to roll or hold.
player -> {
player.aiIntro();
if(player.getPoints() == 0 && player.getTurnPoints() >= (BASEMENT / 2)) {
return Move.HOLD;
}
if(player.getIter() > 3) {
int roll = die.roll();
if(roll == 1) {
return Move.HOLD;
}
else {
return Move.ROLL;
}
}
else {
return Move.ROLL;
}
},
//Strategy 3 is similar to strategy 2, except it's a little gutsier and will attempt 5 successful rolls.
player -> {
player.aiIntro();
if(player.getIter() > 5) {
int roll = die.roll();
if(roll == 1) {
return Move.HOLD;
}
else {
return Move.ROLL;
}
}
else if(player.getPoints() < BASEMENT && player.getTurnPoints() > BASEMENT) {
return Move.HOLD;
}
else {
return Move.ROLL;
}
},
/*Strategy 4 is like a mix between strategies 1 and 3. After turn points are >= 20 and while max points are still less than 75, it will randomly hold or roll.
Unless their total is zero, in which case they'll hold at 10 points. */
player -> {
player.aiIntro();
if(player.getPoints() == 0 && player.getTurnPoints() >= (BASEMENT / 2)) {
return Move.HOLD;
}
else if(player.getTurnPoints() < FLOOR || player.getMax() >= ROOF) {
if(player.getTurnPoints() >= (100 - player.getPoints())) {
return Move.HOLD;
}
else {
return Move.ROLL;
}
}
else if(player.getTurnPoints() > FLOOR && player.getMax() <= ROOF) {
int roll = die.roll();
if(roll == 1) {
return Move.HOLD;
}
else {
return Move.ROLL;
}
}
else {
return Move.HOLD;
}
}
};
}
```

And finally, this is the Dice.java class file. It's pretty self-explanatory.

```
import java.util.Random;
public class Dice {
Random rand = new Random();
int sides;
Dice(int numSides) {
sides = numSides;
}
Dice() {
sides = 6;
}
int roll() {
return rand.nextInt(sides) + 1;
}
}
```

Here's a small sample output using only bots (even though it fully supports human players too). A full game simulation can obviously be MUCH longer.

Hello, welcome to Pig Dice the game! How many players? 4 Alright, starting with 4 players. Player 0 is alive! Player 1 is alive! Player 2 is alive! Player 3 is alive! Each strategy is numbered 0 - 4. They are as follows: >> Enter '0' for a human player. >> Strategy 1 is a basic strategy where the AI rolls until 20+ points and holds unless the current max is 75+. >> Strategy 2 is a basic strategy where the AI, after 3 successful rolls, will randomly decide to roll or hold. >> Strategy 3 is similar to strategy 2, except it's a little gutsier and will attempt 5 successful rolls. >> Strategy 4 is like a mix between strategies 1 and 3. After turn points are >= 20 and while max points are still less than 75, it will randomly hold or roll. What strategy would you like player 0 to use? 1 What strategy would you like player 1 to use? 2 What strategy would you like player 2 to use? 3 What strategy would you like player 3 to use? 4 >> Beginning Player 0's turn. Player 0's turn points are 0. Their total is 0. The max points any player currently has is 0. A 4 was rolled. Player 0's turn points are 4. Their total is 0. The max points any player currently has is 0. A 4 was rolled. Player 0's turn points are 8. Their total is 0. The max points any player currently has is 0. A 1 was rolled. Player 0's turn is now over. Their total is 0. >> Beginning Player 1's turn. ... ... *SNIP* ... ... Player 3 wins with 102 points! End scores: Player 0 had 20 points. Player 1 had 73 points. Player 2 had 66 points. Player 3 had 102 points.

## Julia

```
mutable struct Player
score::Int
ante::Int
wins::Int
losses::Int
strategy::Pair{String, Function}
end
randomchoicetostop(player, group) = rand(Bool)
variablerandtostop(player, group) = any(x -> x.score > player.score, group) ? rand() < 0.1 : rand(Bool)
overtwentystop(player, group) = player.ante > 20
over20unlesslosingstop(player, group) = player.ante > 20 && all(x -> x.score < 80, group)
const strategies = ("random choice to stop" => randomchoicetostop, "variable rand to stop" => variablerandtostop,
"roll to 20" => overtwentystop, "roll to 20 then if not losing stop" => over20unlesslosingstop)
const players = [Player(0, 0, 0, 0, s) for s in strategies]
const dice = collect(1:6)
function turn(player, verbose=false)
playernum = findfirst(p -> p == player, players)
scorewin() = for p in players if p == player p.wins += 1 else p.losses += 1 end; p.score = 0 end
player.ante = 0
while (r = rand(dice)) != 1
player.ante += r
verbose && println("Player $playernum rolls a $r.")
if player.score + player.ante >= 100
scorewin()
verbose && println("Player $playernum wins.\n")
return false
elseif player.strategy[2](player, players)
player.score += player.ante
verbose && println("Player $playernum holds and has a new score of $(player.score).")
return true
end
end
verbose && println("Player $playernum rolls a 1, so turn is over.")
true
end
function rungames(N)
for i in 1:N
verbose = (i == 3) ? true : false # do verbose if it's game number 3
curplayer = rand(collect(1:length(players)))
while turn(players[curplayer], verbose)
curplayer = curplayer >= length(players) ? 1 : curplayer + 1
end
end
results = sort([(p.wins/(p.wins + p.losses), p.strategy[1]) for p in players], rev=true)
println(" Strategy % of wins (N = $N)")
println("------------------------------------------------------------")
for pair in results
println(lpad(pair[2], 34), lpad(round(pair[1] * 100, digits=1), 18))
end
end
rungames(1000000)
```

- Output:

Player 3 rolls a 5. Player 3 rolls a 3. Player 3 rolls a 1, so turn is over. Player 4 rolls a 6. Player 4 rolls a 4. Player 4 rolls a 3. Player 4 rolls a 3. Player 4 rolls a 4. Player 4 rolls a 4. Player 4 holds and has a new score of 24. Player 1 rolls a 6. Player 1 rolls a 3. Player 1 holds and has a new score of 9. Player 2 rolls a 4. Player 2 rolls a 5. Player 2 holds and has a new score of 9. Player 3 rolls a 5. Player 3 rolls a 5. Player 3 rolls a 6. Player 3 rolls a 2. Player 3 rolls a 3. Player 3 holds and has a new score of 21. Player 4 rolls a 6. Player 4 rolls a 3. Player 4 rolls a 2. Player 4 rolls a 5. Player 4 rolls a 3. Player 4 rolls a 2. Player 4 holds and has a new score of 45. Player 1 rolls a 5. Player 1 holds and has a new score of 14. Player 2 rolls a 1, so turn is over. Player 3 rolls a 2. Player 3 rolls a 3. Player 3 rolls a 6. Player 3 rolls a 5. Player 3 rolls a 4. Player 3 rolls a 1, so turn is over. Player 4 rolls a 6. Player 4 rolls a 6. Player 4 rolls a 6. Player 4 rolls a 4. Player 4 holds and has a new score of 67. Player 1 rolls a 1, so turn is over. Player 2 rolls a 6. Player 2 rolls a 4. Player 2 rolls a 1, so turn is over. Player 3 rolls a 3. Player 3 rolls a 3. Player 3 rolls a 3. Player 3 rolls a 5. Player 3 rolls a 3. Player 3 rolls a 6. Player 3 holds and has a new score of 44. Player 4 rolls a 5. Player 4 rolls a 1, so turn is over. Player 1 rolls a 4. Player 1 rolls a 5. Player 1 holds and has a new score of 23. Player 2 rolls a 6. Player 2 rolls a 5. Player 2 rolls a 6. Player 2 rolls a 4. Player 2 holds and has a new score of 30. Player 3 rolls a 4. Player 3 rolls a 4. Player 3 rolls a 6. Player 3 rolls a 6. Player 3 rolls a 4. Player 3 holds and has a new score of 68. Player 4 rolls a 3. Player 4 rolls a 2. Player 4 rolls a 2. Player 4 rolls a 6. Player 4 rolls a 1, so turn is over. Player 1 rolls a 5. Player 1 holds and has a new score of 28. Player 2 rolls a 2. Player 2 rolls a 6. Player 2 rolls a 1, so turn is over. Player 3 rolls a 1, so turn is over. Player 4 rolls a 6. Player 4 rolls a 1, so turn is over. Player 1 rolls a 2. Player 1 rolls a 2. Player 1 holds and has a new score of 32. Player 2 rolls a 4. Player 2 rolls a 5. Player 2 rolls a 6. Player 2 rolls a 5. Player 2 rolls a 5. Player 2 rolls a 2. Player 2 rolls a 5. Player 2 rolls a 6. Player 2 rolls a 6. Player 2 rolls a 1, so turn is over. Player 3 rolls a 4. Player 3 rolls a 1, so turn is over. Player 4 rolls a 3. Player 4 rolls a 5. Player 4 rolls a 6. Player 4 rolls a 4. Player 4 rolls a 5. Player 4 holds and has a new score of 90. Player 1 rolls a 4. Player 1 holds and has a new score of 36. Player 2 rolls a 6. Player 2 rolls a 1, so turn is over. Player 3 rolls a 4. Player 3 rolls a 2. Player 3 rolls a 3. Player 3 rolls a 1, so turn is over. Player 4 rolls a 1, so turn is over. Player 1 rolls a 6. Player 1 rolls a 5. Player 1 holds and has a new score of 47. Player 2 rolls a 1, so turn is over. Player 3 rolls a 2. Player 3 rolls a 1, so turn is over. Player 4 rolls a 5. Player 4 rolls a 5. Player 4 wins. Strategy % of wins (N = 1000000) ------------------------------------------------------------ roll to 20 then if not losing stop 45.8 roll to 20 36.9 variable rand to stop 15.8 random choice to stop 1.5

## M2000 Interpreter

Strategy like ADA, look if get 8 or more points and then look if other sum is lower from 100 from a min difference, and if it is true the choose Hold, else continue until win or dice=1.

This is version 2.

We play the same strategy pair two times, second in reverse Even for 20+20 games strategy 12, 20 wins 8, 10

