# Assigning Values to an Array

Assigning Values to an Array
You are encouraged to solve this task according to the task description, using any language you may know.

In this task, the goal is to assign a value to an element of an array. The value should only replace an existing value, and not insert a new key should the key not exist. If the key does not exist, an error should be returned.

## ActionScript

```arr[0] = 1;
arr[1] = 'a';
arr[2] = 5.678;
```

Works with: GCC version 4.1.2

```     type Arr is array (Positive range <>) of Integer;
procedure Assign (Value : Integer; To : in out Arr; Index : Positive);
--  Raise exception Constraint_Error if Index > To'Last
end Pkg;
package body Pkg is
procedure Assign (Value : Integer; To : in out Arr; Index : Positive) is
begin
To (Index) := Value;
end Assign;
```

## ALGOL 68

Declarations:

```  FLEX [1:8] INT array:=(1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8);
INT index=1, from=3, to=5, value=333;
```

Simple bound checking:

```  IF LWB array <= index AND UPB array >= index THEN
```

For a single index/value assignment:

```    array[index] := value;
```

To assign multiple values to multiple indices/slice:

```    array[from:to] := (33,44,55);
```

Replaces the 4th, 5th and 6th elements with the 33, 44 and 55.

To append/grow the end of the array:

```    PROC append int = (REF FLEX [] INT a, INT v)VOID: (
HEAP FLEX [LWB a:UPB a + 1] INT out;
out[:UPB a]:= a;
out[UPB out] := v;
a := out
);
append int(array,value);
print((array,new line))
FI
```

Result:

```      +333         +2        +33        +44        +55         +6         +7         +8       +333
```

## APL

```      array[index]←value
```

APL is array-oriented, and so there are many different and powerful ways to index and assign arrays. Asking an APLer how one assigns a value to an array index is like asking an Eskimo how one says "snow". The above is just tip of the iceberg (i.e. a direct translation of the non-array-oriented code examples on this page).

## AppleScript

```set item location of array to value
```

To put an item on the end of a list:

```set end of array to item
```

## Brainf***

To assign values 5, 6, and 7 to array elements 1,2,3:

```[-]>[-]>[-] zero array elements
<< go back to index 1
+++++    move value 5 to element 1
>++++++  move value 6 to element 2
>+++++++ move value 7 to element 3
```

## C

Works with: gcc version 4.1.1
```int writeToIntArray(int *array, size_t array_sz, int loc, int val)
{
// Check bounds on array
if (loc > array_sz || loc < 0)
return -1;
array[loc] = val;
return 0;
}
```

## C#

Language Version: 1.0+

```  public void WriteToIntArray(int[] array, int loc, int val){  array[loc]=val;  }
```

## C++

Works with: g++ version 4.1.2
```  template<class T, std::size:t size>
inline int writeToArray(T (&array)[size], size_t loc, const T& val)
{
if (loc >= size)
return -1; // Could throw an exception if so desired
array[loc] = val;
return 0;
}
```
Works with: Visual C++ version 2005
```  template<class C>
inline void writeToArray(C& container, typename C::size_type loc, const typename C::value_type& val)
{
std::fill_n(container.begin() + loc, 1, val);
}
```

## ColdFusion

``` <cffunction name="writeToArray">
<cfargument name="array">
<cfargument name="location">
<cfargument name="value">
<cfif arrayLen(arguments.array) GTE arguments.location>
<cfset arguments.array[arguments.location] = arguments.value>
<cfelse>
<cfthrow message="Location does not exist">
</cfif>
<cfreturn arguments.array>
</cffunction>

<cfset myArray = arrayNew(1)>
<cfset myArray[1] = 1>
<cfset myArray = writeToArray(myArray, 1, 123456)>
```

Note that throwing errors in ColdFusion doesn't give that "friendly" appearance. The standard way to change/add a value in an array would be simply:

``` <cfset myArray[3] = 987654>
```

