Pentomino tiling

From Rosetta Code
Pentomino tiling is a draft programming task. It is not yet considered ready to be promoted as a complete task, for reasons that should be found in its talk page.

A pentomino is a polyomino that consists of 5 squares. There are 12 pentomino shapes, if you don't count rotations and reflections. Most pentominoes can form their own mirror image through rotation, but some of them have to be flipped over.

        I                                                                        
        I     L       N                                                 Y        
 FF     I     L      NN     PP     TTT              V       W     X    YY      ZZ
FF      I     L      N      PP      T     U U       V      WW    XXX    Y      Z 
 F      I     LL     N      P       T     UUU     VVV     WW      X     Y     ZZ


A Pentomino tiling is an example of an exact cover problem and can take on many forms. A traditional tiling presents an 8 by 8 grid, where 4 cells are left uncovered. The other cells are covered by the 12 pentomino shapes, without overlaps, with every shape only used once.

The 4 uncovered cells should be chosen at random. Note that not all configurations are solvable.


Task

Create an 8 by 8 tiling and print the result.


Example
F I I I I I L N
F F F L L L L N
W F - X Z Z N N
W W X X X Z N V
T W W X - Z Z V
T T T P P V V V
T Y - P P U U U
Y Y Y Y P U - U


Related tasks



C#[edit]

Translation of: Java
using System;
using System.Linq;
 
namespace PentominoTiling
{
class Program
{
static readonly char[] symbols = "FILNPTUVWXYZ-".ToCharArray();
 
static readonly int nRows = 8;
static readonly int nCols = 8;
static readonly int target = 12;
static readonly int blank = 12;
 
static int[][] grid = new int[nRows][];
static bool[] placed = new bool[target];
 
static void Main(string[] args)
{
var rand = new Random();
 
for (int r = 0; r < nRows; r++)
grid[r] = Enumerable.Repeat(-1, nCols).ToArray();
 
for (int i = 0; i < 4; i++)
{
int randRow, randCol;
do
{
randRow = rand.Next(nRows);
randCol = rand.Next(nCols);
}
while (grid[randRow][randCol] == blank);
 
grid[randRow][randCol] = blank;
}
 
if (Solve(0, 0))
{
PrintResult();
}
else
{
Console.WriteLine("no solution");
}
 
Console.ReadKey();
}
 
private static void PrintResult()
{
foreach (int[] r in grid)
{
foreach (int i in r)
Console.Write("{0} ", symbols[i]);
Console.WriteLine();
}
}
 
private static bool Solve(int pos, int numPlaced)
{
if (numPlaced == target)
return true;
 
int row = pos / nCols;
int col = pos % nCols;
 
if (grid[row][col] != -1)
return Solve(pos + 1, numPlaced);
 
for (int i = 0; i < shapes.Length; i++)
{
if (!placed[i])
{
foreach (int[] orientation in shapes[i])
{
if (!TryPlaceOrientation(orientation, row, col, i))
continue;
 
placed[i] = true;
 
if (Solve(pos + 1, numPlaced + 1))
return true;
 
RemoveOrientation(orientation, row, col);
placed[i] = false;
}
}
}
return false;
}
 
private static void RemoveOrientation(int[] orientation, int row, int col)
{
grid[row][col] = -1;
for (int i = 0; i < orientation.Length; i += 2)
grid[row + orientation[i]][col + orientation[i + 1]] = -1;
}
 
private static bool TryPlaceOrientation(int[] orientation, int row, int col, int shapeIndex)
{
for (int i = 0; i < orientation.Length; i += 2)
{
int x = col + orientation[i + 1];
int y = row + orientation[i];
if (x < 0 || x >= nCols || y < 0 || y >= nRows || grid[y][x] != -1)
return false;
}
 
grid[row][col] = shapeIndex;
for (int i = 0; i < orientation.Length; i += 2)
grid[row + orientation[i]][col + orientation[i + 1]] = shapeIndex;
 
return true;
}
 
// four (x, y) pairs are listed, (0,0) not included
static readonly int[][] F = {
new int[] {1, -1, 1, 0, 1, 1, 2, 1}, new int[] {0, 1, 1, -1, 1, 0, 2, 0},
new int[] {1, 0, 1, 1, 1, 2, 2, 1}, new int[] {1, 0, 1, 1, 2, -1, 2, 0},
new int[] {1, -2, 1, -1, 1, 0, 2, -1}, new int[] {0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 2, 1},
new int[] {1, -1, 1, 0, 1, 1, 2, -1}, new int[] {1, -1, 1, 0, 2, 0, 2, 1}};
 
static readonly int[][] I = {
new int[] { 0, 1, 0, 2, 0, 3, 0, 4 }, new int[] { 1, 0, 2, 0, 3, 0, 4, 0 } };
 
static readonly int[][] L = {
new int[] {1, 0, 1, 1, 1, 2, 1, 3}, new int[] {1, 0, 2, 0, 3, -1, 3, 0},
new int[] {0, 1, 0, 2, 0, 3, 1, 3}, new int[] {0, 1, 1, 0, 2, 0, 3, 0},
new int[] {0, 1, 1, 1, 2, 1, 3, 1}, new int[] {0, 1, 0, 2, 0, 3, 1, 0},
new int[] {1, 0, 2, 0, 3, 0, 3, 1}, new int[] {1, -3, 1, -2, 1, -1, 1, 0}};
 