```
Module GamePig (games, strategy1, strategy2) {
Print "Game of Pig"
win1=0
win2=0
While games {
games--
dice=-1
res$=""
Player1points=0
Player1sum=0
Player2points=0
Player2sum=0
HaveWin=False
score()
\\ for simulation
simulate$=String$("R", 500)
Keyboard simulate$
\\ end simulation
while res$<>"Q" {
Print "Player 1 turn"
PlayerTurn(&Player1points, &player1sum, player2sum, ! strategy1)
if res$="Q" then exit
Player1sum+=Player1points
Score()
Print "Player 2 turn"
PlayerTurn(&Player2points,&player2sum, player1sum, ! strategy2)
if res$="Q" then exit
Player2sum+=Player2points
Score()
}
If HaveWin then {
Score()
If Player1Sum>Player2sum then {
Print "Player 1 Win"
win1++
} Else Print "Player 2 Win" : win2++
}
}
\\ use stack as FIFO
If win1>win2 Then {
Data "Player 1 Win", win1,win2, array(strategy1,0), array(strategy1,1)
} Else {
Data "Player 2 Win", win2,win1, array(strategy2,0), array(strategy2,1)
}
Sub Rolling()
dice=random(1,6)
Print "dice=";dice
End Sub
Sub PlayOrQuit()
Print "R - Roling Q-Quit"
Repeat {
res$=Ucase$(Key$)
} Until Instr("RQ", res$)>0
End Sub
Sub PlayAgain()
Print "R - Roling H - Hold Q-Quit"
Repeat {
res$=Ucase$(Key$)
} Until Instr("RHQ", res$)>0
End Sub
Sub PlayerTurn(&playerpoints, &sum, othersum, Max_Points, Min_difference)
PlayOrQuit()
If res$="Q" then Exit Sub
playerpoints=0
Rolling()
While dice<>1 and res$="R" {
playerpoints+=dice
if dice>1 and playerpoints+sum>100 then {
sum+=playerpoints
HaveWin=True
res$="Q"
} Else {
if playerpoints>=Max_Points Then If 100-othersum>Min_difference Then res$="H" : exit
PlayAgain()
if res$="R" then Rolling()
}
}
if dice=1 then playerpoints=0
End Sub
Sub Score()
Print "Player1 points="; Player1sum
Print "Player2 points="; Player2sum
End Sub
}
Flush
GamePig 20, (8,10), (12, 20)
GamePig 20, (12, 20), (8,10)
Print "Results"
While not Empty {
Read WhoWin$, winA,winb, Max_Points, Min_difference
Print WhoWin$, winA;">";winb, Max_Points, Min_difference
}
```

## Nim

We use the same strategies as D (and C++) but the code is somewhat different. To represent the players with their different strategies, we don’t use a player base class with subclasses for each strategy but a single player object with a “strategy” field. To dispatch, we use a "case" statement rather than method overriding. This is only a matter of preference as Nim allows inheritance and method overriding.

We also describe the list of players as a linked ring of player objects. The code is somewhat more pleasant this way.

Except for some small differences in the formatting, the output is similar to that of D (or C++) implementation.

