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Musical scale

From Rosetta Code
Musical scale is a draft programming task. It is not yet considered ready to be promoted as a complete task, for reasons that should be found in its talk page.
Task

Output   8   notes of the   C   major natural diatonic music scale to the default musical sound device on the system.


(These are the notes     C,D,E,F,G,A,B,c     or     Do, Ra, Me, Fa, So, La, Te, do     on the solfa.)

For the purpose of this task, middle   C   should be used as the starting note, and crotchet notes should be used.

For languages that cannot utilize a sound device, it is permissible to output to a musical score sheet (or midi file), or the task can be omitted.

AutoHotkey[edit]

Works with: AutoHotkey 1.1
for key, val in [261.63, 293.66, 329.63, 349.23, 392.00, 440.00, 493.88, 523.25]
SoundBeep, % val, 500

Befunge[edit]

Befunge has no sound support, so this example generates a MIDI file that plays the sequence of notes. The file is written to stdout, so requires an interpreter that can cleanly redirect its output to a file (for example the bef reference implementation requires the -q option to suppress its version banner).

The tune to be played is specified on the first line of the code. The notes are specified as MIDI note numbers in reverse order in a Befunge string (for example, Middle C is note number 60, which is the character "<"). This is followed by the count of notes in the string - 8 in this example.

>         "HGECA@><"8:        v
v0*73"MThd"0006010101"MTrk"000<
>>#1-#,:#\_$8*74++,0,28*"'"039v
v,:,\,*2,1"Hd":\<,,,,,,*3"U"*9<
>"@1",2*,\,,1-:#^_"/3d",5*,,, @

C[edit]

Although C provides low level access to devices, there is no standardized way. Here are illustrated two approaches.

Borland's Turbo C[edit]

Borland's Turbo C system has the dos.h header file which contains the functions sound() and nosound(). sound() takes an argument which is the frequency of the note to be played through the device speaker. delay(), also part of dos.h tells the code how long to suspend execution. The sound will however still be playing. It is therefore essential to call nosound() at the end which ends the speaker output, otherwise the Turbo C (DOS) session will have to be ended.

/*Abhishek Ghosh, 6th November 2013, Rotterdam*/
#include<stdio.h>
#include<conio.h>
#include<math.h>
#include<dos.h>
 
typedef struct{
char str[3];
int key;
}note;
 
note sequence[] = {{"Do",0},{"Re",2},{"Mi",4},{"Fa",5},{"So",7},{"La",9},{"Ti",11},{"Do",12}};
 
int main(void)
{
int i=0;
 
while(!kbhit())
{
printf("\t%s",sequence[i].str);
sound(261.63*pow(2,sequence[i].key/12.0));
delay(sequence[i].key%12==0?500:1000);
i = (i+1)%8;
i==0?printf("\n"):printf("");
}
nosound();
return 0;
}

Windows C[edit]

I named it Windows C for want of a better name. This is actually more constrained than the above example, since although it will run on any Windows machine, Beep() can only play integer frequencies and thus the tones are noticeably lower than the ones played by sound() above.

/*Abhishek Ghosh, 6th November 2013, Rotterdam*/
#include<windows.h>
#include<stdio.h>
#include<math.h>
 
typedef struct{
char str[3];
int key;
}note;
 
note sequence[] = {{"Do",0},{"Re",2},{"Mi",4},{"Fa",5},{"So",7},{"La",9},{"Ti",11},{"Do",12}};
 
int main(void)
{
int i=0;
 
while(1)
{
printf("\t%s",sequence[i].str);
Beep(261.63*pow(2,sequence[i].key/12.0),sequence[i].key%12==0?500:1000);
i = (i+1)%8;
i==0?printf("\n"):printf("");
}
return 0;
}

C++[edit]