static readonly int[][] N = {
new int[] {0, 1, 1, -2, 1, -1, 1, 0}, new int[] {1, 0, 1, 1, 2, 1, 3, 1},
new int[] {0, 1, 0, 2, 1, -1, 1, 0}, new int[] {1, 0, 2, 0, 2, 1, 3, 1},
new int[] {0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 1, 3}, new int[] {1, 0, 2, -1, 2, 0, 3, -1},
new int[] {0, 1, 0, 2, 1, 2, 1, 3}, new int[] {1, -1, 1, 0, 2, -1, 3, -1}};
 
static readonly int[][] P = {
new int[] {0, 1, 1, 0, 1, 1, 2, 1}, new int[] {0, 1, 0, 2, 1, 0, 1, 1},
new int[] {1, 0, 1, 1, 2, 0, 2, 1}, new int[] {0, 1, 1, -1, 1, 0, 1, 1},
new int[] {0, 1, 1, 0, 1, 1, 1, 2}, new int[] {1, -1, 1, 0, 2, -1, 2, 0},
new int[] {0, 1, 0, 2, 1, 1, 1, 2}, new int[] {0, 1, 1, 0, 1, 1, 2, 0}};
 
static readonly int[][] T = {
new int[] {0, 1, 0, 2, 1, 1, 2, 1}, new int[] {1, -2, 1, -1, 1, 0, 2, 0},
new int[] {1, 0, 2, -1, 2, 0, 2, 1}, new int[] {1, 0, 1, 1, 1, 2, 2, 0}};
 
static readonly int[][] U = {
new int[] {0, 1, 0, 2, 1, 0, 1, 2}, new int[] {0, 1, 1, 1, 2, 0, 2, 1},
new int[] {0, 2, 1, 0, 1, 1, 1, 2}, new int[] {0, 1, 1, 0, 2, 0, 2, 1}};
 
static readonly int[][] V = {
new int[] {1, 0, 2, 0, 2, 1, 2, 2}, new int[] {0, 1, 0, 2, 1, 0, 2, 0},
new int[] {1, 0, 2, -2, 2, -1, 2, 0}, new int[] {0, 1, 0, 2, 1, 2, 2, 2}};
 
static readonly int[][] W = {
new int[] {1, 0, 1, 1, 2, 1, 2, 2}, new int[] {1, -1, 1, 0, 2, -2, 2, -1},
new int[] {0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 2, 2}, new int[] {0, 1, 1, -1, 1, 0, 2, -1}};
 
static readonly int[][] X = { new int[] { 1, -1, 1, 0, 1, 1, 2, 0 } };
 
static readonly int[][] Y = {
new int[] {1, -2, 1, -1, 1, 0, 1, 1}, new int[] {1, -1, 1, 0, 2, 0, 3, 0},
new int[] {0, 1, 0, 2, 0, 3, 1, 1}, new int[] {1, 0, 2, 0, 2, 1, 3, 0},
new int[] {0, 1, 0, 2, 0, 3, 1, 2}, new int[] {1, 0, 1, 1, 2, 0, 3, 0},
new int[] {1, -1, 1, 0, 1, 1, 1, 2}, new int[] {1, 0, 2, -1, 2, 0, 3, 0}};
 
static readonly int[][] Z = {
new int[] {0, 1, 1, 0, 2, -1, 2, 0}, new int[] {1, 0, 1, 1, 1, 2, 2, 2},
new int[] {0, 1, 1, 1, 2, 1, 2, 2}, new int[] {1, -2, 1, -1, 1, 0, 2, -2}};
 
static readonly int[][][] shapes = { F, I, L, N, P, T, U, V, W, X, Y, Z };
}
}
I N F F - - L L
I N N F F P P L
I - N F W P P L
I Y N W W X P L
I Y W W X X X -
Y Y T T T X Z V
U Y U T Z Z Z V
U U U T Z V V V

Go[edit]

Translation of: Java
package main
 
import (
"fmt"
"math/rand"
"time"
)
 
var F = [][]int{
{1, -1, 1, 0, 1, 1, 2, 1}, {0, 1, 1, -1, 1, 0, 2, 0},
{1, 0, 1, 1, 1, 2, 2, 1}, {1, 0, 1, 1, 2, -1, 2, 0},
{1, -2, 1, -1, 1, 0, 2, -1}, {0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 2, 1},
{1, -1, 1, 0, 1, 1, 2, -1}, {1, -1, 1, 0, 2, 0, 2, 1},
}
 
var I = [][]int{{0, 1, 0, 2, 0, 3, 0, 4}, {1, 0, 2, 0, 3, 0, 4, 0}}
 
var L = [][]int{
{1, 0, 1, 1, 1, 2, 1, 3}, {1, 0, 2, 0, 3, -1, 3, 0},
{0, 1, 0, 2, 0, 3, 1, 3}, {0, 1, 1, 0, 2, 0, 3, 0}, {0, 1, 1, 1, 2, 1, 3, 1},
{0, 1, 0, 2, 0, 3, 1, 0}, {1, 0, 2, 0, 3, 0, 3, 1}, {1, -3, 1, -2, 1, -1, 1, 0},
}
 
