# Boolean values

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Boolean values
You are encouraged to solve this task according to the task description, using any language you may know.

Show how to represent the boolean states "true" and "false" in a language.

If other objects represent "true" or "false" in conditionals, note it.

## 8th

In 8th, any non-zero number is true, as is the specific boolean value 'true'. Everything else evaluates as 'false' (including the boolean value, 'false')

## 11l

11l defines a built-in data type `Bool`, which has two values represented by the constants `0B` and `1B`.

## 360 Assembly

The are no TRUE or FALSE constants in 360 Assembly; but an often used convention is :

```FALSE    DC     X'00'
TRUE     DC     X'FF'```

## 6502 Assembly

There are no built-in true or false constants, but the functionality can be easily replicated with zero or nonzero values (or any two values which can cause a mutually exclusive branch condition, such as with `#\$7f` and `#\$80` and using `BMI`/`BPL`)

## 8051 Assembly

A single bit represents true or false. By convention, 0 (cleared) is false, 1 (set) is true. In the following, "bit" represents the direct address of any of the 256 directly accessible bits.

```clr bit ; clears
setb bit ; sets
```

## 68000 Assembly

There are no built-in true or false constants, but the functionality can be easily replicated with zero or nonzero values (or any two values which can cause a mutually exclusive branch condition, such as with `#\$7f` and `#\$80` and using `BMI`/`BPL`)

## AArch64 Assembly

Works with: as version Raspberry Pi 3B version Buster 64 bits
```/* ARM assembly AARCH64 Raspberry PI 3B */
/*  program boolean.s   */

/*******************************************/
/* Constantes file                         */
/*******************************************/
/* for this file see task include a file in language AArch64 assembly*/
.include "../includeConstantesARM64.inc"
.equ FALSE,  0      // or other value
.equ TRUE,   1      // or other value
/*******************************************/
/* Initialized data                        */
/*******************************************/
.data
szMessTrue:    .asciz "The value is true.\n"
szMessFalse:   .asciz "The value is false.\n"
/*******************************************/
/* UnInitialized data                      */
/*******************************************/
.bss
/*******************************************/
/*  code section                           */
/*******************************************/
.text
.global main
main:                            // entry of program

mov x0,0
//mov x0,#1                  //uncomment pour other test
cmp x0,TRUE
bne 1f
// value true
bl affichageMess
b 100f
1:   // value False
bl affichageMess

100:                             // standard end of the program */
mov x0,0                     // return code
mov x8,EXIT                  // request to exit program
svc 0                        // perform the system call
/********************************************************/
/*        File Include fonctions                        */
/********************************************************/
/* for this file see task include a file in language AArch64 assembly */
.include "../includeARM64.inc"```

## ACL2

Same as Boolean Values#Common Lisp.

## Action!

```PROC Test(BYTE v)
PrintF("Variable v has value %B%E",v)
IF v THEN
PrintE("Condition IF v is satisfied.")
ELSE
PrintE("Condition IF v is not satisfied.")
FI
IF v=0 THEN
PrintE("Condition IF v=0 is satisfied.")
ELSE
PrintE("Condition IF v=0 is not satisfied.")
FI
IF v<>0 THEN
PrintE("Condition IF v<>0 is satisfied.")
ELSE
PrintE("Condition IF v<>0 is not satisfied.")
FI
IF v#0 THEN
PrintE("Condition IF v#0 is satisfied.")
ELSE
PrintE("Condition IF v#0 is not satisfied.")
FI
PutE()
RETURN

PROC Main()
Test(0)
Test(1)
Test(86)
RETURN```
Output:
```Variable v has value 0
Condition IF v is not satisfied.
Condition IF v=0 is satisfied.
Condition IF v<>0 is not satisfied.
Condition IF v#0 is not satisfied.

Variable v has value 1
Condition IF v is satisfied.
Condition IF v=0 is not satisfied.
Condition IF v<>0 is satisfied.
Condition IF v#0 is satisfied.

Variable v has value 86
Condition IF v is satisfied.
Condition IF v=0 is not satisfied.
Condition IF v<>0 is satisfied.
Condition IF v#0 is satisfied.
```

Ada has a predefined discrete type with the specification:

```   type Boolean is (False, True);
```

with Boolean lattice and relational operations defined on it. See RM A.1.

## ALGOL 68

Translation of: python
Works with: ALGOL 68 version Standard - no extensions to language used
Works with: ALGOL 68G version Any - tested with release 1.18.0-9h.tiny

ALGOL 68 Enforces strong typing and so has few default coercions. The appropriate operators must be used to convert to and from bool[ean] and the following code demonstrates principle conversions:

```BOOL f = FALSE, t = TRUE;
[]BOOL ft = (f, t);
STRING or = " or ";
FOR key TO UPB ft DO
BOOL val = ft[key];
UNION(VOID, INT) void = (val|666|EMPTY);
REF STRING ref = (val|HEAP STRING|NIL);
INT int = ABS val;
REAL real = ABS val;
COMPL compl = ABS val;
BITS bits = BIN ABS val; # or bitspack(val); #
BYTES bytes = bytes pack((val|"?"|null char)*bytes width);
CHAR char = (val|"?"|null char);
STRING string = (val|"?"|"");

print((((val | "TRUE" | "FALSE" ), ": ", val, or, (val|flip|flop), new line)));
print(("  void: ", " => ", (void|(VOID):FALSE|TRUE), new line));
print(("   ref: ", " => ", ref ISNT REF STRING(NIL), new line));
print(("   int: ", int     , " => ", int /= 0, new line));
print(("  real: ", real    , " => ", real /= 0, new line));
print((" compl: ", compl   , " => ", compl /= 0, new line));
print(("  bits: ", bits    , " => ", ABS bits /= 0, or, bits /= 2r0, or,
bits width ELEM bits, or, []BOOL(bits)[bits width], new line));
print((" bytes: """, STRING(bytes)    , """ => ", 1 ELEM bytes /= null char, or,
STRING(bytes) /= null char*bytes width, or,
STRING(bytes)[1] /= null char, new line));
print(("  char: """, char  , """ => ", ABS char /= 0 , or, char /= null char, new line));
print(("string: """, string  , """ => ", string /= "", or, UPB string /= 0, new line));
print((new line))
OD```
Output:
```FALSE: F or F
void:  => F
ref:  => F
int:          +0 => F
real: +0.00000000000000e  +0 => F
compl: +0.00000000000000e  +0+0.00000000000000e  +0 => F
bits: FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF => F or F or F or F
bytes: "" => F or F or F
char: "" => F or F
string: "" => F or F

TRUE: T or T
void:  => T
ref:  => T
int:          +1 => T
real: +1.00000000000000e  +0 => T
compl: +1.00000000000000e  +0+0.00000000000000e  +0 => T
bits: FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFT => T or T or T or T
bytes: "????????????????????????????????" => T or T or T
char: "?" => T or T
string: "?" => T or T

```

Note: The string repr[esentation] of false and true are defined by the variables flop and flip respectively.

