You are encouraged to solve this task according to the task description, using any language you may know.
Description

The ADFGVX cipher was a manually applied field cipher used by the German Army during World War I. It was broken in 1918 by the French cryptanalyst Georges Painvin.

The workings of the cipher are described in the Wikipedia article, linked to above, and so will not be repeated here.

Write routines, functions etc. in your language to:

1. Encrypt suitable plaintext and decrypt the resulting cipher text using the ADFGVX cipher algorithm given a Polybius square (see 2. below) and a suitable key. For this purpose suitable means text consisting solely of ASCII upper case letters or digits.

2. Create a 6 x 6 Polybius square using a random combination of the letters A to Z and the digits 0 to 9 and then display it.

3. Given the number of letters (between 7 and 12 say) to use, create a key by selecting a suitable word at random from unixdict.txt and then display it. The word selected should be such that none of its characters are repeated.

Use these routines to create a Polybius square and a 9 letter key.

These should then be used to encrypt the plaintext: ATTACKAT1200AM and decrypt the resulting cipher text. Display here the results of both operations.

Note

As it's unclear from the Wikipedia article how to handle a final row with fewer elements than the number of characters in the key, either of the methods mentioned in Columnar transposition may be used. In the case of the second method, it is also acceptable to fill any gaps after shuffling by moving elements to the left which makes decipherment harder.

## 11l

Translation of: Nim
```V adfgvx = ‘ADFGVX’

F encrypt(plainText, polybius, key)
V s = ‘’
L(ch) plainText
L(r) 6
L(c) 6
I polybius[r][c] == ch

DefaultDict[Char, String] cols
L(ch) s
cols[key[L.index % key.len]] ‘’= ch

V result = ‘’
L(k) sorted(cols.keys())
I !result.empty
result ‘’= ‘ ’
result ‘’= cols[k]
R result

F decrypt(cipherText, polybius, key)
V skey = sorted(key)
V cols = [‘’] * key.len
V idx = 0
L(col) cipherText.split(‘ ’)
cols[key.findi(skey[idx])] = col
idx++

V s = ‘’
L(i) 0 .< key.len
L(col) cols
I i < col.len
s ‘’= col[i]

V result = ‘’
L(i) (0 .< s.len - 1).step(2)
V c = :adfgvx.findi(s[i + 1])
result ‘’= polybius[r][c]
R result

V polybius = [[Char("\0")] * 6] * 6
V alphabet = ‘ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ0123456789’
random:shuffle(&alphabet)
L(r) 6
L(c) 6
polybius[r][c] = alphabet[6 * r + c]

print("6 x 6 Polybius square:\n")
print(‘  | A D F G V X’)
print(‘---------------’)
L(row) polybius

V words = File(‘unixdict.txt’).read().split("\n").filter(w -> w.len == 9 & w.len == Set(Array(w)).len)
V key = random:choice(words).uppercase()
print("\nThe key is "key)

V PlainText = ‘ATTACKAT1200AM’
print("\nPlaintext : "PlainText)

V cipherText = encrypt(PlainText, polybius, key)
print("\nEncrypted : "cipherText)

V plainText = decrypt(cipherText, polybius, key)
print("\nDecrypted : "plainText)```
Output:
```6 x 6 Polybius square:

| A D F G V X
---------------
A | X O F P D 6
D | V H C 4 0 Z
F | J M K R U 5
G | I A 9 Y B W
V | 3 L 2 1 N G
X | Q T E 7 8 S

The key is EXCURSION

Plaintext : ATTACKAT1200AM

Encrypted : XFD GFVD GDG DGF DVD XDD DXV DGV DFF

Decrypted : ATTACKAT1200AM
```

## AArch64 Assembly

Works with: as version Raspberry Pi 3B version Buster 64 bits
```/* ARM assembly AARCH64 Raspberry PI 3B */
/* remark 1 : At each launch, the random values are identical.
To change them, modify the value of the seed (graine) */
/* remark 2 : this program not run in android with termux
because the call system stats is not find */

/************************************/
/* Constantes                       */
/************************************/
/* for this file see task include a file in language AArch64 assembly*/
.include "../includeConstantesARM64.inc"

.equ SIZE,   6
.equ SIZEC,  SIZE * SIZE
.equ KEYSIZE,   9
.equ FSTAT,        80
.equ O_RDWR,  0x0002         // open for reading and writing

/*******************************************/
/* Structures                          **/
/*******************************************/
/* structure de type   stat 64 bits : infos fichier  */
.struct  0
Stat_dev_t:                  // ID of device containing file
.struct Stat_dev_t + 8
Stat_ino_t:                  // inode
.struct Stat_ino_t + 4
Stat_mode_t:                 // File type and mode
.struct Stat_mode_t + 4
Stat_uid_t:                  // User ID of owner
.struct Stat_uid_t + 8
Stat_gid_t:                  // Group ID of owner
.struct Stat_gid_t + 8
Stat_rdev_t:                 // Device ID (if special file)
.struct Stat_rdev_t + 8
Stat_size_deb:               // la taille est sur 8 octets si gros fichiers
.struct Stat_size_deb + 4
Stat_size_t:                 // Total size, in bytes
.struct Stat_size_t + 4
Stat_blksize_t:              // Block size for filesystem I/O
.struct Stat_blksize_t + 4
Stat_blkcnt_t:               // Number of 512B blocks allocated
.struct Stat_blkcnt_t + 4
Stat_atime:                  // date et heure fichier
.struct Stat_atime + 8
Stat_mtime:                  // date et heure modif fichier
.struct Stat_atime + 8
Stat_ctime:                  // date et heure creation fichier
.struct Stat_atime + 8
Stat_Fin:

/*********************************/
/* Initialized data              */
/*********************************/
.data
szText:               .asciz "ATTACKAT1200AM"
//szText:               .asciz "ABCDEFGHIJ"
szMessOpen:           .asciz "File open error.\n"
szMessStat:           .asciz "File information error.\n"
szMessClose:          .asciz "File close error.\n"
szMessDecryptText:    .asciz "Decrypted text :\n"
szMessCryptText:      .asciz "Encrypted text :\n"
szMessErrorChar:      .asciz "Character text not Ok!\n"
szFileName:           .asciz "unixdict.txt"
szMessPolybius:       .asciz "6 x 6 Polybius square:\n"
szTitle:              .asciz "  | A D F G V X\n---------------\n"
szLine1:              .asciz "A |            \n"
szLine2:              .asciz "D |            \n"
szLine3:              .asciz "F |            \n"
szLine4:              .asciz "G |            \n"
szLine5:              .asciz "V |            \n"
szLine6:              .asciz "X |            \n"
szListChar:           .asciz "ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ0123456789"
.equ LGLISTCHAR,      . - szListChar - 1
szMessStart:          .asciz "Program 64 bits start.\n"
szCarriageReturn:     .asciz "\n"
.align 4

qGraine:  .quad  1234567         // random init

/*********************************/
/* UnInitialized data            */
/*********************************/
.bss
sKeyWord:              .skip 16
sKeyWordSorted:        .skip 16
tabPolybius:           .skip SIZE * SIZE + 4
sBuffer:               .skip 1000
sBuffex1:              .skip 1000
sBuffex2:              .skip 1000
tabPosit:              .skip 16
tabPositInv:           .skip 16
/*********************************/
/*  code section                 */
/*********************************/
.text
.global main
main:                            // entry of program
bl affichageMess
bl createPolybius            // create 6*6 polybius

bl generateKey               // generate key
cmp x0,#-1                   // file error ?
beq 100f
bl affichageMess             // display key
bl affichageMess

bl affichageMess
bl encryption
cmp x0,#-1                    // error if unknow character in text
beq 100f
bl affichageMess              // display text encrypted
bl affichageMess
bl affichageMess

bl affichageMess
bl decryption
bl affichageMess
bl affichageMess

100:                             // standard end of the program
mov x0, #0                   // return code
mov x8, #EXIT                // request to exit program
svc #0                       // perform the system call

/***************************************************/
/*   create 6 * 6 polybius                    */
/***************************************************/
createPolybius:
stp x1,lr,[sp,-16]!          // save registers
stp x2,x3,[sp,-16]!
stp x4,x5,[sp,-16]!
mov x1,#LGLISTCHAR           // character list size
bl shufflestrings            // shuffle list
bl affichageMess
ldr x0,qAdrszTitle           // display polybius lines
bl affichageMess
mov x3,#0
mov x4,#4
1:
ldrb w1,[x2,x3]
strb w1,[x0,x4]
cmp x3,#SIZE
blt 1b
bl affichageMess
mov x3,#SIZE
mov x4,#4
2:
ldrb w1,[x2,x3]
strb w1,[x0,x4]
cmp x3,#SIZE * 2
blt 2b
bl affichageMess
mov x3,#SIZE * 2
mov x4,#4
3:
ldrb w1,[x2,x3]
strb w1,[x0,x4]
cmp x3,#SIZE * 3
blt 3b
bl affichageMess
mov x3,#SIZE * 3
mov x4,#4
4:
ldrb w1,[x2,x3]
strb w1,[x0,x4]
cmp x3,#SIZE * 4
blt 4b
bl affichageMess
mov x3,#SIZE * 4
mov x4,#4
5:
ldrb w1,[x2,x3]
strb w1,[x0,x4]
cmp x3,#SIZE * 5
blt 5b
bl affichageMess
mov x3,#SIZE * 5
mov x4,#4
6:
ldrb w1,[x2,x3]
strb w1,[x0,x4]
cmp x3,#SIZE * 6
blt 6b
bl affichageMess