var N = [][]int{
{0, 1, 1, -2, 1, -1, 1, 0}, {1, 0, 1, 1, 2, 1, 3, 1},
{0, 1, 0, 2, 1, -1, 1, 0}, {1, 0, 2, 0, 2, 1, 3, 1}, {0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 1, 3},
{1, 0, 2, -1, 2, 0, 3, -1}, {0, 1, 0, 2, 1, 2, 1, 3}, {1, -1, 1, 0, 2, -1, 3, -1},
}
 
var P = [][]int{
{0, 1, 1, 0, 1, 1, 2, 1}, {0, 1, 0, 2, 1, 0, 1, 1},
{1, 0, 1, 1, 2, 0, 2, 1}, {0, 1, 1, -1, 1, 0, 1, 1}, {0, 1, 1, 0, 1, 1, 1, 2},
{1, -1, 1, 0, 2, -1, 2, 0}, {0, 1, 0, 2, 1, 1, 1, 2}, {0, 1, 1, 0, 1, 1, 2, 0},
}
 
var T = [][]int{
{0, 1, 0, 2, 1, 1, 2, 1}, {1, -2, 1, -1, 1, 0, 2, 0},
{1, 0, 2, -1, 2, 0, 2, 1}, {1, 0, 1, 1, 1, 2, 2, 0},
}
 
var U = [][]int{
{0, 1, 0, 2, 1, 0, 1, 2}, {0, 1, 1, 1, 2, 0, 2, 1},
{0, 2, 1, 0, 1, 1, 1, 2}, {0, 1, 1, 0, 2, 0, 2, 1},
}
 
var V = [][]int{
{1, 0, 2, 0, 2, 1, 2, 2}, {0, 1, 0, 2, 1, 0, 2, 0},
{1, 0, 2, -2, 2, -1, 2, 0}, {0, 1, 0, 2, 1, 2, 2, 2},
}
 
var W = [][]int{
{1, 0, 1, 1, 2, 1, 2, 2}, {1, -1, 1, 0, 2, -2, 2, -1},
{0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 2, 2}, {0, 1, 1, -1, 1, 0, 2, -1},
}
 
var X = [][]int{{1, -1, 1, 0, 1, 1, 2, 0}}
 
var Y = [][]int{
{1, -2, 1, -1, 1, 0, 1, 1}, {1, -1, 1, 0, 2, 0, 3, 0},
{0, 1, 0, 2, 0, 3, 1, 1}, {1, 0, 2, 0, 2, 1, 3, 0}, {0, 1, 0, 2, 0, 3, 1, 2},
{1, 0, 1, 1, 2, 0, 3, 0}, {1, -1, 1, 0, 1, 1, 1, 2}, {1, 0, 2, -1, 2, 0, 3, 0},
}
 
var Z = [][]int{
{0, 1, 1, 0, 2, -1, 2, 0}, {1, 0, 1, 1, 1, 2, 2, 2},
{0, 1, 1, 1, 2, 1, 2, 2}, {1, -2, 1, -1, 1, 0, 2, -2},
}
 
var shapes = [][][]int{F, I, L, N, P, T, U, V, W, X, Y, Z}
 
var symbols = []byte("FILNPTUVWXYZ-")
 
const (
nRows = 8
nCols = 8
blank = 12
)
 
var grid [nRows][nCols]int
var placed [12]bool
 
func tryPlaceOrientation(o []int, r, c, shapeIndex int) bool {
for i := 0; i < len(o); i += 2 {
x := c + o[i+1]
y := r + o[i]
if x < 0 || x >= nCols || y < 0 || y >= nRows || grid[y][x] != -1 {
return false
}
}
grid[r][c] = shapeIndex
for i := 0; i < len(o); i += 2 {
grid[r+o[i]][c+o[i+1]] = shapeIndex
}
return true
}
 
func removeOrientation(o []int, r, c int) {
grid[r][c] = -1
for i := 0; i < len(o); i += 2 {
grid[r+o[i]][c+o[i+1]] = -1
}
}
 
func solve(pos, numPlaced int) bool {
if numPlaced == len(shapes) {
return true
}
row := pos / nCols
col := pos % nCols
if grid[row][col] != -1 {
return solve(pos+1, numPlaced)
}
 
for i := range shapes {
if !placed[i] {
for _, orientation := range shapes[i] {
if !tryPlaceOrientation(orientation, row, col, i) {
continue
}
placed[i] = true
if solve(pos+1, numPlaced+1) {
return true
}
removeOrientation(orientation, row, col)
placed[i] = false
}
}
}
return false
}
 
func shuffleShapes() {
rand.Shuffle(len(shapes), func(i, j int) {
shapes[i], shapes[j] = shapes[j], shapes[i]
symbols[i], symbols[j] = symbols[j], symbols[i]
})
}
 
func printResult() {
for _, r := range grid {
for _, i := range r {
fmt.Printf("%c ", symbols[i])
}
fmt.Println()
}
}
 
func main() {
rand.Seed(time.Now().UnixNano())
shuffleShapes()
for r := 0; r < nRows; r++ {
for i := range grid[r] {
grid[r][i] = -1
}
}
for i := 0; i < 4; i++ {
var randRow, randCol int
for {
randRow = rand.Intn(nRows)
randCol = rand.Intn(nCols)
if grid[randRow][randCol] != blank {
break
}
}
grid[randRow][randCol] = blank
}
if solve(0, 0) {
printResult()
} else {
fmt.Println("No solution")
}
}
Output:

Sample output:

Z I I I I I - Y 
Z Z Z V - F Y Y 
U U Z V - F F Y 
U V V V F F X Y 
U U P P W X X X 
T P P P W W X - 
T T T N N W W L 
T N N N L L L L 

Java[edit]

package pentominotiling;
 
import java.util.*;
 
public class PentominoTiling {
 
static final char[] symbols = "FILNPTUVWXYZ-".toCharArray();
static final Random rand = new Random();
 
static final int nRows = 8;
static final int nCols = 8;
static final int blank = 12;
 
static int[][] grid = new int[nRows][nCols];
static boolean[] placed = new boolean[symbols.length - 1];
 
public static void main(String[] args) {
shuffleShapes();
 
for (int r = 0; r < nRows; r++)
Arrays.fill(grid[r], -1);
 
for (int i = 0; i < 4; i++) {
int randRow, randCol;
do {
randRow = rand.nextInt(nRows);
randCol = rand.nextInt(nCols);
} while (grid[randRow][randCol] == blank);
grid[randRow][randCol] = blank;
}
 
if (solve(0, 0)) {
printResult();
} else {
System.out.println("no solution");
}
}
 
static void shuffleShapes() {
int n = shapes.length;
while (n > 1) {
int r = rand.nextInt(n--);
 
int[][] tmp = shapes[r];
shapes[r] = shapes[n];
shapes[n] = tmp;
 
char tmpSymbol = symbols[r];
symbols[r] = symbols[n];
symbols[n] = tmpSymbol;
}
}
 
static void printResult() {
for (int[] r : grid) {
for (int i : r)
System.out.printf("%c ", symbols[i]);
System.out.println();
}
}
 
static boolean tryPlaceOrientation(int[] o, int r, int c, int shapeIndex) {
 
for (int i = 0; i < o.length; i += 2) {
int x = c + o[i + 1];
int y = r + o[i];
if (x < 0 || x >= nCols || y < 0 || y >= nRows || grid[y][x] != -1)
return false;
}
 
grid[r][c] = shapeIndex;
for (int i = 0; i < o.length; i += 2)
grid[r + o[i]][c + o[i + 1]] = shapeIndex;
 
return true;
}
 
static void removeOrientation(int[] o, int r, int c) {
grid[r][c] = -1;
for (int i = 0; i < o.length; i += 2)
grid[r + o[i]][c + o[i + 1]] = -1;
}
 
static boolean solve(int pos, int numPlaced) {
if (numPlaced == shapes.length)
return true;
 
int row = pos / nCols;
int col = pos % nCols;
 
if (grid[row][col] != -1)
return solve(pos + 1, numPlaced);
 
for (int i = 0; i < shapes.length; i++) {
if (!placed[i]) {
for (int[] orientation : shapes[i]) {
 
if (!tryPlaceOrientation(orientation, row, col, i))
continue;
 
placed[i] = true;
 
if (solve(pos + 1, numPlaced + 1))
return true;
 
removeOrientation(orientation, row, col);
placed[i] = false;
}
}
}
return false;
}
 
static final int[][] F = {{1, -1, 1, 0, 1, 1, 2, 1}, {0, 1, 1, -1, 1, 0, 2, 0},
{1, 0, 1, 1, 1, 2, 2, 1}, {1, 0, 1, 1, 2, -1, 2, 0}, {1, -2, 1, -1, 1, 0, 2, -1},
{0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 2, 1}, {1, -1, 1, 0, 1, 1, 2, -1}, {1, -1, 1, 0, 2, 0, 2, 1}};
 
static final int[][] I = {{0, 1, 0, 2, 0, 3, 0, 4}, {1, 0, 2, 0, 3, 0, 4, 0}};
 
static final int[][] L = {{1, 0, 1, 1, 1, 2, 1, 3}, {1, 0, 2, 0, 3, -1, 3, 0},
{0, 1, 0, 2, 0, 3, 1, 3}, {0, 1, 1, 0, 2, 0, 3, 0}, {0, 1, 1, 1, 2, 1, 3, 1},
{0, 1, 0, 2, 0, 3, 1, 0}, {1, 0, 2, 0, 3, 0, 3, 1}, {1, -3, 1, -2, 1, -1, 1, 0}};
 
static final int[][] N = {{0, 1, 1, -2, 1, -1, 1, 0}, {1, 0, 1, 1, 2, 1, 3, 1},
{0, 1, 0, 2, 1, -1, 1, 0}, {1, 0, 2, 0, 2, 1, 3, 1}, {0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 1, 3},
{1, 0, 2, -1, 2, 0, 3, -1}, {0, 1, 0, 2, 1, 2, 1, 3}, {1, -1, 1, 0, 2, -1, 3, -1}};
 
static final int[][] P = {{0, 1, 1, 0, 1, 1, 2, 1}, {0, 1, 0, 2, 1, 0, 1, 1},
{1, 0, 1, 1, 2, 0, 2, 1}, {0, 1, 1, -1, 1, 0, 1, 1}, {0, 1, 1, 0, 1, 1, 1, 2},
{1, -1, 1, 0, 2, -1, 2, 0}, {0, 1, 0, 2, 1, 1, 1, 2}, {0, 1, 1, 0, 1, 1, 2, 0}};
 
