Numeric separator syntax

From Rosetta Code
Numeric separator syntax is a draft programming task. It is not yet considered ready to be promoted as a complete task, for reasons that should be found in its talk page.

Several programming languages allow separators in numerals in order to group digits together.

Task

Show the numeric separator syntax and describe its specification. E.g., what separators are eligible? Can there be multiple consecutive separators? What position can a separator be in? Etc.



ALGOL 68[edit]

In Algol 68, spaces are not significant in identifiers or numeric literals. This allows spaces to be used as numeric separators.
Single or multiple spaces can be used as desired, it is not necessary to group the digits into blocks of three.

BEGIN
INT a = 1 234 567;
REAL b = 3 . 1 4159 26 5 359;
print( ( whole( a, 0 ), " ", fixed( b, - 14, 11 ), newline ) )
END
 
Output:
1234567   3.14159265359

AWK[edit]

 
# syntax: GAWK -f NUMERIC_SEPARATOR_SYNTAX.AWK
# converted from ALGOL 68
BEGIN {
# AWK lacks numeric separators but can be simulated using white space.
a = 1 234 567
b = 3 "." 1 4159 26 5 359
print(a,b)
exit(0)
}
 
Output:
1234567 3.14159265359

C[edit]

locale.h provides Localization functions and is part of the C Standard Library. Separating digits in code text is not possible.

 
#include <locale.h>
#include <stdio.h>
 
int main()
{
unsigned long long int trillion = 1000000000000;
 
setlocale(LC_NUMERIC,"");
 
printf("Locale : %s, One Trillion : %'llu\n", setlocale(LC_CTYPE,NULL),trillion);
 
return 0;
}
 

Output :

[[email protected]berrypi:~/doodles $ ./a.out 
Locale : C, One Trillion : 1,000,000,000,000

Factor[edit]

Factor allows the comma , as a separator character in number literals.

USE: prettyprint
 
12,345 .  ! 12345
 
! commas may be used at arbitrary intervals
1,23,456,78910 .  ! 12345678910
 
! a comma at the beginning or end will parse as a word, likely causing an error
! ,123 .  ! No word named “,123” found in current vocabulary search path
! 123, .  ! No word named “123,” found in current vocabulary search path
 
! likewise, two commas in a row will parse as a word
! 1,,23 .  ! No word named “1,,23” found in current vocabulary search path
 
! There are no exceptions to which numbers may have separators
! binary/octal/decimal/hexadecimal integers and floats are supported
0b1,000,001 .  ! 65
-1,234e-4,5 .  ! -1.234e-42
0x1.4,4p3 .  ! 10.125
 
! as are ratios
45,2+1,1/43,2 .  ! 452+11/432
1,1/1,7 .  ! 11/17
 
! and complex numbers
C{ 5.225,312 2.0 } .  ! C{ 5.225312 2.0 }

If one desires to define a syntax for different separator rules, that is possible:

USING: lexer math.parser prettyprint sequences sets ;
 
<< SYNTAX: PN: scan-token "_" without string>number suffix! ; >>
 
! permissive numbers
PN: _1_2_3_ .  ! 123
PN: 1__234___567 .  ! 1234567
PN: 0b0___10.100001p3 .  ! 20.125

Since Factor's parser is exposed, one could even make changes to the number parser, obviating the need for parsing words.

USING: eval prettyprint ;
 
<<
 
"IN: math.parser.private
USE: combinators
: @pos-digit-or-punc ( i number-parse n char -- n/f )
{
{ 95 [ [ @pos-digit ] require-next-digit ] }  ! normally 44
{ 43 [ ->numerator ] }
{ 47 [ ->denominator ] }
{ 46 [ ->mantissa ] }
[ [ @pos-digit ] or-exponent ]
} case ; inline" eval( -- )
 
>>
 
3_333_333 .  ! 3333333

Go[edit]

From version 1.13, Go supports underscores as digit separators for numeric literals. An underscore may appear between any two digits or between the literal prefix (0b, 0o, 0x) and the first digit.

Using the Perl 6 examples plus a few more which Go allows:

package main
 
import "fmt"
 
func main() {
integers := []int{1_2_3, 0b1_0_1_0_1, 0xa_bc_d, 0o4_37, 0_43_7, 0x_beef}
for _, integer := range integers {
fmt.Printf("%d ", integer)
}
floats := []float64{1_2_3_4.2_5, 6.0_22e4, 0x_1.5p-2}
for _, float := range floats {
fmt.Printf("%g ", float)
}
fmt.Println()
// none of these compile
// floats2 := []float64{_1234.25, 1234_.25, 1234._25, 1234.25_, 12__23.25}
}
Output:
123  21  43981  287  287  48879  1234.25  60220  0.328125

Julia[edit]

Julia allows use of the underscore _ as a digit separator. The _ separator must be preceded and followed by a digit. Commas are not allowed in numeric literals.

 
julia> 2_9
29
 
julia> 2_9_9_0
2990
 
julia> 2_9_9.0_01
299.001
 
julia> 1._01
ERROR: syntax: invalid numeric constant "1._"
 
julia> -1_0
-10
 
julia> -_10
ERROR: UndefVarError: _10 not defined
Stacktrace:
[1] top-level scope at none:0
 
julia> 0x34_ff
0x34ff
 
julia> 0x_34ff
ERROR: syntax: invalid numeric constant "0x_"
 
julia> 10_000_000
10000000
 
julia> 10__000__000
ERROR: UndefVarError: __000__000 not defined
 

OCaml[edit]

Underscores can be used as separators in integer or floating-point literals, and they are ignored. Underscores can be in any position except at the beginning, and you can use consecutive underscores.