100:
ldp x4,x5,[sp],16
ldp x2,x3,[sp],16
ldp x1,lr,[sp],16
ret
/***************************************************/
/*  generate key word                              */
/***************************************************/
/* x0  key word address */
generateKey:
stp x1,lr,[sp,-16]!
stp x2,x3,[sp,-16]!
stp x4,x5,[sp,-16]!
stp x6,x7,[sp,-16]!
stp x8,x9,[sp,-16]!
stp x10,x11,[sp,-16]!
stp x12,x13,[sp,-16]!
mov x9,x0
mov x0,AT_FDCWD
mov x2,#O_RDWR           // flags
mov x3,#0                // mode
mov x8,#OPEN             // file open
svc 0
cmp x0,#0                // error ?
ble 99f
mov x11,x0               // FD save
mov x8, #FSTAT           // call systeme NEWFSTAT
svc 0
cmp x0,#0
blt 98f
ldr w6,[x1,#Stat_size_t] // file size
//ldr w6,[x1,mbox_data_size]
lsr x12,x6,#5            // align size to multiple 16 for stack alignement
lsl x12,x12,#5
sub sp,sp,x12            // reserve buffer on stack
mov x0,x11
mov x1,fp
mov x2,x12
svc 0
cmp x0,#0                // error read ?
blt 97f
mov x0,x11
mov x8,#CLOSE            // call system close file
svc 0
cmp x0,#0                // error close ?
blt 96f
sub sp,sp,#0x1000        // create array word address on stack
mov x10,sp               // save address array
mov x1,#0
mov x2,fp
mov x5,#0                // index word ok
mov x3,#0                // word length
1:
cmp w4,#0x0D             // end word ?
beq 2f                   // yes
b 1b
2:
cmp x3,#KEYSIZE          // word length = key length ?
bne 3f                   // no ?
mov x0,x2
bl wordControl           // contril if all letters are diffÃ©rent ?
cmp x0,#1
bne 3f
str x2,[x10,x5,lsl #3]   // if ok store word address in array on stack
add x5,x5,#1             // increment word counter
3:
cmp x1,x6                // end ?
beq 4f
add x2,fp,x1             // new word begin
mov x3,#0                // init word length
b 1b                     // and loop
4:
mov x0,x5                // number random to total words
bl genereraleas
mov x1,#0
5:                           // copy random word in word result
ldrb w3,[x2,x1]
strb w3,[x9,x1]
cmp x1,#KEYSIZE
blt 5b
strb wzr,[x9,x1]         // zero final
mov x0,x9
b 100f
// display errors
96:
bl affichageMess
mov x0,#-1               // error
b 100f
97:
bl affichageMess
mov x0,#-1               // error
b 100f
98:
bl  affichageMess
mov x0,#-1               // error
b 101f
99:
bl  affichageMess
mov x0,#-1               // error
b 101f
100:
101:
ldp x12,x13,[sp],16
ldp x10,x11,[sp],16
ldp x8,x9,[sp],16
ldp x6,x7,[sp],16
ldp x4,x5,[sp],16
ldp x2,x3,[sp],16
ldp x1,lr,[sp],16
ret
/******************************************************************/
/*     control if letters are diferents                  */
/******************************************************************/
/* x0 contains the address of the string */
/* x0 return 1 if Ok else return 0 */
wordControl:
stp x1,lr,[sp,-16]!
stp x2,x3,[sp,-16]!
stp x4,x5,[sp,-16]!
mov x1,#0                 // init index 1
1:
ldrb w3,[x0,x1]           // load one character
cmp x3,#0x0D              // end word ?
mov x5,#1
csel x0,x5,x0,eq          // yes is ok
//moveq x0,#1               // yes is ok
beq 100f                  // -> end
add x2,x1,#1              // init index two
2:
ldrb w4,[x0,x2]           // load one character
cmp w4,#0x0D              // end word ?
csel x1,x5,x1,eq          // yes increment index 1
beq 1b                    // and loop1
cmp x3,x4                 // caracters equals ?
csel x0,xzr,x0,eq         // yes is not good
beq 100f                  // and end
add x2,x2,#1              // else increment index 2
b 2b                      // and loop 2
100:
ldp x4,x5,[sp],16
ldp x2,x3,[sp],16
ldp x1,lr,[sp],16
ret
/******************************************************************/
/*         key sort by insertion sort                                              */
/******************************************************************/
/* x0 contains the address of String */
/* x1 contains the first element    */
/* x2 contains the number of element */
/* x3 contains result address */
keySort:
stp x1,lr,[sp,-16]!
stp x2,x3,[sp,-16]!
stp x4,x5,[sp,-16]!
stp x6,x7,[sp,-16]!
stp x8,x9,[sp,-16]!
stp x10,x11,[sp,-16]!
mov x10,x3
mov x3,#0
0:                            // init position array and copy key
strb w3,[x7,x3]           // in result array
ldrb w4,[x0,x3]
strb w4,[x10,x3]
cmp x3,#KEYSIZE
blt 0b

add x3,x1,#1              // start index i
1:                            // start loop
ldrb w4,[x10,x3]          // load value A[i]
sub x5,x3,#1              // index j
2:
ldrb w6,[x10,x5]          // load value A[j]
cmp x6,x4                 // compare value
ble 3f
add x5,x5,#1                 // increment index j
strb w6,[x10,x5]          // store value A[j+1]
strb w9,[x7,x5]           // store position
subs x5,x5,#2                // j = j - 1
bge 2b                    // loop if j >= 0
3:
add x5,x5,#1              // increment index j
strb w4,[x10,x5]          // store value A[i] in A[j+1]
strb w8,[x7,x5]
add x3,x3,#1                 // increment index i
cmp x3,x2                 // end ?
blt 1b                    // no -> loop

mov x2,#0                 // index
4:
ldrb w3,[x7,x2]           // load position index
strb w2,[x1,x3]           // store index in position
cmp x2,#KEYSIZE           // end ?
blt 4b
mov x0,x10
100:
ldp x10,x11,[sp],16
ldp x8,x9,[sp],16
ldp x6,x7,[sp],16
ldp x4,x5,[sp],16
ldp x2,x3,[sp],16
ldp x1,lr,[sp],16                 // TODO: retaur à completer
ret
/******************************************************************/
/*         text encryption                                        */
/******************************************************************/
/* x0 contains the address of text */
/* x2 contains the key address   */
/* x3 contains result buffer address */
encryption:
stp x1,lr,[sp,-16]!
stp x2,x3,[sp,-16]!
stp x4,x5,[sp,-16]!
stp x6,x7,[sp,-16]!
stp x8,x9,[sp,-16]!
stp x10,x11,[sp,-16]!
mov x9,x0                  // save text address
mov x8,x3
mov x10,x1                 // save address polybius
mov x1,#0                  // first character
mov x2,#KEYSIZE            // key length
bl keySort                 // sort leters of key
// bl affichageMess         // if you want display sorted key
//  bl affichageMess
mov x5,#0                  // init text index
mov x4,#0                  // init result index
1:
ldrb w0,[x9,x5]            // load a byte to text
cmp x0,#0                  // end ?
beq 4f
mov x6,#0                  // init index polybius
2:
ldrb w7,[x10,x6]           // load character polybius
cmp x7,x0                  // equal ?
beq 3f
cmp x6,#SIZEC              // not find -> error
bge 99f
b 2b                       // and loop
3:
mov x0,x6
bl convPosCode             // convert position in code character
strb w0,[x3,x4]            // line code character
strb w1,[x3,x4]            // column code character

add  x5,x5,#1              // increment text index
b 1b
4:
mov x0,#0                  // zero final -> text result
strb w0,[x3,x4]
mov x5,x3
mov x1,#0                  // index position column
mov x7,#0                  // index text
5:
ldrb w0,[x2,x1]           // load position text
7:                            // loop to characters transposition

strb w6,[x8,x7]           // store position final
add x7,x7,#1              // increment final index
cmp x0,x4                 // end ?
blt 7b
cmp x1,#KEYSIZE           // < key size
blt 5b                    // yes -> loop

mov x6,#0                 // zero final
strb w6,[x8,x7]
mov x0,x8                 // return address encrypted text

b 100f
99:                           // display error
bl affichageMess
mov x0,#-1
100:
ldp x10,x11,[sp],16
ldp x8,x9,[sp],16
ldp x6,x7,[sp],16
ldp x4,x5,[sp],16
ldp x2,x3,[sp],16
ldp x1,lr,[sp],16
ret
/******************************************************************/
/*         text decryption                                              */
/******************************************************************/
/* x0 contains the address of text */
/* x2 contains the key    */
/* x3 contains result buffer */
/* x0 return decoded text */
decryption:
stp x1,lr,[sp,-16]!
stp x2,x3,[sp,-16]!
stp x4,x5,[sp,-16]!
stp x6,x7,[sp,-16]!
stp x8,x9,[sp,-16]!
stp x10,x11,[sp,-16]!
stp x12,x13,[sp,-16]!
mov x4,#0
1:                              // compute text length
ldrb w5,[x0,x4]
cmp x5,#0
csel x4,x11,x4,ne
bne 1b
mov x12,x0
mov x11,x1
mov x10,x2
mov x13,x3
// compute line number and remainder
mov x1,#KEYSIZE              // compute line number and remainder
udiv x8,x4,x1                // line number
msub x7,x8,x1,x4             // remainder characters last line
mov x1,#0                    // first character
mov x2,#KEYSIZE              // size
bl keySort                   // sort key
mov x2,#0                    // index colonne tabposit
mov x5,#0                    // text index
mov x0,#0                    // index line store text
mov x1,#0                    // counter line

1:
ldrb w6,[x12,x5]             // load text character
add x3,x3,x0                 // compute position with index line
strb w6,[x9,x3]              // store character in good position

add x5,x5,#1                 // increment index text
cmp x5,x4                    // end ?
bge 4f
cmp x1,x8                    // line < line size
blt 2f
bgt 11f                      // line = line size
sub x3,x3,x0                 // restaure position column
cmp x3,x7                    // position < remainder  so add character other line
blt 2f
11:
mov x1,#0                    // init ligne
mov x0,#0                    // init line shift
add x2,x2,#1                 // increment index array position inverse
cmp x2,#KEYSIZE              // end ?
csel x2,xzr,x2,ge            // init index
b 3f
2:
3:
b 1b
4:                               // convertir characters with polybius
mov x3,#0
mov x5,#0

5:
mov x0,x11
ldrb w1,[x9,x3]              // load a first character
ldrb w2,[x9,x3]              // load a 2ieme character
bl decodPosCode              // decode
strb w0,[x13,x5]              // store result in final result
add x5,x5,#1                 // increment final result index
add x3,x3,#1                 // increment index text
cmp x3,x4                    // end ?
blt 5b
mov x0,#0                    // final zero
strb w0,[x13,x5]
mov x0,x13                    // return final result address
100:
ldp x12,x13,[sp],16
ldp x10,x11,[sp],16
ldp x8,x9,[sp],16
ldp x6,x7,[sp],16
ldp x4,x5,[sp],16
ldp x2,x3,[sp],16
ldp x1,lr,[sp],16                 // TODO: retaur à completer
ret
/******************************************************************/
/*         convertir position en code                                              */
/******************************************************************/
/* x0 contains the position in polybius */
/* x0 return code1 */
/* x1 return code2 */
convPosCode:
stp x2,lr,[sp,-16]!
stp x3,x4,[sp,-16]!
mov x1,#SIZE
udiv x2,x0,x1
msub x3,x2,x1,x0
//bl division
ldrb w0,[x4,x2]
ldrb w1,[x4,x3]
100:
ldp x3,x4,[sp],16
ldp x2,lr,[sp],16
ret
/******************************************************************/
/*         convertir code en character                                              */
/******************************************************************/
/* x1 code 1 */
/* x2 code 2 */
/* x0 return character */
decodPosCode:
stp x1,lr,[sp,-16]!
stp x2,x3,[sp,-16]!
stp x4,x5,[sp,-16]!
mov x3,#0
1:
ldrb w5,[x4,x3]
cmp x5,#0
beq 2f
cmp x5,x1
csel x1,x3,x1,eq
cmp x5,x2
csel x2,x3,x2,eq
b 1b
2:
mov x5,#SIZE
mul x1,x5,x1
ldrb w0,[x0,x1]
100:
ldp x4,x5,[sp],16
ldp x2,x3,[sp],16
ldp x1,lr,[sp],16
ret

/******************************************************************/
/*     shuffle strings  algorithme Fisher-Yates                   */
/******************************************************************/
/* x0 contains the address of the string */
/* x1 contains string length */
/* x2 contains address result string */
shufflestrings:
stp x1,lr,[sp,-16]!               // TODO: save à completer
stp x2,x3,[sp,-16]!
stp x4,x5,[sp,-16]!
mov x3,#0
1:                            // loop copy string in result
ldrb w4,[x0,x3]
strb w4,[x2,x3]
cmp x3,x1
ble 1b
sub x1,x1,#1              // last element
2:
mov x0,x1
bl genereraleas           // call random
ldrb w4,[x2,x1]           // load byte string index loop
ldrb w3,[x2,x0]           // load byte string random index
strb w3,[x2,x1]           // and exchange
strb w4,[x2,x0]
subs x1,x1,#1
cmp x1,#1
bge 2b

