Eertree

From Rosetta Code
Task
Eertree
You are encouraged to solve this task according to the task description, using any language you may know.

An eertree is a data structure designed for efficient processing of certain palindrome tasks, for instance counting the number of sub-palindromes in an input string.

The data structure has commonalities to both tries and suffix trees.   See links below.


Task

Construct an eertree for the string "eertree", then output all sub-palindromes by traversing the tree.


See also



C++[edit]

Translation of: D
#include <iostream>
#include <functional>
#include <map>
#include <vector>
 
struct Node {
int length;
std::map<char, int> edges;
int suffix;
 
Node(int l) : length(l), suffix(0) {
/* empty */
}
 
Node(int l, const std::map<char, int>& m, int s) : length(l), edges(m), suffix(s) {
/* empty */
}
};
 
constexpr int evenRoot = 0;
constexpr int oddRoot = 1;
 
std::vector<Node> eertree(const std::string& s) {
std::vector<Node> tree = {
Node(0, {}, oddRoot),
Node(-1, {}, oddRoot)
};
int suffix = oddRoot;
int n, k;
 
for (size_t i = 0; i < s.length(); ++i) {
char c = s[i];
for (n = suffix; ; n = tree[n].suffix) {
k = tree[n].length;
int b = i - k - 1;
if (b >= 0 && s[b] == c) {
break;
}
}
 
auto it = tree[n].edges.find(c);
auto end = tree[n].edges.end();
if (it != end) {
suffix = it->second;
continue;
}
suffix = tree.size();
tree.push_back(Node(k + 2));
tree[n].edges[c] = suffix;
if (tree[suffix].length == 1) {
tree[suffix].suffix = 0;
continue;
}
while (true) {
n = tree[n].suffix;
int b = i - tree[n].length - 1;
if (b >= 0 && s[b] == c) {
break;
}
}
tree[suffix].suffix = tree[n].edges[c];
}
 
return tree;
}
 
std::vector<std::string> subPalindromes(const std::vector<Node>& tree) {
std::vector<std::string> s;
 
std::function<void(int, std::string)> children;
children = [&children, &tree, &s](int n, std::string p) {
auto it = tree[n].edges.cbegin();
auto end = tree[n].edges.cend();
for (; it != end; it = std::next(it)) {
auto c = it->first;
auto m = it->second;
 
std::string pl = c + p + c;
s.push_back(pl);
children(m, pl);
}
};
children(0, "");
 
auto it = tree[1].edges.cbegin();
auto end = tree[1].edges.cend();
for (; it != end; it = std::next(it)) {
auto c = it->first;
auto n = it->second;
 
std::string ct(1, c);
s.push_back(ct);
 
children(n, ct);
}
 
return s;
}
 
int main() {
using namespace std;
 
auto tree = eertree("eertree");
auto pal = subPalindromes(tree);
 
auto it = pal.cbegin();
auto end = pal.cend();
 
cout << "[";
if (it != end) {
cout << it->c_str();
it++;
}
while (it != end) {
cout << ", " << it->c_str();
it++;
}
cout << "]" << endl;
 
return 0;
}
Output:
[ee, e, r, t, rtr, ertre, eertree]

C#[edit]

Translation of: Java
using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
 
namespace Eertree {
class Node {
public Node(int length) {
this.Length = length;
// empty or
this.Edges = new Dictionary<char, int>();
}
 
public Node(int length, Dictionary<char, int> edges, int suffix) {
this.Length = length;
this.Edges = edges;
this.Suffix = suffix;
}
 
public int Length { get; set; }
public Dictionary<char, int> Edges { get; set; }
public int Suffix { get; set; }
}
 
class Program {
const int EVEN_ROOT = 0;
const int ODD_ROOT = 1;
 
static List<Node> Eertree(string s) {
List<Node> tree = new List<Node> {
//new Node(0, null, ODD_ROOT), or
new Node(0, new Dictionary<char, int>(), ODD_ROOT),
//new Node(-1, null, ODD_ROOT) or
new Node(-1, new Dictionary<char, int>(), ODD_ROOT)
};
int suffix = ODD_ROOT;
int n, k;
for (int i = 0; i < s.Length; i++) {
char c = s[i];
for (n = suffix; ; n = tree[n].Suffix) {
k = tree[n].Length;
int b = i - k - 1;
if (b >= 0 && s[b] == c) {
break;
}
}
if (tree[n].Edges.ContainsKey(c)) {
suffix = tree[n].Edges[c];
continue;
}
suffix = tree.Count;
tree.Add(new Node(k + 2));
tree[n].Edges[c] = suffix;
if (tree[suffix].Length == 1) {
tree[suffix].Suffix = 0;
continue;
}
while (true) {
n = tree[n].Suffix;
int b = i - tree[n].Length - 1;
if (b >= 0 && s[b] == c) {
break;
}
}
tree[suffix].Suffix = tree[n].Edges[c];
}
return tree;
}
 