Printf.printf "%d\n" 1_2_3;; (* 123 *)
Printf.printf "%d\n" 0b1_0_1_0_1;; (* 21 *)
Printf.printf "%d\n" 0xa_bc_d;; (* 43981 *)
Printf.printf "%d\n" 12__34;; (* 1234 *)
Printf.printf "%f\n" 1_2_3_4.2_5;; (* 1234.250000 *)
Printf.printf "%f\n" 6.0_22e4;; (* 60220.000000 *)
Printf.printf "%f\n" 1234_.25;; (* 1234.250000 *)
Printf.printf "%f\n" 1234._25;; (* 1234.250000 *)
Printf.printf "%f\n" 1234.25_;; (* 1234.250000 *)

Perl[edit]

Perl allows underscore as a grouping / separator character in numeric inputs, as long as you use it between digits, and you do not use two underscores in a row:

# Int
print 1_2_3, "\n"; # 123
 
# Binary Int
print 0b1_0_1_0_1, "\n"; # 21
 
# Hexadecimal Int
print 0xa_bc_d, "\n"; # 43981
 
# Rat
print 1_2_3_4.2_5, "\n"; # 1234.25
 
# Num
print 6.0_22e4, "\n"; # 60220

Perl 6[edit]

Perl 6 allows underscore as a grouping / separator character in numeric inputs, though there are a few restrictions.

# Any numeric input value may use an underscore as a grouping/separator character.
# May occur in nearly any position, in any* number. * See restrictions below.
 
# Int
say 1_2_3; # 123
 
# Binary Int
say 0b1_0_1_0_1; # 21
 
# Hexadecimal Int
say 0xa_bc_d; # 43981
 
# Rat
say 1_2_3_4.2_5; # 1234.25
 
# Num
say 6.0_22e4; # 60220
 
# There are some restrictions on the placement.
# An underscore may not be on an edge boundary, or next to another underscore.
# The following are all syntax errors.
 
# say _1234.25;
# say 1234_.25;
# say 1234._25;
# say 1234.25_;
# say 12__34.25;

Phix[edit]

Phix simply ignores underscores in numeric literals, however a leading underscore signifies a normal identifier, much like a123 or tmp2.
Commas are not allowed in numeric literals, since they delimit sequence elements, routine parameters, and such like, for example {1,2,3,4}.

? 1_2_3          -- 123
--? _1234.25 -- undefined identifier _1234
? 0b1_0_1_0_1 -- 21
? 0b_1_0_1_0_1 -- 21
? 0xa_bc_d -- 43981
? #_DEAD_BEEF_ -- 3735928559.0
? 0x_dead_beef -- 3735928559.0
? 3.14_15_93 -- 3.141593
? 1_2_3_4.2_5 -- 1234.25
? 1234_.25 -- 1234.25
? 1234._25 -- 1234.25
? 1234.25_ -- 1234.25
? 12__34.25 -- 1234.25
? 6.0_22e4 -- 60220

Python[edit]

The Syntax for separators in numbers, (numeric literals), is given here in the Python documentation.

  • The underscore, '_', is used as a separator.
  • Single underscores can be used to separate digits or can occur after base specifiers.
  • E.g. 100_000_000_000, 0x_dead_beef, 3.14_15_93

Racket[edit]

Vanilla Racket does not have numeric separator syntax. However, it can be defined by users. A quick solution is to use #%top:

#lang racket
 
(require syntax/parse/define
(only-in racket [#%top racket:#%top])
(for-syntax racket/string))
 
(define-syntax-parser #%top
[(_ . x)
#:do [(define s (symbol->string (syntax-e #'x)))
(define num (string->number (string-replace s "_" "")))]
#:when num
#`#,num]
[(_ . x) #'(racket:#%top . x)])
 
1_234_567.89
1_234__567.89
Output:
1234567.89
1234567.89

In the above implementation of the syntax, _ is the separator. It allows multiple consecutive separators, and allows the separator anywhere in the numeral (front, middle, and back).

Implementation details: any token with _ is considered an identifier in vanilla Racket. If it's not defined already, it would be unbound. We therefore can define #%top to control these unbound identifiers: if the token is a number after removing _, expand it to that number.