100:
ldp x4,x5,[sp],16
ldp x2,x3,[sp],16
ldp x1,lr,[sp],16
ret

/***************************************************/
/*   Generation random number                  */
/***************************************************/
/* x0 contains limit  */
genereraleas:
stp x1,lr,[sp,-16]!            // save  registers
stp x2,x3,[sp,-16]!            // save  registers
ldr x2,[x1]
ldr x3,qNbDep1
mul x2,x3,x2
ldr x3,qNbDep2
str x2,[x1]                    // maj de la graine pour l appel suivant
cmp x0,#0
beq 100f
udiv x3,x2,x0
msub x0,x3,x0,x2               // résult = remainder

100:                               // end function
ldp x2,x3,[sp],16              // restaur  2 registers
ldp x1,lr,[sp],16              // restaur  2 registers

/***************************************************/
/*      ROUTINES INCLUDE                           */
/***************************************************/
.include "../includeARM64.inc"```
Output:
```Program 64 bits start.
6 x 6 Polybius square:
| A D F G V X
---------------
A | Q A M C 0 X
D | 1 S O Y R E
F | H 7 J T U W
G | V F 3 Z 4 I
V | 8 B 9 K 6 2
X | P D L G 5 N
hailstorm
Encrypted text :
DVXAGVFFGAGAVDDDAAAGFVAGAFDA

Decrypted text :
ATTACKAT1200AM
```

## ARM Assembly

Works with: as version Raspberry Pi
```/* ARM assembly Raspberry PI  */
/* remark 1 : At each launch, the random values are identical.
To change them, modify the value of the seed (graine) */
/* remark 2 : this program not run in android with termux
because the call system stats is not find */

/************************************/
/* Constantes                       */
/************************************/
/* for constantes see task include a file in arm assembly */
.include "../constantes.inc"

.equ SIZE,   6
.equ SIZEC,  SIZE * SIZE
.equ KEYSIZE,   9
.equ WRITE,  4
.equ OPEN,   5
.equ CLOSE,  6
.equ FSTAT,      0x6C
.equ O_RDWR,  0x0002         @ open for reading and writing

/**********************************************/
/* structure de type   stat  : infos fichier  */
/**********************************************/
.struct  0
Stat_dev_t:                 @ ID of device containing file
.struct Stat_dev_t + 4
Stat_ino_t:                 @ inode
.struct Stat_ino_t + 2
Stat_mode_t:                @ File type and mode
.struct Stat_mode_t + 2
Stat_uid_t:                 @ User ID of owner
.struct Stat_uid_t + 2
Stat_gid_t:                 @ Group ID of owner
.struct Stat_gid_t + 2
Stat_rdev_t:                @ Device ID (if special file)
.struct Stat_rdev_t + 2
Stat_size_deb:              @ la taille est sur 8 octets si gros fichiers
.struct Stat_size_deb + 4
Stat_size_t:                @ Total size, in bytes
.struct Stat_size_t + 4
Stat_blksize_t:             @ Block size for filesystem I/O
.struct Stat_blksize_t + 4
Stat_blkcnt_t:              @ Number of 512B blocks allocated
.struct Stat_blkcnt_t + 4
Stat_atime:                 @ date et heure fichier
.struct Stat_atime + 8
Stat_mtime:                 @ date et heure modif fichier
.struct Stat_atime + 8
Stat_ctime:                 @ date et heure creation fichier
.struct Stat_atime + 8
Stat_Fin:

/*********************************/
/* Initialized data              */
/*********************************/
.data
szText:               .asciz "ATTACKAT1200AM"
//szText:               .asciz "ABCDEFGHIJ"
szMessOpen:           .asciz "File open error.\n"
szMessStat:           .asciz "File information error.\n"
szMessClose:          .asciz "File close error.\n"
szMessDecryptText:    .asciz "Decrypted text :\n"
szMessCryptText:      .asciz "Encrypted text :\n"
szMessErrorChar:      .asciz "Character text not Ok!\n"
szFileName:           .asciz "unixdict.txt"
szMessPolybius:       .asciz "6 x 6 Polybius square:\n"
szTitle:              .asciz "  | A D F G V X\n---------------\n"
szLine1:              .asciz "A |            \n"
szLine2:              .asciz "D |            \n"
szLine3:              .asciz "F |            \n"
szLine4:              .asciz "G |            \n"
szLine5:              .asciz "V |            \n"
szLine6:              .asciz "X |            \n"
szListChar:           .asciz "ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ0123456789"
.equ LGLISTCHAR,      . - szListChar - 1
szMessStart:          .asciz "Program 32 bits start.\n"
szCarriageReturn:     .asciz "\n"
.align 4

iGraine:  .int 1234567         // random init

/*********************************/
/* UnInitialized data            */
/*********************************/
.bss
sKeyWord:              .skip 16
sKeyWordSorted:        .skip 16
tabPolybius:           .skip SIZE * SIZE + 4
sBuffer:               .skip 1000
sBuffer1:              .skip 1000
sBuffer2:              .skip 1000
tabPosit:              .skip 16
tabPositInv:           .skip 16
/*********************************/
/*  code section                 */
/*********************************/
.text
.global main
main:                            @ entry of program
bl affichageMess
bl createPolybius            @ create 6*6 polybius

bl generateKey               @ generate key
cmp r0,#-1                   @ file error ?
beq 100f
bl affichageMess             @ display key
bl affichageMess

bl affichageMess
bl encryption
cmp r0,#-1                    @ error if unknow character in text
beq 100f
bl affichageMess              @ display text encrypted
bl affichageMess
bl affichageMess

bl affichageMess
bl decryption
bl affichageMess
bl affichageMess

100:                             @ standard end of the program
mov r0, #0                   @ return code
mov r7, #EXIT                @ request to exit program
svc #0                       @ perform the system call

/***************************************************/
/*   create 6 * 6 polybius                    */
/***************************************************/
createPolybius:
push {r1-r4,lr}              @ save des registres
mov r1,#LGLISTCHAR           @ character list size
bl shufflestrings            @ shuffle list
bl affichageMess
ldr r0,iAdrszTitle           @ display polybius lines
bl affichageMess
mov r3,#0
mov r4,#4
1:
ldrb r1,[r2,r3]
strb r1,[r0,r4]
cmp r3,#SIZE
blt 1b
bl affichageMess
mov r3,#SIZE
mov r4,#4
2:
ldrb r1,[r2,r3]
strb r1,[r0,r4]
cmp r3,#SIZE * 2
blt 2b
bl affichageMess
mov r3,#SIZE * 2
mov r4,#4
3:
ldrb r1,[r2,r3]
strb r1,[r0,r4]
cmp r3,#SIZE * 3
blt 3b
bl affichageMess
mov r3,#SIZE * 3
mov r4,#4
4:
ldrb r1,[r2,r3]
strb r1,[r0,r4]
cmp r3,#SIZE * 4
blt 4b
bl affichageMess
mov r3,#SIZE * 4
mov r4,#4
5:
ldrb r1,[r2,r3]
strb r1,[r0,r4]
cmp r3,#SIZE * 5
blt 5b
bl affichageMess
mov r3,#SIZE * 5
mov r4,#4
6:
ldrb r1,[r2,r3]
strb r1,[r0,r4]
cmp r3,#SIZE * 6
blt 6b
bl affichageMess

100:
pop {r1-r4,pc}
/***************************************************/
/*  generate key word                              */
/***************************************************/
/* r0  key word address */
generateKey:
push {r1-r12,lr}         @ save registers
mov r9,r0
mov r1,#O_RDWR           @ flags
mov r2,#0                @ mode
mov r7,#OPEN             @ file open
svc 0
cmp r0,#0                @ error ?
ble 99f
mov r8,r0                @ FD save
mov r7, #FSTAT           @ call systeme NEWFSTAT
svc 0
cmp r0,#0
blt 98f
ldr r6,[r1,#Stat_size_t] @ file size
lsr r12,r6,#3            @ align size to multiple 4
lsl r12,#3
sub sp,sp,r12            @ reserve buffer on stack
mov r0,r8
mov r1,fp
mov r2,r12
svc 0
cmp r0,#0                @ error read ?
blt 97f
mov r0,r8
mov r7,#CLOSE            @ call system close file
svc 0
cmp r0,#0                @ error close ?
blt 96f
sub sp,sp,#0x1000        @ create array word address on stack
mov r10,sp               @ save address array
mov r1,#0
mov r2,fp
mov r5,#0                @ index word ok
mov r3,#0                @ word length
1:
cmp r4,#0x0D             @ end word ?
beq 2f                   @ yes
b 1b
2:
cmp r3,#KEYSIZE          @ word length = key length ?
bne 3f                   @ no ?
mov r0,r2
bl wordControl           @ contril if all letters are différent ?
cmp r0,#1
streq r2,[r10,r5,lsl #2] @ if ok store word address in array on stack
addeq r5,r5,#1           @ increment word counter
3:
cmp r1,r6                @ end ?
beq 4f
add r2,fp,r1             @ new word begin
mov r3,#0                @ init word length
b 1b                     @ and loop
4:
mov r0,r5                @ number random to total words
bl genereraleas
mov r1,#0
5:                           @ copy random word in word result
ldrb r3,[r2,r1]
strb r3,[r9,r1]
cmp r1,#KEYSIZE
blt 5b
mov r3,#0                @ zero final
strb r3,[r9,r1]
mov r0,r9
b 100f
@ display errors
96:
bl affichageMess
mov r0,#-1               @ error
b 100f
97:
bl affichageMess
mov r0,#-1               @ error
b 100f
98:
bl  affichageMess
mov r0,#-1               @ error
b 101f
99:
bl  affichageMess
mov r0,#-1               @ error
b 101f
100:
101:
pop {r1-r12,pc}
/******************************************************************/
/*     control if letters are diferents                  */
/******************************************************************/
/* r0 contains the address of the string */
/* r0 return 1 if Ok else return 0 */
wordControl:
push {r1-r4,lr}           @ save  registers
mov r1,#0                 @ init index 1
1:
ldrb r3,[r0,r1]           @ load one character
cmp r3,#0x0D              @ end word ?
moveq r0,#1               @ yes is ok
beq 100f                  @ -> end
add r2,r1,#1              @ init index two
2:
ldrb r4,[r0,r2]           @ load one character
cmp r4,#0x0D              @ end word ?
addeq r1,r1,#1            @ yes increment index 1
beq 1b                    @ and loop1
cmp r3,r4                 @ caracters equals ?
moveq r0,#0               @ yes is not good
beq 100f                  @ and end
add r2,r2,#1              @ else increment index 2
b 2b                      @ and loop 2
100:
pop {r1-r4,pc}
/******************************************************************/
/*         key sort by insertion sort                                              */
/******************************************************************/
/* r0 contains the address of String */
/* r1 contains the first element    */
/* r2 contains the number of element */
/* r3 contains result address */
keySort:
push {r2-r10,lr}           @ save registers
mov r10,r3
mov r3,#0
0:                            @ init position array and copy key
strb r3,[r7,r3]           @ in result array
ldrb r4,[r0,r3]
strb r4,[r10,r3]
cmp r3,#KEYSIZE
blt 0b

add r3,r1,#1              @ start index i
1:                            @ start loop
ldrb r4,[r10,r3]          @ load value A[i]
sub r5,r3,#1              @ index j
2:
ldrb r6,[r10,r5]          @ load value A[j]
cmp r6,r4                 @ compare value
ble 3f
add r5,#1                 @ increment index j
strb r6,[r10,r5]          @ store value A[j+1]
strb r9,[r7,r5]           @ store position
subs r5,#2                @ j = j - 1
bge 2b                    @ loop if j >= 0
3:
add r5,#1                 @ increment index j
strb r4,[r10,r5]          @ store value A[i] in A[j+1]
strb r8,[r7,r5]
add r3,#1                 @ increment index i
cmp r3,r2                 @ end ?
blt 1b                    @ no -> loop

mov r2,#0                 @ index
4:
ldrb r3,[r7,r2]           @ load position index
strb r2,[r1,r3]           @ store index in position
cmp r2,#KEYSIZE           @ end ?
blt 4b
mov r0,r10
100:
pop {r2-r10,pc}
/******************************************************************/
/*         text encryption                                        */
/******************************************************************/
/* r0 contains the address of text */
/* r2 contains the key address   */
/* r3 contains result buffer address */
encryption:
push {r2-r10,lr}           @ save registers
mov r9,r0                  @ save text address
mov r8,r3
mov r10,r1                 @ save address polybius
mov r1,#0                  @ first character
mov r2,#KEYSIZE            @ key length
bl keySort                 @ sort leters of key
//bl affichageMess         @ if you want display sorted key
//bl affichageMess
mov r5,#0                  @ init text index
mov r4,#0                  @ init result index
1:
ldrb r0,[r9,r5]            @ load a byte to text
cmp r0,#0                  @ end ?
beq 4f
mov r6,#0                  @ init index polybius
2:
ldrb r7,[r10,r6]           @ load character polybius
cmp r7,r0                  @ equal ?
beq 3f
cmp r6,#SIZEC              @ not find -> error
bge 99f
b 2b                       @ and loop
3:
mov r0,r6
bl convPosCode             @ convert position in code character
strb r0,[r3,r4]            @ line code character
strb r1,[r3,r4]            @ column code character

add  r5,r5,#1              @ increment text index
b 1b
4:
mov r0,#0                  @ zero final -> text result
strb r0,[r3,r4]
mov r5,r3
mov r1,#0                  @ index position column
mov r7,#0                  @ index text
5:
ldrb r0,[r2,r1]           @ load position text
7:                            @ loop to characters transposition

strb r6,[r8,r7]           @ store position final
add r7,r7,#1              @ increment final index
cmp r0,r4                 @ end ?
blt 7b
cmp r1,#KEYSIZE           @ < key size
blt 5b                    @ yes -> loop

mov r6,#0                 @ zero final
strb r6,[r8,r7]
mov r0,r8                 @ return address encrypted text

b 100f
99:                           @ display error
bl affichageMess
mov r0,#-1
100:
pop {r2-r10,pc}
/******************************************************************/
/*         text decryption                                              */
/******************************************************************/
/* r0 contains the address of text */
/* r2 contains the key    */
/* r3 contains result buffer */
/* r0 return decoded text */
decryption:
push {r1-r12,lr}            @ save registers
mov r4,#0
1:                              @ compute text length
ldrb r5,[r0,r4]
cmp r5,#0
bne 1b
mov r12,r0
mov r11,r1
mov r10,r2
mov r9,r3
mov r0,r4                    @ compute line number and remainder
mov r1,#KEYSIZE
bl division
mov r8,r2                    @ line number
mov r7,r3                    @ remainder characters last line
mov r1,#0                    @ first character
mov r2,#KEYSIZE              @ size
bl keySort                   @ sort key
mov r2,#0                    @ index colonne tabposit
mov r5,#0                    @ text index
mov r0,#0                    @ index line store text
mov r1,#0                    @ counter line
push {r9}                    @ save final result address
1:
ldrb r6,[r12,r5]             @ load text character
add r3,r3,r0                 @ compute position with index line
strb r6,[r9,r3]              @ store character in good position

add r5,r5,#1                 @ increment index text
cmp r5,r4                    @ end ?
bge 4f
cmp r1,r8                    @ line < line size
blt 2f
bgt 11f                      @ line = line size
sub r3,r3,r0                 @ restaure position column
cmp r3,r7                    @ position < remainder  so add character other line
blt 2f
11:
mov r1,#0                    @ init ligne
mov r0,#0                    @ init line shift
add r2,r2,#1                 @ increment index array position inverse
cmp r2,#KEYSIZE              @ end ?
movge r2,#0                  @ init index
b 3f
2:
3:
b 1b
4:                               @ convertir characters with polybius
mov r3,#0
mov r5,#0
pop {r6}                     @ restaur final address result
5:
mov r0,r11
ldrb r1,[r9,r3]              @ load a first character
ldrb r2,[r9,r3]              @ load a 2ieme character
bl decodPosCode              @ decode
strb r0,[r6,r5]              @ store result in final result
add r5,r5,#1                 @ increment final result index
add r3,r3,#1                 @ increment index text
cmp r3,r4                    @ end ?
blt 5b
mov r0,#0                    @ final zero
strb r0,[r6,r5]
mov r0,r6                    @ return final result address
100:
pop {r1-r12,pc}
/******************************************************************/
/*         convertir position en code                                              */
/******************************************************************/
/* r0 contains the position in polybius */
/* r0 return code1 */
/* r1 return code2 */
convPosCode:
push {r2-r4,lr}            @ save registers
mov r1,#SIZE
bl division
ldrb r0,[r4,r2]
ldrb r1,[r4,r3]
100:
pop {r2-r4,pc}
/******************************************************************/
/*         convertir code en character                                              */
/******************************************************************/
/* r1 code 1 */
/* r2 code 2 */
/* r0 return character */
decodPosCode:
push {r1-r5,lr}            @ save registers
mov r3,#0
1:
ldrb r5,[r4,r3]
cmp r5,#0
beq 2f
cmp r5,r1
moveq r1,r3
cmp r5,r2
moveq r2,r3
b 1b
2:
mov r5,#SIZE
mul r1,r5,r1
ldrb r0,[r0,r1]
100:
pop {r1-r5,pc}

/******************************************************************/
/*     shuffle strings  algorithme Fisher-Yates                   */
/******************************************************************/
/* r0 contains the address of the string */
/* r1 contains string length */
/* r2 contains address result string */
shufflestrings:
push {r1-r4,lr}           @ save  registers
mov r3,#0
1:                            @ loop copy string in result
ldrb r4,[r0,r3]
strb r4,[r2,r3]
cmp r3,r1
ble 1b
sub r1,r1,#1              @ last element
2:
mov r0,r1                 @ limit random number
bl genereraleas           @ call random
ldrb r4,[r2,r1]           @ load byte string index loop
ldrb r3,[r2,r0]           @ load byte string random index
strb r3,[r2,r1]           @ and exchange
strb r4,[r2,r0]
subs r1,r1,#1
cmp r1,#1
bge 2b

100:
pop {r1-r4,pc}            @ restaur registers

/***************************************************/
/*   Generation random number                  */
/***************************************************/
/* r0 contains limit  */
genereraleas:
push {r1-r4,lr}                   @ save registers
ldr r2,[r4]
ldr r3,iNbDep1
mul r2,r3,r2
ldr r3,iNbDep1
str r2,[r4]                       @ save seed for next call
cmp r0,#0
beq 100f
mov r1,r0                         @ divisor
mov r0,r2                         @ dividende
bl division
mov r0,r3                         @ résult = remainder

100:                                  @ end function
pop {r1-r4,pc}                    @ restaur registers
iNbDep1:     .int 0x343FD
iNbDep2:     .int 0x269EC3

/***************************************************/
/*      ROUTINES INCLUDE                           */
/***************************************************/
.include "../affichage.inc"```
Output:
```Program 32 bits start.
6 x 6 Polybius square:
| A D F G V X
---------------
A | C 7 S J 3 Y
D | 8 F K A Q U
F | 0 E W R 4 I
G | B O P Z 9 2
V | 6 M 5 L H 1
X | D X T G V N
switchman
Encrypted text :
DFDAXVFDAGVGGDXXFFXGFDAGDFXA