static List<string> SubPalindromes(List<Node> tree) {
List<string> s = new List<string>();
SubPalindromes_children(0, "", tree, s);
foreach (var c in tree[1].Edges.Keys) {
int m = tree[1].Edges[c];
string ct = c.ToString();
s.Add(ct);
SubPalindromes_children(m, ct, tree, s);
}
return s;
}
 
static void SubPalindromes_children(int n, string p, List<Node> tree, List<string> s) {
foreach (var c in tree[n].Edges.Keys) {
int m = tree[n].Edges[c];
string p1 = c + p + c;
s.Add(p1);
SubPalindromes_children(m, p1, tree, s);
}
}
 
static void Main(string[] args) {
List<Node> tree = Eertree("eertree");
List<string> result = SubPalindromes(tree);
string listStr = string.Join(", ", result);
Console.WriteLine("[{0}]", listStr);
}
}
}
Output:
[ee, e, r, t, rtr, ertre, eertree]

D[edit]

Translation of: Go
import std.array;
import std.stdio;
 
void main() {
auto tree = eertree("eertree");
writeln(subPalindromes(tree));
}
 
struct Node {
int length;
int[char] edges;
int suffix;
}
 
const evenRoot = 0;
const oddRoot = 1;
 
Node[] eertree(string s) {
Node[] tree = [
Node(0, null, oddRoot),
Node(-1, null, oddRoot),
];
int suffix = oddRoot;
int n, k;
foreach (i, c; s) {
for (n=suffix; ; n=tree[n].suffix) {
k = tree[n].length;
int b = i-k-1;
if (b>=0 && s[b]==c) {
break;
}
}
if (c in tree[n].edges) {
suffix = tree[n].edges[c];
continue;
}
suffix = tree.length;
tree ~= Node(k+2);
tree[n].edges[c] = suffix;
if (tree[suffix].length == 1) {
tree[suffix].suffix = 0;
continue;
}
while (true) {
n = tree[n].suffix;
int b = i-tree[n].length-1;
if (b>=0 && s[b]==c) {
break;
}
}
tree[suffix].suffix = tree[n].edges[c];
}
return tree;
}
 
auto subPalindromes(Node[] tree) {
auto s = appender!(string[]);
void children(int n, string p) {
foreach (c, n; tree[n].edges) {
p = c ~ p ~ c;
s ~= p;
children(n, p);
}
}
children(0, "");
foreach (c, n; tree[1].edges) {
string ct = [c].idup;
s ~= ct;
children(n, ct);
}
return s.data;
}
Output:
["ee", "e", "r", "t", "rtr", "ertre", "eertree"]

Go[edit]

package main
 
import "fmt"
 
func main() {
tree := eertree([]byte("eertree"))
fmt.Println(subPalindromes(tree))
}
 
type edges map[byte]int
 
type node struct {
length int
edges
suffix int
}
 
const evenRoot = 0
const oddRoot = 1
 
func eertree(s []byte) []node {
tree := []node{
evenRoot: {length: 0, suffix: oddRoot, edges: edges{}},
oddRoot: {length: -1, suffix: oddRoot, edges: edges{}},
}
suffix := oddRoot
var n, k int
for i, c := range s {
for n = suffix; ; n = tree[n].suffix {
k = tree[n].length
if b := i - k - 1; b >= 0 && s[b] == c {
break
}
}
if e, ok := tree[n].edges[c]; ok {
suffix = e
continue
}
suffix = len(tree)
tree = append(tree, node{length: k + 2, edges: edges{}})
tree[n].edges[c] = suffix
if tree[suffix].length == 1 {
tree[suffix].suffix = 0
continue
}
for {
n = tree[n].suffix
if b := i - tree[n].length - 1; b >= 0 && s[b] == c {
break
}
}
tree[suffix].suffix = tree[n].edges[c]
}
return tree
}
 
func subPalindromes(tree []node) (s []string) {
var children func(int, string)
children = func(n int, p string) {
for c, n := range tree[n].edges {
c := string(c)
p := c + p + c
s = append(s, p)
children(n, p)
}
}
children(0, "")
for c, n := range tree[1].edges {
c := string(c)
s = append(s, c)
children(n, c)
}
return
}
Output:
[ee e r t rtr ertre eertree]

Java[edit]