Uses Windows MIDI device

 
#include <iostream>
#include <windows.h>
#include <mmsystem.h>
 
#pragma comment ( lib, "winmm.lib" )
 
typedef unsigned char byte;
 
typedef union
{
unsigned long word;
unsigned char data[4];
}
midi_msg;
 
class midi
{
public:
midi()
{
if( midiOutOpen( &device, 0, 0, 0, CALLBACK_NULL) != MMSYSERR_NOERROR )
{
std::cout << "Error opening MIDI Output..." << std::endl;
device = 0;
}
}
~midi()
{
midiOutReset( device );
midiOutClose( device );
}
bool isOpen() { return device != 0; }
void setInstrument( byte i )
{
message.data[0] = 0xc0; message.data[1] = i;
message.data[2] = 0; message.data[3] = 0;
midiOutShortMsg( device, message.word );
}
void playNote( byte n, unsigned i )
{
playNote( n ); Sleep( i ); stopNote( n );
}
 
private:
void playNote( byte n )
{
message.data[0] = 0x90; message.data[1] = n;
message.data[2] = 127; message.data[3] = 0;
midiOutShortMsg( device, message.word );
}
void stopNote( byte n )
{
message.data[0] = 0x90; message.data[1] = n;
message.data[2] = 0; message.data[3] = 0;
midiOutShortMsg( device, message.word );
}
HMIDIOUT device;
midi_msg message;
};
 
int main( int argc, char* argv[] )
{
midi m;
if( m.isOpen() )
{
byte notes[] = { 60, 62, 64, 65, 67, 69, 71, 72 };
m.setInstrument( 42 );
for( int x = 0; x < 8; x++ )
m.playNote( notes[x], rand() % 100 + 158 );
Sleep( 1000 );
}
return 0;
}
 

Clojure[edit]

Library: Overtone
(use 'overtone.live)
 
; Define your desired instrument
; Using saw-wave from: https://github.com/overtone/overtone/wiki/Chords-and-scales
(definst saw-wave [freq 440 attack 0.01 sustain 0.4 release 0.1 vol 0.4]
(* (env-gen (env-lin attack sustain release) 1 1 0 1 FREE)
(saw freq)
vol))
 
(defn play [note ms]
(saw-wave (midi->hz note))
(Thread/sleep ms))
 
(doseq [note (scale :c4 :major)] (play note 500))

Forth[edit]

As a low level stack language Forth programming methodology prefers short simple definitions that extend the language in the direction that allows you to solve the problem. The creation of application specific language is common in Forth. This demonstration code uses the PC speaker to generate musical tones. A simple device driver is created for hardware control via PORT I/O. A set of primitive operations are created to control the on:off times of the sounds. Then a small MUSIC language is created to create notes of different types. Finally 2 scales are created using "crotcheted notes" as they are called. We chose 1/8 notes. For fun we added the ability to change the expression of the notes using Italian musical terms.

HEX
\ PC speaker hardware control (requires giveio or DOSBOX for windows operation)
042 constant fctrl 061 constant sctrl
0FC constant smask 043 constant tctrl
0B6 constant spkr
 
: sing ( -- ) sctrl pc@ 03 or sctrl pc! ;
: silence ( -- ) sctrl pc@ smask and 01 or sctrl pc! ;
 
: tone ( divisor -- )
 ?dup \ check for non-zero input
if spkr tctrl pc! \ enable PC speaker
dup fctrl pc! \ load low byte
8 rshift fctrl pc! \ load high byte
sing
else silence
then ;
 
DECIMAL
1193181. 2constant clock \ internal oscillator freq. MHz x 10
 
: Hz ( freq -- divisor) clock rot um/mod nip  ; \ convert Freq to osc. divisor
 
\ duration control variables and values
variable on_time
variable off_time
variable feel \ controls the on/off time ratio
 
60 value tempo
 
4000 tempo um* 2constant timebase \ 1 whole note=4000 ms @ 60 Beats/min
 
: bpm>ms ( bpm -- ms) timebase rot um/mod nip ; \ convert beats per minute to milliseconds
: wholenote ( -- ms ) tempo bpm>ms ; \ using tempo set the BPM
 
: play ( divisor -- )
tone on_time @ ms silence off_time @ ms ;
 
: expression ( ms n --) \ adjust the on:off ratio using n
over swap - tuck - ( -- on-mS off-mS )
off_time ! on_time ! ; \ store times in variables
 
: note ( -- ms ) on_time @ off_time @ + ; \ returns duration of current note
 
: duration! ( ms -- ) feel @ expression ;
 
: 50% ( n -- n/2) 2/ ;
: % ( n n2 -- n%) 100 */ ; \ calculate n2% of n
: 50%+ ( n -- n+50%) dup 50% + ; \ dotted notes have 50% more time
 
VOCABULARY MUSIC
 
MUSIC DEFINITIONS
: BPM ( bpm -- ) \ set tempo in beats per minute
to tempo
wholenote duration! ;
 