Decrypted text :
ATTACKAT1200AM
```

## C++

```#include <algorithm>
#include <cstdint>
#include <fstream>
#include <iostream>
#include <random>
#include <sstream>
#include <stdexcept>
#include <string>
#include <unordered_set>
#include <vector>

const std::string ALPHABET = "ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ0123456789";

std::random_device random;
std::mt19937 mersenne_twister(random());

std::vector<std::vector<char>> initialise_polybius_square() {
std::vector<char> letters(ALPHABET.begin(), ALPHABET.end());
std::shuffle(letters.begin(), letters.end(), mersenne_twister);

std::vector<std::vector<char>> result = { 6, std::vector<char>(6, 0) };
for ( int32_t row = 0; row < 6; ++row ) {
for ( int32_t column = 0; column < 6; ++column ) {
result[row][column] = letters[6 * row + column];
}
}
return result;
}

// Create a key using a word from the dictionary 'unixdict.txt'
std::string create_key(const uint64_t& size) {
if ( size < 7 || size > 12 ) {
throw std::invalid_argument("Key should contain between 7 and 12 letters, both inclusive.");
}

std::vector<std::string> candidates;
std::fstream file_stream;
file_stream.open("../unixdict.txt");
std::string word;
while ( file_stream >> word ) {
if ( word.length() == size &&
word.length() == std::unordered_set<char>{ word.begin(), word.end() }.size() ) {
std::transform(word.begin(), word.end(), word.begin(), [](const char& ch){ return std::toupper(ch); });
if ( word.find_first_not_of(ALPHABET) == std::string::npos ) {
candidates.emplace_back(word);
}
}
}
std::shuffle(candidates.begin(), candidates.end(), mersenne_twister);
std::string key = candidates[0];
return key;
}

std::string encrypt(const std::string& plain_text,
const std::vector<std::vector<char>>& polybius,
const std::string& key) {
std::string code = "";
for ( const char& ch : plain_text ) {
for ( int32_t row = 0; row < 6; ++row ) {
for ( int32_t column = 0; column < 6; ++column ) {
if ( polybius[row][column] == ch ) {
}
}
}
}

std::string encrypted = "";
for ( const char& ch : key ) {
for ( uint64_t i = key.find(ch); i < code.length(); i += key.length() ) {
encrypted += code[i];
}
encrypted += " ";
}
return encrypted;
}

std::string decrypt(const std::string& encrypted_text,
const std::vector<std::vector<char>>& polybius,
const std::string& key) {
const uint64_t space_count = std::count(encrypted_text.begin(), encrypted_text.end(), ' ');
const uint64_t code_size = encrypted_text.length() - space_count;

std::vector<std::string> blocks;
std::stringstream stream(encrypted_text);
std:: string word;
while ( stream >> word ) {
blocks.emplace_back(word);
}

std::string code = "";
for ( int32_t i = 0; code.length() < code_size; ++i ) {
for ( const std::string& block : blocks ) {
if ( code.length() < code_size ) {
code += block[i];
}
}
}

std::string plain_text = "";
for ( uint64_t i = 0; i < code_size - 1; i += 2 ) {
int32_t column = ADFGVX.find(code[i + 1]);
plain_text += polybius[row][column];
}
return plain_text;
}

int main() {
const std::vector<std::vector<char>> polybius = initialise_polybius_square();
std::cout << "The 6 x 6 Polybius square:" << std::endl;
std::cout << " | A D F G V X" << std::endl;
std::cout << "--------------" << std::endl;
for ( int32_t row = 0; row < 6; ++row ) {
for ( int32_t column = 0; column < 6; ++column ) {
std::cout << " " << polybius[row][column];
}
std::cout << std::endl;
}
std::cout << std::endl;

const std::string key = create_key(9);
std::cout << "The key is " << key << std::endl << std::endl;
const std::string plain_text = "ATTACKAT1200AM";
std::cout << "Plain text: " << plain_text <<std::endl << std::endl;
const std::string encrypted_text = encrypt(plain_text, polybius, key);
std::cout << "Encrypted: " << encrypted_text << std::endl << std::endl;
const std::string decrypted_text = decrypt(encrypted_text, polybius, key);
std::cout << "Decrypted: " << decrypted_text << std::endl;
}
```
Output:
```The 6 x 6 Polybius square:
| A D F G V X
--------------
A| X Q I Z 1 K
D| A O Y 2 S 5
F| G 7 J R 9 T
G| 0 3 E P C V
V| N 6 D L H B
X| U 4 F W M 8