```
import random, strformat
const MaxPoints = 100
type
Move {.pure.} = enum Roll, Hold
Strategy {.pure.} = enum Rand, Q2Win, AL20, AL20T
# Player description.
Player = ref object
num: Natural
currentScore: Natural
roundScore: Natural
strategy: Strategy
next: Player
# Player list managed as a singly linked ring.
PlayerList = object
count: Natural
head, tail: Player
proc addPlayer(playerList: var PlayerList; strategy: Strategy) =
## Add a player with given strategy.
inc playerList.count
let newPlayer = Player(num: playerList.count, strategy: strategy)
if playerList.head.isNil:
playerList.head = newPlayer
else:
playerList.tail.next = newPlayer
playerList.tail = newPlayer
newPlayer.next = playerList.head
iterator items(playerList: PlayerList): Player =
## Yield the successive players of a player list.
var player = playerList.head
yield player
while player != playerList.tail:
player = player.next
yield player
proc getMove(player: Player): Move =
## Get the move for the given player.
if player.roundScore + player.currentScore >= MaxPoints: return Hold
case player.strategy
of Strategy.Rand:
result = if rand(1) == 0: Roll
elif player.roundScore > 0: Hold
else: Roll
of Strategy.Q2Win:
let q = MaxPoints - player.currentScore
result = if q < 6 or player.roundScore < q div 4: Roll
else: Hold
of Strategy.AL20:
result = if player.roundScore < 20: Roll
else: Hold
of Strategy.AL20T:
let d = 5 * player.roundScore
result = if player.roundScore < 20 and d < rand(99): Roll
else: Hold
randomize()
# Create player list.
var playerList = PlayerList()
for strategy in Strategy.low..Strategy.high:
playerList.addPlayer(strategy)
var endGame = false
var player = playerList.head
while not endGame:
case player.getMove()
of Roll:
let die = rand(1..6)
if die == 1:
echo &"Player {player.num} rolled {die} Current score: {player.currentScore:3}\n"
player.roundScore = 0
player = player.next
continue
inc player.roundScore, die
echo &"Player {player.num} rolled {die} Round score: {player.roundScore:3}"
of Hold:
inc player.currentScore, player.roundScore
echo &"Player {player.num} holds Current score: {player.currentScore:3}\n"
if player.currentScore >= MaxPoints:
endGame = true
else:
player.roundScore = 0
player = player.next
for player in playerList:
let stratStr = &"({player.strategy}):"
echo &"Player {player.num} {stratStr:8} {player.currentScore:3}"
```

- Output:

Player 1 rolled 2 Round score: 2 Player 1 rolled 5 Round score: 7 Player 1 holds Current score: 7 Player 2 rolled 2 Round score: 2 Player 2 rolled 6 Round score: 8 Player 2 rolled 4 Round score: 12 Player 2 rolled 4 Round score: 16 Player 2 rolled 4 Round score: 20 Player 2 rolled 1 Current score: 0 Player 3 rolled 3 Round score: 3 Player 3 rolled 1 Current score: 0 Player 4 rolled 6 Round score: 6 Player 4 holds Current score: 6 Player 1 rolled 1 Current score: 7 Player 2 rolled 6 Round score: 6 Player 2 rolled 6 Round score: 12 Player 2 rolled 1 Current score: 0 Player 3 rolled 3 Round score: 3 Player 3 rolled 5 Round score: 8 Player 3 rolled 2 Round score: 10 Player 3 rolled 4 Round score: 14 Player 3 rolled 2 Round score: 16 Player 3 rolled 4 Round score: 20 Player 3 holds Current score: 20 Player 4 rolled 1 Current score: 6 Player 1 rolled 4 Round score: 4 Player 1 rolled 3 Round score: 7 Player 1 holds Current score: 14 Player 2 rolled 3 Round score: 3 Player 2 rolled 4 Round score: 7 Player 2 rolled 3 Round score: 10 Player 2 rolled 2 Round score: 12 Player 2 rolled 6 Round score: 18 Player 2 rolled 4 Round score: 22 Player 2 rolled 5 Round score: 27 Player 2 holds Current score: 27 Player 3 rolled 3 Round score: 3 Player 3 rolled 4 Round score: 7 Player 3 rolled 1 Current score: 20 Player 4 rolled 5 Round score: 5 Player 4 rolled 5 Round score: 10 Player 4 rolled 1 Current score: 6 Player 1 rolled 2 Round score: 2 Player 1 rolled 3 Round score: 5 Player 1 holds Current score: 19 Player 2 rolled 2 Round score: 2 Player 2 rolled 2 Round score: 4 Player 2 rolled 3 Round score: 7 Player 2 rolled 2 Round score: 9 Player 2 rolled 5 Round score: 14 Player 2 rolled 4 Round score: 18 Player 2 holds Current score: 45 Player 3 rolled 3 Round score: 3 Player 3 rolled 5 Round score: 8 Player 3 rolled 4 Round score: 12 Player 3 rolled 4 Round score: 16 Player 3 rolled 3 Round score: 19 Player 3 rolled 1 Current score: 20 Player 4 rolled 3 Round score: 3 Player 4 rolled 6 Round score: 9 Player 4 holds Current score: 15 Player 1 rolled 6 Round score: 6 Player 1 holds Current score: 25 Player 2 rolled 6 Round score: 6 Player 2 rolled 3 Round score: 9 Player 2 rolled 3 Round score: 12 Player 2 rolled 6 Round score: 18 Player 2 holds Current score: 63 Player 3 rolled 2 Round score: 2 Player 3 rolled 4 Round score: 6 Player 3 rolled 1 Current score: 20 Player 4 rolled 4 Round score: 4 Player 4 rolled 4 Round score: 8 Player 4 holds Current score: 23 Player 1 rolled 4 Round score: 4 Player 1 holds Current score: 29 Player 2 rolled 3 Round score: 3 Player 2 rolled 6 Round score: 9 Player 2 holds Current score: 72 Player 3 rolled 5 Round score: 5 Player 3 rolled 5 Round score: 10 Player 3 rolled 6 Round score: 16 Player 3 rolled 1 Current score: 20 Player 4 rolled 2 Round score: 2 Player 4 rolled 3 Round score: 5 Player 4 rolled 2 Round score: 7 Player 4 holds Current score: 30 Player 1 rolled 4 Round score: 4 Player 1 holds Current score: 33 Player 2 rolled 1 Current score: 72 Player 3 rolled 6 Round score: 6 Player 3 rolled 1 Current score: 20 Player 4 rolled 2 Round score: 2 Player 4 rolled 1 Current score: 30 Player 1 rolled 3 Round score: 3 Player 1 rolled 3 Round score: 6 Player 1 rolled 5 Round score: 11 Player 1 rolled 5 Round score: 16 Player 1 holds Current score: 49 Player 2 rolled 2 Round score: 2 Player 2 rolled 4 Round score: 6 Player 2 rolled 4 Round score: 10 Player 2 holds Current score: 82 Player 3 rolled 2 Round score: 2 Player 3 rolled 6 Round score: 8 Player 3 rolled 1 Current score: 20 Player 4 rolled 6 Round score: 6 Player 4 holds Current score: 36 Player 1 rolled 2 Round score: 2 Player 1 holds Current score: 51 Player 2 rolled 5 Round score: 5 Player 2 holds Current score: 87 Player 3 rolled 1 Current score: 20 Player 4 rolled 6 Round score: 6 Player 4 rolled 3 Round score: 9 Player 4 holds Current score: 45 Player 1 rolled 5 Round score: 5 Player 1 holds Current score: 56 Player 2 rolled 2 Round score: 2 Player 2 rolled 1 Current score: 87 Player 3 rolled 2 Round score: 2 Player 3 rolled 5 Round score: 7 Player 3 rolled 5 Round score: 12 Player 3 rolled 3 Round score: 15 Player 3 rolled 5 Round score: 20 Player 3 holds Current score: 40 Player 4 rolled 5 Round score: 5 Player 4 rolled 6 Round score: 11 Player 4 rolled 2 Round score: 13 Player 4 rolled 4 Round score: 17 Player 4 rolled 3 Round score: 20 Player 4 holds Current score: 65 Player 1 rolled 6 Round score: 6 Player 1 holds Current score: 62 Player 2 rolled 4 Round score: 4 Player 2 holds Current score: 91 Player 3 rolled 5 Round score: 5 Player 3 rolled 5 Round score: 10 Player 3 rolled 4 Round score: 14 Player 3 rolled 6 Round score: 20 Player 3 holds Current score: 60 Player 4 rolled 4 Round score: 4 Player 4 rolled 4 Round score: 8 Player 4 holds Current score: 73 Player 1 rolled 3 Round score: 3 Player 1 rolled 2 Round score: 5 Player 1 rolled 6 Round score: 11 Player 1 rolled 6 Round score: 17 Player 1 holds Current score: 79 Player 2 rolled 5 Round score: 5 Player 2 holds Current score: 96 Player 3 rolled 4 Round score: 4 Player 3 rolled 6 Round score: 10 Player 3 rolled 4 Round score: 14 Player 3 rolled 2 Round score: 16 Player 3 rolled 3 Round score: 19 Player 3 rolled 4 Round score: 23 Player 3 holds Current score: 83 Player 4 rolled 3 Round score: 3 Player 4 rolled 4 Round score: 7 Player 4 rolled 2 Round score: 9 Player 4 holds Current score: 82 Player 1 rolled 1 Current score: 79 Player 2 rolled 3 Round score: 3 Player 2 rolled 1 Current score: 96 Player 3 rolled 1 Current score: 83 Player 4 rolled 6 Round score: 6 Player 4 holds Current score: 88 Player 1 rolled 4 Round score: 4 Player 1 rolled 3 Round score: 7 Player 1 holds Current score: 86 Player 2 rolled 2 Round score: 2 Player 2 rolled 1 Current score: 96 Player 3 rolled 2 Round score: 2 Player 3 rolled 2 Round score: 4 Player 3 rolled 3 Round score: 7 Player 3 rolled 4 Round score: 11 Player 3 rolled 1 Current score: 83 Player 4 rolled 1 Current score: 88 Player 1 rolled 6 Round score: 6 Player 1 holds Current score: 92 Player 2 rolled 4 Round score: 4 Player 2 holds Current score: 100 Player 1 (Rand): 92 Player 2 (Q2Win): 100 Player 3 (AL20): 83 Player 4 (AL20T): 88

## Perl

```
my $GOAL = 100;
package Player;
sub new {
my ($class,$strategy) = @_;
my $self = {
score => 0,
rolls => 0,
ante => 0,
strategy => $strategy || sub { 0 } # as fallback, always roll again
};
return bless($self, $class);
}
sub turn {
my ($P) = @_;
$P->{rolls} = 0;
$P->{ante} = 0;
my $done = 0;
do {
my $v = 1 + int rand 6;
$P->{rolls}++;
if ($v == 1) {
$P->{ante} = 0;
$done = 1;
} else {
$P->{ante} += $v;
}
$done = 1 if $P->{score} + $P->{ante} >= $GOAL or $P->{strategy}();
} until $done;
$P->{score} += $P->{ante};
}
package Main;
# default, go-for-broke, always roll again
$players[0] = Player->new;
# try to roll 5 times but no more per turn
$players[1] = Player->new( sub { $players[1]->{rolls} >= 5 } );
# try to accumulate at least 20 points per turn
@players[2] = Player->new( sub { $players[2]->{ante} > 20 } );
# random but 90% chance of rolling again
$players[3] = Player->new( sub { rand() < 0.1 } );
# random but more conservative as approaches goal
$players[4] = Player->new( sub { rand() < ( $GOAL - $players[4]->{score} ) * .6 / $GOAL } );
for (1 .. shift || 100) {
my $player = -1;
do {
$player++;
@players[$player % @players]->turn;
} until $players[$player % @players]->{score} >= $GOAL;
$wins[$player % @players]++;
printf "%5d", $players[$_]->{score} for 0..$#players; print "\n";
$players[$_]->{score} = 0 for 0..$#players; # reset scores for next game
}
print ' ----' x @players, "\n";
printf "%5d", $_ for @wins; print "\n";
```

Distribution of wins after 10000 games:

- Output:

929 3518 3462 1715 376

## Phix

with javascript_semantics constant maxScore = 100 function one_game(sequence strategies) integer numPlayers = length(strategies), points = 0, -- points accumulated in current turn, 0=swap turn rolls = 0, -- number of rolls player = rand(numPlayers) -- start with a random player sequence scores = repeat(0,numPlayers) while true do integer roll = rand(6) if roll=1 then points = 0 -- swap turn else points += roll if scores[player]+points>=maxScore then exit end if rolls += 1 integer play = strategies[player] if not play(scores,player,points,rolls) then scores[player] += points points = 0 -- swap turn end if end if if points=0 then player = mod(player,numPlayers) + 1 rolls = 0 end if end while return player end function -- each strategy returns true to roll, false to hold. function strategy1(sequence /*scores*/, integer /*player*/, points, /*rolls*/) return points<20 -- roll until 20 or more end function function strategy2(sequence /*scores*/, integer /*player*/, /*points*/, rolls) return rolls<4 -- roll 4 times end function function strategy3(sequence scores, integer player, points, /*rolls*/) -- roll until 20 or score>80 return points<20 or scores[player]+points>80 end function function strategy4(sequence scores, integer player, points, /*rolls*/) -- roll until 20 or any player has >71 for i=1 to length(scores) do if scores[i]>71 then return true end if end for return points<20 end function constant strategies = {strategy1,strategy2,strategy3,strategy4}, numStrategies = length(strategies), numOpponents = numStrategies-1 -- play each strategy 1000 times against all combinations of other strategies for s=1 to numStrategies do integer strategy = strategies[s], mask = power(2,numOpponents)-1, wins = 0 sequence opponents = deep_copy(strategies) opponents[s..s] = {} -- (ie all others only) for m=1 to mask do -- (all possible bit settings, bar 0, eg/ie 1..7) sequence game = {strategy} for g=1 to numOpponents do if and_bits(m,power(2,g-1)) then game &= opponents[g] end if end for for n=1 to 1000 do wins += one_game(game)=1 end for end for printf(1,"strategy %d: %d wins\n",{s,wins}) end for

- Output:

strategy 1: 2784 wins strategy 2: 2065 wins strategy 3: 2885 wins strategy 4: 3135 wins

Setting player to 1 at the start of one_game shows the advantage of going first, which (not surprisingly) appears to apply fairly evenly to all strategies.

strategy 1: 3053 wins strategy 2: 2293 wins strategy 3: 3170 wins strategy 4: 3457 wins

## Python

There are now three player strategies:

- A random player RandPlay that rolls randomly.
- The RollTo20 player that rolls if that rounds score is less than 20.
- The Desparat player that plays like RollTo20 until any player gets within 20 of winning whereupon it desperately keeps rolling.

Details of the RollTo20 and Desparat strategy came from a paper referenced from here.

Player instances are passed full (single) game statistics and so can be more complex in their behaviour.

Notice how Pythons Counter class from the standard library is used to collate the winning statistics near the end of the program without much additional code.