static final int[][] T = {{0, 1, 0, 2, 1, 1, 2, 1}, {1, -2, 1, -1, 1, 0, 2, 0},
{1, 0, 2, -1, 2, 0, 2, 1}, {1, 0, 1, 1, 1, 2, 2, 0}};
 
static final int[][] U = {{0, 1, 0, 2, 1, 0, 1, 2}, {0, 1, 1, 1, 2, 0, 2, 1},
{0, 2, 1, 0, 1, 1, 1, 2}, {0, 1, 1, 0, 2, 0, 2, 1}};
 
static final int[][] V = {{1, 0, 2, 0, 2, 1, 2, 2}, {0, 1, 0, 2, 1, 0, 2, 0},
{1, 0, 2, -2, 2, -1, 2, 0}, {0, 1, 0, 2, 1, 2, 2, 2}};
 
static final int[][] W = {{1, 0, 1, 1, 2, 1, 2, 2}, {1, -1, 1, 0, 2, -2, 2, -1},
{0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 2, 2}, {0, 1, 1, -1, 1, 0, 2, -1}};
 
static final int[][] X = {{1, -1, 1, 0, 1, 1, 2, 0}};
 
static final int[][] Y = {{1, -2, 1, -1, 1, 0, 1, 1}, {1, -1, 1, 0, 2, 0, 3, 0},
{0, 1, 0, 2, 0, 3, 1, 1}, {1, 0, 2, 0, 2, 1, 3, 0}, {0, 1, 0, 2, 0, 3, 1, 2},
{1, 0, 1, 1, 2, 0, 3, 0}, {1, -1, 1, 0, 1, 1, 1, 2}, {1, 0, 2, -1, 2, 0, 3, 0}};
 
static final int[][] Z = {{0, 1, 1, 0, 2, -1, 2, 0}, {1, 0, 1, 1, 1, 2, 2, 2},
{0, 1, 1, 1, 2, 1, 2, 2}, {1, -2, 1, -1, 1, 0, 2, -2}};
 
static final int[][][] shapes = {F, I, L, N, P, T, U, V, W, X, Y, Z};
}
F I I I I I L L 
F F F P P V L - 
Z F P P P V L N 
Z Z Z V V V L N 
- X Z - W W N N 
X X X W W - N T 
U X U W Y T T T 
U U U Y Y Y Y T 

Kotlin[edit]

Translation of: Java
// Version 1.1.4-3
 
import java.util.Random
 
val F = arrayOf(
intArrayOf(1, -1, 1, 0, 1, 1, 2, 1), intArrayOf(0, 1, 1, -1, 1, 0, 2, 0),
intArrayOf(1, 0, 1, 1, 1, 2, 2, 1), intArrayOf(1, 0, 1, 1, 2, -1, 2, 0),
intArrayOf(1, -2, 1, -1, 1, 0, 2, -1), intArrayOf(0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 2, 1),
intArrayOf(1, -1, 1, 0, 1, 1, 2, -1), intArrayOf(1, -1, 1, 0, 2, 0, 2, 1)
)
 
val I = arrayOf(
intArrayOf(0, 1, 0, 2, 0, 3, 0, 4), intArrayOf(1, 0, 2, 0, 3, 0, 4, 0)
)
 
val L = arrayOf(
intArrayOf(1, 0, 1, 1, 1, 2, 1, 3), intArrayOf(1, 0, 2, 0, 3, -1, 3, 0),
intArrayOf(0, 1, 0, 2, 0, 3, 1, 3), intArrayOf(0, 1, 1, 0, 2, 0, 3, 0),
intArrayOf(0, 1, 1, 1, 2, 1, 3, 1), intArrayOf(0, 1, 0, 2, 0, 3, 1, 0),
intArrayOf(1, 0, 2, 0, 3, 0, 3, 1), intArrayOf(1, -3, 1, -2, 1, -1, 1, 0)
)
 
val N = arrayOf(
intArrayOf(0, 1, 1, -2, 1, -1, 1, 0), intArrayOf(1, 0, 1, 1, 2, 1, 3, 1),
intArrayOf(0, 1, 0, 2, 1, -1, 1, 0), intArrayOf(1, 0, 2, 0, 2, 1, 3, 1),
intArrayOf(0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 1, 3), intArrayOf(1, 0, 2, -1, 2, 0, 3, -1),
intArrayOf(0, 1, 0, 2, 1, 2, 1, 3), intArrayOf(1, -1, 1, 0, 2, -1, 3, -1)
)
 
val P = arrayOf(
intArrayOf(0, 1, 1, 0, 1, 1, 2, 1), intArrayOf(0, 1, 0, 2, 1, 0, 1, 1),
intArrayOf(1, 0, 1, 1, 2, 0, 2, 1), intArrayOf(0, 1, 1, -1, 1, 0, 1, 1),
intArrayOf(0, 1, 1, 0, 1, 1, 1, 2), intArrayOf(1, -1, 1, 0, 2, -1, 2, 0),
intArrayOf(0, 1, 0, 2, 1, 1, 1, 2), intArrayOf(0, 1, 1, 0, 1, 1, 2, 0)
)
 