If we wish to, for example, disallow multiple consecutive separators like 1_234__567.89, we could do so easily:

#lang racket
 
(require syntax/parse/define
(only-in racket [#%top racket:#%top])
(for-syntax racket/string))
 
(define-syntax-parser #%top
[(_ . x)
#:do [(define s (symbol->string (syntax-e #'x)))
(define num (string->number (string-replace s "_" "")))]
#:when num
(syntax-parse #'x
[_ #:fail-when (string-contains? s "__") "invalid multiple consecutive separators"
#`#,num])]
[(_ . x) #'(racket:#%top . x)])
 
1_234_567.89
1_234__567.89
Output:
1_234__567.89: invalid multiple consecutive separators in: 1_234__567.89

A more complicated solution is to create a new language that changes Racket's reader. One approach is to adjust the readtable to recognize the new number literals so that we don't need to change the whole reader. While being slightly more complicated, this solution is better in a sense that (read) will also recognize the new number literals.

REXX[edit]

The REXX language doesn't allow commas (or other separators) in decimal numbers   (for input),   commas are considered argument separators   (if used from within a program,   or as (passed/invoked) arguments from any program).

However, for   binary   and   hexadecimal numbers,   (multiple) blanks are allowed in appropriate places.


For   binary   numbers,   blanks are allowed between groups of four binary digits.

For example:

   '1101 1001'B
   '1101 1001'b
   "1111 0101 0011 0010"B
    '111 0101 1110'b       is the same as  '0111 0101 1110'b   


For   hexadecimal   numbers,   blanks are allowed between pairs of hexadecimal digits.

For example:

   'de ad    be ef 'x
   "08 09 0A"X
   '789 cc'x               is the same as   '07 89 CC'x


For   decimal   numbers,   blanks are allowed between the sign (if present) and the numeric part of the number.
Optional, blanks are allowed before the sign,   and also after the number.

For example:

   + 4500
   -   1719


There is a way to work around such that blanks or commas could be used within a REXX program with a bit of coding:

pi= 3 . 14159 26535 89793 23846 26433 83279 50288 41971 69399 37510 58209 74945
pi= 3 . 14159_26535_89793_23846_26433_83279_50288_41971_69399_37510_58209_74945
pi = space( translate(pi, , ",_"), 0)

─── where the last REXX statement will translate (change) any number of separator characters into blanks,   and
remove all blanks from the "number".

Ruby[edit]

Ruby supports one separator, the underscore. It behaves like Perl's underscore.

Scala[edit]

Since Scala 2.13.0 it's stated in the Scala Language Specification that: "The digits of a numeric literal may be separated by arbitrarily many underscores for purposes of legibility." Let's see how its work in a Scala REPL session:

Welcome to Scala 2.13.0 (Java HotSpot(TM) 64-Bit Server VM, Java 12.0.2).
Type in expressions for evaluation. Or try :help.
 
scala> // Integer Literals
 
scala> // Using _ as a digit separator (neither leading nor trailing) it can be placed anywhere in the number.
 
scala> 1_2_3
res0: Int = 123
 
scala> 0xa_bc_d
res1: Int = 43981
 
scala> 0x_dead_beef
res2: Int = -559038737
 
scala> 1_2_3_4.2_5
res3: Double = 1234.25
 
scala> 6.0_22e4
res4: Double = 60220.0
 
scala> 12__34.25
res5: Double = 1234.25
 
scala>

Sidef[edit]

Sidef allows underscores as a separator character in numeric inputs.

# Int
say 1_2_3; # 123
 
# Binary Int
say 0b1_0_1_0_1; # 21
 
# Hexadecimal Int
say 0xa_bc_d; # 43981
 
# Rational
say 1_2_3_4.2_5; # 1234.25
 
# Rational in exponential notation
say 6.0_22e4; # 60220
 
# Apart from starting the number with an underscore, can be placed anywhere in the number.
 
say 1234_.25; # 1234.25
say 1234._25; # 1234.25
say 1234.25_; # 1234.25
say 12__34.25; # 1234.25
# say _1234.25; # syntax error

XPL0[edit]

Numbers can contain underlines, which is useful for making long strings of digits easier to recognize. Underlines in coded constants are simply ignored by the parser. Underlines in numbers typed in to a running program are also ignored.

def Meg = 1_000_000;
[IntOut(0, Meg); CrLf(0);
RlOut(0, 123__45.67_89_); CrLf(0);
HexOut(0, $ABCD_EF01); CrLf(0);
HexOut(0, %1010_1011_1100_1101_1110_1111_0000_0001); CrLf(0);
IntOut(0, IntIn(0));
]
Output:
1000000
12345.67890
ABCDEF01
ABCDEF01
-321_00__0_
-321000

zkl[edit]

For source code, integers and floats allow a "_" between digits (or trailing)
and completely ignores them:
1_000 == 1_000_ == 1_0_0_0 == 1__________000
1_2.3_4 == 12.34
For hex, both "_" and "|" are allowed: 0x12|34
For printing, the String.fmt method will add separators for %d (interger: ","), 
%f (float: ","), %x (hex: "|") and %2B (binary: "|").
"%,d  %,.0f  %,x  %,.2B".fmt(1234, 1234.0, 0x1234, 0x1234).println();
--> "1,234 1,234 12|34 1|0010|0011|0100"
Each objects toString method has optional parameters to specify a separator
and "column width". This method is called (by fmt) for the above tags.