```
#!/usr/bin/python3
'''
See: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pig_(dice)
This program scores, throws the dice, and plays for an N player game of Pig.
'''
from random import randint
from collections import namedtuple
import random
from pprint import pprint as pp
from collections import Counter
playercount = 2
maxscore = 100
maxgames = 100000
Game = namedtuple('Game', 'players, maxscore, rounds')
Round = namedtuple('Round', 'who, start, scores, safe')
class Player():
def __init__(self, player_index):
self.player_index = player_index
def __repr__(self):
return '%s(%i)' % (self.__class__.__name__, self.player_index)
def __call__(self, safescore, scores, game):
'Returns boolean True to roll again'
pass
class RandPlay(Player):
def __call__(self, safe, scores, game):
'Returns random boolean choice of whether to roll again'
return bool(random.randint(0, 1))
class RollTo20(Player):
def __call__(self, safe, scores, game):
'Roll again if this rounds score < 20'
return (((sum(scores) + safe[self.player_index]) < maxscore) # Haven't won yet
and(sum(scores) < 20)) # Not at 20 this round
class Desparat(Player):
def __call__(self, safe, scores, game):
'Roll again if this rounds score < 20 or someone is within 20 of winning'
return (((sum(scores) + safe[self.player_index]) < maxscore) # Haven't won yet
and( (sum(scores) < 20) # Not at 20 this round
or max(safe) >= (maxscore - 20))) # Someone's close
def game__str__(self):
'Pretty printer for Game class'
return ("Game(players=%r, maxscore=%i,\n rounds=[\n %s\n ])"
% (self.players, self.maxscore,
',\n '.join(repr(round) for round in self.rounds)))
Game.__str__ = game__str__
def winningorder(players, safescores):
'Return (players in winning order, their scores)'
return tuple(zip(*sorted(zip(players, safescores),
key=lambda x: x[1], reverse=True)))
def playpig(game):
'''
Plays the game of pig returning the players in winning order
and their scores whilst updating argument game with the details of play.
'''
players, maxscore, rounds = game
playercount = len(players)
safescore = [0] * playercount # Safe scores for each player
player = 0 # Who plays this round
scores=[] # Individual scores this round
while max(safescore) < maxscore:
startscore = safescore[player]
rolling = players[player](safescore, scores, game)
if rolling:
rolled = randint(1, 6)
scores.append(rolled)
if rolled == 1:
# Bust!
round = Round(who=players[player],
start=startscore,
scores=scores,
safe=safescore[player])
rounds.append(round)
scores, player = [], (player + 1) % playercount
else:
# Stick
safescore[player] += sum(scores)
round = Round(who=players[player],
start=startscore,
scores=scores,
safe=safescore[player])
rounds.append(round)
if safescore[player] >= maxscore:
break
scores, player = [], (player + 1) % playercount
# return players in winning order and all scores
return winningorder(players, safescore)
if __name__ == '__main__':
game = Game(players=tuple(RandPlay(i) for i in range(playercount)),
maxscore=20,
rounds=[])
print('ONE GAME')
print('Winning order: %r; Respective scores: %r\n' % playpig(game))
print(game)
game = Game(players=tuple(RandPlay(i) for i in range(playercount)),
maxscore=maxscore,
rounds=[])
algos = (RollTo20, RandPlay, Desparat)
print('\n\nMULTIPLE STATISTICS using %r\n for %i GAMES'
% (', '.join(p.__name__ for p in algos), maxgames,))
winners = Counter(repr(playpig(game._replace(players=tuple(random.choice(algos)(i)
for i in range(playercount)),
rounds=[]))[0])
for i in range(maxgames))
print(' Players(position) winning on left; occurrences on right:\n %s'
% ',\n '.join(str(w) for w in winners.most_common()))
```

- Output:

First is shown the game data for a single game with reduced maxscore then statistics on multiple games.

Desparat beats RollTo20 beats RandPlay on average. It doesn't matter if they play first or not when playing against another strategies. When both players use the same strategies there may be an advantage in going first.

ONE GAME Winner: RandPlay(0); Scores: [24, 12] Game(players=(RandPlay(0), RandPlay(1)), maxscore=20, rounds=[ Round(who=RandPlay(0), start=0, scores=[], safe=0), Round(who=RandPlay(1), start=0, scores=[6, 2], safe=8), Round(who=RandPlay(0), start=0, scores=[], safe=0), Round(who=RandPlay(1), start=8, scores=[], safe=8), Round(who=RandPlay(0), start=0, scores=[], safe=0), Round(who=RandPlay(1), start=8, scores=[4], safe=12), Round(who=RandPlay(0), start=0, scores=[4, 5, 6, 4, 5], safe=24) ]) MULTIPLE STATISTICS using 'RollTo20, RandPlay, Desparat' for 100000 GAMES Players(position) winning on left; occurrences on right: ('(Desparat(1), RandPlay(0))', 11152), ('(RollTo20(1), RandPlay(0))', 11114), ('(Desparat(0), RandPlay(1))', 11072), ('(RollTo20(0), RandPlay(1))', 11007), ('(Desparat(0), RollTo20(1))', 6405), ('(RollTo20(0), RollTo20(1))', 6013), ('(Desparat(0), Desparat(1))', 5820), ('(Desparat(1), RollTo20(0))', 5772), ('(RandPlay(0), RandPlay(1))', 5667), ('(RandPlay(1), RandPlay(0))', 5481), ('(RollTo20(0), Desparat(1))', 5385), ('(Desparat(1), Desparat(0))', 5235), ('(RollTo20(1), RollTo20(0))', 5090), ('(RollTo20(1), Desparat(0))', 4625), ('(RandPlay(0), Desparat(1))', 59), ('(RandPlay(1), RollTo20(0))', 37), ('(RandPlay(1), Desparat(0))', 35), ('(RandPlay(0), RollTo20(1))', 31)

Note: *('(RollTo20(1), RandPlay(0))', 25063)* means that the algorithm RollTo20 playing as the second player, (1) wins against algorithm RandPlay of the first player, (0) and wins 25063 times. (Zero based indexing so the first player is player(0)).

## Racket

Same as Pig_the_dice_game#Racket, with three strategy makers, and simulation code for trying out strategies.

```
#lang racket
(define (pig-the-dice #:print? [print? #t] . players)
(define prn (if print? (λ xs (apply printf xs) (flush-output)) void))
(define names (for/list ([p players] [n (in-naturals 1)]) n))
(define points (for/list ([p players]) (box 0)))
(with-handlers ([(negate exn?) identity])
(for ([nm (in-cycle names)] [tp (in-cycle points)] [pl (in-cycle players)])
(prn (string-join (for/list ([n names] [p points])
(format "Player ~a, ~a points" n (unbox p)))
"; " #:before-first "Status: " #:after-last ".\n"))
(let turn ([p 0] [n 0])
(prn "Player ~a, round #~a, [R]oll or [P]ass? " nm (+ 1 n))
(define roll? (pl (unbox tp) p n))
(unless (eq? pl human) (prn "~a\n" (if roll? 'R 'P)))
(if (not roll?) (set-box! tp (+ (unbox tp) p))
(let ([r (+ 1 (random 6))])
(prn " Dice roll: ~s => " r)
(if (= r 1) (prn "turn lost\n")
(let ([p (+ p r)]) (prn "~a points\n" p) (turn p (+ 1 n)))))))
(prn "--------------------\n")
(when (<= 100 (unbox tp)) (prn "Player ~a wins!\n" nm) (raise nm)))))
(define (human total-points turn-points round#)
(case (string->symbol (car (regexp-match #px"[A-Za-z]?" (read-line))))
[(R r) #t] [(P p) #f] [else (human total-points turn-points round#)]))
;; Always do N rolls
(define ((n-rounds n) total-points turn-points round#) (< round# n))
;; Roll until a given number of points
(define ((n-points n) total-points turn-points round#) (< turn-points n))
;; Random decision
(define ((n-random n) total-points turn-points round#) (zero? (random n)))
(define (n-runs n . players)
(define v (make-vector (length players) 0))
(for ([i n])
(define p (sub1 (apply pig-the-dice #:print? #f players)))
(vector-set! v p (add1 (vector-ref v p))))
(for ([wins v] [i (in-naturals 1)])
(printf "Player ~a: ~a%\n" i (round (/ wins n 1/100)))))
;; Things to try
;; (n-runs 1000 (n-random 2) (n-random 3) (n-random 4))
;; (n-runs 1000 (n-rounds 5) (n-points 24))
;; (n-runs 1000 (n-rounds 5) (n-random 2))
```

The following example run demonstrates the output from