## ALGOL W

The boolean type is called logical in Algol W - the values are represented by the keywords true and false. Numbers, strings etc. cannot be used where logical values are required.

## APL

0 and 1 are used for boolean types in APL (as in J below).

```    1 ^ 1
1
1 ^ 0
0
```

## AppleScript

AppleScript has built-in boolean keywords `true` and `false`. Numbers do not work in place of boolean expressions, but they do coerce to and from.

```1 > 2     --> false
not false --> true

{true as integer, false as integer, 1 as boolean, 0 as boolean}
--> {1, 0, true, false}

true = 1  --> false
```

AppleScript also has constants `yes` and `no`, which coerce easily to boolean values. They have little practical value in AppleScript except if one wishes to use them as arguments in place of boolean values for novelty's sake. They are interchangeable with boolean values as parameters in AppleScriptObjC (not demonstrated here).

```{yes as boolean, no as boolean}
--> {true, false}
```

`yes` and `no` do not coerce to integer values.

Finally, AppleScript also includes keywords `with` and `without`, used in declaring parameters for and sending parameters of boolean nature to handlers. They are synonymous with `true` and `false`, respectively, and the compiler will sometimes perform the substitution at compile time.

```sortItems from L given reversal : true
```

gets compiled immediately to become:

```sortItems from L with reversal
```

However, the equivalent call to the handler utilising `yes`, whilst accepted readily in place of its boolean counterpart, is left alone by the compiler:

```sortItems from L given reversal:yes
```

## ARM Assembly

Works with: as version Raspberry Pi
```/* ARM assembly Raspberry PI  */
/*  program areaString.s   */

/* Constantes    */
@ The are no TRUE or FALSE constants in ARM Assembly
.equ FALSE,  0      @ or other value
.equ TRUE,   1      @ or other value
.equ STDOUT, 1     @ Linux output console
.equ EXIT,   1     @ Linux syscall
.equ WRITE,  4     @ Linux syscall
/* Initialized data */
.data
szMessTrue: .asciz "The value is true.\n"
szMessFalse: .asciz "The value is false.\n"

/* UnInitialized data */
.bss

/*  code section */
.text
.global main
main:                /* entry of program  */
push {fp,lr}    /* saves 2 registers */

mov r0,#0
//mov r0,#1   @uncomment pour other test
cmp r0,#TRUE
bne 1f
@ value true
bl affichageMess
b 100f
1:   @ value False
bl affichageMess

100:   /* standard end of the program */
mov r0, #0                  @ return code
pop {fp,lr}                 @restaur 2 registers
mov r7, #EXIT              @ request to exit program
swi 0                       @ perform the system call
/******************************************************************/
/*     display text with size calculation                         */
/******************************************************************/
/* r0 contains the address of the message */
affichageMess:
push {fp,lr}    			/* save  registres */
push {r0,r1,r2,r7}    		/* save others registers */
mov r2,#0   				/* counter length */
1:      	/* loop length calculation */
ldrb r1,[r0,r2]  			/* read octet start position + index */
cmp r1,#0       			/* if 0 its over */
bne 1b          			/* and loop */
/* so here r2 contains the length of the message */
mov r1,r0        			/* address message in r1 */
mov r0,#STDOUT      		/* code to write to the standard output Linux */
mov r7, #WRITE             /* code call system "write" */
swi #0                      /* call systeme */
pop {r0,r1,r2,r7}     		/* restaur others registers */
pop {fp,lr}    				/* restaur des  2 registres */
bx lr	        			/* return  */```

## Arturo

```a: true
b: false

if? a [ print "yep" ] else [ print "nope" ]

if? b -> print "nope"
else  -> print "yep"
```
Output:
```yep
yep```

## AutoHotkey

When an expression is required to evaluate to true or false (such as an `IF`-statement), a blank or zero result is considered false and all other results are considered true. Operators such as `NOT`/`AND`/`OR`/`>`/`=`/`<` automatically produce a true or false value: they yield 1 for true and 0 for false. A variable can be used to hold a false value simply by making it blank or assigning 0 to it. The words 'true' and 'false' are built-in variables containing 1 and 0. They can be used to make a script more readable.

## Avail

While Avail has many methods for handling booleans, `boolean` itself is simply an enumeration type of the atoms `true` and `false`. This enumeration and these atoms are only special by convention of being used for the logical operations provided by the standard library. It would be perfectly possible to define an entirely new boolean system with new types and atoms (or values).

## AWK

There is no keyword for true or false in awk. In awk, any nonzero numeric value or any nonempty string value is true. Any other value (zero or the null string "") is false. Values containing only zeros may produce true or false depending on whether they are obtained from the datasource or by assignment, and different results may be obtained according to which version of awk is being used.

In the following example we use zero for false, and one for true to assign boolean values. However, this is just a convention, so other values may also have been used:

```BEGIN {
# Do not put quotes round the numeric values, or the tests will fail
a = 1    # True
b = 0    # False

# Boolean evaluations
if (a) { print "first test a is true" }        # This should print
if (b) { print "second test b is true" }       # This should not print
if (!a) { print "third test a is false" }      # This should not print
if (!b) { print "forth test b is false" }      # This should print

# Boolean evaluation using comparison against zero
if (a == 0) { print "fifth test a is false" }  # This should not print
if (b == 0) { print "sixth test b is false" }  # This should print
if (a != 0) { print "seventh test a is true" } # This should print
if (b != 0) { print "eighth test b is true" }  # This should not print

}
```

## Axe

In Axe, there are no keywords for true and false. Any expression that evaluates to zero is considered false, and any expression that evaluates to non-zero is considered true. Unlike other languages, there is no canonical value for true (e.g. 1).

## BASIC

Most BASICs have no keywords for true and false. Boolean expressions evaluate to 0 when false, and a non-zero value (traditional versions of basic use a value of one, although some variants use a value of negative one) when true. Numbers also work in place of boolean expressions following those rules.

```10 LET A%=0
20 LET B%=NOT(A%)
30 PRINT "THIS VERSION OF BASIC USES"
40 PRINT B%; " AS ITS TRUE VALUE"
50 IF A% THEN PRINT "TEST ONE DOES NOT PRINT"
60 IF B% THEN PRINT "TEST TWO DOES PRINT"
70 IF A%=0 THEN PRINT "TEST THREE (FALSE BY COMPARISON) DOES PRINT"
80 IF B%=0 THEN PRINT "TEST FOUR (FALSE BY COMPARISON) DOES NOT PRINT"
90 IF A%<>0 THEN PRINT "TEST FIVE (TRUE BY COMPARISON) DOES NOT PRINT"
100 IF B%<>0 THEN PRINT "TEST SIX (TRUE BY COMPARISON) DOES PRINT"
110 END
```

### Applesoft BASIC

IF statement condition treats any non-zero numeric value as true. Comparison operators evaluate to 1 (true) or 0 (false).