: legato 0 feel ! ;
: staccatto note 8 % feel ! ;
: Marcato note 3 % feel ! ;
 
: 1/1 wholenote duration! ;
: 1/2 wholenote 50% duration! ;
: 1/2. 1/2 note 50%+ duration! ;
: 1/4 1/2 note 50% duration! ;
: 1/4. 1/4 note 50%+ duration! ;
: 1/8 1/4 note 50% duration! ;
: 1/8. 1/8 note 50%+ duration! ;
: 1/16 1/8 note 50% duration! ;
: 1/32 1/16 note 50% duration! ;
: rest note ms ;
 
\ note object creator
: note: create hz , \ compile time: compile divisor into the note
does> @ play ; \ run time: fetch the value and play the tone
 
\ freq Natural Freq Accidental En-harmonic
\ ------------- ---------------- ----------------
131 note: C3 139 note: C#3 synonym Db3 C#3
147 note: D3 156 note: D#3 synonym Eb3 D#3
165 note: E3
175 note: F3 185 note: F#3 synonym Gb3 F#3
196 note: G3 208 note: G#3 synonym Ab3 G#3
220 note: A3 233 note: A#3 synonym Bb3 A#3
247 note: B3
262 note: C4 277 note: C#4 synonym Db4 C#4
 
: Cmajor 1/8 C3 D3 E3 F3 G3 A3 B3 C4 ;
: Chromatic 1/8 C3 C#3 D3 D#3 E3 F3 F#3 G3 G#3 A3 A#3 B3 C4 ;
 

Interactive test at the Console

music ok
120 bpm legato cmajor ok
200 bpm marcato chromatic ok
72 bpm legato c3 eb3 g3 c4 ok 

J[edit]

require'media/wav'
0.25 wavnote 0 2 4 5 7 9 11 12

This assumes a version such as J6 which supports media/wav.

0=C, 1=C#, 2=D, ... of main octave

0.25 is the duration of each note (in seconds).

Lilypond[edit]

The lilypond tool produces musical score sheets and midi files - if asked for - but does not output notes to the sound device directly.

% Start at middle C
\relative c' {
c d e f
g a b c
}

Locomotive Basic[edit]

10 mode 1
20 print "Note","Freq. (Hz)","Period"
30 ' program loop:
40 if sq(1)<128 then gosub 70 ' play next note if channel is inactive
50 goto 40
60 ' play next note
70 read n
80 if n<0 then end
90 note=note+1
100 ' calculation from chapter 7, page 26 of the CPC manual:
110 f=440*(2^((n-10)/12))
120 p=round(62500/f)
130 print mid$("cdefgabc",note,1),f,p
140 sound 1,p,100
150 return
160 data 1,3,5,6,8,10,12,13,-1

Mathematica[edit]

[email protected][SoundNote /@ {0, 2, 4, 5, 7, 9, 11, 12}]

ooRexx[edit]

/* REXX ---------------------------------------------------------------
* 24.02.2013 Walter Pachl derived from original REXX version
* Changes: sound(f,sec) --> beep(trunc(f),millisec)
* $ -> sc
* @. -> f.
* re > ra (in sc)
*--------------------------------------------------------------------*/

sc='do ra mi fa so la te do'
dur=1250 /* milliseconds */
Do j=1 For words(sc) /* sound each "note" in the string*/
Call notes word(sc,j),dur /* invoke a subroutine for sounds.*/
End /* j */
Exit /* stick a fork in it, we're done.*/
notes: Procedure
Arg note,dur
f.=0 /* define common names for sounds.*/
f.la=220
f.si=246.94
f.te=f.si
f.ta=f.te
f.ti=f.te
f.do=261.6256
f.ut=f.do
f.ra=293.66
f.re=f.ra /* re is to be a synonym for ra */
f.mi=329.63
f.ma=f.mi
f.fa=349.23
f.so=392
f.sol=f.so
Say note trunc(f.note) dur
If f.note\==0 Then
Call beep trunc(f.note),dur /* sound the "note". */
Return

PowerShell[edit]

List of frequencies directly taken from the Python example.