```
(pig-the-dice #:print? #t (n-points 12) (n-rounds 4))
```

Where `n-points`

is a strategy where the user continues to roll until the specified number of points is gained and `n-rounds`

is a strategy where the users rolls the specified number of times each round.

Status: Player 1, 0 points; Player 2, 0 points. Player 1, round #1, [R]oll or [P]ass? R Dice roll: 4 => 4 points Player 1, round #2, [R]oll or [P]ass? R Dice roll: 5 => 9 points Player 1, round #3, [R]oll or [P]ass? R Dice roll: 2 => 11 points Player 1, round #4, [R]oll or [P]ass? R Dice roll: 5 => 16 points Player 1, round #5, [R]oll or [P]ass? P -------------------- Status: Player 1, 16 points; Player 2, 0 points. Player 2, round #1, [R]oll or [P]ass? R Dice roll: 6 => 6 points Player 2, round #2, [R]oll or [P]ass? R Dice roll: 6 => 12 points Player 2, round #3, [R]oll or [P]ass? R Dice roll: 3 => 15 points Player 2, round #4, [R]oll or [P]ass? R Dice roll: 5 => 20 points Player 2, round #5, [R]oll or [P]ass? P -------------------- Status: Player 1, 16 points; Player 2, 20 points. Player 1, round #1, [R]oll or [P]ass? R Dice roll: 2 => 2 points Player 1, round #2, [R]oll or [P]ass? R Dice roll: 2 => 4 points Player 1, round #3, [R]oll or [P]ass? R Dice roll: 6 => 10 points Player 1, round #4, [R]oll or [P]ass? R Dice roll: 6 => 16 points Player 1, round #5, [R]oll or [P]ass? P -------------------- Status: Player 1, 32 points; Player 2, 20 points. Player 2, round #1, [R]oll or [P]ass? R Dice roll: 5 => 5 points Player 2, round #2, [R]oll or [P]ass? R Dice roll: 2 => 7 points Player 2, round #3, [R]oll or [P]ass? R Dice roll: 2 => 9 points Player 2, round #4, [R]oll or [P]ass? R Dice roll: 3 => 12 points Player 2, round #5, [R]oll or [P]ass? P -------------------- Status: Player 1, 32 points; Player 2, 32 points. Player 1, round #1, [R]oll or [P]ass? R Dice roll: 6 => 6 points Player 1, round #2, [R]oll or [P]ass? R Dice roll: 5 => 11 points Player 1, round #3, [R]oll or [P]ass? R Dice roll: 2 => 13 points Player 1, round #4, [R]oll or [P]ass? P -------------------- Status: Player 1, 45 points; Player 2, 32 points. Player 2, round #1, [R]oll or [P]ass? R Dice roll: 3 => 3 points Player 2, round #2, [R]oll or [P]ass? R Dice roll: 1 => turn lost -------------------- Status: Player 1, 45 points; Player 2, 32 points. Player 1, round #1, [R]oll or [P]ass? R Dice roll: 2 => 2 points Player 1, round #2, [R]oll or [P]ass? R Dice roll: 4 => 6 points Player 1, round #3, [R]oll or [P]ass? R Dice roll: 1 => turn lost -------------------- Status: Player 1, 45 points; Player 2, 32 points. Player 2, round #1, [R]oll or [P]ass? R Dice roll: 5 => 5 points Player 2, round #2, [R]oll or [P]ass? R Dice roll: 2 => 7 points Player 2, round #3, [R]oll or [P]ass? R Dice roll: 6 => 13 points Player 2, round #4, [R]oll or [P]ass? R Dice roll: 2 => 15 points Player 2, round #5, [R]oll or [P]ass? P -------------------- Status: Player 1, 45 points; Player 2, 47 points. Player 1, round #1, [R]oll or [P]ass? R Dice roll: 1 => turn lost -------------------- Status: Player 1, 45 points; Player 2, 47 points. Player 2, round #1, [R]oll or [P]ass? R Dice roll: 1 => turn lost -------------------- Status: Player 1, 45 points; Player 2, 47 points. Player 1, round #1, [R]oll or [P]ass? R Dice roll: 2 => 2 points Player 1, round #2, [R]oll or [P]ass? R Dice roll: 5 => 7 points Player 1, round #3, [R]oll or [P]ass? R Dice roll: 1 => turn lost -------------------- Status: Player 1, 45 points; Player 2, 47 points. Player 2, round #1, [R]oll or [P]ass? R Dice roll: 5 => 5 points Player 2, round #2, [R]oll or [P]ass? R Dice roll: 6 => 11 points Player 2, round #3, [R]oll or [P]ass? R Dice roll: 6 => 17 points Player 2, round #4, [R]oll or [P]ass? R Dice roll: 3 => 20 points Player 2, round #5, [R]oll or [P]ass? P -------------------- Status: Player 1, 45 points; Player 2, 67 points. Player 1, round #1, [R]oll or [P]ass? R Dice roll: 4 => 4 points Player 1, round #2, [R]oll or [P]ass? R Dice roll: 1 => turn lost -------------------- Status: Player 1, 45 points; Player 2, 67 points. Player 2, round #1, [R]oll or [P]ass? R Dice roll: 3 => 3 points Player 2, round #2, [R]oll or [P]ass? R Dice roll: 3 => 6 points Player 2, round #3, [R]oll or [P]ass? R Dice roll: 2 => 8 points Player 2, round #4, [R]oll or [P]ass? R Dice roll: 3 => 11 points Player 2, round #5, [R]oll or [P]ass? P -------------------- Status: Player 1, 45 points; Player 2, 78 points. Player 1, round #1, [R]oll or [P]ass? R Dice roll: 3 => 3 points Player 1, round #2, [R]oll or [P]ass? R Dice roll: 4 => 7 points Player 1, round #3, [R]oll or [P]ass? R Dice roll: 4 => 11 points Player 1, round #4, [R]oll or [P]ass? R Dice roll: 1 => turn lost -------------------- Status: Player 1, 45 points; Player 2, 78 points. Player 2, round #1, [R]oll or [P]ass? R Dice roll: 2 => 2 points Player 2, round #2, [R]oll or [P]ass? R Dice roll: 5 => 7 points Player 2, round #3, [R]oll or [P]ass? R Dice roll: 1 => turn lost -------------------- Status: Player 1, 45 points; Player 2, 78 points. Player 1, round #1, [R]oll or [P]ass? R Dice roll: 3 => 3 points Player 1, round #2, [R]oll or [P]ass? R Dice roll: 1 => turn lost -------------------- Status: Player 1, 45 points; Player 2, 78 points. Player 2, round #1, [R]oll or [P]ass? R Dice roll: 1 => turn lost -------------------- Status: Player 1, 45 points; Player 2, 78 points. Player 1, round #1, [R]oll or [P]ass? R Dice roll: 5 => 5 points Player 1, round #2, [R]oll or [P]ass? R Dice roll: 4 => 9 points Player 1, round #3, [R]oll or [P]ass? R Dice roll: 2 => 11 points Player 1, round #4, [R]oll or [P]ass? R Dice roll: 5 => 16 points Player 1, round #5, [R]oll or [P]ass? P -------------------- Status: Player 1, 61 points; Player 2, 78 points. Player 2, round #1, [R]oll or [P]ass? R Dice roll: 4 => 4 points Player 2, round #2, [R]oll or [P]ass? R Dice roll: 2 => 6 points Player 2, round #3, [R]oll or [P]ass? R Dice roll: 3 => 9 points Player 2, round #4, [R]oll or [P]ass? R Dice roll: 6 => 15 points Player 2, round #5, [R]oll or [P]ass? P -------------------- Status: Player 1, 61 points; Player 2, 93 points. Player 1, round #1, [R]oll or [P]ass? R Dice roll: 5 => 5 points Player 1, round #2, [R]oll or [P]ass? R Dice roll: 3 => 8 points Player 1, round #3, [R]oll or [P]ass? R Dice roll: 2 => 10 points Player 1, round #4, [R]oll or [P]ass? R Dice roll: 2 => 12 points Player 1, round #5, [R]oll or [P]ass? P -------------------- Status: Player 1, 73 points; Player 2, 93 points. Player 2, round #1, [R]oll or [P]ass? R Dice roll: 6 => 6 points Player 2, round #2, [R]oll or [P]ass? R Dice roll: 4 => 10 points Player 2, round #3, [R]oll or [P]ass? R Dice roll: 4 => 14 points Player 2, round #4, [R]oll or [P]ass? R Dice roll: 1 => turn lost -------------------- Status: Player 1, 73 points; Player 2, 93 points. Player 1, round #1, [R]oll or [P]ass? R Dice roll: 3 => 3 points Player 1, round #2, [R]oll or [P]ass? R Dice roll: 4 => 7 points Player 1, round #3, [R]oll or [P]ass? R Dice roll: 6 => 13 points Player 1, round #4, [R]oll or [P]ass? P -------------------- Status: Player 1, 86 points; Player 2, 93 points. Player 2, round #1, [R]oll or [P]ass? R Dice roll: 2 => 2 points Player 2, round #2, [R]oll or [P]ass? R Dice roll: 6 => 8 points Player 2, round #3, [R]oll or [P]ass? R Dice roll: 4 => 12 points Player 2, round #4, [R]oll or [P]ass? R Dice roll: 5 => 17 points Player 2, round #5, [R]oll or [P]ass? P -------------------- Player 2 wins! 2

## Raku

(formerly Perl 6)

This implements a pig player class where you can customize the strategy it uses. Pass a strategy code reference in that will evaluate to a Boolean value. The player will roll the die then decide whether to roll again or lock in its winnings based on its strategy. It will continue to roll until it gets a 1 (bust) or the strategy code reference evaluates to True (finished turn).

Set up as many players as you want, then run it. It will play 100 games (by default) then report the score for each game then the win totals for each player. If you want to play a different number of games, pass the number at the command line as a parameter.

Here we have 5 players:

player 0 uses the default strategy, always roll if it can. player 1 will roll up to 5 times then lock in whatever it earned. player 2 will try to get at least 20 points per turn. player 3 randomly picks whether to roll again or not biased so that there is a 90% chance that it will. player 4 randomly chooses to roll again but gets more consrvative as its score get closer to the goal.