Examples:

```? 2 = 3
? 2 = 2
IF 7 THEN ?"HELLO"
```
Output:
```0
1
HELLO```

### BaCon

```' Boolean TRUE and FALSE are non-zero and zero constants
a = TRUE
b = FALSE
PRINT a, ", ", b

IF 0 THEN PRINT "TRUE" : ELSE PRINT "FALSE"
IF 1 THEN PRINT "TRUE"
IF 2 THEN PRINT "TRUE"
```
Output:
```prompt\$ bacon boolean.bac
Converting 'boolean.bac'... done, 8 lines were processed in 0.004 seconds.
Compiling 'boolean.bac'... cc  -c boolean.bac.c
cc -o boolean boolean.bac.o -lbacon -lm
prompt\$ ./boolean
1, 0
FALSE
TRUE
TRUE```

### BASIC256

```' BASIC256 used numbers to represent true and false
' values.  Zero is false and anything else is true.
' The built in constants true and false exist
' and represent one and zero respectively.

print false
print true
```

### BBC BASIC

```      REM BBC BASIC uses integers to represent Booleans; the keywords
REM FALSE and TRUE equate to 0 and -1 (&FFFFFFFF) respectively:

PRINT FALSE
PRINT TRUE
```

### Cherrycake

The boolean value of true in Cherrycake is represented with a 'true' keyword, and the boolean value of false in Cherrycake is represented with a 'false' keyword. Booleans can also be represented with other types, such as binary and integers. In binary types, 0x01 and 0b01 represent true, and 0x00 and 0b00 represent false. In integer types, 1 represents true and 0 represents false.

### Commodore BASIC

Commodore BASIC evaluates any non-zero number for TRUE—but is typically represented as 16-bit signed integer value of -1 or \$FFFF—and zero evaluates to FALSE.

```10 f%=("z"="a") : t%=not f% : rem capture a boolean evaluation
15 print chr\$(147);chr\$(14);
20 print "True is evaulated as:";t%
30 print "False is evaluated as:";f%
40 print:print "Any non-zero number will evaluate to"
50 print "true as shown in this example:":print
60 for i=-2 to 2
70 print i;" = ";
80 if i then print "True":goto 100
90 print "False"
100 next
```
Output:
```True is evaulated as:-1
False is evaluated as: 0

Any non-zero number will evaluate to
true as shown in this example:

-2  = True
-1  = True
0  = False
1  = True
2  = True

█
```

### FreeBASIC

FreeBASIC has a built-in Boolean type (equivalent to a signed one byte integer) with built-in constants true and false to represent values of that type. Note also that:

• Numeric expresions can be converted to the Boolean type either implicitly or using the CBool operator - zero is converted to false and non-zero to true.
• Boolean expressions can be converted to a numeric type either implicitly or using the appropriate cast operator (CInt, CByte, CDbl etc) - false is converted to 0 and true to -1.
• String expressions such as "false" and "true" (regardless of case) can also be converted to Boolean using CBool.
• It is possible to overload CBool for user-defined types to yield a Boolean value.

Sample code:

```' FB 1.05.0 Win64

Dim i As Integer = 23
Dim s As String = "False"
Dim b As Boolean
b = i
Print b
b = CBool(s)
Print b
i = b
Print i
i = CInt(true)
Print i
Sleep
```
Output:
```true
false
0
-1
```

### Liberty BASIC

IF-statement, loop condition treats any non-zero integer as true. Comparison operators evaluate to 1 (true) or 0 (false).

### Microsoft Small Basic

Microsoft Small Basic has two constants: `"True"` and `"False"`.

```If c Then
notc = "False"
Else
notc = "True"
EndIf
```

### PowerBASIC

In addition to what's noted above under BASIC, PowerBASIC for Windows and PowerBASIC Console Compiler have the `ISTRUE` and `ISFALSE` functions. According to the help file, they "return the logical truth or falsity of a given expression". (PowerBASIC lacks a boolean data type, so the usual practice is to use integers in PB/DOS, and longs in PB/CC and PB/Win.)

```DIM x AS LONG
x = ISTRUE(1 = 1)  ' returns -1
x = ISTRUE(1 = 0)  ' returns 0
x = ISFALSE(1 = 1) ' returns 0
x = ISFALSE(1 = 0) ' returns -1
```

### PureBasic

PureBasic does not have a Boolean variable type. An integer type is typically used instead. Boolean values are only supported as part of a loop's condition (While/Wend, Repeat/Until) or in a conditional (If/Endif). In these cases if the result of a variable or a numeric expression is zero it is evaluated as False, otherwise it is evaluated as True. A string variable assigned a null string would be evaluated as False.

### QBasic

QBasic, QuickBASIC, VB-DOS and GW-BASIC doesn't have a Boolean type. What it does is to take 0 as False, and any other value as True. The easiest way in QBASIC, QuickBASIC and VB-DOS is to create False and True constants of type Integer and, then, use them as needed:

```CONST FALSE=0
CONST TRUE = Not FALSE
Print FALSE
Print TRUE
```

In GW-BASIC you can create a variable called FALSE% and other called TRUE% and do the same. Nevertheless, is more sure to create functions in order to avoid the value to be manipulated:

```10 DEF FNFALSE = 0
20 DEF FNTRUE = NOT FNFALSE
30 Print FNFALSE
40 Print NFTRUE
```

### Run BASIC

Basically 0 is false and 1 is true

```if 1          then print "1 is true"
if not(0)     then print "0 is false"
if 1 < 2      then print "1 < 2 TRUE"
if 2 > 1      then print "2 > 1 TRUE"
if not(2 < 1) then print "2 not < 1"
if not(1 = 0) then print "1 not = 0"
```

### SmallBASIC

```a = true
b = false
```

### smart BASIC

• IF/THEN statements treat any non-zero value as true and zero as false.
• Comparison operators DO NOT calculate in smart BASIC. For example, PRINT (1 > 4) WILL NOT evaluate to produce a zero value (0) indicating a false condition. It will produce an error. All Boolean evaluations in smart BASIC must be determined within IF/THEN statements.

### TI-89 BASIC

There are boolean literals `true` and `false`. No other values may be used where a boolean is expected.