$frequencies = 261.63, 293.66, 329.63, 349.23, 392.00, 440.00, 493.88, 523.25
foreach($tone in $frequencies){
[Console]::beep($tone, 500)
}

Perl 6[edit]

for 0,2,4,5,7,9,11,12 {
shell "play -n -c1 synth 0.2 sin %{$_ - 9}"
}

Pure Data[edit]

scale.pd

#N canvas 898 363 360 460 10;
#X obj 63 21 bng 15 250 50 0 empty start start 17 7 0 10 -262144 -1 -1;
#X floatatom 135 21 5 0 0 1 bpm bpm -;
#X obj 135 40 expr 1000 / ($f1/60);
#X obj 135 62 int;
#X obj 117 123 + 1;
#X obj 117 145 mod 9;
#X obj 63 123 int 1;
#X obj 63 176 hradio 15 1 0 9 empty empty empty 0 -8 0 10 -262144 -1 -1 0;
#X obj 63 196 route 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7;
#X msg 15 248 0;
#X msg 93 248 62;
#X msg 123 248 64;
#X msg 63 248 60;
#X msg 153 248 65;
#X msg 183 248 67;
#X msg 213 248 69;
#X msg 243 248 71;
#X msg 273 248 72;
#X obj 111 313 mtof;
#X obj 84 357 osc~;
#X obj 84 384 dac~;
#X obj 237 323 loadbang;
#X obj 63 101 metro;
#X msg 237 345 \; pd dsp 1 \; bpm 136 \; start 1;
#X connect 0 0 22 0;
#X connect 1 0 2 0;
#X connect 2 0 3 0;
#X connect 3 0 22 1;
#X connect 4 0 5 0;
#X connect 5 0 6 1;
#X connect 6 0 4 0;
#X connect 6 0 7 0;
#X connect 7 0 8 0;
#X connect 8 0 9 0;
#X connect 8 1 12 0;
#X connect 8 2 10 0;
#X connect 8 3 11 0;
#X connect 8 4 13 0;
#X connect 8 5 14 0;
#X connect 8 6 15 0;
#X connect 8 7 16 0;
#X connect 8 8 17 0;
#X connect 9 0 19 0;
#X connect 9 0 22 0;
#X connect 10 0 18 0;
#X connect 11 0 18 0;
#X connect 12 0 18 0;
#X connect 13 0 18 0;
#X connect 14 0 18 0;
#X connect 15 0 18 0;
#X connect 16 0 18 0;
#X connect 17 0 18 0;
#X connect 18 0 19 0;
#X connect 19 0 20 0;
#X connect 19 0 20 1;
#X connect 21 0 23 0;
#X connect 22 0 6 0;

Python[edit]

(Windows)

>>> import winsound
>>> for note in [261.63, 293.66, 329.63, 349.23, 392.00, 440.00, 493.88, 523.25]:
winsound.Beep(int(note+.5), 500)
>>>

Racket[edit]

With a quick and dirty WinMM interface.

 
#lang racket
(require ffi/unsafe ffi/unsafe/define)
(define-ffi-definer defmm (ffi-lib "Winmm"))
(defmm midiOutOpen (_fun [h : (_ptr o _int32)] [_int = -1] [_pointer = #f]
[_pointer = #f] [_int32 = 0] -> _void -> h))
(defmm midiOutShortMsg (_fun _int32 _int32 -> _void))
(define M (midiOutOpen))
(define (midi x y z) (midiOutShortMsg M (+ x (* 256 y) (* 65536 z))))
 
(for ([i '(60 62 64 65 67 69 71 72)]) (midi #x90 i 127) (sleep 0.5))
(sleep 2)
 

REXX[edit]

Works with: PC/REXX
Works with: Personal REXX
Works with: Regina
/*REXX program  sounds  eight notes  of the   C major  natural diatonic  music scale.   */
parse arg ! /*obtain optional arguments from the CL*/
if !all( arg() ) then exit /*determine which REXX is running, if */
/* any form of help requested, exit.*/
if \!regina & \!pcrexx then do
say "***error*** this program can't execute under:"  !ver
exit 13
end
 