```
my $games = @*ARGS ?? (shift @*ARGS) !! 100;
constant DIE = 1 .. 6;
constant GOAL = 100;
class player {
has $.score is rw = 0;
has $.ante is rw;
has $.rolls is rw;
has &.strategy is rw = sub { False }; # default, always roll again
method turn {
my $done_turn = False;
$.rolls = 0;
$.ante = 0;
repeat {
given DIE.roll {
$.rolls++;
when 1 {
$.ante = 0;
$done_turn = True;
}
when 2..* {
$.ante += $_;
}
}
$done_turn = True if $.score + $.ante >= GOAL or (&.strategy)();
} until $done_turn;
$.score += $.ante;
}
}
my @players;
# default, go-for-broke, always roll again
@players[0] = player.new;
# try to roll 5 times but no more per turn
@players[1] = player.new( strategy => sub { @players[1].rolls >= 5 } );
# try to accumulate at least 20 points per turn
@players[2] = player.new( strategy => sub { @players[2].ante > 20 } );
# random but 90% chance of rolling again
@players[3] = player.new( strategy => sub { 1.rand < .1 } );
# random but more conservative as approaches goal
@players[4] = player.new( strategy => sub { 1.rand < ( GOAL - @players[4].score ) * .6 / GOAL } );
my @wins = 0 xx @players;
for ^ $games {
my $player = -1;
repeat {
$player++;
@players[$player % @players].turn;
} until @players[$player % @players].score >= GOAL;
@wins[$player % @players]++;
say join "\t", @players>>.score;
@players[$_].score = 0 for ^@players; # reset scores for next game
}
say "\nSCORES: for $games games";
say join "\t", @wins;
```

**Sample output for 10000 games**

0 103 46 5 40 0 100 69 0 48 0 105 22 7 44 0 75 69 19 102 105 21 23 5 17 0 101 85 12 29 0 70 66 103 23 0 0 104 69 20 0 100 44 0 20 0 102 63 75 30 0 56 101 12 40 0 103 71 2 38 0 103 91 21 32 0 18 102 47 28 ... ... ... 104 0 69 14 47 0 68 101 13 22 0 99 89 102 31 SCORES: for 10000 games 947 3534 3396 1714 409

## REXX

The strategy for a computer player is to roll again if the total score (including the current inning) has not won, and to roll again if the inning score is less than a quarter of the score needed to win.

The (somewhat aggressive) "quarter" strategy was chosen to give the advantage to a human (it was presumed that this dice game would be played with a CBLF).