Translation of: D
import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.HashMap;
import java.util.List;
import java.util.Map;
 
public class Eertree {
public static void main(String[] args) {
List<Node> tree = eertree("eertree");
List<String> result = subPalindromes(tree);
System.out.println(result);
}
 
private static class Node {
int length;
Map<Character, Integer> edges = new HashMap<>();
int suffix;
 
public Node(int length) {
this.length = length;
}
 
public Node(int length, Map<Character, Integer> edges, int suffix) {
this.length = length;
this.edges = edges != null ? edges : new HashMap<>();
this.suffix = suffix;
}
}
 
private static final int EVEN_ROOT = 0;
private static final int ODD_ROOT = 1;
 
private static List<Node> eertree(String s) {
List<Node> tree = new ArrayList<>();
tree.add(new Node(0, null, ODD_ROOT));
tree.add(new Node(-1, null, ODD_ROOT));
int suffix = ODD_ROOT;
int n, k;
for (int i = 0; i < s.length(); ++i) {
char c = s.charAt(i);
for (n = suffix; ; n = tree.get(n).suffix) {
k = tree.get(n).length;
int b = i - k - 1;
if (b >= 0 && s.charAt(b) == c) {
break;
}
}
if (tree.get(n).edges.containsKey(c)) {
suffix = tree.get(n).edges.get(c);
continue;
}
suffix = tree.size();
tree.add(new Node(k + 2));
tree.get(n).edges.put(c, suffix);
if (tree.get(suffix).length == 1) {
tree.get(suffix).suffix = 0;
continue;
}
while (true) {
n = tree.get(n).suffix;
int b = i - tree.get(n).length - 1;
if (b >= 0 && s.charAt(b) == c) {
break;
}
}
tree.get(suffix).suffix = tree.get(n).edges.get(c);
}
return tree;
}
 
private static List<String> subPalindromes(List<Node> tree) {
List<String> s = new ArrayList<>();
subPalindromes_children(0, "", tree, s);
for (Map.Entry<Character, Integer> cm : tree.get(1).edges.entrySet()) {
String ct = String.valueOf(cm.getKey());
s.add(ct);
subPalindromes_children(cm.getValue(), ct, tree, s);
}
return s;
}
 
// nested methods are a pain, even if lambdas make that possible for Java
private static void subPalindromes_children(final int n, final String p, final List<Node> tree, List<String> s) {
for (Map.Entry<Character, Integer> cm : tree.get(n).edges.entrySet()) {
Character c = cm.getKey();
Integer m = cm.getValue();
String pl = c + p + c;
s.add(pl);
subPalindromes_children(m, pl, tree, s);
}
}
}
Output:
[ee, r, t, rtr, ertre, eertree, e]

Julia[edit]

Translation of: Python
mutable struct Node
edges::Dict{Char, Node}
link::Union{Node, Missing}
sz::Int
Node() = new(Dict(), missing, 0)
end
 
sizednode(x) = (n = Node(); n.sz = x; n)
 
function eertree(str)
nodes = Vector{Node}()
oddroot = sizednode(-1)
evenroot = sizednode(0)
oddroot.link = evenroot
evenroot.link = oddroot
S = "0"
maxsuffix = evenroot
 
function maxsuffixpal(startnode,a::Char)
# Traverse the suffix-palindromes of tree looking for equality with a
u = startnode
i = length(S)
k = u.sz
while u !== oddroot && S[i - k] != a
if u === u.link
throw("circular reference above oddroot")
end
u = u.link
k = u.sz
end
u
end
 
function addchar(a::Char)
Q = maxsuffixpal(maxsuffix, a)
creatednode = !haskey(Q.edges, a)
if creatednode
P = sizednode(Q.sz + 2)
push!(nodes, P)
if P.sz == 1
P.link = evenroot
else
P.link = maxsuffixpal(Q.link, a).edges[a]
end
Q.edges[a] = P # adds edge (Q, P)
end
maxsuffix = Q.edges[a] # P becomes the new maxsuffix
S *= string(a)
creatednode
end
 
function getsubpalindromes()
result = Vector{String}()
getsubpalindromes(oddroot, [oddroot], "", result)
getsubpalindromes(evenroot, [evenroot], "", result)
result
end
 
function getsubpalindromes(nd, nodestohere, charstohere, result)
for (lnkname, nd2) in nd.edges
getsubpalindromes(nd2, vcat(nodestohere, nd2), charstohere * lnkname, result)
end
if nd !== oddroot && nd !== evenroot
assembled = reverse(charstohere) *
(nodestohere[1] === evenroot ? charstohere : charstohere[2:end])
push!(result, assembled)
end
end
 
println("Results of processing string \"$str\":")
for c in str
addchar(c)
end
println("Number of sub-palindromes: ", length(nodes))
println("Sub-palindromes: ", getsubpalindromes())
end
 
eertree("eertree")
 
Output:

Results of processing string "eertree": Number of sub-palindromes: 7 Sub-palindromes: ["e", "r", "eertree", "ertre", "rtr", "t", "ee"]

Kotlin[edit]

Translation of: Python
// version 1.1.4
 
class Node {
val edges = mutableMapOf<Char, Node>() // edges (or forward links)
var link: Node? = null // suffix link (backward links)
var len = 0 // the length of the node
}
 
class Eertree(str: String) {
val nodes = mutableListOf<Node>()
 
private val rto = Node() // odd length root node, or node -1
private val rte = Node() // even length root node, or node 0
private val s = StringBuilder("0") // accumulated input string, T = S[1..i]
private var maxSufT = rte // maximum suffix of tree T
 
init {
// Initialize and build the tree
rte.link = rto
rto.link = rte
rto.len = -1
rte.len = 0
for (ch in str) add(ch)
}
 
private fun getMaxSuffixPal(startNode: Node, a: Char): Node {
// We traverse the suffix-palindromes of T in the order of decreasing length.
// For each palindrome we read its length k and compare T[i-k] against a
// until we get an equality or arrive at the -1 node.
var u = startNode
val i = s.length
var k = u.len
while (u !== rto && s[i - k - 1] != a) {
if (u === u.link!!) throw RuntimeException("Infinite loop detected")
u = u.link!!
k = u.len
}
return u
}
 
private fun add(a: Char): Boolean {
// We need to find the maximum suffix-palindrome P of Ta
// Start by finding maximum suffix-palindrome Q of T.
// To do this, we traverse the suffix-palindromes of T
// in the order of decreasing length, starting with maxSuf(T)
val q = getMaxSuffixPal(maxSufT, a)
 
// We check Q to see whether it has an outgoing edge labeled by a.
val createANewNode = a !in q.edges.keys
 
if (createANewNode) {
// We create the node P of length Q + 2
val p = Node()
nodes.add(p)
p.len = q.len + 2
if (p.len == 1) {
// if P = a, create the suffix link (P, 0)
p.link = rte
}
else {
// It remains to create the suffix link from P if |P|>1. Just
// continue traversing suffix-palindromes of T starting with the
// the suffix link of Q.
p.link = getMaxSuffixPal(q.link!!, a).edges[a]
}
 
// create the edge (Q, P)
q.edges[a] = p
}
 
// P becomes the new maxSufT
maxSufT = q.edges[a]!!
 
// Store accumulated input string
s.append(a)
 
return createANewNode
}
 
fun getSubPalindromes(): List<String> {
// Traverse tree to find sub-palindromes
val result = mutableListOf<String>()
// Odd length words
getSubPalindromes(rto, listOf(rto), "", result)
// Even length words
getSubPalindromes(rte, listOf(rte), "", result)
return result
}
 
private fun getSubPalindromes(nd: Node, nodesToHere: List<Node>,
charsToHere: String, result: MutableList<String>) {
// Each node represents a palindrome, which can be reconstructed
// by the path from the root node to each non-root node.
 
// Traverse all edges, since they represent other palindromes
for ((lnkName, nd2) in nd.edges) {
getSubPalindromes(nd2, nodesToHere + nd2, charsToHere + lnkName, result)
}
 
// Reconstruct based on charsToHere characters.
if (nd !== rto && nd !== rte) { // Don't print for root nodes
val assembled = charsToHere.reversed() +
if (nodesToHere[0] === rte) // Even string
charsToHere
else // Odd string
charsToHere.drop(1)
result.add(assembled)
}
}
}
 
fun main(args: Array<String>) {
val str = "eertree"
println("Processing string '$str'")
val eertree = Eertree(str)
println("Number of sub-palindromes: ${eertree.nodes.size}")
val result = eertree.getSubPalindromes()
println("Sub-palindromes: $result")
}
Output:
Processing string 'eertree'
Number of sub-palindromes: 7
Sub-palindromes: [e, r, eertree, ertre, rtr, t, ee]

M2000 Interpreter[edit]

 
If Version<9.5 Then exit
If Version=9.5 And Revision<2 Then Exit
Class Node {
inventory myedges
length, suffix=0
Function edges(s$) {
=-1 : if exist(.myedges, s$) then =eval(.myedges)
}
Module edges_append (a$, where) {
Append .myedges, a$:=where
}
Class:
Module Node(.length) {
Read ? .suffix, .myedges
}
}
function eertree(s$) {
Const evenRoot=0, oddRoot=1
Inventory Tree= oddRoot:=Node(-1,1),evenRoot:=Node(0,1)
k=0
suffix=oddRoot
for i=0 to len(s$)-1 {
c$=mid$(s$,i+1,1)
n=suffix
Do {
k=tree(n).length
b=i-k-1
if b>=0 then if mid$(s$,b+1,1)=c$ Then exit
n =tree(n).suffix
} Always
e=tree(n).edges(c$)
if e>=0 then suffix=e :continue
suffix=len(Tree)
 