$ = 'do ra me fa so la te do' /*the words for music scale sounding. */
dur = 1/4 /*define duration as a quarter second. */
do j=1 for words($) /*sound each "note" in the string. */
call notes word($,j),dur /*invoke a subroutine for the sounds. */
end /*j*/ /* [↑] sound each of the words. */
exit /*stick a fork in it, we're all done. */
/*──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────*/
notes: procedure expose !regina !pcrexx; arg note,dur /*obtain the arguments from list. */
@.=0 /*define common names for sounds. */
@.la=220; @.si=246.94; @.te=@.si; @.ta=@.te; @.ti=@.te
@.do=261.6256; @.ut=@.do; @.re=293.66; @.ra=@.re; @.mi=329.63
@.ma=@.mi; @.fa=349.23; @.so=392; @.sol=@.so
if @.note==0 then return /*if frequency is zero, skip it. */
if !pcrexx then call sound @.note,dur /*sound the note using SOUND bif. */
if !regina then do /* [↓] reformat some numbers. */
ms=format(dur*1000,,0) /*Regina requires DUR in millisec.*/
intN=format(@.note,,0) /* " " NOTE is integer.*/
call beep intN,ms /*sound the note using BEEP BIF.*/
end
return
/*─────────────────────────────general 1─line subroutines and functions────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────*/
!all: !!=!;!=space(!);upper !;call !fid;!nt=right(!var('OS'),2)=='NT';!cls=word('CLS VMFCLEAR CLRSCREEN',1+!cms+!tso*2);if arg(1)\==1 then return 0;if wordpos(!,'? ?SAMPLES ?AUTHOR ?FLOW')==0 then return 0;!call=']$H';call '$H' !fn !;!call=;return 1
!cal: if symbol('!CALL')\=="VAR" then !call=; return !call
!env: !env='ENVIRONMENT'; if !sys=='MSDOS' | !brexx | !r4 | !roo then !env='SYSTEM'; if !os2 then !env='OS2'!env;  !ebcdic=3=='f3'x; if !crx then !env='DOS'; return
!fid: parse upper source !sys !fun !fid . 1 . . !fn !ft !fm .; call !sys; if !dos then do; _=lastpos('\',!fn);  !fm=left(!fn,_);  !fn=substr(!fn,_+1); parse var !fn !fn '.' !ft; end; return word(0 !fn !ft !fm,1+('0'arg(1)))
!rex: parse upper version !ver !vernum !verdate .;  !brexx='BY'==!vernum;  !kexx='KEXX'==!ver;  !pcrexx='REXX/PERSONAL'==!ver | 'REXX/PC'==!ver;  !r4='REXX-R4'==!ver;  !regina='REXX-REGINA'==left(!ver,11);  !roo='REXX-ROO'==!ver; call !env; return
!sys: !cms=!sys=='CMS';  !os2=!sys=='OS2';  !tso=!sys=='TSO' | !sys=='MVS';  !vse=!sys=='VSE';  !dos=pos('DOS',!sys)\==0 | pos('WIN',!sys)\==0 | !sys=='CMD';  !crx=left(!sys,6)=='DOSCRX'; call !rex; return
!var: call !fid; if !kexx then return space(dosenv(arg(1))); return space(value(arg(1),,!env))

Programming note:   The general 1-line subroutines at the end of the REXX program are boilerplate code which:

  • check for invocation with a   ?                   single argument to support general documentation (help).
  • check for invocation with a   ?SAMPLES   single argument to support documentation for sample usages.
  • check for invocation with a   ?FLOW         single argument to support documentation for program logic flow.
  • check for invocation with a   ?AUTHOR     single argument to support showing the author of the REXX pgm.
  • defines several   !ααα   variables indicating:
  • name and version of the REXX interpreter being used.
  • name of the program used to clear the terminal screen.
  • name of the (host) operating system being used.
  • name of the subsystem to issue commands (via address).
  • name of the pool used to set environmental variables.
  • name by which the REXX program was invoked.
  • name by which the REXX program was loaded (executed).
  • how the REXX program is being invoked:
  • as a command
  • as a function
  • as a subroutine

Scala[edit]

Windows[edit]

import net.java.dev.sna.SNA
 
object PlayMusicScale extends App with SNA {
 
snaLibrary = "Kernel32"
val Beep = SNA[Int, Int, Unit]
 
println("Please don't shoot the piano player, he's doing the best that he can!")
List(0, 2, 4, 5, 7, 9, 11, 12).
foreach(f => Beep((261.63 * math.pow(2, f / 12.0)).toInt, if (f == 12) 1000 else 500))
println("That's all")
}

Sparkling[edit]