The key is HORSETAIL

Plain text: ATTACKAT1200AM

Encrypted: DVDV AAG FXG XDA FAG XFA DXD AAA GVX

Decrypted: ATTACKAT1200AM
```

## F#

```// ADFGVX cipher. Nigel Galloway: August 23rd., 2021
let polybus=let n=[|yield! {'A'..'Z'}; yield! {'0'..'9'}|] in MathNet.Numerics.Combinatorics.GeneratePermutation 36|>Array.map(fun g->n.[g]),[|'A';'D';'F';'G';'V';'X'|]
let printPolybus(a,g)=printf "    "; g|>Array.iter(printf "%c  "); printfn ""; printfn "    ----------------"
g|>Array.iteri(fun n g->printf " %c|" g; [0..5]|>List.iter(fun g->printf " %c " (Array.item(n*6+g) a)); printfn "")
let c2p n g=let g=(fst>>(Array.findIndex((=) g))) n in let (n:char[])=(snd n) in [|n.[g/n.Length];n.[g%n.Length]|]
let p2c n (g:char[])=Array.item(let n=snd n in (Array.findIndex((=)g.[0]) n)*n.Length+(Array.findIndex((=)g.[1]) n))(fst n)
let fN(g:string)=let e,d=let n=g|>Seq.sort|>List.ofSeq in (g|>Seq.mapi(fun i l->(List.findIndex((=)l)n)-i)|>Array.ofSeq,n|>Seq.mapi(fun i l->(Seq.findIndex((=)l)g)-i)|>Array.ofSeq)
(fun i->i+(e.[i%g.Length])),(fun i->i+(d.[i%g.Length]))
let ADFGVX n (g:string)=let pE,pD=fN g
(fun(s:string)->let a,b=s|>Seq.collect(c2p n)|>Array.ofSeq|>Array.splitAt(2*s.Length-(2*s.Length)%g.Length)
Array.append(Array.permute(pE) a)(Array.permute(fst(fN(g.[..b.Length-1]))) b)|>System.String),
(fun(s:string)->let a,b=s.ToCharArray()|>Array.splitAt(s.Length-(s.Length)%g.Length)
Array.append(Array.permute(pD) a)(Array.permute(snd(fN(g.[..b.Length-1]))) b)|>Array.chunkBySize 2|>Array.map(p2c n)|>System.String)

printPolybus polybus
let encrypt,decrypt=ADFGVX polybus "nigel" //Using "nigel" as the key no hacker will guess that!
let n=encrypt "ATTACKAT1200AM" in printfn \$"\nATTACKAT1200AM encrypted is %s{n} which decrypted is %s{decrypt n}"
```
Output:
```    A  D  F  G  V  X
----------------
A| 6  U  9  B  2  H
D| C  G  O  N  Y  R
F| T  8  D  E  V  K
G| 1  Q  X  P  L  W
V| Z  0  I  A  J  S
X| 7  4  3  M  F  5

ATTACKAT1200AM encrypted is AFGFVDGVAAGVXFFAAGVADVDVVGXG which decrypted is ATTACKAT1200AM
```

## Go

Translation of: Wren
```package main

import (
"bytes"
"fmt"
"io/ioutil"
"log"
"math/rand"
"sort"
"strings"
"time"
)

var alphabet = "ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ0123456789"

func distinct(bs []byte) []byte {
var u []byte
for _, b := range bs {
if !bytes.Contains(u, []byte{b}) {
u = append(u, b)
}
}
return u
}

func allAsciiAlphaNum(word []byte) bool {
for _, b := range word {
if !((b >= 48 && b <= 57) || (b >= 65 && b <= 90) || (b >= 97 && b <= 122)) {
return false
}
}
return true
}

func orderKey(key string) []int {
temp := make([][2]byte, len(key))
for i := 0; i < len(key); i++ {
temp[i] = [2]byte{key[i], byte(i)}
}
sort.Slice(temp, func(i, j int) bool { return temp[i][0] < temp[j][0] })
res := make([]int, len(key))
for i := 0; i < len(key); i++ {
res[i] = int(temp[i][1])
}
return res
}

func createPolybius() []string {
temp := []byte(alphabet)
rand.Shuffle(36, func(i, j int) {
temp[i], temp[j] = temp[j], temp[i]
})
alphabet = string(temp)
fmt.Println("6 x 6 Polybius square:\n")
fmt.Println("  | A D F G V X")
fmt.Println("---------------")
p := make([]string, 6)
for i := 0; i < 6; i++ {
p[i] = alphabet[6*i : 6*(i+1)]
for _, c := range p[i] {
fmt.Printf("%c ", c)
}
fmt.Println()
}
return p
}

func createKey(n int) string {
if n < 7 || n > 12 {
log.Fatal("Key should be within 7 and 12 letters long.")
}
if err != nil {
}
words := bytes.Split(bs, []byte{'\n'})
var candidates [][]byte
for _, word := range words {
if len(word) == n && len(distinct(word)) == n && allAsciiAlphaNum(word) {
candidates = append(candidates, word)
}
}
k := string(bytes.ToUpper(candidates[rand.Intn(len(candidates))]))
fmt.Println("\nThe key is", k)
return k
}

func encrypt(polybius []string, key, plainText string) string {
temp := ""
outer:
for _, ch := range []byte(plainText) {
for r := 0; r <= 5; r++ {
for c := 0; c <= 5; c++ {
if polybius[r][c] == ch {
continue outer
}
}
}
}
colLen := len(temp) / len(key)
// all columns need to be the same length
if len(temp)%len(key) > 0 {
colLen++
}
table := make([][]string, colLen)
for i := 0; i < colLen; i++ {
table[i] = make([]string, len(key))
}
for i := 0; i < len(temp); i++ {
table[i/len(key)][i%len(key)] = string(temp[i])
}
order := orderKey(key)
cols := make([][]string, len(key))
for i := 0; i < len(key); i++ {
cols[i] = make([]string, colLen)
for j := 0; j < colLen; j++ {
cols[i][j] = table[j][order[i]]
}
}
res := make([]string, len(cols))
for i := 0; i < len(cols); i++ {
res[i] = strings.Join(cols[i], "")
}
return strings.Join(res, " ")
}

func decrypt(polybius []string, key, cipherText string) string {
colStrs := strings.Split(cipherText, " ")
// ensure all columns are same length
maxColLen := 0
for _, s := range colStrs {
if len(s) > maxColLen {
maxColLen = len(s)
}
}
cols := make([][]string, len(colStrs))
for i, s := range colStrs {
var ls []string
for _, c := range s {
ls = append(ls, string(c))
}
if len(s) < maxColLen {
cols[i] = make([]string, maxColLen)
copy(cols[i], ls)
} else {
cols[i] = ls
}
}
table := make([][]string, maxColLen)
order := orderKey(key)
for i := 0; i < maxColLen; i++ {
table[i] = make([]string, len(key))
for j := 0; j < len(key); j++ {
table[i][order[j]] = cols[j][i]
}
}
temp := ""
for i := 0; i < len(table); i++ {
temp += strings.Join(table[i], "")
}
plainText := ""
for i := 0; i < len(temp); i += 2 {
plainText = plainText + string(polybius[r][c])
}
return plainText
}

func main() {
rand.Seed(time.Now().UnixNano())
plainText := "ATTACKAT1200AM"
polybius := createPolybius()
key := createKey(9)
fmt.Println("\nPlaintext :", plainText)
cipherText := encrypt(polybius, key, plainText)
fmt.Println("\nEncrypted :", cipherText)
plainText2 := decrypt(polybius, key, cipherText)
fmt.Println("\nDecrypted :", plainText2)
}
```
Output:

Sample run:

```6 x 6 Polybius square:

| A D F G V X
---------------
A | R W H N I 7
D | 1 J O 2 P 5
F | 3 A T 4 M 9
G | D U L K V 0
V | Z B E F 6 Q
X | G Y S 8 C X

The key is EUCHARIST

Plaintext : ATTACKAT1200AM

Encrypted : FDG FGG FVDV FFX FFF FFX DDD XAF DGG

Decrypted : ATTACKAT1200AM
```

## J

Implementation:

```polybius=: {{6 6\$8 u:({~?~&#)(48+i.10),65+i.26}}
lenword=: {{ ;({~ ?@#)(#~ (-:~.)@>)(#~ y=#@>)cutLF fread'unixdict.txt'}}
```

Example:

```   echo W=: lenword 9
roughcast
echo P=: polybius ''
PV5M6Q
KR0391
4ZS7LA
FUT28E
GXOBYW
ICJDNH
echo E=: P ADFGVX W 'ATTACKAT1200AM'
FFF FGF FFF GXD XDG FDGG XDX XXA GAD
echo D=: P XVGFDA W E
ATTACKAT1200AM
```

That said, note that we could also eliminate spaces from the encrypted text, as they are recoverable if we have the key word.