### True BASIC

```!True BASIC maneja correctamente las expresiones booleanas,
!Pero no tiene un tipo booleano.

!La solución: crear constantes False y True y usarlas según sea necesario."
LET False = 0
LET True =  1
PRINT True; ", "; False

IF True = 0 THEN PRINT "TRUE" ELSE PRINT "FALSE"
IF True > False THEN PRINT "TRUE" ELSE PRINT "FALSE"

!Para el operador NOT, los paréntesis rodean la cláusula completa.
IF Not(2 < 1) then PRINT "TRUE" ELSE PRINT "FALSE"

END
```
Output:
```1 ,  0
FALSE
TRUE
TRUE
```

### uBasic/4tH

In conditionals, zero is false, non-zero is true. Note that = is not only used for assignment, it is also a fully qualified logical operator, so it is easy to assign a true boolean to a variable.

```t = 1 = 1
f = 0 = 1

Print "False = ";f;", True = ";t
```
Output:
```False = 0, True = 1

0 OK, 0:52```

### Yabasic

```// Yabasic usa números para representar los valores true y false
// Las constantes incorporadas true y false representan uno y cero respectivamente.

//false también puede escribirse como FALSE o incluso FaLsE.
//true también puede escribirse como TRUE o incluso TrUe.

print false
print true
end
```

### Visual Basic

VB has the `Boolean` data type and the constants `True` and `False`, in addition to what's listed under BASIC, above. When used outside of a boolean context, `True` and `False` return values depending on their context -- `-1` and `0` in a numeric context, `"True"` and `"False"` if used as strings.
When converting an integer to a boolean, `0` is `False` and anything not equal to `0` is

```Dim x As Boolean
x = IIf(Int(Rnd * 2), True, False)
MsgBox x
```

## Batch File

The closest thing to Boolean values in batch files is using `if defined`. If a variable has any value, it will evaluate to true.

You can make a variable false by clearing its value `set "var="`.

```@echo off

::true
set "a=x"
::false
set "b="

if defined a (
echo a is true
) else (
echo a is false
)
if defined b (
echo b is true
) else (
echo b is false
)

pause>nul
```

Output:

```a is true
b is false
```

## bc

POSIX bc doesn't define Boolean values (i.e. it's up to the programmer which values represent false and true).

In GNU bc, 0 is false and any other value is true (but the result of a boolean expression will always be 1 if it is true).

## Befunge

Zero is false, non-zero is true. This is only used by the horizontal and vertical switch operators (`_` and `|`).

## Binary Lambda Calculus

The standard representations for the booleans in lambda calculus are true = \then. \else. then, false = \then. \else. else, which correspond to BLC programs `00 00 110` and `00 00 10`.

## BQN

For predicates, the boolean value given must be 0 or 1. All other values error.

```{1?34}
34
{⟨⟩?34}
ERROR```

For logical assertion, the test is simply whether the right argument is 1 (`𝕩≡1`). Anything other than 1 will cause an error.

```!1
1
!⟨⟩
ERROR
!0
ERROR```

## Bracmat

Bracmat operates with success and failure instead of true and false. Success and failure play the same role as true and false in conditional tests, but they are not values like true and false. Instead, success and failure are properties of expressions in addition to values. The simplest failing expression is the atomic expression `~`. The simplest succeeding atomic expression is the empty string `""` (or `()`). A slightly more complex failing expression is `1+1:3`, which postulates that `3` matches the result of adding `1` and `1`, while `1+1:2` of course succeeds.

## Brainf***

Zero is false, non-zero is true. This is only used by the loop brackets (`[` and `]`).

## C

In C, a value which is equal to 0 is false, while a value which is not equal to 0 is true. Relational and logical operators evaluate to 0 for false and 1 for true. Any of the following can be used:

• any integer type, where 0 gives false, and any other value gives true (note that in C, character types are also integer types, therefore this also applies to characters: the `'\0'` character is false)
• any floating point type, where again, 0 gives false and everything else gives true
• any enumeration type, again 0 gives false, anything else true
• any pointer type, where the null pointer gives false and any other pointer gives true
• in C99, the boolean type `bool` (defined in header <stdbool.h>), where `true` gives true and `false` gives false
• in C99, any complex number type, where 0 (0 real and 0 imaginary) gives false, anything else gives true

## C#

In C#, there are the reserved keywords `true` and `false`. Variables to hold these values are declared as either `bool` or `Boolean`. These types are identical, as `bool` is just shorthand for `Boolean`. The collection type `BitArray` returns its values as `Boolean`, packing 8 values into each byte (In contrast, the `Boolean` type uses the entire byte for one value).

There is also the `Nullable<T>` type that represents all values of its underlying value type `T` and an additional `null` value. It has a shorthand notation: `T?` (When `T` is a reference type, `T?` means something else. It is not a different type, but just a hint to the compiler.) So, when applied to `bool`, we have a `bool?` type that supports 3 values: `true`, `false` and `null`. This can be useful for some applications where the value can be undefined or missing.

```bool? value = null
```

Unlike C/C++, there is no conversion in C# between other types and `Boolean`.

## C++

In C++, there are the constants `true` and `false` to represent those values. However, there are numerous implicit conversions to `bool`, therefore in conditions (and other contexts expecting boolean values), any of the following can be used:

• any integer type, where 0 converts to false, and any other value converts to true (note that in C++, character types are also integer types, therefore this also applies to characters: the `'\0'` character is false)
• any floating point type, where again, 0 gives false and everything else gives true
• any enumeration type, again 0 gives false, anything else true
• any pointer type, where the null pointer gives false and any other pointer gives true
• any user-defined type with an implicit conversion operator either to `bool` or to a built-in type which itself can be converted to `bool` (i.e. any of the above). The C++ standard library contains one such implicit conversion: the implicit conversion of a stream `s` to `bool` gives `!s.fail()`

## Clean

The standard library defines a data type `Bool`, which has exactly two members:

```::Bool = False | True
```

In addition to all the functionality of any other Clean algebraic data type (e.g. pattern matching), and the specified derived typeclass instances, the built-in guard (“`|`”) and `if` syntaxes use Bool.

As with any other Clean data type, there are no automatic conversions of other types to Bool.

## Clojure

The boolean constants are true and false. In a conditional context, the only false values are false and nil -- every other value is true.

## CMake

```foreach(var 1 42 ON yes True y Princess
0 OFF no False n Princess-NOTFOUND)
if(var)
message(STATUS "\${var} is true.")
else()
message(STATUS "\${var} is false.")
endif()
endforeach(var)
```
```-- 1 is true.
-- 42 is true.
-- ON is true.
-- yes is true.
-- True is true.
-- y is true.
-- Princess is true.
-- 0 is false.
-- OFF is false.
-- no is false.
-- False is false.
-- n is false.
-- Princess-NOTFOUND is false.```

The strings "0", "OFF", "NO", "FALSE" and "N" (ignoring case) are false. Any string ending with "-NOTFOUND" (ignoring case) is false. All other strings are true.

Scripts that want `if(TRUE)` should require CMake 2.8; do refer to cmake --help-policy CMP0012.

## COBOL

### Booleans

Booleans are defined as any data item having a `PICTURE` made up of ones.

```       01  some-bool               PIC 1 BIT.
```

The boolean literals `B"1"` and `B"0"` represent true and false, respectively.