The following Sparkling program generates a WAVE audio file named "notes.wav" that can be played in order to achieve the required effect:

var sampleRate = 44100.0;
var duration = 8.0;
var dataLength = round(sampleRate * duration);
var dataLength_b0 = dataLength >> 0 & 0xff;
var dataLength_b1 = dataLength >> 8 & 0xff;
var dataLength_b2 = dataLength >> 16 & 0xff;
var dataLength_b3 = dataLength >> 24 & 0xff;
 
const adjustedHdrSize = 36;
 
var len = dataLength - adjustedHdrSize;
var len_b0 = len >> 0 & 0xff;
var len_b1 = len >> 8 & 0xff;
var len_b2 = len >> 16 & 0xff;
var len_b3 = len >> 24 & 0xff;
 
// WAV header
var wavhdr = "RIFF";
wavhdr ..= fmtstr("%c%c%c%c", len_b0, len_b1, len_b2, len_b3);
wavhdr ..= "WAVE";
wavhdr ..= "fmt ";
wavhdr ..= "\x10\x00\x00\x00";
wavhdr ..= "\x01\x00";
wavhdr ..= "\x01\x00";
wavhdr ..= "\x44\xac\x00\x00";
wavhdr ..= "\x44\xac\x00\x00";
wavhdr ..= "\x01\x00";
wavhdr ..= "\x08\x00";
wavhdr ..= "data";
wavhdr ..= fmtstr("%c%c%c%c", dataLength_b0, dataLength_b1, dataLength_b2, dataLength_b3);
 
// write wav header
var f = fopen("notes.wav", "w");
fwrite(f, wavhdr);
 
 
// compute and write actual data
var frequs = { 261.6, 293.6, 329.6, 349.2, 392.0, 440.0, 493.9, 523.3 };
 
for var j = 0; j < duration; j++ {
var frequ = frequs[j];
var omega = 2 * M_PI * frequ;
for var i = 0; i < dataLength / 8; i++ {
var y = 32 * sin(omega * i / sampleRate);
var byte = fmtstr("%c", round(y));
fwrite(f, byte);
}
}
 
fclose(f);

Tcl[edit]

Library: Snack
package require sound
 
# Encapsulate the tone generation
set filter [snack::filter generator 1 20000 0.5 sine -1]
set sound [snack::sound -rate 22050]
proc play {frequency length} {
global filter sound
 
$filter configure $frequency
$sound play -filter $filter
 
# Need to run event loop; Snack uses it internally
after $length {set donePlay 1}
vwait donePlay
 
$sound stop
}
 
# Major scale up, then down; extra delay at ends of scale
set tonicFrequency 261.63; # C4
foreach i {0 2 4 5 7 9 11 12 11 9 7 5 4 2 0} {
play [expr {$tonicFrequency*2**($i/12.0)}] [expr {$i%12?250:500}]
}

Ursa[edit]

Translation of: Python
decl double<> notes
append 261.63 293.66 329.63 349.23 392.00 440.00 493.88 523.25 notes
 
for (decl int i) (< i (size notes)) (inc i)
ursa.util.sound.beep notes<i> 0.5
end for

XPL0[edit]

\Square waves on the beeper speaker:
code Sound=39;
real Period; int I;
[Period:= 1190000.0/261.625565; \middle C
for I:= 2 to 9 do
[Sound(1, 4, fix(Period)); \times 2^(-1/6) else 2^(-1/12)
Period:= Period * (if I&3 then 0.890898719 else 0.943874313);
];
]
 
\MIDI grand piano (requires 32-bit Windows or Sound Blaster 16):
code Sound=39;
int Note, I;
[port($331):= $3F; \set MPU-401 into UART mode
Note:= 60; \start at middle C
for I:= 2 to 9+1 do \(last note is not played)
[port($330):= $90; port($330):= Note; port($330):= $7F;
Sound(0, 4, 1); \This "Sound" is off, but convenient 0.22 sec delay
Note:= Note + (if I&3 then 2 else 1);
];
]

ZX Spectrum Basic[edit]

10 REM Musical scale
20 LET n=0: REM Start at middle C
30 LET d=0.2: REM Make each note 0.2 seconds in duration
40 FOR l=1 TO 8
50 BEEP d,n
60 READ i: REM Number of semitones to increment
70 LET n=n+i
80 NEXT l
90 STOP
9000 DATA 2,2,1,2,2,2,1,2:REM WWHWWWH