val T = arrayOf(
intArrayOf(0, 1, 0, 2, 1, 1, 2, 1), intArrayOf(1, -2, 1, -1, 1, 0, 2, 0),
intArrayOf(1, 0, 2, -1, 2, 0, 2, 1), intArrayOf(1, 0, 1, 1, 1, 2, 2, 0)
)
 
val U = arrayOf(
intArrayOf(0, 1, 0, 2, 1, 0, 1, 2), intArrayOf(0, 1, 1, 1, 2, 0, 2, 1),
intArrayOf(0, 2, 1, 0, 1, 1, 1, 2), intArrayOf(0, 1, 1, 0, 2, 0, 2, 1)
)
 
val V = arrayOf(
intArrayOf(1, 0, 2, 0, 2, 1, 2, 2), intArrayOf(0, 1, 0, 2, 1, 0, 2, 0),
intArrayOf(1, 0, 2, -2, 2, -1, 2, 0), intArrayOf(0, 1, 0, 2, 1, 2, 2, 2)
)
 
val W = arrayOf(
intArrayOf(1, 0, 1, 1, 2, 1, 2, 2), intArrayOf(1, -1, 1, 0, 2, -2, 2, -1),
intArrayOf(0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 2, 2), intArrayOf(0, 1, 1, -1, 1, 0, 2, -1)
)
 
val X = arrayOf(intArrayOf(1, -1, 1, 0, 1, 1, 2, 0))
 
val Y = arrayOf(
intArrayOf(1, -2, 1, -1, 1, 0, 1, 1), intArrayOf(1, -1, 1, 0, 2, 0, 3, 0),
intArrayOf(0, 1, 0, 2, 0, 3, 1, 1), intArrayOf(1, 0, 2, 0, 2, 1, 3, 0),
intArrayOf(0, 1, 0, 2, 0, 3, 1, 2), intArrayOf(1, 0, 1, 1, 2, 0, 3, 0),
intArrayOf(1, -1, 1, 0, 1, 1, 1, 2), intArrayOf(1, 0, 2, -1, 2, 0, 3, 0)
)
 
val Z = arrayOf(
intArrayOf(0, 1, 1, 0, 2, -1, 2, 0), intArrayOf(1, 0, 1, 1, 1, 2, 2, 2),
intArrayOf(0, 1, 1, 1, 2, 1, 2, 2), intArrayOf(1, -2, 1, -1, 1, 0, 2, -2)
)
 
val shapes = arrayOf(F, I, L, N, P, T, U, V, W, X, Y, Z)
val rand = Random()
 
val symbols = "FILNPTUVWXYZ-".toCharArray()
 
val nRows = 8
val nCols = 8
val blank = 12
 
val grid = Array(nRows) { IntArray(nCols) }
val placed = BooleanArray(symbols.size - 1)
 
fun tryPlaceOrientation(o: IntArray, r: Int, c: Int, shapeIndex: Int): Boolean {
for (i in 0 until o.size step 2) {
val x = c + o[i + 1]
val y = r + o[i]
if (x !in (0 until nCols) || y !in (0 until nRows) || grid[y][x] != - 1) return false
}
grid[r][c] = shapeIndex
for (i in 0 until o.size step 2) grid[r + o[i]][c + o[i + 1]] = shapeIndex
return true
}
 
fun removeOrientation(o: IntArray, r: Int, c: Int) {
grid[r][c] = -1
for (i in 0 until o.size step 2) grid[r + o[i]][c + o[i + 1]] = -1
}
 
fun solve(pos: Int, numPlaced: Int): Boolean {
if (numPlaced == shapes.size) return true
val row = pos / nCols
val col = pos % nCols
if (grid[row][col] != -1) return solve(pos + 1, numPlaced)
 
for (i in 0 until shapes.size) {
if (!placed[i]) {
for (orientation in shapes[i]) {
if (!tryPlaceOrientation(orientation, row, col, i)) continue
placed[i] = true
if (solve(pos + 1, numPlaced + 1)) return true
removeOrientation(orientation, row, col)
placed[i] = false
}
}
}
return false
}
 
fun shuffleShapes() {
var n = shapes.size
while (n > 1) {
val r = rand.nextInt(n--)
val tmp = shapes[r]
shapes[r] = shapes[n]
shapes[n] = tmp
val tmpSymbol= symbols[r]
symbols[r] = symbols[n]
symbols[n] = tmpSymbol
}
}
 
fun printResult() {
for (r in grid) {
for (i in r) print("${symbols[i]} ")
println()
}
}
 
fun main(args: Array<String>) {
shuffleShapes()
for (r in 0 until nRows) grid[r].fill(-1)
for (i in 0..3) {
var randRow: Int
var randCol: Int
do {
randRow = rand.nextInt(nRows)
randCol = rand.nextInt(nCols)
}
while (grid[randRow][randCol] == blank)
grid[randRow][randCol] = blank
}
if (solve(0, 0)) printResult()
else println("No solution")
}

Sample output:

I I I I I F - W
N N N F F F W W
U U N N F W W -
- U V L L L L T
U U V L Z T T T
V V V X Z Z Z T
P P X X X Y Z -
P P P X Y Y Y Y

Phix[edit]