### Conditions

Prior to COBOL 2002, there was no boolean data type, only condition names which could be used in conditional expressions. Condition names are subordinate to another data item, have the level-number 88, and are defined with the value(s) which their parent data item must have for them to be set to true. They can be defined like so:

```       01  X PIC 9.
88 X-Is-One        VALUE 1.
88 X-Is-Even       VALUE 0 2 4 6 8.
88 X-Larger-Than-5 VALUE 6 THRU 9.
```

Conditions can be `SET` to `TRUE` or `FALSE`. Setting a condition to `TRUE` will move the (first) value in the `VALUE` clause to the parent data item. In COBOL 2002, an optional `FALSE` clause was added which allowed the condition to be `SET` to `FALSE` and consequently set the parent data item to the specified value in the clause. A `FALSE` clause can only have one value. An example of conditions in action:

```       PROGRAM-ID. Condition-Example.

DATA DIVISION.
WORKING-STORAGE SECTION.
01  Foo PIC 9 VALUE 5.
88  Is-Not-Zero VALUE 1 THRU 9
WHEN SET TO FALSE IS 0.

PROCEDURE DIVISION.
Main.
PERFORM Is-Foo-Zero

SET Is-Not-Zero TO FALSE
PERFORM Is-Foo-Zero

SET Is-Not-Zero TO TRUE
PERFORM Is-Foo-Zero

GOBACK
.

Is-Foo-Zero.
IF Is-Not-Zero
DISPLAY "Foo is not zero, it is " Foo "."
ELSE
DISPLAY "Foo is zero."
END-IF
.
```
Output:
```Foo is not zero, it is 5.
Foo is zero.
Foo is not zero, it is 1.
```

## CoffeeScript

CoffeeScript is largely based on JavaScript, but that may only serve to confuse you. Your best bet is to learn all the cases:

```h1 = {foo: "bar"}
h2 = {foo: "bar"}

true_expressions = [
true
1
h1? # because h1 is defined above
not false
!false
[]
{}
1 + 1 == 2
1 == 1 # simple value equality
true or false
]

false_expressions = [
false
not true
undeclared_variable?
0
''
null
undefined
h1 == h2 # despite having same key/values
1 == "1" # different types
false and true
]
```

## Common Lisp

The only value in Common Lisp that is false is the symbol `nil`; all other values are true. The symbol `t` is the canonical true value.

Considered as variables, `nil` and `t` are bound to themselves ("self-evaluating"). `nil`, as well as being false, is used as the empty list; i.e. an empty list is false.

```VAR
b,c: BOOLEAN;
...
b := TRUE;
c := FALSE;
...
```

## Crystal

Crystal uses the "truthiness" of a value to determine whether or not to execute the body of an `if`, `unless`, `while`, or `until` block.

As mentioned in the language reference, the values `nil` and `false`, as well as null pointers are "falsey", all other values are truthy

```if false
puts "false"
elsif nil
puts "nil"
elsif Pointer(Nil).new 0
puts "null pointer"
elsif true && "any other value"
puts "finally true!"
end
```

## D

In D, there are constants `false` and `true` to represent their respective values (that also implicitly convert to 0 and 1). Implicit conversions to boolean are listed below:

• Any integer type, where 0 converts to false, and any other value converts to true;
• Any floating point type, where again, 0 gives false and everything else (but NaNs) gives true;
• Any enumeration type, again 0 gives false, anything else true;
• Any pointer type, where the null pointer gives false and any other pointer gives true;
• Any class reference type, using the "is" operator, the null reference gives false and any other reference gives true;
• Any user-defined type with an implicit conversion operator (opCast) either to bool or to a built-in type which itself can be converted to bool.

## Dc

In dc there are no built in boolean values or functions. Adopting the way C codes them appears to be a good idea: `0=FALSE` and `1=TRUE`.

## Delphi

In addition to the types defined by Object Pascal, Delphi defines the type `Bool`.

## DWScript

The standard `Boolean` type has two values: `True` and `False`, with `Ord(False) = 0` and `Ord(True) = 1`.

## Dyalect

Dyalect has a standard `Bool` type with two values: `true` and `false`. Other types in Dyalect support implicit conversion to booleans. All values except `false` and `nil` are converted to `true`.

## Dylan

```#t // <boolean> true
#f // <boolean> false
```

For the purpose of conditional statements, all objects other than #f evaluate to true.

## Déjà Vu

Déjà Vu has `true` and `false`, two numbers that are equal to 1 and 0 respectively. Every object has a truth value. The only falsy things are numbers equal to zero, empty lists and dictionaries, and zero-length strings and blobs.

## E

E defines two basic objects `true` and `false`, and the `boolean` guard which accepts them. All builtin operations which take booleans (e.g. the `if` control structure) coerce the input to boolean.

```? if (true) { "a" } else { "b" }
# value: "a"

? if (false) { "a" } else { "b" }
# value: "b"

? if (90) { "a" } else { "b" }
# problem: the int 90 doesn't coerce to a boolean```

No objects in the standard library coerce to boolean, but user-written objects may choose to do so; they can then be used in place of booleans.

```? def bowlian {
>     to __conformTo(guard) {
>         if (guard == boolean) { return true }
>     }
> }
> if (bowlian) { "a" } else { "b" }
# value: "a"```

## EasyLang

EasyLang does not have built-in boolean types or constants. Operators that "return" a boolean type (e.g. >, <=) cannot be used outside of conditional statements and loops.

You can use 1 or 0 in place of true and false.

```boolNumber = 1
if boolNumber = 1
print "True"
else
print "False"
.```

## EchoLisp

"All that which is not false is true" - Attribué à L. Wittgenstein - The only false value is the boolean #f. All other objects, including the empty list or null or 0 ..- evaluate to #t = true.

```(not #t)  → #f
(not #f)  → #t
(not null) → #f
(not 0) → #f
```

## Ecstasy

Ecstasy's defines an enumeration named Boolean, which contains the values  False  and  True .