```
/*REXX program plays "pig the dice game" (any number of CBLFs and/or silicons or HALs).*/
sw= linesize() - 1 /*get the width of the terminal screen,*/
parse arg hp cp win die _ . '(' names ")" /*obtain optional arguments from the CL*/
/*names with blanks should use an _ */
if _\=='' then call err 'too many arguments were specified: ' _
@nhp = 'number of human players' ; hp = scrutinize( hp, @nhp , 0, 0, 0)
@ncp = 'number of computer players'; cp = scrutinize( cp, @ncp , 0, 0, 2)
@sn2w = 'score needed to win' ; win= scrutinize(win, @sn2w, 1, 1e6, 60)
@nsid = 'number of sides in die' ; die= scrutinize(die, @nsid, 2, 999, 6)
if hp==0 & cp==0 then cp= 2 /*if both counts are zero, two HALs. */
if hp==1 & cp==0 then cp= 1 /*if one human, then use one HAL. */
name.= /*nullify all names (to a blank). */
L= 0 /*maximum length of a player name. */
do i=1 for hp+cp /*get the player's names, ... maybe. */
if i>hp then @= 'HAL_'i"_the_computer" /*use this for default name. */
else @= 'player_'i /* " " " " " */
name.i = translate( word( strip( word( names, i) ) @, 1), , '_')
L= max(L, length( name.i) ) /*use L for nice name formatting. */
end /*i*/ /*underscores are changed ──► blanks. */
hpn=hp; if hpn==0 then hpn= 'no' /*use normal English for the display. */
cpn=cp; if cpn==0 then cpn= 'no' /* " " " " " " */
say 'Pig (the dice game) is being played with:' /*the introduction to pig-the-dice-game*/
if cpn\==0 then say right(cpn, 9) 'computer player's(cp)
if hpn\==0 then say right(hpn, 9) 'human player's(hp)
!.=
say 'and the' @sn2w "is: " win ' (or greater).'
dieNames= 'ace deuce trey square nickle boxcar' /*some slangy vernacular die─face names*/
!w=0 /*note: snake eyes is for two aces. */
do i=1 for die /*assign the vernacular die─face names.*/
!.i= ' ['word(dieNames,i)"]" /*pick a word from die─face name lists.*/
!w= max(!w, length(!.i) ) /*!w ──► maximum length die─face name. */
end /*i*/
s.= 0 /*set all player's scores to zero. */
!w= !w + length(die) + 3 /*pad the die number and die names. */
@= copies('─', 9) /*eyecatcher (for the prompting text). */
@jra= 'just rolled a ' /*a nice literal to have laying 'round.*/
@ati= 'and the inning' /*" " " " " " " */
/*═══════════════════════════════════════════════════let's play some pig.*/
do game=1; in.= 0; call score /*set each inning's score to 0; display*/
do j=1 for hp+cp; say /*let each player roll their dice. */
say copies('─', sw) /*display a fence for da ole eyeballs. */
it= name.j
say it', your total score (so far) in this pig game is: ' s.j"."
do until stopped /*keep prompting/rolling 'til stopped. */
r= random(1, die) /*get a random die face (number). */
!= left(space(r !.r','), !w) /*for color, use a die─face name. */
in.j= in.j + r /*add die─face number to the inning. */
if r==1 then do; say it @jra ! || @ati "is a bust."; leave; end
say it @jra ! || @ati "total is: " in.j
stopped= what2do(j) /*determine or ask to stop rolling. */
if j>hp & stopped then say ' and' name.j "elected to stop rolling."
end /*until stopped*/
if r\==1 then s.j= s.j + in.j /*if not a bust, then add to the inning*/
if s.j>=win then leave game /*we have a winner, so the game ends. */
end /*j*/ /*that's the end of the players. */
end /*game*/
call score; say; say; say; say; say center(''name.j "won! ", sw, '═')
say; say; exit /*stick a fork in it, we're all done. */
/*──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────*/
s: if arg(1)==1 then return arg(3); return word(arg(2) 's',1) /*pluralizer.*/
/*──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────*/
score: say; say copies('█', sw) /*display a fence for da ole eyeballs. */
do k=1 for hp+cp /*display the scores (as a recap). */
say 'The score for ' left(name.k, L) " is " right(s.k, length(win) ).
end /*k*/
say copies('█', sw); return /*display a fence for da ole eyeballs. */
/*──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────*/
scrutinize: parse arg ?,what,min,max /*? is the number, ... or maybe not. */
if ?=='' | ?==',' then return arg(5)
if \datatype(?, 'N') then call err what "isn't numeric: " ?; ?=?/1
if \datatype(?, 'W') then call err what "isn't an integer: " ?
if ?==0 & min>0 then call err what "can't be zero."
if ?<min then call err what "can't be less than" min': ' ?
if ?==0 & max>0 then call err what "can't be zero."
if ?>max & max\==0 then call err what "can't be greater than" max': ' ?
return ?
/*──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────*/
what2do: parse arg who /*"who" is a human or a computer.*/
if j>hp & s.j+in.j>=win then return 1 /*an easy choice for HAL. */
if j>hp & in.j>=win%4 then return 1 /*a simple strategy for HAL. */
if j>hp then return 0 /*HAL says, keep truckin'! */
say @ name.who', what do you want to do? (a QUIT will stop the game),'
say @ 'press ENTER to roll again, or anything else to STOP rolling.'
pull action; action=space(action) /*remove any superfluous blanks. */
if \abbrev('QUIT', action, 1) then return action\==''
say; say; say center(' quitting. ', sw, '─'); say; say; exit
/*──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────*/
err: say; say; say center(' error! ', max(40, linesize() % 2), "*"); say
do j=1 for arg(); say arg(j); say; end; say; exit 13
```

This REXX program makes use of **LINESIZE** BIF which returns the terminals width (linesize).

Some REXXes don't have a **LINESIZE** BIF, so one is included here ──► LINESIZE.REX.

To play this game with two computer players (simulate), use the following arguments:

0 2

Optionally, you may use (for instance):

0 2 ( HAL R2D2

to specify names for the (two) computer players.

**output**:

Pig (the dice game) is being played with: 2 computer players no human players and the score needed to win is: 60 (or greater). ███████████████████████████████████████████████████████████████████████████████ The score for HAL 1 the computer is 0. The score for HAL 2 the computer is 0. ███████████████████████████████████████████████████████████████████████████████ ─────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────── HAL 1 the computer, your total score (so far) in this pig game is: 0. HAL 1 the computer just rolled a 2 [deuce], and the inning total is: 2 HAL 1 the computer just rolled a 5 [nickle], and the inning total is: 7 HAL 1 the computer just rolled a 2 [deuce], and the inning total is: 9 HAL 1 the computer just rolled a 1 [ace], and the inning is a bust. ─────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────── HAL 2 the computer, your total score (so far) in this pig game is: 0. HAL 2 the computer just rolled a 6 [boxcar], and the inning total is: 6 HAL 2 the computer just rolled a 4 [square], and the inning total is: 10 HAL 2 the computer just rolled a 4 [square], and the inning total is: 14 HAL 2 the computer just rolled a 5 [nickle], and the inning total is: 19 and HAL 2 the computer elected to stop rolling. ███████████████████████████████████████████████████████████████████████████████ The score for HAL 1 the computer is 0. The score for HAL 2 the computer is 19. ███████████████████████████████████████████████████████████████████████████████ ─────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────── HAL 1 the computer, your total score (so far) in this pig game is: 0. HAL 1 the computer just rolled a 1 [ace], and the inning is a bust. ─────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────── HAL 2 the computer, your total score (so far) in this pig game is: 19. HAL 2 the computer just rolled a 1 [ace], and the inning is a bust. ███████████████████████████████████████████████████████████████████████████████ The score for HAL 1 the computer is 0. The score for HAL 2 the computer is 19. ███████████████████████████████████████████████████████████████████████████████ ─────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────── HAL 1 the computer, your total score (so far) in this pig game is: 0. HAL 1 the computer just rolled a 6 [boxcar], and the inning total is: 6 HAL 1 the computer just rolled a 6 [boxcar], and the inning total is: 12 HAL 1 the computer just rolled a 6 [boxcar], and the inning total is: 18 and HAL 1 the computer elected to stop rolling. ─────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────── HAL 2 the computer, your total score (so far) in this pig game is: 19. HAL 2 the computer just rolled a 6 [boxcar], and the inning total is: 6 HAL 2 the computer just rolled a 3 [trey], and the inning total is: 9 HAL 2 the computer just rolled a 6 [boxcar], and the inning total is: 15 and HAL 2 the computer elected to stop rolling. ███████████████████████████████████████████████████████████████████████████████ The score for HAL 1 the computer is 18. The score for HAL 2 the computer is 34. ███████████████████████████████████████████████████████████████████████████████ ─────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────── HAL 1 the computer, your total score (so far) in this pig game is: 18. HAL 1 the computer just rolled a 5 [nickle], and the inning total is: 5 HAL 1 the computer just rolled a 1 [ace], and the inning is a bust. ─────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────── HAL 2 the computer, your total score (so far) in this pig game is: 34. HAL 2 the computer just rolled a 4 [square], and the inning total is: 4 HAL 2 the computer just rolled a 4 [square], and the inning total is: 8 HAL 2 the computer just rolled a 3 [trey], and the inning total is: 11 HAL 2 the computer just rolled a 5 [nickle], and the inning total is: 16 and HAL 2 the computer elected to stop rolling. ███████████████████████████████████████████████████████████████████████████████ The score for HAL 1 the computer is 18. The score for HAL 2 the computer is 50. ███████████████████████████████████████████████████████████████████████████████ ─────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────── HAL 1 the computer, your total score (so far) in this pig game is: 18. HAL 1 the computer just rolled a 4 [square], and the inning total is: 4 HAL 1 the computer just rolled a 1 [ace], and the inning is a bust. ─────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────── HAL 2 the computer, your total score (so far) in this pig game is: 50. HAL 2 the computer just rolled a 1 [ace], and the inning is a bust. ███████████████████████████████████████████████████████████████████████████████ The score for HAL 1 the computer is 18. The score for HAL 2 the computer is 50. ███████████████████████████████████████████████████████████████████████████████ ─────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────── HAL 1 the computer, your total score (so far) in this pig game is: 18. HAL 1 the computer just rolled a 6 [boxcar], and the inning total is: 6 HAL 1 the computer just rolled a 6 [boxcar], and the inning total is: 12 HAL 1 the computer just rolled a 4 [square], and the inning total is: 16 and HAL 1 the computer elected to stop rolling. ─────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────── HAL 2 the computer, your total score (so far) in this pig game is: 50. HAL 2 the computer just rolled a 6 [boxcar], and the inning total is: 6 HAL 2 the computer just rolled a 3 [trey], and the inning total is: 9 HAL 2 the computer just rolled a 5 [nickle], and the inning total is: 14 and HAL 2 the computer elected to stop rolling. ═══════════════════════════HAL 2 the computer won! ════════════════════════════

## Ruby

```
def player1(sum,sm)
for i in 1..100
puts "player1 rolled"
a=gets.chomp().to_i
if (a>1 && a<7)
sum+=a
if sum>=100
puts "player1 wins"
break
end
else
goto player2(sum,sm)
end
i+=1
end
end
def player2(sum,sm)
for j in 1..100
puts "player2 rolled"
b=gets.chomp().to_i
if(b>1 && b<7)
sm+=b
if sm>=100
puts "player2 wins"
break
end
else
player1(sum,sm)
end
j+=1
end
end
i=0
j=0
sum=0
sm=0
player1(sum,sm)
return
```

## Sidef

```
var (games=100) = ARGV.map{.to_i}...
define DIE = 1..6
define GOAL = 100
class Player(score=0, ante=0, rolls=0, strategy={false}) {
method turn {
rolls = 0
ante = 0
loop {
rolls++
given (DIE.rand) { |roll|
when (1) {
ante = 0
break
}
case (roll > 1) {
ante += roll
}
}
((score + ante >= GOAL) || strategy) && break
}
score += ante
}
}
var players = []
# default, go-for-broke, always roll again
players[0] = Player()
# try to roll 5 times but no more per turn
players[1] = Player( strategy: { players[1].rolls >= 5 } )
# try to accumulate at least 20 points per turn
players[2] = Player( strategy: { players[2].ante > 20 } )
# random but 90% chance of rolling again
players[3] = Player( strategy: { 1.rand < 0.1 } )
# random but more conservative as approaches goal
players[4] = Player( strategy: { 1.rand < ((GOAL - players[4].score) * 0.6 / GOAL) } )
var wins = players.len.of(0)
games.times {
var player = -1
loop {
player++
var p = players[player % players.len]
p.turn
p.score >= GOAL && break
}
wins[player % players.len]++
players.map{.score}.join("\t").say
players.each { |p| p.score = 0 }
}
say "\nSCORES: for #{games} games"
say wins.join("\t")
```

- Output:

0 0 67 101 19 0 88 100 9 14 0 81 66 100 24 0 56 103 8 27 0 102 70 17 27 0 79 101 29 36 0 100 71 56 31 0 62 104 28 34 103 19 24 6 5 0 49 101 24 19 0 60 22 101 0 0 20 101 30 34 ... ... ... 0 101 69 26 91 0 87 101 30 54 0 84 100 17 64 0 52 24 102 17 SCORES: for 100 games 6 28 40 22 4

## Tcl

or alternatively with Tcl 8.5 and |

First the structure of the game (from the parent page):