Apart from the shape table creation, the solving part is a translation of Go.
I also added a fast unsolveable() check routine, not that it desperately needed it.

constant pentominoes = split("""
......I................................................................
......I.....L......N.........................................Y.........
.FF...I.....L.....NN....PP....TTT...........V.....W....X....YY.....ZZ..
FF....I.....L.....N.....PP.....T....U.U.....V....WW...XXX....Y.....Z...
.F....I.....LL....N.....P......T....UUU...VVV...WW.....X.....Y....ZZ...""",'\n')
----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- -----
 
function get_shapes()
sequence res = {}
for offset=0 to length(pentominoes[1]) by 6 do
--
-- scan left/right, and up/down, both ways, to give 8 orientations
-- (computes the equivalent of those hard-coded tables in
-- other examples, albeit in a slightly different order.)
--
sequence shape = {}
integer letter
for orientation=0 to 7 do
sequence this = {}
bool found = false
integer fr, fc
for r=1 to 5 do
for c=1 to 5 do
integer rr = iff(and_bits(orientation,#01)?6-r:r),
cc = iff(and_bits(orientation,#02)?6-c:c)
if and_bits(orientation,#04) then {rr,cc} = {cc,rr} end if
integer ch = pentominoes[rr,offset+cc]
if ch!='.' then
if not found then
{found,fr,fc,letter} = {true,r,c,ch}
else
this &= {r-fr,c-fc}
end if
end if
end for
end for
if not find(this,shape) then
shape = append(shape,this)
end if
end for
res = append(res,{letter&"",shape})
end for
return res
end function
 
constant shapes = get_shapes(),
nRows = 8,
nCols = 8
 
sequence grid = repeat(repeat(' ',nCols),nRows),
placed = repeat(false,length(shapes))
 
function can_place(sequence o, integer r, c, ch)
for i=1 to length(o) by 2 do
integer x := c + o[i+1],
y := r + o[i]
if x<1 or x>nCols
or y<1 or y>nRows
or grid[y][x]!=' ' then
return false
end if
end for
grid[r][c] = ch
for i=1 to length(o) by 2 do
grid[r+o[i]][c+o[i+1]] = ch
end for
return true
end function
 
procedure un_place(sequence o, integer r, c)
grid[r][c] = ' '
for i=1 to length(o) by 2 do
grid[r+o[i]][c+o[i+1]] = ' '
end for
end procedure
 
function solve(integer pos=0, numPlaced=0)
if numPlaced == length(shapes) then
return true
end if
integer row = floor(pos/8)+1,
col = mod(pos,8)+1
if grid[row][col]!=' ' then
return solve(pos+1, numPlaced)
end if
for i=1 to length(shapes) do
if not placed[i] then
integer ch = shapes[i][1][1]
for j=1 to length(shapes[i][2]) do
sequence o = shapes[i][2][j]
if can_place(o, row, col, ch) then
placed[i] = true
if solve(pos+1, numPlaced+1) then
return true
end if
un_place(o, row, col)
placed[i] = false
end if
end for
end if
end for
return false
end function
 
function unsolveable()
--
-- The only unsolvable grids seen have
-- -.- or -..- or -... at edge/corner,
-- - -- --- -
-- or somewhere in the middle a -.-
-- -
--
-- Simply place all shapes at all positions/orientations,
-- all the while checking for any untouchable cells.
--
sequence griddled = grid
for r=1 to 8 do
for c=1 to 8 do
if grid[r][c]=' ' then
for i=1 to length(shapes) do
integer ch = shapes[i][1][1]
for j=1 to length(shapes[i][2]) do
sequence o = shapes[i][2][j]
if can_place(o, r, c, ch) then
grid[r][c] = ' '
griddled[r][c] = '-'
for k=1 to length(o) by 2 do
grid[r+o[k]][c+o[k+1]] = ' '
griddled[r+o[k]][c+o[k+1]] = '-'
end for
end if
end for
end for
if griddled[r][c]!='-' then return true end if
end if
end for
end for
return false
end function
 
procedure add_four_randomly()
integer count = 0
while count<4 do
integer r = rand(8),
c = rand(8)
if grid[r][c]=' ' then
grid[r][c] = '-'
count += 1
end if
end while
end procedure
 
procedure main()
add_four_randomly()
if unsolveable() then
puts(1,"No solution\n")
else
if not solve() then ?9/0 end if
end if
puts(1,join(grid,"\n")&"\n")
 
end procedure
main()
Output:
FFPPPVVV
YFFPPX-V
YFUUXXXV
YYU-ZX-I
YTUUZZZI
-TTTWWZI
LTNNNWWI
LLLLNNWI

zkl[edit]