## Common Lisp

```(setf (aref array index) value)
```

## D

```void setValue(T) (T[] array, size_t index, T newValue) { array[index] = newValue; }
```

## Delphi

```  procedure WriteToIntArray(var Arr: array of Integer; Loc: Integer; Val: Integer);
begin
Arr[Loc] := Val;
end;
```

## Forth

Interpreter: ANS Forth

```  : ]! ( n addr ix -- ) cells + ! ; \ ex. 3 buffer[ 2 ]!
```

## Fortran

In ISO Fortran 90 or later, use an array initializer (with RESHAPE intrinsic for multidimensional arrays):

``` real, dimension(50)  :: a = (/ (1.0/(i*i),i=1,50) /)
real, dimension(6)   :: b = (/ 0, 60, 120, 180, 240, 300 /)
real, dimension(4,4) :: i4 = reshape( (/ 1,0,0,0, 0,1,0,0, 0,0,1,0, 0,0,0,1 /), (/ 4, 4 /) )
```

In ISO Fortran 90 or later, use array section syntax to assign sections of an array:

``` b(1:4) = i4(1,:)          ! gets row 1 of i4 into first 4 elements of b
a(1:7:2) = i4(:,3)        ! gets column 3 of i4 into first 4 odd-numbered elements of a (stride of 2)
i4(2:4,2:4) = i4(1:3,1:3) ! gets 3x3 subarray of i4 starting at row 1, column 1
! into 3x3 subarray of i4 starting at row 2, column 2
```

Compiler: Any ANSI FORTRAN 77 or later (e.g. g77)

``` a(55) = 12
```

Works with: GHC version 6.6

### List

Most Haskell programs use lists instead of arrays. This is suitable for the general case.

#### Simple Version

```setIndex
:: [a] -- Original list
-> Int -- Index to insert at
-> a -- Value to insert
-> [a] -- Resulting list
setIndex xs ii v =
let
(h, (_ : ts)) = splitAt ii xs
in
h ++ (v : ts)
```

#### Efficient Version

```setIndex xs ii v
| ii < 0 = error "Bad index"
| otherwise = _setIndex xs ii v
where
_setIndex [] _ _ = error "Bad index"
_setIndex (_ : xs) 0 v = v : xs
_setIndex (x : xs) ii v = x : (setIndex xs (ii - 1) v)
```

### Array

Technically, this creates clones the original array, then updates the new array; the original array still exists. This applies a list of changes to the array.

```import Data.Array

-- Create the array of data
a1 = array (0, 4) [(ii, ii * 2) | ii <- [0 .. 4]]

-- Update 1 entry
a2 = a1 // [(2, 12)]
-- Update several entries
a3 = a1 // [(ii, ii + 10) | ii <- [1 .. 3]]
```

### Mutable Array

```import Data.Array.MArray
import Data.Array.IO

main = do -- Create the array of data with all elements intialized to 3
a <- newArray (0, 4) 3 :: IO (IOArray Int Int)

-- Print entry
readArray a 2 >>= print  -- prints "3"

-- Update one entry
writeArray a 2 5

-- Print entry again
readArray a 2 >>= print  -- prints "5"
```

## J

```   array =: 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

99 (3}) array             NB.  Simple update
5 5 5 99 5 5 5

array =:  99 (3}) array   NB.  In place

88 99 88 (2 3 4}) array   NB.  Multiple update
5 5 88 99 88 5 5
```

## Java

Works with: J2SE version 1.2+

<java>public void writeToIntArray(int[] array, int loc, int val){

```  array[loc]=val;
```

}</java>

Works with: Java version 1.5+

Things that Java people call "arrays" generally don't use the "key/value" vocabulary. In Java, there is an object called a Map with keys and values that works for this task. Maps are sorted by some aspect of the key in Java (hash, address, or natural order). The only thing we need to change is an error for a non-existent key. <java>import java.util.TreeMap; public void addToMap(TreeMap<Integer, Integer> map, int key, int val){

```  if(!map.containsKey(key)){
Systen.err.println("Key does not exist");
return;
}
map.put(key,val);
```