```module GeorgeBoole {
@Inject Console console;

void run() {
Boolean f = False;
assert !f == True;

// methods like "and", "or", "xor", and "not" are the same as
// the operators "&"/"&&", "|"/"||", "^"/"^^", and the unary "~"
assert True.and(False) == True & False == False;
assert True.or(False)  == True | False == True;
assert True.xor(False) == True ^ False == True;
assert True.not() == ~True == False;

console.print(\$"0==1 = {0==1}");
console.print(\$"!False = {!False}");
}
}
```
Output:
```0==1 = False
!False = True
```

## EGL

In EGL boolean is a primitive type, however it acts the same as an integer (type int). A boolean and an int accept integer values aswel as true and false keywords (which represent resp. 1 and 0). A boolean is always true except when it has value 0 (or keyword false). A boolean can be converted to a string ("true" or "false") using StrLib.booleanAsString(boolean);

```myBool boolean = 0;
SysLib.writeStdout("myBool: " + StrLib.booleanAsString(myBool));
myBool = 1;
SysLib.writeStdout("myBool: " + StrLib.booleanAsString(myBool));
myBool = 2;
SysLib.writeStdout("myBool: " + StrLib.booleanAsString(myBool));
myBool = false;
SysLib.writeStdout("myBool: " + StrLib.booleanAsString(myBool));
myBool = true;
SysLib.writeStdout("myBool: " + StrLib.booleanAsString(myBool));
myInt int = 0;
SysLib.writeStdout("myInt: " + StrLib.booleanAsString(myInt));
myInt = 1;
SysLib.writeStdout("myInt: " + StrLib.booleanAsString(myInt));
myInt = 2;
SysLib.writeStdout("myInt: " + StrLib.booleanAsString(myInt));
myInt = false;
SysLib.writeStdout("myInt: " + StrLib.booleanAsString(myInt));
myInt = true;
SysLib.writeStdout("myInt: " + StrLib.booleanAsString(myInt));```
Output:
```myBool: false
myBool: true
myBool: true
myBool: false
myBool: true
myInt: false
myInt: true
myInt: true
myInt: false
myInt: true
```

## Elena

ELENA uses the system'BaseBoolValue class, which has two singleton sub-classes: system'true and system'false. E.g. an expression like 5 == 5 returns system'true. There is a Boolean variable : system'Boolean.

## Elixir

Elixir utilizes Erlang's definition of boolean types; they're defined as the atoms :true and :false. No other type is equal to true or false.

```iex(1)> true === :true
true
iex(2)> false === :false
true
iex(3)> true === 1
false
```

nil (also defined as an atom, :nil) is not equal to false.

```iex(4)> nil === :nil
true
iex(5)> nil === false
false
```

## Elm

```--True and False directly represent Boolean values in Elm
--For eg to show yes for true and no for false
if True then "yes" else "no"

--Same expression differently
if False then "no" else "yes"

--This you can run as a program
--Elm allows you to take anything you want for representation
--In the program we take T for true F for false
import Html exposing(text,div,Html)
import Html.Attributes exposing(style)

type Expr = T | F | And Expr Expr | Or Expr Expr | Not Expr

evaluate : Expr->Bool
evaluate expression =
case expression of
T ->
True

F ->
False

And expr1 expr2 ->
evaluate expr1 && evaluate expr2

Or expr1 expr2 ->
evaluate expr1 || evaluate expr2

Not expr ->
not (evaluate expr)

--CHECKING RANDOM LOGICAL EXPRESSIONS
ex1= Not F
ex2= And T F
ex3= And (Not(Or T F)) T

main =
div [] (List.map display  [ex1, ex2, ex3])

display expr=
div [] [ text ( toString expr ++ "-->" ++ toString(evaluate expr) ) ]
--END
```

## Emacs Lisp

Symbol `nil` is false and symbol `t` is true. Both are self-evaluating, being variables whose value is their own symbol. See the elisp manual for more.

In an `if` and similar, `nil` is false and anything else is true. To make that clear docstrings etc say "non-nil" for true. (See last item in elisp manual documentation tips.)

## EMal

```^|EMal has a dedicated Logical type expressed by the logic keyword.
|It's not nullable and holds the two values false and true.
|There are no implicit conversions, but explicit conversions
|from/to int (0,1) or text ("⊥", "⊤") are allowed.
|^
logic booleanTrue = true
logic booleanFalse = false
if 2 > 1 and true and not false
writeLine("true: " + true + ", false: " + false)
end
if false == logic!0
writeLine("explicit conversion from integer")
end
if true == logic!"⊤"
writeLine("explicit conversion from text")
end
writeLine(int!true) # is one
writeLine(text!false) # is "⊥"```
Output:
```true: ⊤, false: ⊥
explicit conversion from integer
explicit conversion from text
1
⊥
```

## Erlang

Erlang doesn't technically define boolean types. Instead, the atoms true and false are used. However, they are integrated well enough into the language there should be no problem with that as long as you don't expect false and true to mean anything but literal false and true.

```1> 1 < 2.
true
2> 1 < 1.
false
3> 0 == false.
false
```

## Excel

The Logical category of functions includes the constants TRUE() and FALSE() which are displayed without the parantheses in cells. There are logical functions such as AND and OR too. For an AND truth table of two variables, take 3 cells, say A1,B1 and C1. In C1 type in :

`=AND(A1;B1)`

Copy this until C4. Now as values are filled in from A1-A4 and B1-B4, C1-C4 gets updated.

```0	0	FALSE
0	1	FALSE
1	0	FALSE
1	1	TRUE
```

## F#

The type bool is an abbreviation for the .NET framework type `System.Boolean`.

```type bool = System.Boolean
```

Instances of this type have values of either `true` or `false`.

## Factor

In Factor any value except `f` is true, with `t` being the canonical true value.

## FALSE

Zero is false and non-zero is true. This is used by the if and while operators (? and #). Comparators (= and <) yield -1 for true and 0 for false.

## Fantom

Conditional statements must return a `sys::Bool`, and the only two values are `true` and `false`.

## Forth

In conditionals, zero is false, non-zero is true. There are predefined constants for the canonical forms. For FORTH-83 or later, FALSE is zero and TRUE is -1 (all bits set). For earlier FORTH standards, FALSE is zero and TRUE is 1.

```TRUE .    \ -1
FALSE .   \ 0
```

## Fortran

Fortran started off in 1957 with only floating-point and fixed-point variables, so any calculations in the style of Boolean arithmetic would be done with integer values such as zero and not-zero, using multiplication and addition for and and or.

Fortran 66 introduced a logical data type which can be set to either .true. or .false. or be generated via logical expressions such as <=, etc. Such variables cannot be used in normal arithmetic with operators such as +-*/ but only with logical operators such as .OR. and so on. If via the EQUIVALENCE statement their numerical values (or, bit patterns) are inspected as say an integer, the values may well not be as anticipated and differ between computers and compilers. For instance, on the Burroughs 6700 an integer variable equivalenced to a logical variable would appear as .true. if odd, .false. if even.

The default storage size of a LOGICAL variable is the same as the default storage size of an INTEGER variable, which for many systems is 32 bits. This is done to simplify calculations of record sizes, or the alignment of variables in COMMON storage areas. It is usually possible to declare variables with certain byte sizes (normally only powers of two) so that LOGICAL*1 or similar declarations may be available. If used however there may arise alignment issues with adjacent variables of other types (such as REAL) that may require padding to even word boundaries for best access. Consider

```      TYPE MIXED
LOGICAL*1 LIVE
REAL*8    VALUE
END TYPE MIXED
TYPE(MIXED) STUFF(100)
```

The array STUFF might occupy 900 bytes, or, 1600 bytes if each double-precision value has to be aligned to an eight-byte boundary. In the latter case, it may be better to declare LIVE and VALUE to be separate hundred-element arrays as in

```      TYPE MIXED
LOGICAL*1 LIVE(100)
REAL*8    VALUE(100)
END TYPE MIXED
TYPE(MIXED) STUFF
```

Except that now only hundred-element variables of type MIXED can be declared. Either way, the record size needed for a disc file holding such items will need careful thought.

## Free Pascal

In addition to the types defined by Object Pascal, free Pascal defines the `qWordBool`, that has a `sizeOf` eight.
Furthermore, True and False are not keywords from FPC v3.0.0. It is possible to assign any value to true and false, like strings but even objects.