Append Tree, len(Tree):=Node(k+2)
Tree(n).edges_append c$, suffix
If tree(suffix).length=1 then tree(suffix).suffix=0 : continue
Do {
n=tree(n).suffix
b=i-tree(n).length-1
if b>0 Then If mid$(s$, b+1,1)=c$ then exit
} Always
e=tree(n).edges(c$)
if e>=0 then tree(suffix).suffix=e
 
}
=tree
}
children=lambda (s, tree, n, root$="")->{
L=Len(tree(n).myEdges)
if L=0 then =s : exit
L--
For i=0 to L {
c=tree(n).myEdges
c$=Eval$(c, i) ' read keys at position i
nxt=c(i!) ' read value using position
p$ = if$(n=1 -> c$, c$+root$+c$)
append s, (p$,)
\\ better use lambda() and not children()
\\ for recursion when we copy this lambda to other identifier.
s = lambda(s, tree, nxt, p$)
}
= s
}
aString=Lambda ->{
Push Quote$(Letter$)
}
aLine=Lambda ->{
Shift 2 ' swap two top stack items
if stackitem$()="" then { Drop} Else Push letter$+", "+Letter$
}
Palindromes$=Lambda$ children, aString, aLine (Tree)-> {
="("+children(children((,), Tree, 0), Tree, 1)#Map(aString)#Fold$(aline,"")+")"
}
 
Print Palindromes$(eertree("eertree"))
 
Output:
("ee", "e", "r", "t", "rtr", "ertre", "eertree")

Perl 6[edit]

Translation of: Ring
#!/usr/bin/env perl6
 
use v6;
 
my $str = "eertree";
my @pal = ();
my ($strrev,$strpal);
 
for (1 .. $str.chars) -> $n {
for (1 .. $str.chars) -> $m {
$strrev = "";
$strpal = $str.substr($n-1, $m);
if ($strpal ne "") {
for ($strpal.chars ... 1) -> $p {
$strrev ~= $strpal.substr($p-1,1);
}
($strpal eq $strrev) and @pal.push($strpal);
}
}
}
 
say @pal.unique;
 
Output:
(e ee eertree ertre r rtr t)

Phix[edit]

If you use this in anger it may be wise to replace {string chars, sequence next} with a dictionary, which can obviously be either a new dictionary for each node, or perhaps better a single/per tree dictionary keyed on {n,ch}.

enum LEN,SUFF,CHARS,NEXT
 
function node(integer len, suffix=1, string chars="", sequence next={})
return {len,suffix,chars,next} -- must match above enum!
end function
 
function eertree(string s)
sequence tree = {node(-1), -- odd lengths
node(0)} -- even lengths
integer suff = 2 -- max suffix palindrome
 
for i=1 to length(s) do
integer cur = suff, curlen, ch = s[i], k
while (true) do
curlen = tree[cur][LEN]
k = i-1-curlen
if k>=1 and s[k]==ch then
exit
end if
cur = tree[cur][SUFF]
end while
k = find(ch,tree[cur][CHARS])
if k then
suff = tree[cur][NEXT][k]
else
tree = append(tree,node(curlen+2))
suff = length(tree)
tree[cur][CHARS] &= ch
tree[cur][NEXT] &= suff
 
if tree[suff][LEN]==1 then
tree[suff][SUFF] = 2
else
while (true) do
cur = tree[cur][SUFF]
curlen = tree[cur][LEN]
k = i-1-curlen
if k>=0 and s[k]==ch then
k = find(ch,tree[cur][CHARS])
if k then
tree[suff][SUFF] = tree[cur][NEXT][k]
end if
exit
end if
end while
end if
end if
end for
return tree
end function
 
function children(sequence s, tree, integer n, string root="")
for i=1 to length(tree[n][CHARS]) do
integer c = tree[n][CHARS][i],
nxt = tree[n][NEXT][i]
string p = iff(n=1 ? c&""
 : c&root&c)
s = append(s, p)
s = children(s, tree, nxt, p)
end for
return s
end function
 
procedure main()
sequence tree = eertree("eertree")
puts(1,"tree:\n")
for i=1 to length(tree) do
sequence ti = tree[i]
ti[NEXT] = sprint(ti[NEXT])
printf(1,"[%d]: len:%2d suffix:%d chars:%-5s next:%s\n",i&ti)
end for
puts(1,"\n")
 
-- odd then even lengths:
 ?children(children(s,tree,1), tree, 2)
end procedure
main()
Output:

The tree matches Fig 1 in the pdf linked above.

tree:
[1]: len:-1  suffix:1  chars:ert   next:{3,5,6}
[2]: len: 0  suffix:1  chars:e     next:{4}
[3]: len: 1  suffix:2  chars:      next:{}
[4]: len: 2  suffix:3  chars:      next:{}
[5]: len: 1  suffix:2  chars:      next:{}
[6]: len: 1  suffix:2  chars:r     next:{7}
[7]: len: 3  suffix:5  chars:e     next:{8}
[8]: len: 5  suffix:3  chars:e     next:{9}
[9]: len: 7  suffix:4  chars:      next:{}

{"e","r","t","rtr","ertre","eertree","ee"}

Python[edit]

#!/bin/python
from __future__ import print_function
 
class Node(object):
def __init__(self):
self.edges = {} # edges (or forward links)
self.link = None # suffix link (backward links)
self.len = 0 # the length of the node
 
class Eertree(object):
def __init__(self):
self.nodes = []
# two initial root nodes
self.rto = Node() #odd length root node, or node -1
self.rte = Node() #even length root node, or node 0
 
# Initialize empty tree
self.rto.link = self.rte.link = self.rto;
self.rto.len = -1
self.rte.len = 0
self.S = [0] # accumulated input string, T=S[1..i]
self.maxSufT = self.rte # maximum suffix of tree T
 
def get_max_suffix_pal(self, startNode, a):
# We traverse the suffix-palindromes of T in the order of decreasing length.
# For each palindrome we read its length k and compare T[i-k] against a
# until we get an equality or arrive at the -1 node.
u = startNode
i = len(self.S)
k = u.len
while id(u) != id(self.rto) and self.S[i - k - 1] != a:
assert id(u) != id(u.link) #Prevent infinte loop
u = u.link
k = u.len
 
return u
 
def add(self, a):
 
# We need to find the maximum suffix-palindrome P of Ta
# Start by finding maximum suffix-palindrome Q of T.
# To do this, we traverse the suffix-palindromes of T
# in the order of decreasing length, starting with maxSuf(T)
Q = self.get_max_suffix_pal(self.maxSufT, a)
 
# We check Q to see whether it has an outgoing edge labeled by a.
createANewNode = not a in Q.edges
 
if createANewNode:
# We create the node P of length Q+2
P = Node()
self.nodes.append(P)
P.len = Q.len + 2
if P.len == 1:
# if P = a, create the suffix link (P,0)
P.link = self.rte
else:
# It remains to create the suffix link from P if |P|>1. Just
# continue traversing suffix-palindromes of T starting with the suffix
# link of Q.
P.link = self.get_max_suffix_pal(Q.link, a).edges[a]
 
# create the edge (Q,P)
Q.edges[a] = P
 
#P becomes the new maxSufT
self.maxSufT = Q.edges[a]
 
#Store accumulated input string
self.S.append(a)
 
return createANewNode
 
def get_sub_palindromes(self, nd, nodesToHere, charsToHere, result):
#Each node represents a palindrome, which can be reconstructed
#by the path from the root node to each non-root node.
 
#Traverse all edges, since they represent other palindromes
for lnkName in nd.edges:
nd2 = nd.edges[lnkName] #The lnkName is the character used for this edge
self.get_sub_palindromes(nd2, nodesToHere+[nd2], charsToHere+[lnkName], result)
 
#Reconstruct based on charsToHere characters.
if id(nd) != id(self.rto) and id(nd) != id(self.rte): #Don't print for root nodes
tmp = "".join(charsToHere)
if id(nodesToHere[0]) == id(self.rte): #Even string
assembled = tmp[::-1] + tmp
else: #Odd string
assembled = tmp[::-1] + tmp[1:]
result.append(assembled)
 
if __name__=="__main__":
st = "eertree"
print ("Processing string", st)
eertree = Eertree()
for ch in st:
eertree.add(ch)
 
print ("Number of sub-palindromes:", len(eertree.nodes))
 
#Traverse tree to find sub-palindromes
result = []
eertree.get_sub_palindromes(eertree.rto, [eertree.rto], [], result) #Odd length words
eertree.get_sub_palindromes(eertree.rte, [eertree.rte], [], result) #Even length words
print ("Sub-palindromes:", result)
Output:
Processing string eertree
Number of sub-palindromes: 7
Sub-palindromes: ['r', 'e', 'eertree', 'ertre', 'rtr', 't', 'ee']

Racket[edit]

Translation of: Python
#lang racket
(struct node (edges ; edges (or forward links)
link ; suffix link (backward links)
len) ; the length of the node
#:mutable)
 
(define (new-node link len) (node (make-hash) link len))
 