```spaces=: {{deb y#inv~,0,.(/:n){*|:_9]\>:i.#y=.y-.' '}}

echo S=: E-.' '
P spaces W S
FFF FGF FFF GXD XDG FDGG XDX XXA GAD
```

(Technically, we do not need the Polybius square to recover the spaces, but it's passed as an argument here for symmetry.)

## Java

```import java.io.IOException;
import java.nio.file.Files;
import java.nio.file.Path;
import java.util.Arrays;
import java.util.Collections;
import java.util.List;
import java.util.stream.Collectors;

public static void main(String[] args) throws IOException {
final char[][] polybius = initialisePolybiusSquare();
System.out.println("The 6 x 6 Polybius square:");
System.out.println(" | A D F G V X");
System.out.println("--------------");
for ( int row = 0; row < 6; row++ ) {
for ( int column = 0; column < 6; column++ ) {
System.out.print(" " + polybius[row][column]);
}
System.out.println();
}
System.out.println();

final String key = createKey(9);
System.out.println("The key is " + key);
System.out.println();
final String plainText = "ATTACKAT1200AM";
System.out.println("Plain text: " + plainText);
System.out.println();
final String encryptedText = encrypt(plainText, polybius, key);
System.out.println("Encrypted: " + encryptedText);
System.out.println();
final String decryptedText = decrypt(encryptedText, polybius, key);
System.out.println("Decrypted: " + decryptedText);
}

private static String encrypt(String plainText, char[][] polybius, String key) {
String code = "";
for ( char ch : plainText.toCharArray() ) {
for ( int row = 0; row < 6; row++ ) {
for ( int column = 0; column < 6; column++ ) {
if ( polybius[row][column] == ch ) {
}
}
}
}

String encrypted = "";
for ( char ch : key.toCharArray() ) {
for ( int i = key.indexOf(ch); i < code.length(); i += key.length() ) {
encrypted += code.charAt(i);
}
encrypted += " ";
}
return encrypted;
}

private static String decrypt(String encryptedText, char[][] polybius, String key) {
final int codeSize = encryptedText.replace(" ", "").length();
String code = "";
for ( int i = 0; code.length() < codeSize; i++ ) {
for ( String block : encryptedText.split(" ") ) {
if ( code.length() < codeSize ) {
code += block.charAt(i);
}
}
}

String plainText = "";
for ( int i = 0; i < codeSize - 1; i += 2 ) {
int row = ADFGVX.indexOf(code.substring(i, i + 1));
int column = ADFGVX.indexOf(code.substring(i + 1, i + 2));
plainText += polybius[row][column];
}
return plainText;
}

// Create a key using a word from the dictionary 'unixdict.txt'
private static String createKey(int size) throws IOException {
if ( size < 7 || size > 12 ) {
throw new AssertionError("Key should contain between 7 and 12 letters, both inclusive.");
}

List<String> candidates = Files.lines(Path.of("unixdict.txt"))
.filter( word -> word.length() == size )
.filter( word -> word.chars().distinct().count() == word.length() )
.filter( word -> word.chars().allMatch(Character::isLetterOrDigit) )
.collect(Collectors.toList());
Collections.shuffle(candidates);
return candidates.get(0).toUpperCase();
}

private static char[][] initialisePolybiusSquare() {
List<String> letters = Arrays.asList("ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ0123456789".split(""));
Collections.shuffle(letters);

char[][] result = new char[6][6];
for ( int row = 0; row < 6; row++ ) {
for ( int column = 0; column < 6; column++ ) {
result[row][column] = letters.get(6 * row + column).charAt(0);
}
}
return result;
}

}
```
Output:
```The 6 x 6 Polybius square:
| A D F G V X
--------------
A| 2 K 4 Q 9 8
D| W C I M V A
F| 5 S 0 Y B D
G| F T O U J E
V| 6 1 R X 3 G
X| H L Z P 7 N

The key is DISHWATER

Plaintext: ATTACKAT1200AM

Encrypted: DDAG XAA GDF DDF GXF DGF DDD XVX DDD

Decrypted: ATTACKAT1200AM
```

## Julia

```"""
"""

using Random

""" The WWI German ADFGVX cipher. """
polybius::Vector{Char}
pdim::Int
key::Vector{Char}
keylen::Int
alphabet::Vector{Char}
encode::Dict{Char, Vector{Char}}
decode::Dict{Vector{Char}, Char}
end

""" ADFGVX constructor, takes 2 strings, option for third string if polybius len != 36 """
poly = collect(uppercase(s))
pdim = isqrt(length(poly))
al = collect(uppercase(alph))
enco::Dict = Dict([(poly[(i - 1) * pdim + j] => [al[i], al[j]])
for i in 1:pdim, j in 1:pdim])
deco = Dict(last(p) => first(p) for p in enco)
@assert pdim^2 == length(poly) && pdim == length(al)
return ADFGVX(poly, pdim, collect(uppercase(k)), length(k), al, enco, deco)
end

""" Encrypt with the ADFGVX cipher. """
chars = reduce(vcat, [k.encode[c] for c in
filter(c -> c in k.polybius, collect(uppercase(s)))])
colvecs = [lett => chars[i:k.keylen:length(chars)] for (i, lett) in enumerate(k.key)]
sort!(colvecs, lt = (x, y) -> first(x) < first(y))
return String(mapreduce(p -> last(p), vcat, colvecs))
end

""" Decrypt with the ADFGVX cipher. Does not depend on spacing of encoded text """
chars = filter(c -> c in k.alphabet, collect(uppercase(s)))
sortedkey = sort(collect(k.key))
order = [findfirst(c -> c == ch, k.key) for ch in sortedkey]
originalorder = [findfirst(c -> c == ch, sortedkey) for ch in k.key]
a, b = divrem(length(chars), k.keylen)
strides = [a + (b >= i ? 1 : 0) for i in order]           # shuffled column lengths
starts = accumulate(+, strides[begin:end-1], init=1)      # shuffled starts of columns
pushfirst!(starts, 1)                                     # starting index
ends = [starts[i] + strides[i] - 1 for i in 1:k.keylen]   # shuffled ends of columns
cols = [chars[starts[i]:ends[i]] for i in originalorder]  # get reordered columns
pairs, nrows = Char[], (length(chars) - 1) ÷ k.keylen + 1 # recover the rows
for i in 1:nrows, j in 1:k.keylen
(i - 1) * k.keylen + j > length(chars) && break
push!(pairs, cols[j][i])
end
return String([k.decode[[pairs[i], pairs[i + 1]]] for i in 1:2:length(pairs)-1])
end

const POLYBIUS = String(shuffle(collect("ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ0123456789")))
const KEY = read("unixdict.txt", String) |>
v -> split(v, r"\s+") |>
v -> filter(w -> (n = length(w); n == 9 && n == length(unique(collect(w)))), v) |>
shuffle |> first |> uppercase
const SECRETS, message = ADFGVX(POLYBIUS, KEY), "ATTACKAT1200AM"
println("Polybius: \$POLYBIUS, Key: \$KEY")
println("Message: \$message")
encoded = encrypt(message, SECRETS)
decoded = decrypt(encoded, SECRETS)
println("Encoded: \$encoded")
println("Decoded: \$decoded")
```
Output:
```Polybius: L4VZJIB8OXGFM1H3CTNKU9PE75WQ2DAYRS06, Key: SUNFLOWER
Message: ATTACKAT1200AM
Encoded: AFAXXVFAXFDXXFVFDFXVVAAGVXXX
Decoded: ATTACKAT1200AM
```

## Nim

Translation of: Wren

It started as a translation, but actually we use a different method, better suited to Nim, to encrypt and decrypt. And there are many other differences. Output is similar though.

```import algorithm, random, sequtils, strutils, sugar, tables

type PolybiusSquare = array[6, array[6, char]]

iterator items(p: PolybiusSquare): (int, int, char) =
## Yield Polybius square characters preceded by row and column numbers.
for r in 0..5:
for c in 0..5:
yield (r, c, p[r][c])

proc initPolybiusSquare(): PolybiusSquare =
## Initialize a 6x6 Polybius square.
var alphabet = "ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ0123456789"
alphabet.shuffle()
for r in 0..5:
for c in 0..5:
result[r][c] = alphabet[6 * r + c]

proc createKey(n: Positive): string =
## Create a key using a word from "unixdict.txt".
doAssert n in 7..12, "Key should be within 7 and 12 letters long."
let candidates = collect(newSeq):
for word in "unixdict.txt".lines:
if word.len == n and
word.deduplicate().len == n and
word.allCharsInSet(Letters + Digits): word
result = candidates[rand(candidates.high)].toUpperAscii

func encrypt(plainText: string; polybius: PolybiusSquare; key: string): string =
## Encrypt "plaintext" using the given Polybius square and the given key.

# Replace characters by row+column letters.
var str: string
for ch in plainText:
for (r, c, val) in polybius:
if val == ch:

# Build ordered table of columns and sort it by key value.
var cols: OrderedTable[char, string]
for i, ch in str:
let tkey = key[i mod key.len]
cols.sort(cmp)

# Build cipher text from sorted column table values.
for s in cols.values:

func decrypt(cipherText: string; polybius: PolybiusSquare; key: string): string =
## Decrypt "cipherText" using the given Polybius square and the given key.

# Build list of columns.
let skey = sorted(key)
var cols = newSeq[string](key.len)
var idx = 0
for col in cipherText.split(' '):
cols[key.find(skey[idx])] = col
inc idx

# Build string of row+column values.
var str: string
for i in 0..key.high:
for col in cols:
if i < col.len: str.add col[i]

# Build plain text from row+column values.
for i in countup(0, str.len - 2, 2):

randomize()

var polybius = initPolybiusSquare()
echo "6 x 6 Polybius square:\n"
echo "  | A D F G V X"
echo "---------------"
for i, row in polybius:
echo Adfgvx[i], " | ", row.join(" ")

let key = createKey(9)
echo "\nThe key is ", key

const PlainText = "ATTACKAT1200AM"
echo "\nPlaintext : ", PlainText

let cipherText = PlainText.encrypt(polybius, key)
echo "\nEncrypted : ", cipherText

let plainText = cipherText.decrypt(polybius, key)
echo "\nDecrypted : ", plainText
```
Output:
```6 x 6 Polybius square:

| A D F G V X
---------------
A | U 1 C N H F
D | E M 4 R S G
F | P I 8 9 6 5
G | X 2 Z B 7 K
V | A 3 Y V O D
X | 0 W Q T J L

The key is PHAGOCYTE

Plaintext : ATTACKAT1200AM

Encrypted : XXX GXA ADD GVA AGD XAX VFGD AAA VGV

Decrypted : ATTACKAT1200AM```

## Perl

```#!/usr/bin/perl

use warnings;
use List::Util qw( shuffle );

my \$plaintext = 'ATTACKAT1200AM';
my \$keysize = 9;

my \$polybius = <<END;
| A D F G V X
--+------------
A | x x x x x x
D | x x x x x x
F | x x x x x x
G | x x x x x x
V | x x x x x x
X | x x x x x x
END
\$polybius =~ s/x/\$_/ for my @letters = shuffle "A" .. 'Z' , 0 .. 9;
print "Polybius square =\n\n\$polybius\n";
my %char2pair;
@char2pair{ @letters } = glob '{A,D,F,G,V,X}' x 2; # map chars to pairs
my %pair2char = reverse %char2pair;                # map pairs to chars
my (\$keyword) = shuffle grep !/(.).*\1/,
do { local (@ARGV, \$/) = 'unixdict.txt'; <> =~ /^.{\$keysize}\$/gm };
my (\$n, @deorder) = 0;
my @reorder = map /.(.+)/, sort map \$_ . \$n++, split //, \$keyword;
@deorder[@reorder] = 0 .. \$#reorder;
print "  keyword = \$keyword\n\nplaintext = \$plaintext\n\n";

my \$encoded = encode( \$plaintext, \%char2pair, \@reorder );
print "  encoded = \$encoded\n\n";

my \$decoded = decode( \$encoded, \%pair2char, \@deorder );
print "  decoded = \$decoded\n";

sub encode
{
my (\$plain, \$c2p, \$order) = @_;
my \$len = @\$order;
join ' ', (transpose( \$plain =~ s/./\$c2p->{\$&}/gr =~ /.{1,\$len}/g ))[@\$order];
}

sub decode
{
my (\$encoded, \$p2c, \$order) = @_;
(join '', transpose((split ' ', \$encoded)[@\$order])) =~ s/../\$p2c->{\$&}/gr;
}

sub transpose { map join('', map {s/.// ? \$& : ''} @_), 1 .. length \$_[0] }
```
Output:
```Polybius square =

| A D F G V X
--+------------
A | 6 V Y E P N
D | 1 C M 9 L H
F | 8 T O U D F
G | A R G 7 S 5
V | J 2 W Q I Z
X | K B 3 0 X 4

keyword = benchmark

plaintext = ATTACKAT1200AM

decoded = ATTACKAT1200AM
```