}</java>

## JavaScript

```function setElem(array, loc, val) { //returns 0 if out of bounds
if(typeof array[loc] == typeof undefined) {
return 0; //element doesn't already exist -- out of bounds
} else {
array[loc] = val
return 1; //OK
}//if
}//setElem

//use:
var ary=[10,20,30] //0,1,2 defined
var ok = setElem(ary,3,'three')
```

Simpler if you don't mind adding an element if it does not already exist:

```function writeToArray(array, loc, val) { array[loc] = val; }
```

## Logo

```make "a {10 20 30}
setitem 1 :a "ten
```

## LSE64

```10 array :array
0 array 5 [] !      # store 0 at the sixth cell in the array
```

## mIRC Scripting Language

Works with: mIRC
Works with: mArray Snippet
``` alias write2array { echo -a \$array_write(MyArray, 2, 3, Rosetta) }
```

## Nial

```a := 1 2 3 4
a@1 := 100
a
=1 100 3 4
```

## Objective-C

Works with: GCC version 3.3+
``` - (void)addValue:(id)value toArray:(NSMutableArray *)array position:(unsigned)pos
{
[array insertObject:value atIndex:pos];
}
```

## OCaml

Works with: OCaml
```  let writeToArray arr loc val = arr.(loc) <- val;;
```

variant:

Works with: OCaml
```  let writeToArray = Array.set
```

## Perl

Works with: Perl version 5.8.8

For a single index/value assignment:

```\$array[\$index] = \$value;
```

To assign multiple values to multiple indices:

```@array[@indexes] = @values;
```

To assign an array slice:

```@array[3..5] = @values;
# will replace the 4th, 5th and 6th elements with the first 3 values in @values
```

## PHP

```<?php
function writeToArray(&\$array, \$index, \$value)
{
\$array[\$index] = \$value;
}
// Usage example
writeToArray(\$array, 1, 6 );
?>
```

Note that this is a "function" based example, and the relevant acting code is the following

```\$array[\$index] = \$value;
```

This does not conform to the (somewhat arbitrary) specific requirements of the task, in that it does not return an error if the key index) does not exist. To satisfy the task requirements:

```<?php
function writeToArray(&\$array, \$index, \$value)
{
if(array_key_exists(\$index, \$array)) \$array[\$index] = \$value;
else return false;
}
// Usage example
writeToArray(\$array, 1, 6 );
?>
```

## PL/SQL

Interpreter: Oracle compiler

``` set serveroutput on
declare
type myarray is table of number index by binary_integer;
x myarray;
i pls_integer;
begin
-- populate array
for i in 1..5 loop
x(i) := i;
end loop;
i :=0;

-- print array
loop
i := i + 1;
begin
dbms_output.put_line(x(i));
exception
when no_data_found then exit;
end;
end loop;

end;
/
```

## Pop11

``` value -> array(index);
```

Note that normal Pop11 array signal error when accessing non existing values (all values within index bounds exist).

## Python

To change existing item, (raise IndexError if the index does not exists): <python>

```array[index] = value
```

</python>

To append to the end of the array: <python>

```array.append(value)
```

</python>

It's also possible modify Python lists using "slices" which can replace, remove or insert elements into the array. For example:

<python>

```mylist = [0,1,2,3]
mylist[1:3] = [1, 1.2, 1.3]
print mylist
## >>> [0, 1, 1.2, 1.3, 3]
## We've replaced 1 and 2 with 1, 1.2 and 1.3, effectively inserting 1.2 and 1.3 while removing the original third element (2)
```

</python>

Hint: slice notation should be read as: "from starting index up to (but not including) ending index" -- a slice of [1:2] only references the single element sub-list containing the second item. To remember that they are zero based one might even read the slice more verbosely as: "from the n items past the beginning of the list, up to (but not including) ..."