(struct eertree (nodes
rto ; odd length root node, or node -1
rte ; even length root node, or node 0
S ; accumulated input string, T=S[1..i]
max-suf-t) ; maximum suffix of tree T
#:mutable)
 
(define (new-eertree)
(let* ((rto (new-node #f -1))
(rte (new-node rto 0)))
(eertree null rto rte (list 0) rte)))
 
(define (eertree-get-max-suffix-pal et start-node a)
#| We traverse the suffix-palindromes of T in the order of decreasing length.
For each palindrome we read its length k and compare T[i-k] against a
until we get an equality or arrive at the -1 node. |#
(match et
[(eertree nodes rto rte (and S (app length i)) max-suf-t)
(let loop ((u start-node))
(let ((k (node-len u)))
(if (or (eq? u rto) (= (list-ref S (- i k 1)) a))
u
(let ((u→ (node-link u)))
(when (eq? u u→) (error 'eertree-get-max-suffix-pal "infinite loop"))
(loop u→)))))]))
 
(define (eertree-add! et a)
#| We need to find the maximum suffix-palindrome P of Ta
Start by finding maximum suffix-palindrome Q of T.
To do this, we traverse the suffix-palindromes of T
in the order of decreasing length, starting with maxSuf(T) |#
(match (eertree-get-max-suffix-pal et (eertree-max-suf-t et) a)
[(node Q.edges Q.→ Q.len)
 ;; We check Q to see whether it has an outgoing edge labeled by a.
(define new-node? (not (hash-has-key? Q.edges a)))
(when new-node?
(define P (new-node #f (+ Q.len 2))) ; We create the node P of length Q+2
(set-eertree-nodes! et (append (eertree-nodes et) (list P)))
(define P→
(if (= (node-len P) 1)
(eertree-rte et) ; if P = a, create the suffix link (P,0)
 ;; It remains to c reate the suffix link from P if |P|>1.
 ;; Just continue traversing suffix-palindromes of T starting with the suffix link of Q.
(hash-ref (node-edges (eertree-get-max-suffix-pal et Q.→ a)) a)))
(set-node-link! P P→)
(hash-set! Q.edges a P)) ; create the edge (Q,P)
 
(set-eertree-max-suf-t! et (hash-ref Q.edges a)) ; P becomes the new maxSufT
(set-eertree-S! et (append (eertree-S et) (list a))) ; Store accumulated input string
new-node?]))
 
(define (eertree-get-sub-palindromes et)
(define (inr nd (node-path (list nd)) (char-path/rev null))
 ;; Each node represents a palindrome, which can be reconstructed by the path from the root node to
 ;; each non-root node.
(let ((deeper ; Traverse all edges, since they represent other palindromes
(for/fold ((result null)) (([→-name nd2] (in-hash (node-edges nd))))
 ; The lnk-name is the character used for this edge
(append result (inr nd2 (append node-path (list nd2)) (cons →-name char-path/rev)))))
(root-node? (or (eq? (eertree-rto et) nd) (eq? (eertree-rte et) nd))))
(if root-node? ; Don't add root nodes
deeper
(let ((even-string? (eq? (car node-path) (eertree-rte et)))
(char-path (reverse char-path/rev)))
(cons (append char-path/rev (if even-string? char-path (cdr char-path))) deeper)))))
inr)
 
(define (eertree-get-palindromes et)
(define sub (eertree-get-sub-palindromes et))
(append (sub (eertree-rto et))
(sub (eertree-rte et))))
 
(module+ main
(define et (new-eertree))
 ;; eertree works in integer space, so we'll map to/from char space here
(for ((c "eertree")) (eertree-add! et (char->integer c)))
(map (compose list->string (curry map integer->char)) (eertree-get-palindromes et)))
 
Output:
'("t" "rtr" "ertre" "eertree" "r" "e" "ee")

REXX[edit]

This REXX program is modeled after the   Ring   example.

/*REXX program creates a list of (unique) sub─palindromes that exist in an input string.*/
parse arg x . /*obtain optional input string from CL.*/
if x=='' | x=="," then x= 'eertree' /*Not specified? Then use the default.*/
L= length(x) /*the length (in chars) of input string*/
@.= . /*@ tree indicates uniqueness of pals. */
$= /*list of unsorted & unique palindromes*/
do j=1 for L /*start at the left side of the string.*/
do k=1 for L /*traverse from left to right of string*/
parse var x =(j) y +(k) /*extract a substring from the string. */
if reverse(y)\==y | @.y\==. then iterate /*Partial string a palindrome? Skip it*/
@.y= y /*indicate a sub─palindrome was found. */
$= $' ' y /*append the sub─palindrome to the list*/
end /*k*/ /* [↑] an extra blank is inserted. */
end /*j*/
 
say '──────── The input string that is being used: ' space(x)
say '──────── The number of sub─palindromes found: ' words($)
say '──────── The list of sub─palindromes found: ' strip($)
/*stick a fork in it, we're all done. */
output   when using the default input:
──────── The input string that is being used:  eertree
──────── The number of sub─palindromes found:  7
──────── The  list  of sub─palindromes found:  e  ee  eertree  ertre  r  rtr  t