## Phix

Translation of: Wren

We can make some nice use of the standard builtin routines here, with only a modest amount of whitespace cleanup.

```with javascript_semantics
ALEPH = tagset('Z','A')&tagset('9','0')

function create_polybius()
string aleph = shuffle(ALEPH)
--  string aleph = "U1CNHFEM4RSGPI8965X2ZB7KA3YVOD0WQTJL"   -- Nim
--  string aleph = "T71VB5HYG2JKIQM8REOPDUNCZ063FXAW9S4L"   -- Wren
--  string aleph = "NA1C3H8TB2OME5WRPD4F6G7I9J0KLQSUVXYZ"   -- wp
sequence tmp = split(join_by(aleph,1,6," "),'\n')
printf(1,"6 x 6 Polybius square:\n")
printf(1,"  | A D F G V X\n")
printf(1,"---------------\n")
for i=1 to length(tmp) do
end for
return aleph
end function

function lnua(string word, integer n)
return length(word)==n
and length(unique(word))==n
and length(filter(word,"in",ALEPH))==n
end function

function create_key(integer n)
assert(n>=7 and n<=12)
sequence candidates = filter(upper(unix_dict()),lnua,n)
string res = candidates[rand(length(candidates))]
--  string res = "PHAGOCYTE" -- Nim
--  string res = "SUNFLOWER" -- Wren
--  string res = "PRIVACY" -- wp
printf(1,"\nThe key is %s\n",{res})
return res
end function

function encrypt(string polybius, key, plaintext)
integer l = length(key)
sequence tags = custom_sort(key,tagset(l)),
res = ""
for i=1 to length(plaintext) do
integer k = find(plaintext[i],polybius)
if k then   -- (simply ignore any non-alphanum)
end if
end for
res = substitute(join(columnize(split_by(res,l),tags,' ')),"  "," ")
return res
end function

function decrypt(string polybius, key, encrypted)
integer l = length(key)
sequence tags = custom_sort(key,tagset(l)),
tmp = columnize(split(encrypted,' '),{},' ')
tmp = trim(join(apply(true,extract,{tmp,{tags},true}),""))
string plaintext = ""
for i=1 to length(tmp) by 2 do
plaintext &= polybius[r*6+c]
end for
return plaintext
end function

string polybius = create_polybius(),
key = create_key(9),
plaintext = "ATTACKAT1200AM",
encrypted = encrypt(polybius,key,plaintext),
decrypted = decrypt(polybius,key,encrypted)
printf(1,"\nPlainText : %s\n\nEncrypted : %s\n\nDecrypted : %s\n",
{plaintext,        encrypted,        decrypted})
```

Output matches Wren/Nim/wp when the appropriate lines are uncommented.

## Python

This version and the Julia version do not reveal the key length by preserving spaces between columns, which completely removes column information, not just hiding which columns are first in the encoding. According to historical sources the original encrypted text was spaced in 5 character blocks regardless of message and key length, which means that decryption should not rely on spacing.

```"""
The ADFGVX cipher implemented as a Python class
"""

from random import shuffle, choice
from itertools import product, accumulate
from numpy import floor, sqrt

""" The WWI German ADFGVX cipher. """
self.polybius = list(spoly.upper())
self.pdim = int(floor(sqrt(len(self.polybius))))
self.key = list(k.upper())
self.keylen = len(self.key)
self.alphabet = list(alph)
pairs = [p[0] + p[1] for p in product(self.alphabet, self.alphabet)]
self.encode = dict(zip(self.polybius, pairs))
self.decode = dict((v, k) for (k, v) in self.encode.items())

def encrypt(self, msg):
""" Encrypt with the ADFGVX cipher. """
chars = list(''.join([self.encode[c] for c in msg.upper() if c in self.polybius]))
colvecs = [(lett, chars[i:len(chars):self.keylen]) \
for (i, lett) in enumerate(self.key)]
colvecs.sort(key=lambda x: x[0])
return ''.join([''.join(a[1]) for a in colvecs])

def decrypt(self, cod):
""" Decrypt with the ADFGVX cipher. Does not depend on spacing of encoded text """
chars = [c for c in cod if c in self.alphabet]
sortedkey = sorted(self.key)
order = [self.key.index(ch) for ch in sortedkey]
originalorder = [sortedkey.index(ch) for ch in self.key]
base, extra = divmod(len(chars), self.keylen)
strides = [base + (1 if extra > i else 0) for i in order]    # shuffled column lengths
starts = list(accumulate(strides[:-1], lambda x, y: x + y))  # shuffled starts of columns
starts = [0] + starts                                        # starting index
ends = [starts[i] + strides[i] for i in range(self.keylen)]  # shuffled ends of columns
cols = [chars[starts[i]:ends[i]] for i in originalorder]     # get reordered columns
pairs = []                                                   # recover the rows
for i in range((len(chars) - 1) // self.keylen + 1):
for j in range(self.keylen):
if i * self.keylen + j < len(chars):
pairs.append(cols[j][i])

return ''.join([self.decode[pairs[i] + pairs[i + 1]] for i in range(0, len(pairs), 2)])

if __name__ == '__main__':
PCHARS = list('ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ0123456789')
shuffle(PCHARS)
POLYBIUS = ''.join(PCHARS)
with open('unixdict.txt') as fh:
WORDS = [w for w in (fh.read()).split() \
if len(w) == 9 and len(w) == len(set(list(w)))]
KEY = choice(WORDS)

SECRET, MESSAGE = ADFGVX(POLYBIUS, KEY), 'ATTACKAT1200AM'
print(f'Polybius: {POLYBIUS}, key: {KEY}')
print('Message: ', MESSAGE)
ENCODED = SECRET.encrypt(MESSAGE)
DECODED = SECRET.decrypt(ENCODED)
print('Encoded: ', ENCODED)
print('Decoded: ', DECODED)
```
Output:
```Polybius: A9GKMF1DQRSBVX8Z0WTEJLOPY5U4CN2H76I3, key: volcanism
Message:  ATTACKAT1200AM
Decoded:  ATTACKAT1200AM
```

## Raku

Slightly different results from every other entry so far. See discussion page for reasons. It is impossible to tell from casual observation which column comes first in the Raku example. In every other (so far), the sub group with 4 characters is the first column.

```srand 123456; # For repeatability

my @header   = < A D F G V X >;
my \$polybius = (flat 'A'..'Z', 0..9).pick(*).join;

my \$key-length = 9;
my \$key = uc 'unixdict.txt'.IO.words.grep( { (.chars == \$key-length) && (+.comb.Set == +.comb) } ).roll;

my \$message = 'Attack at 1200AM';

use Terminal::Boxer;
say "Key: \$key\n";
say "Polybius square:\n", ss-box :7col, :3cw, :indent("\t"), '', |@header, |(@header Z \$polybius.comb.batch: 6);
say "Message to encode: \$message";
say "\nEncoded: " ~ my \$encoded = encode \$message;
say "\nDecoded: " ~ decode \$encoded;

sub encode (\$text is copy) {
\$text = \$text.uc.comb(/<[A..Z 0..9]>/).join;
my @order = \$key.comb.pairs.sort( *.value )».key;
my @encode = %cypher.invert.hash{ \$text.comb }.join.comb.batch(\$key-length).map: { [\$_] };
((^\$key-length).map: { @encode».[@order]».grep( *.defined )».[\$_].grep( *.defined ).join }).Str;
}

sub decode (\$text is copy) {
my @text = \$text.split(' ')».comb;
my \$chars = @text[0].chars;
\$_ = flat |\$_, ' ' if .chars < \$chars for @text;
my @order = \$key.comb.pairs.sort( *.value )».key.pairs.sort( *.value )».key;
%cypher{ ( grep { /\w/ }, flat [Z] @order.map( { |@text.batch(\$key-length)».[\$_] } ) ).batch(2)».join }.join;
}
```
Output:
```Key: GHOSTLIKE

Polybius square:
┌───┬───┬───┬───┬───┬───┬───┐
│   │ A │ D │ F │ G │ V │ X │
├───┼───┼───┼───┼───┼───┼───┤
│ A │ H │ O │ S │ 5 │ 7 │ Q │
├───┼───┼───┼───┼───┼───┼───┤
│ D │ 0 │ I │ 6 │ J │ C │ V │
├───┼───┼───┼───┼───┼───┼───┤
│ F │ 4 │ 8 │ R │ X │ G │ A │
├───┼───┼───┼───┼───┼───┼───┤
│ G │ Y │ F │ P │ B │ Z │ 3 │
├───┼───┼───┼───┼───┼───┼───┤
│ V │ M │ W │ 9 │ D │ 1 │ N │
├───┼───┼───┼───┼───┼───┼───┤
│ X │ 2 │ E │ U │ T │ L │ K │
└───┴───┴───┴───┴───┴───┴───┘

Message to encode: Attack at 1200AM

Encoded: DVVA FVX XXA FGF XVX GXA XXD GFA XXD
```