It's even possible (though obscure) to use extended slices with a "stride" to replace every nth element of a list using something like:

<python> mylist = [0,1,2,3] mylist[0:4:2] = ['x', 'y'] # can also be written as mylist[::2] in this case, to cover the whole list print mylist

1. >>> ['x', 1, 'y', 3]

</python>

Python lists also support .insert(), and .remove() methods, for cases where the slice syntax might be awkward, and a Python list can be treated like a stack by using the .pop() and .append() methods. Finally a whole list or other sequence can be appended to a list using the .extend() method.

<python> mylist = [0,1] mylist.extend([2,3]) print mylist

1. >>> [0, 1, 2, 3]
2. mylist.append([2,3]) would have appended one item to the list
3. ... and that item would have been list containing two nested items

</python>

## Ruby

Works with: Ruby version 1.8.5
```  # To specify a value for a known index
# Usage: arr[index] = value
arr = 1,2,3,4,5
arr[0] = 10
```
```  # To push a value onto an array. This accepts single or multiple arguments:
arr.push( 1 )
arr.push( 1, 2, 3 )
```
```  # You can also use the << operator with one argument:
arr << 1
```

## Scala

``` val array = new Array[int](10) // create a 10 element array of integers
array(3) = 44
array(22) = 11 // java.lang.ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException: 22
```
``` import scala.collection.mutable.ArrayBuffer
val array2 = new ArrayBuffer[int]
array2 += 1
array2 += 2
array2 += 3
array2(1) // 2 (zero based indexing)
array2(1) = 33
array2.toString // ArrayBuffer(1,33,3)
```
``` var l = List(1,2,3)
l = 44 :: l //  List(44,1,2,3)
l(2) // 2
```

## Scheme

``` (vector-set! arr loc val)
```

## Tcl

``` proc setIfExist {theVariable value} {
upvar 1 \$theVariable variable
if {[info exists theVariable]} {
set theVariable \$value
} else {
error "\$theVariable doesn't exist"
}
}
```

Note that setIfExist is general purpose and works on regular variables as well as arrays:

``` setIfExist foo(bar) 10 ;# error if foo(bar) doesn't exist
setIfExist x 10        ;# error if x doesn't exist
```

## Toka

``` 100 cells is-array foo
1000 10 foo array.put   ( Put value '1000' into array 'foo' at slot '10' )
10 chars is-array bar
char: A 1 foo array.putChar  ( Put value 'A' (ASCII code) into character array 'bar' at slot '1' )
```

## Visual Basic

Language Version: 5.0+

```Private Function writeToArray(intArray() As Integer, arraySize As Integer, loc As Integer, value As Integer) As Integer
If loc > arraySize Then
writeToArray = -1
Else
intArray(loc) = value
writeToArray = 0
End If
End Function
```

## VBScript

### Simple Example

Define our Array

``` Dim myArray (5)
```

Use a For Next loop to set the array data.

``` For i = 0 To 4
myArray(i) = i
Next
```

Use a For Next loop and MsgBox to display the array data.

``` MsgBox("Print array values")
For i = 0 To 4
msgbox("myArray element " & i & " = " & myArray(i))
Next
```

### Variable Array Length

Example where we don't know the required array size at the start and where we need to increase the array size as we go

Define an array - but we don't know how big yet.

``` Dim myArray2 ()
```

OK, now we know how big an array we need.

``` ReDim myArray2(3)
```

``` For i = 0 To 2
myArray2(i) = i
Next
```

Print the array

``` MsgBox("We've set the new array size and set the data")
For i = 0 To 2
MsgBox "myArray2 element " & i & " = " & myArray2(i)
Next
```

Now we need to make the array bigger. Note the Preserve keyword so that the existing data in the array is not lost when we resize it.

``` ReDim Preserve myArray2(5)
```

``` For i = 3 To 4
``` MsgBox ("We've increased the array size and loaded more data")