```{\$mode objfpc}{\$ifdef mswindows}{\$apptype console}{\$endif}
const
true = 'true';
false = 'false';
begin
writeln(true);
writeln(false);
end.

[ EDIT ]

See https://wiki.freepascal.org/Boolean

While you can assign values to true and false, it has now nothing to do with the boolean values....
Try with this function:

FUNCTION IsNatural ( CONST num: VARIANT ): BOOLEAN;

BEGIN

IsNatural := ( num > 0 );

END;
```

JPD 2022/08/02

## Frink

The literal boolean values are called `true` and `false`. In addition, in conditional expressions, the following are treated as true:

• Any non-empty string
• Any list, even an empty list

The following are treated as false:

• The empty string
• The special value `undef`

## Futhark

Futhark has a `bool` type, with the two values `True` and `False`. They are used for branching.

## FutureBasic

FB recognizes two types for boolean truth values: BOOL and boolean. There is a subtle difference between the two. A BOOL will accept without complaint the macros YES, and NO, the equivalent native FB constants, _true, and _false, and, of course, 0 and 1. However, although a BOOL can be assigned other values, it will throw a clang (FB"s native compiler) warning as with this example:

```window 1
BOOL boolTest
boolTest = -1
print boolTest
HandleEvents```

When compiled this code generates this warning:

`implicit conversion from constant value -1 to 'BOOL'; the only well defined values for 'BOOL' are YES and NO [-Wobjc-bool-constant-conversion]`

On the other hand, a Boolean can be assigned not only YES, NO, _true, or _false, and 0 or 1, but also other values, such as the common -1, and compile without complaint.

Since FB can also work with objects, native BOOLs and booleans need to be converted to objects as demonstrated in the code below.

Trivia: Because NULL and _nil zero values in FB, they evaluate to "NO" or “_false” in conditional expressions.

```void local fn BooleanExercise
BOOL areEqual    = (1 == 1)      // areEqual is YES
BOOL areNotEqual = not areEqual  /* areNotEqual is converted to: areEqual = (-(1 == 1)). -1 throws a clang warning.
NOTE: FB does not accept the "!" shorthand for "not", i.e. !areEqual, common in other languages. */

print "areEqual    == "; areEqual
print "areNotEqual == "; areNotEqual
print

// Boolean types assigned values outside YES or NO compile without complaint.
boolean minusOneTest = -1
print "minusOneTest == "; minusOneTest

// Typical boolean value is use
print
print @"Rosetta Code programmers understand booleans."
print
end if

// Defined Core Foundation boolean values
print "kCFBooleanTrue  == "; kCFBooleanTrue
print "kCFBooleanFalse == "; kCFBooleanFalse
print

// Number object assigned literal value
CFNumberRef booleanObject = @(YES)
print "booleanObject == "; booleanObject
print

// Number object created programmatically
booleanObject = NO
print "booleanObject variable reassigned as N0 == "; fn NumberWithBool( booleanObject )
print
end fn

window 1

fn BooleanExercise

HandleEvents```
Output:
```areEqual    == 1
areNotEqual == 0

minusOneTest == -1

Rosetta Code programmers understand booleans.

kCFBooleanTrue  == 1
kCFBooleanFalse == 0

booleanObject == 1

booleanObject variable reassigned as N0 == 0
```

## Gambas

```Public Sub Main()
Dim bX As Boolean

Print bX
bX = True
Print bX

End
```

Output:

```False
True
```

## GAP

```1 < 2;
# true

2 < 1;
# false

# GAP has also the value fail, which cannot be used as a boolean but may be used i\$

1 = fail;
# false

fail = fail;
# true
```

## Go

Go defines a built-in data type `bool`, which has exactly two values, represented by the keywords `true` and `false`. There is no conversion between booleans and other data types. Conditionals require a boolean value, so if i is a numeric type, for example, you must spell out if i != 0 { if you wish to interpret it as boolean.

The template package however, uses a different rule for if actions. There, it is testing if a "pipeline" is "empty" where the empty values are false, 0, any nil pointer or interface value, and any array, slice, map, or string of length zero.

```
package main

import (
"fmt"
"reflect"
"strconv"
)

func main() {
var n bool = true
fmt.Println(n)        // prt true
fmt.Printf("%T\n", n) // prt bool
n = !n
fmt.Println(n) // prt false

x := 5
y := 8
fmt.Println("x == y:", x == y) // prt x == y: false
fmt.Println("x < y:", x < y)   // prt x < y: true

fmt.Println("\nConvert String into Boolean Data type\n")
str1 := "japan"
fmt.Println("Before :", reflect.TypeOf(str1)) // prt Before : string
bolStr, _ := strconv.ParseBool(str1)
fmt.Println("After :", reflect.TypeOf(bolStr)) // prt After : bool
}
```

## Groovy

Groovy has a boolean "primitive" type and a Boolean "object wrapper" type directly derived from Java. See the Java solution to this task for more details.

Unlike Java, any null reference converts to a boolean "false", while any non-null object reference converts to a boolean "true"... EXCEPT if that object has a specific defined conversion to boolean "false". For example, for any numeric type, any zero value representation converts to "false" and any non-zero value converts to "true". For any collection type, non-empty converts to "true" and empty converts to "false".

The Haskell standard Prelude defines a data type `Bool`, which has exactly two members:

```data Bool = False | True    deriving (Eq, Ord, Enum, Read, Show, Bounded)
```

In addition to all the functionality of any other Haskell algebraic data type (e.g. pattern matching), and the specified derived typeclass instances (e.g. `False == False`, `succ False == True`, `(maxBound :: Bool) == True`, etc.), the built-in guard (“`|`”) and `if` syntaxes use Bool.

As with any other Haskell data type, there are no automatic conversions of other types to Bool.

## HicEst

Zero is false, non-zero is true. Numbers also work in place of boolean expressions following this rule.

## HolyC

In HolyC, there are the reserved keywords `TRUE` and `FALSE`. Variables to hold these values are declared as `Bool`.

Any value which is equal to 0 is false, while a value which is not equal to 0 is true. Relational and logical operators evaluate to 0 for false and 1 for true. Any of the following can be used:

• Any integer type, where 0 gives false, and any other value gives true.
• Any floating point type, where again, 0 gives false and everything else gives true.
• Any pointer type, where the null pointer gives false and any other pointer gives true.

## i

Any non-zero number is true in 'i'.