## REXX

```/* REXX */
cls
eol=x2c(0D0A) ; msg="ATTACKAT1200AM"

s_sort= keyword ; new_key= ''
do while length(s_sort) > 0
nmax= 0
do i=1 to length(s_sort)
ch= substr(s_sort,i,1)
num= c2d(ch)
if num > nmax then do
nmax= num
max_i = i
end
end
s_sort= delstr(s_sort,max_i,1)
new_key= d2c(nmax)||new_key
end        /* Alphabetical sorting */

j=0 ; num_str= '' ; rnd_s= ''
do while j < 36
num= random(0,35)
if wordpos(num,num_str) = 0 then do
j= j + 1
num_str= num_str||num||' '
if num >= 10 then do
num= num - 10 + x2d(41)
num= d2c(num)
end
rnd_s= rnd_s||num
end
end	  /* say 'Generated string: '||rnd_s||eol */

say 'Polybius square:'||eol
call tab cyph, rnd_s ,1
say "Only characters from the '"|| msg||"'"||eol
t= translate(rnd_s,' ',msg)
_t= translate(rnd_s,' ',t)
call tab cyph, _t ,1

len_c= length(cyph) ; cyph_T=''
do i=1 to len_c
ch_i= substr(cyph,i,1)
do j=1 to len_c
ch_j= substr(cyph,j,1)
cyph_T= cyph_T||ch_i||ch_j||' '
end
end

enc_msg= ''
do i=1 to length(msg)
ch= substr(msg,i,1)
j= pos(ch,rnd_s,1)
enc_msg= enc_msg||word(cyph_T,j)
end

say "Conversion by table: "||eol||eol||msg||" ==> "||enc_msg||eol
call tab keyword, enc_msg

len= length(keyword)
n_row= 0 ; column.= ''
do while enc_msg <> ''
parse var enc_msg 1 s1 +(len) enc_msg
n_row= n_row+1
do m= 1 to len
ch_m= substr(s1,m,1)
column.m= column.m||ch_m
end
end

s_lst= ''
do m= 1 to len
ch= substr(new_key,m,1)
i= pos(ch,keyword,1)
w_i= column.i
s_lst= s_lst||w_i||' '
end

row.= '' ; t_row= ''
do i=1 to len
w_i= word(s_lst,i)
do j=1 to n_row
row.j= row.j||substr(w_i,j,1)
end
end
do j=1 to n_row; t_row= t_row||row.j; end

say "Sorted by columns:"||eol
call tab new_key, t_row

say '~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~'
say 'Encrypted message: '||s_lst
say '~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~'

exit
tab:
parse arg h, s, p  /* header, string, param */

lh= length(h) ;
s= h||copies('-',lh)||s ; ls= length(s)
h=' -'||h

t= ''  ; j= 1
do i= 1 to ls by lh
row= substr(s,i,lh)
r_ch= ''
do l=1 to lh
ch= substr(row,l,1)
r_ch= r_ch||ch||' '
end
row= r_ch
if p <> '' then row= row||'|'||substr(h,j,1)
t= t||row||eol
j= j + 1
end
say t
return
```
Output:
```Polybius square:

A D F G V X |
- - - - - - |-
D H 8 P U 4 |A
E T S C 5 9 |D
A 3 Z F R I |F
Y O 1 Q 7 W |G
J 2 G V N X |V
L 6 0 K M B |X

Only characters from the 'ATTACKAT1200AM'

A D F G V X |
- - - - - - |-
|A
T   C     |D
A           |F
1       |G
2         |V
0 K M   |X

Conversion by table:

L I F E G U A R D
- - - - - - - - -
F A D D D D F A D
G X G F A D D G F
V D X F X F F A X
V

Sorted by columns:

A D E F G I L R U
- - - - - - - - -
F D D D D A F A D
D F F G A X G G D
F X F X X D V A F
V

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Encrypted message: FDF  DFX  DFF  DGX  DAX  AXD  FGVV AGA  DDF
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
```

## Rust

```// This version formats the encrypted text in 5 character blocks, as the historical version apparently did.

use fastrand::shuffle;
use std::collections::HashMap;

#[derive(Clone, Eq, Hash, PartialEq)]
struct CPair(char, char);

/// The WWI German ADFGVX cipher.
polybius: Vec<char>,
key: Vec<char>,
encode: HashMap<char, CPair>,
decode: HashMap<CPair, char>,
}

/// Set up the encoding and decoding for the ADFGVX cipher.
fn cipher(allowed_chars: String, encrypt_key: String) -> AdfgvxCipher {
let alphabet = allowed_chars.to_uppercase().chars().collect::<Vec<_>>();
let mut polybius = alphabet.clone();
shuffle(&mut polybius);
let key = encrypt_key.to_uppercase().chars().collect::<Vec<_>>();
let mut pairs: Vec<CPair> = [CPair(' ', ' '); 0].to_vec();
pairs.push(CPair(*c1, *c2));
}
}
let mut encode: HashMap<char, CPair> = HashMap::new();
for i in 0..pairs.len() {
encode.insert(polybius[i], pairs[i].clone());
}
let mut decode = HashMap::new();
for (k, v) in &encode {
decode.insert(v.clone(), *k);
}
polybius,
key,
encode,
decode,
};
}

/// Encrypt with the ADFGVX cipher.
fn encrypt(a: &AdfgvxCipher, msg: String) -> String {
let umsg: Vec<char> = msg
.clone()
.to_uppercase()
.chars()
.filter(|c| a.polybius.contains(c))
.collect();
let mut fractionated = vec![' '; 0].to_vec();
for c in umsg {
let cp = a.encode.get(&c).unwrap();
fractionated.push(cp.0);
fractionated.push(cp.1);
}
let ncols = a.key.len();
let extra = fractionated.len() % ncols;
if extra > 0 {
fractionated.append(&mut vec!['\u{00}'; ncols - extra]);
}
let nrows = fractionated.len() / ncols;
let mut sortedkey = a.key.clone();
sortedkey.sort();
let mut ciphertext = String::from("");
let mut textlen = 0;
for j in 0..ncols {
let k = a.key.iter().position(|c| *c == sortedkey[j]).unwrap();
for i in 0..nrows {
let ch: char = fractionated[i * ncols + k];
if ch != '\u{00}' {
ciphertext.push(ch);
textlen += 1;
if textlen % 5 == 0 {
ciphertext.push(' ');
}
}
}
}
return ciphertext;
}

/// Decrypt with the ADFGVX cipher. Does not depend on spacing of encoded text
fn decrypt(a: &AdfgvxCipher, cod: String) -> String {
let chars: Vec<char> = cod.chars().filter(|c| *c != ' ').collect();
let mut sortedkey = a.key.clone();
sortedkey.sort();
let order: Vec<usize> = sortedkey
.iter()
.map(|c| a.key.iter().position(|kc| kc == c).unwrap())
.collect();
let originalorder: Vec<usize> = a
.key
.iter()
.map(|c| sortedkey.iter().position(|kc| kc == c).unwrap())
.collect();
let q = chars.len() / a.key.len();
let r = chars.len() % a.key.len();
let strides: Vec<usize> = order
.iter()
.map(|i| {q + {if r > *i {1} else {0}}}).collect();
let mut starts: Vec<usize> = vec![0_usize; 1].to_vec();
let mut stridesum = 0;
for i in 0..strides.len() - 1 {
stridesum += strides[i];
starts.push(stridesum);
}
let ends: Vec<usize> = (0..a.key.len()).map(|i| (starts[i] + strides[i])).collect(); // shuffled ends of columns
let cols: Vec<Vec<char>> = originalorder
.iter()
.map(|i| (chars[starts[*i]..ends[*i]]).to_vec())
.collect(); // get reordered columns
let nrows = (chars.len() - 1) / a.key.len() + 1;
let mut fractionated = vec![' '; 0].to_vec();
for i in 0..nrows {
for j in 0..a.key.len() {
if i < cols[j].len() {
fractionated.push(cols[j][i]);
}
}
}
let mut decoded = String::from("");
for i in 0..fractionated.len() - 1 {
if i % 2 == 0 {
let cp = CPair(fractionated[i], fractionated[i + 1]);
decoded.push(*a.decode.get(&cp).unwrap());
}
}
return decoded;
}

fn main() {
let msg = String::from("ATTACKAT1200AM");
let encrypt_key = String::from("volcanism");
let allowed_chars: String = String::from("ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ0123456789");
println!("Message: {msg}");
println!("Key: {encrypt_key}");
println!("Encoded: {encrypted_message}");
println!("Decoded: {decoded:?}");
}
```
Output:
```Message: ATTACKAT1200AM
Polybius: "EKFG7HOYZQPUD536SI2NT0W4A1XJLM8CBRV9"
Key: volcanism
Encoded: GAGFV GVFVG DGXDV FGGAA AAVAV DGX
Decoded: "ATTACKAT1200AM"
```

Decoded: ATTACKAT1200AM

## Wren

Library: Wren-ioutil
Library: Wren-seq
Library: Wren-str
```import "random" for Random
import "./ioutil" for FileUtil
import "./seq" for Lst
import "./str" for Char, Str

var rand = Random.new()
var alphabet = "ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ0123456789".toList

var createPolybius = Fn.new {
rand.shuffle(alphabet)
var p = Lst.chunks(alphabet, 6)
System.print("6 x 6 Polybius square:\n")
System.print("  | A D F G V X")
System.print("---------------")
for (i in 0...p.count) {
System.print(p[i].join(" "))
}
return p
}

var createKey = Fn.new { |n|
if (n < 7 || n > 12) Fiber.abort("Key should be within 7 and 12 letters long.")
var candidates = FileUtil.readLines("unixdict.txt").where { |word|
return word.count == n && Lst.distinct(word.toList).count == n &&
word.all { |ch| Char.isAsciiAlphaNum(ch) }
}.toList
var k = Str.upper(candidates[rand.int(candidates.count)])
System.print("\nThe key is %(k)")
return k
}

// helper function to sort the key into alphabetical order
// and return a list of the original indices of its letters.
var orderKey = Fn.new { |key|
var temp = (0...key.count).map { |i| [key[i], i] }.toList
temp.sort { |x, y| x[0].bytes[0] < y[0].bytes[0] }
return temp.map { |e| e[1] }.toList
}

var encrypt = Fn.new { |polybius, key, plainText|
var temp = ""
for (ch in plainText) {
var outer = false
for (r in 0..5) {
for (c in 0..5) {
if (polybius[r][c] == ch) {
outer = true
break
}
}
if (outer) break
}
}
var colLen = (temp.count / key.count).floor
// all columns need to be the same length
if (temp.count % key.count > 0) colLen = colLen + 1
var table = Lst.chunks(temp.toList, key.count)
var lastLen = table[-1].count
if (lastLen < key.count) table[-1] = table[-1] + ([""] * (key.count - lastLen))
var order = orderKey.call(key)
var cols = List.filled(key.count, null)
for (i in 0...cols.count) {
cols[i] = List.filled(colLen, null)
for (j in 0...table.count) cols[i][j] = table[j][order[i]]
}
return cols.map { |col| col.join() }.join(" ")
}

var decrypt = Fn.new { |polybius, key, cipherText|
var colStrs = cipherText.split(" ")
// ensure all columns are same length
var maxColLen = colStrs.reduce(0) { |max, col| max = (col.count > max) ? col.count : max }
var cols = colStrs.map { |s|
return (s.count < maxColLen) ? s.toList + ([""] * (maxColLen - s.count)) : s.toList
}.toList
var table = List.filled(maxColLen, null)
var order = orderKey.call(key)
for (i in 0...maxColLen) {
table[i] = List.filled(key.count, "")
for (j in 0...key.count) table[i][order[j]] = cols[j][i]
}
var temp = table.map { |row| row.join("") }.join("")
var plainText = ""
var i = 0
while (i < temp.count) {
plainText = plainText + polybius[r][c]
i = i + 2
}
return plainText
}

var plainText = "ATTACKAT1200AM"
var polybius = createPolybius.call()
var key = createKey.call(9)
System.print("\nPlaintext : %(plainText)")
var cipherText = encrypt.call(polybius, key, plainText)
System.print("\nEncrypted : %(cipherText)")
var plainText2 = decrypt.call(polybius, key, cipherText)
System.print("\nDecrypted : %(plainText2)")
```
Output:

Sample run:

```6 x 6 Polybius square:

| A D F G V X
---------------
A | T 7 1 V B 5
D | H Y G 2 J K
F | I Q M 8 R E
G | O P D U N C
V | Z 0 6 3 F X
X | A W 9 S 4 L

The key is SUNFLOWER

Plaintext : ATTACKAT1200AM