```
package require TclOO
oo::class create Player {
variable me
constructor {name} {
set me $name
}
method name {} {
return $me
}
method wantToRoll {safeScore roundScore} {}
method rolled {who what} {
if {$who ne [self]} {
#puts "[$who name] rolled a $what"
}
}
method turnend {who score} {
if {$who ne [self]} {
#puts "End of turn for [$who name] on $score"
}
}
method winner {who score} {
if {$who ne [self]} {
#puts "[$who name] is a winner, on $score"
}
}
}
oo::class create HumanPlayer {
variable me
superclass Player
method wantToRoll {safeScore roundScore} {
while 1 {
puts -nonewline "$me (on $safeScore+$roundScore) do you want to roll? (Y/n)"
flush stdout
if {[gets stdin line] < 0} {
# EOF detected
puts ""
exit
}
if {$line eq "" || $line eq "y" || $line eq "Y"} {
return 1
}
if {$line eq "n" || $line eq "N"} {
return 0
}
}
}
method stuck {score} {
puts "$me sticks with score $score"
}
method busted {score} {
puts "Busted! ($me still on score $score)"
}
method won {score} {
puts "$me has won! (Score: $score)"
}
}
proc rollDie {} {
expr {1+int(rand() * 6)}
}
proc rotateList {var} {
upvar 1 $var l
set l [list {*}[lrange $l 1 end] [lindex $l 0]]
}
proc broadcast {players message score} {
set p0 [lindex $players 0]
foreach p $players {
$p $message $p0 $score
}
}
proc pig {args} {
set players $args
set scores [lrepeat [llength $args] 0]
while 1 {
set player [lindex $players 0]
set safe [lindex $scores 0]
set s 0
while 1 {
if {$safe + $s >= 100} {
incr safe $s
$player won $safe
broadcast $players winner $safe
return $player
}
if {![$player wantToRoll $safe $s]} {
lset scores 0 [incr safe $s]
$player stuck $safe
break
}
set roll [rollDie]
broadcast $players rolled $roll
if {$roll == 1} {
$player busted $safe
break
}
incr s $roll
}
broadcast $players turnend $safe
rotateList players
rotateList scores
}
}
```

Then the classes that create the various implemented strategies:

```
oo::class create RoboPlayer {
superclass Player
variable me
constructor {name} {
# Add a symbol to the name to mark a robot...
next "$name\u00ae"
}
method wantToRoll {safeScore roundScore} {
puts -nonewline "$me has ($safeScore,$roundScore)... "
set decision [my Decide $safeScore $roundScore]
puts [lindex {stick roll} $decision]
return $decision
}
method stuck {score} {
puts "$me sticks with score $score"
}
method busted {score} {
puts "Busted! ($me still on score $score)"
}
method won {score} {
puts "$me has won! (Score: $score)"
}
}
# Just takes a random decision as to what to play
oo::class create RandomPlayer {
superclass RoboPlayer
constructor {} {next "Random"}
method Decide {a b} {expr {rand() < 0.5}}
}
# Rolls until it scores at least 20 from a round or goes bust
oo::class create To20Player {
superclass RoboPlayer
constructor {} {next "To20"}
method Decide {safeScore roundScore} {expr {$roundScore < 20}}
}
# Like To20, but will roll desperately once another player reaches 80
oo::class create Desperate {
superclass RoboPlayer
variable me scores
constructor {} {
next "Desperate"
set scores {}
}
method Decide {safeScore roundScore} {
dict for {who val} $scores {
if {$who ne [self] && $val >= 80} {
return 1
}
}
return [expr {$roundScore < 20}]
}
# Keep an eye on other players
method turnend {who score} {
next $who $score
dict set scores $who $score
}
}
```

Demonstration, pitting the three of them against each other:

```
pig [RandomPlayer new] [To20Player new] [Desperate new]
```

- Output:

Random® has (0,0)... roll Busted! (Random® still on score 0) To20® has (0,0)... roll To20® has (0,4)... roll Busted! (To20® still on score 0) Desperate® has (0,0)... roll Desperate® has (0,6)... roll Desperate® has (0,10)... roll Desperate® has (0,13)... roll Desperate® has (0,17)... roll Desperate® has (0,21)... stick Desperate® sticks with score 21 Random® has (0,0)... roll Busted! (Random® still on score 0) To20® has (0,0)... roll To20® has (0,2)... roll To20® has (0,7)... roll To20® has (0,11)... roll To20® has (0,16)... roll To20® has (0,19)... roll To20® has (0,25)... stick To20® sticks with score 25 Desperate® has (21,0)... roll Desperate® has (21,6)... roll Desperate® has (21,12)... roll Busted! (Desperate® still on score 21) Random® has (0,0)... stick Random® sticks with score 0 To20® has (25,0)... roll Busted! (To20® still on score 25) Desperate® has (21,0)... roll Desperate® has (21,4)... roll Desperate® has (21,7)... roll Desperate® has (21,9)... roll Busted! (Desperate® still on score 21) Random® has (0,0)... stick Random® sticks with score 0 To20® has (25,0)... roll To20® has (25,5)... roll Busted! (To20® still on score 25) Desperate® has (21,0)... roll Desperate® has (21,2)... roll Desperate® has (21,7)... roll Desperate® has (21,11)... roll Desperate® has (21,14)... roll Desperate® has (21,19)... roll Desperate® has (21,24)... stick Desperate® sticks with score 45 Random® has (0,0)... stick Random® sticks with score 0 To20® has (25,0)... roll To20® has (25,5)... roll To20® has (25,8)... roll To20® has (25,14)... roll To20® has (25,18)... roll To20® has (25,20)... stick To20® sticks with score 45 Desperate® has (45,0)... roll Desperate® has (45,6)... roll Desperate® has (45,11)... roll Desperate® has (45,14)... roll Desperate® has (45,18)... roll Desperate® has (45,21)... stick Desperate® sticks with score 66 Random® has (0,0)... roll Random® has (0,2)... stick Random® sticks with score 2 To20® has (45,0)... roll To20® has (45,6)... roll To20® has (45,12)... roll To20® has (45,18)... roll To20® has (45,24)... stick To20® sticks with score 69 Desperate® has (66,0)... roll Desperate® has (66,6)... roll Busted! (Desperate® still on score 66) Random® has (2,0)... roll Busted! (Random® still on score 2) To20® has (69,0)... roll To20® has (69,4)... roll To20® has (69,8)... roll To20® has (69,14)... roll To20® has (69,20)... stick To20® sticks with score 89 Desperate® has (66,0)... roll Desperate® has (66,6)... roll Desperate® has (66,10)... roll Desperate® has (66,12)... roll Desperate® has (66,18)... roll Desperate® has (66,23)... roll Desperate® has (66,27)... roll Desperate® has (66,29)... roll Desperate® has (66,31)... roll Desperate® has won! (Score: 101)

## Wren

```
import "random" for Random
import "os" for Process
var args = Process.arguments
var games = (args.count == 0) ? 100 : Num.fromString(args[0])
var Rand = Random.new()
var Die = 1..6
var Goal = 100
class Player {
construct new(strategy) {
_score = 0
_ante = 0
_rolls = 0
_strategy = strategy
}
score { _score }
rolls { _rolls }
ante { _ante }
score=(s) { _score = s }
turn() {
_rolls = 0
_ante = 0
while (true) {
_rolls = _rolls + 1
var roll = Rand.int(Die.from, Die.to + 1)
if (roll == 1) {
_ante = 0
break
}
_ante = _ante + roll
if (_score + _ante >= Goal || _strategy.call()) break
}
_score = _score + _ante
}
}
var numPlayers = 5
var players = List.filled(numPlayers, null)
// default, go-for-broke, always roll again
players[0] = Player.new { false }
// try to roll 5 times but no more per turn
players[1] = Player.new { players[1].rolls >= 5 }
// try to accumulate at least 20 points per turn
players[2] = Player.new { players[2].ante > 20 }
// random but 90% chance of rolling again
players[3] = Player.new { Rand.float() < 0.1 }
// random but more conservative as approaches goal
players[4] = Player.new { Rand.float() < (Goal - players[4].score) * 0.6 / Goal }
var wins = List.filled(numPlayers, 0)
for (i in 0...games) {
var player = -1
while (true) {
player = player + 1
var p = players[player % numPlayers]
p.turn()
if (p.score >= Goal) break
}
wins[player % numPlayers] = wins[player % numPlayers] + 1
System.print(players.map { |p| p.score }.join("\t"))
players.each { |p| p.score = 0 }
}
System.print("\nSCORES: for %(games) games")
System.print(wins.join("\t"))
```

- Output:

Sample output for 10000 games:

0 89 88 102 33 0 21 45 101 16 0 84 104 11 29 0 101 46 20 22 0 102 24 0 36 0 42 100 49 13 0 103 92 34 65 0 82 100 34 34 0 95 100 60 41 0 105 69 53 82 0 35 101 65 66 0 19 102 83 27 0 40 101 24 30 0 101 71 15 67 ... 0 101 23 31 34 0 81 45 103 24 102 66 68 82 36 0 101 42 49 49 0 86 103 29 22 0 100 91 82 32 SCORES: for 10000 games 938 3581 3426 1656 399