Translation of: Java
fcn printResult
{ foreach row in (grid){ row.apply(symbols.get).concat(" ").println() } }
fcn tryPlaceOrientation(o, R,C, shapeIndex){
foreach ro,co in (o){ r,c:=R+ro, C+co;
if(r<0 or r>=nRows or c<0 or c>=nCols or grid[r][c]!=-1) return(False);
}
grid[R][C]=shapeIndex; foreach ro,co in (o){ grid[R+ro][C+co]=shapeIndex }
True
}
fcn removeOrientation(o, r,c)
{ grid[r][c]=-1; foreach ro,co in (o){ grid[r+ro][c+co]=-1 } }
fcn solve(pos,numPlaced){
if(numPlaced==target) return(True);
 
row,col:=pos.divr(nCols);
if(grid[row][col]!=-1) return(solve(pos+1,numPlaced));
 
foreach i in (shapes.len()){
if(not placed[i]){
foreach orientation in (shapes[i]){
if(not tryPlaceOrientation(orientation, row,col, i)) continue;
placed[i]=True;
if(solve(pos+1,numPlaced+1)) return(True);
removeOrientation(orientation, row,col);
placed[i]=False;
}
}
}
False
}
reg [private] // the shapes are made of groups of 4 (r,c) pairs
_F=T(T(1,-1, 1,0, 1,1, 2,1), T(0,1, 1,-1, 1,0, 2,0),
T(1,0 , 1,1, 1,2, 2,1), T(1,0, 1,1, 2,-1, 2,0), T(1,-2, 1,-1, 1,0, 2,-1),
T(0,1, 1,1, 1,2, 2,1), T(1,-1, 1,0, 1,1, 2,-1), T(1,-1, 1,0, 2,0, 2,1)),
_I=T(T(0,1, 0,2, 0,3, 0,4), T(1,0, 2,0, 3,0, 4,0)),
_L=T(T(1,0, 1,1, 1,2, 1,3), T(1,0, 2,0, 3,-1, 3,0),
T(0,1, 0,2, 0,3, 1,3), T(0,1, 1,0, 2,0, 3,0), T(0,1, 1,1, 2,1, 3,1),
T(0,1, 0,2, 0,3, 1,0), T(1,0, 2,0, 3,0, 3,1), T(1,-3, 1,-2, 1,-1, 1,0)),
_N=T(T(0,1, 1,-2, 1,-1, 1,0), T(1,0, 1,1, 2,1, 3,1),
T(0,1, 0,2, 1,-1, 1,0), T(1,0, 2,0, 2,1, 3,1), T(0,1, 1,1, 1,2, 1,3),
T(1,0, 2,-1, 2,0, 3,-1),T(0,1, 0,2, 1,2, 1,3), T(1,-1, 1,0, 2,-1, 3,-1)),
_P=T(T(0,1, 1,0, 1,1, 2,1), T(0,1, 0,2, 1,0, 1,1),
T(1,0, 1,1, 2,0, 2,1), T(0,1, 1,-1, 1,0, 1,1), T(0,1, 1,0, 1,1, 1,2),
T(1,-1, 1,0, 2,-1, 2,0), T(0,1, 0,2, 1,1, 1,2), T(0,1, 1,0, 1,1, 2,0)),
_T=T(T(0,1, 0,2, 1,1, 2,1), T(1,-2, 1,-1, 1,0, 2,0),
T(1,0, 2,-1, 2,0, 2,1), T(1,0, 1,1, 1,2, 2,0)),
_U=T(T(0,1, 0,2, 1,0, 1,2), T(0,1, 1,1, 2,0, 2,1),
T(0,2, 1,0, 1,1, 1,2), T(0,1, 1,0, 2,0, 2,1)),
_V=T(T(1,0, 2,0, 2,1, 2,2), T(0,1, 0,2, 1,0, 2,0),
T(1,0, 2,-2, 2,-1, 2,0), T(0,1, 0,2, 1,2, 2,2)),
_W=T(T(1,0, 1,1, 2,1, 2,2), T(1,-1, 1,0, 2,-2, 2,-1),
T(0,1, 1,1, 1,2, 2,2), T(0,1, 1,-1, 1,0, 2,-1)),
_X=T(T(1,-1, 1,0, 1,1, 2,0)),
_Y=T(T(1,-2, 1,-1, 1,0, 1,1), T(1,-1, 1,0, 2,0, 3,0),
T(0,1, 0,2, 0,3, 1,1), T(1,0, 2,0, 2,1, 3,0), T(0,1, 0,2, 0,3, 1,2),
T(1,0, 1,1, 2,0, 3,0), T(1,-1, 1,0, 1,1, 1,2), T(1,0, 2,-1, 2,0, 3,0)),
_Z=T(T(0,1, 1,0, 2,-1, 2,0), T(1,0, 1,1, 1,2, 2,2),
T(0,1, 1,1, 2,1, 2,2), T(1,-2, 1,-1, 1,0, 2,-2));
 
const nRows=8, nCols=8, target=12, blank=12;
var [const]
grid = nRows.pump(List(),nCols.pump(List(),-1).copy),
placed = target.pump(List(),False),
 
symbols="FILNPTUVWXYZ-".split(""),
shapes=T(_F,_I,_L,_N,_P,_T,_U,_V,_W,_X,_Y,_Z) // ((a,b, c,d))-->(((a,b),(c,d)))
.pump(List,List("pump",List,List("pump",List,Void.Read,T.create)));
foreach r,c in ([0..nRows-1].walk().shuffle().zip([0..nCols-1].walk().shuffle())[0,4])
{ grid[r][c]=blank } // make sure 4 unique random spots
if(solve(0,0)) printResult();
else println("No solution");
Output:
F Y Y Y Y U U U
F F F Y - U X U
I F W W L X X X
I W W N L - X T
I W N N L T T T
I V N L L Z Z T
I V N P P P Z -
- V V V P P Z Z