Ring[edit]

 
# Project : Eertree
 
str = "eertree"
pal = []
for n=1 to len(str)
for m=1 to len(str)
strrev = ""
strpal = substr(str, n, m)
if strpal != ""
for p=len(strpal) to 1 step -1
strrev = strrev + strpal[p]
next
if strpal = strrev
add(pal, strpal)
ok
ok
next
next
sortpal = sort(pal)
for n=len(sortpal) to 2 step -1
if sortpal[n] = sortpal[n-1]
del(sortpal, n)
ok
next
see sortpal + nl
 

Output:

e
ee
eertree
ertre
r
rtr
t

zkl[edit]

Translation of: Python
class Node{
fcn init(length){
var edges=Dictionary(), # edges (or forward links). (char:Node)
link=Void, # suffix link (backward links)
sz =length; # node length.
}
}
class Eertree{
fcn init(string=Void){
var nodes=List(),
# two initial root nodes
rto=Node(-1), # odd length root node, or node -1
rte=Node(0); # even length root node, or node 0
 
rto.link=rte.link=rto; # Initialize empty tree
var S =Data(Void,0), # accumulated input string, T=S[1..i], byte buffer
maxSufT=rte; # maximum suffix of tree T
if(string) string.pump(addChar); // go ahead and build the tree
}
fcn get_max_suffix_pal(startNode,a){
# We traverse the suffix-palindromes of T in the order of decreasing length.
# For each palindrome we read its length k and compare T[i-k] against a
# until we get an equality or arrive at the -1 node.
u,i,k := startNode, S.len(), u.sz;
while(u.id!=rto.id and S.charAt(i - k - 1)!=a){
_assert_(u.id!=u.link.id); # Prevent infinte loop
u,k = u.link,u.sz;
}
return(u);
}
fcn addChar(a){
# We need to find the maximum suffix-palindrome P of Ta
# Start by finding maximum suffix-palindrome Q of T.
# To do this, we traverse the suffix-palindromes of T
# in the order of decreasing length, starting with maxSuf(T)
Q:=get_max_suffix_pal(maxSufT,a);
# We check Q to see whether it has an outgoing edge labeled by a.
createANewNode:=(not Q.edges.holds(a));
if(createANewNode){
P:=Node(Q.sz + 2); nodes.append(P);
if(P.sz==1) P.link=rte; # if P = a, create the suffix link (P,0)
else # It remains to create the suffix link from P if |P|>1. Just
# continue traversing suffix-palindromes of T starting with the suffix
# link of Q.
P.link=get_max_suffix_pal(Q.link,a).edges[a];
Q.edges[a]=P; # create the edge (Q,P)
}
maxSufT=Q.edges[a]; # P becomes the new maxSufT
S.append(a); # Store accumulated input string
return(createANewNode); // in case anyone wants to know a is new edge
}
fcn get_sub_palindromes{
result:=List();
sub_palindromes(rto, T(rto),"", result); # Odd length words
sub_palindromes(rte, T(rte),"", result); # Even length words
result
}
fcn [private] sub_palindromes(nd, nodesToHere, charsToHere, result){
// nodesToHere needs to be read only
# Each node represents a palindrome, which can be reconstructed
# by the path from the root node to each non-root node.
 
# Traverse all edges, since they represent other palindromes
nd.edges.pump(Void,'wrap([(lnkName,nd2)]){
sub_palindromes(nd2, nodesToHere+nd2, charsToHere+lnkName, result);
});
 
# Reconstruct based on charsToHere characters.
if(nd.id!=rto.id and nd.id!=rte.id){ # Don't print for root nodes
if(nodesToHere[0].id==rte.id) # Even string
assembled:=charsToHere.reverse() + charsToHere;
else assembled:=charsToHere.reverse() + charsToHere[1,*]; # Odd string
result.append(assembled);
}
}
}
st:="eertree";
println("Processing string \"", st,"\"");
eertree:=Eertree(st);
println("Number of sub-palindromes: ", eertree.nodes.len());
println("Sub-palindromes: ", eertree.get_sub_palindromes());
Output:
Processing string "eertree"
Number of sub-palindromes: 7
Sub-palindromes: L("e","r","eertree","ertre","rtr","t","ee")