```main
//Bits aka Booleans.
b \$= bit()

b \$= true
print(b)

b \$= false
print(b)

//Non-zero values are true.
b \$= bit(1)
print(b)

b \$= -1
print(b)

//Zero values are false
b \$= 0
print(b)
}```

## Icon and Unicon

Icon and Unicon do not use Boolean values for flow control. Rather they use success (returning a result, any result even a null) or failure (a signal) for this purpose. Built-in controls support not, and (&), and or (|). For an example of how this works, see Short Circuit Evaluation. Icon and Unicon do support bit operations on integers which could be used to record Boolean state. See also Logical Operations for an example of how and when Boolean values might be implemented.

## Idris

```Idris> :doc Bool
Data type Prelude.Bool.Bool : Type
Boolean Data Type

Constructors:
False : Bool

True : Bool
```

## Inform 6

Inform 6 has the constants `true` and `false`, which are identical to `1` and `0` respectively. One of these values will always be yielded by a condition operator (an operator that yields a boolean value). In addition, any non-zero value is considered to be true.

## Inform 7

The Boolean type is called "truth state" and has the values "true" and "false".

However, Inform 7 distinguishes between Boolean values and conditions. Comparison expressions do not return truth states, and truth state expressions cannot be used directly in conditional statements. There is a conversion from condition to truth state:

```let B be whether or not 123 is greater than 100;
```

And truth states can be used in conditions by adding an explicit comparison:

```if B is true, say "123 is greater than 100."
```

Phrases (functions) cannot be defined to return a truth state directly. Instead, they are defined using "to decide whether" (or "to decide if") and can then be used as conditions:

```To decide whether the CPU is working correctly:
if 123 is greater than 100, decide yes;
otherwise decide no.

When play begins:
[convert to truth state...]
let B be whether or not the CPU is working correctly;
[...or use as a condition]
if the CPU is working correctly, say "Whew."
```

## Insitux

Simply `true` and `false`, however, anything which is not `false` or `null` is considered truthy.

## J

False is 0, true is 1. This is an advantage (search for Maple).

This approach also works well with Bayes' theorem, as false matches 0% probability and true matches 100% probability.

## Java

In Java, `true` and `false` are used to reference a `boolean` value.
There is no use of 0 and 1, or undefined vs. defined.

As with the other primitive data-types, `boolean` has a wrapper class, `Boolean`, which includes a set of valuable boolean operations.

```boolean valueA = true;
boolean valueB = false;
```

Or.

```Boolean valueA = Boolean.TRUE;
Boolean valueB = Boolean.FALSE;
```

```Boolean valueA = Boolean.valueOf(true);
Boolean valueB = Boolean.valueOf(false);
```

## JavaScript

The Boolean type has two values: `true` and `false`

The following table shows the result of type conversions to boolean:

• Undefined: any undefined value is converted to `false`
• Null: `false`
• Number: the numbers `0`, `-0`, `NaN` are `false`; otherwise `true`
• String: the empty (zero-length) string is `false`; otherwise `true`
• Object: any object is converted to `true`

(source: ECMAScript Language Reference)

## Joy

The truth literals are `true` and `false`. In a conditional context, `false`, numerical values (including characters) of zero, empty lists and empty sets are evaluated as false.

## jq

true and false are the only entities of type "boolean":

```\$ jq type
true
"boolean"
false
"boolean"
```

The above shows the jq command invocation, followed by alternating lines of input and output.

jq's logical operators, however, do not require boolean inputs. In brief, false and null are both regarded as false, and all other JSON entities are regarded as true. That is, all values except for false and null are truthy.

## Julia

Julia has a built-in `Bool` type with values `true` and `false`.

Other objects do not represent boolean values and cannot be used in conditional expressions, for example:

```julia> if 1
println("true")
end
ERROR: type: non-boolean (Int64) used in boolean context
```

However, integers can be converted to boolean types with the `bool()` function (which treats nonzero values as `true`)

```julia> bool(-2:2)
5-element Bool Array:
true
true
false
true
true
```

## KonsolScript

The Boolean type has two values: `true` and `false`

The following table shows the result of type conversions to boolean:

• Number: the number `0` is `false`; otherwise `true`
• String: the empty (zero-length) string is `false`; otherwise `true`

`

## Kotlin

Booleans in Kotlin are given by the literals true and false, case sensitive, which are the only instances of the class Boolean.

## LabVIEW

This image is a VI Snippet, an executable image of LabVIEW code. The LabVIEW version is shown on the top-right hand corner. You can download it, then drag-and-drop it onto the LabVIEW block diagram from a file browser, and it will appear as runnable, editable code.

## Lambdatalk

Predefined constants are true and false:

```{if true then YES else NO}
-> YES
{if false then YES else NO}
-> NO
```

Following the lambda calculus user defined booleans can be built

```{def TRUE {lambda {:a :b} :a}}
-> TRUE
{def FALSE {lambda {:a :b} :b}}
-> FALSE
{def IF {lambda {:c :a :b}  {:c :a :b}}}
-> IF

{IF TRUE yes no}
-> yes
{IF FALSE yes no}
-> no
```

## Lasso

Comparisons are evaluated in Lasso as either true of false, so "1 == 2" will evaluate as true, and "1 == 1" will evaluate as true.

A variable can also be assigned a boolean type, and as such then holds either true of false states.

```!true
// => false

not false
// => true

var(x = true)
\$x // => true

\$x = false
\$x // => false
```

In a conditional, if the result is the integer 0, it is also evaluated as boolean false. If the conditional results in an integer greater than zero, it is evaluated as boolean true.

```local(x = string)
// size is 0
#x->size ? 'yes' | 'no'

local(x = '123fsfsd')
// size is 8
#x->size ? 'yes' | 'no'
```
Output:
```no
yes```

## Latitude

In Latitude, an object's truthiness is determined by its `toBool` method, which must return one of the constants `True` or `False`. Obviously, these two constants have trivial `toBool` methods which return themselves. `Nil` is also falsy, while most other built-in objects (including numbers, strings, arrays, etc.), including "empty" objects such as the empty string, are truthy.

By convention, objects which are used to represent failure are considered falsy. For instance, the standard library `'unit-test` module provides the `FailedTest` object, which is returned when a unit test fails. This object (and its children) test falsy when used as a conditional.

## LFE

```> 'true
true
> 'false
false
> (or 'false 'false)
false
> (or 'false 'true)
true
```

## Lingo

Lingo has the constants TRUE and FALSE. In numerical context they have the values 1 and 0. In boolean context any nonzero integer evaluates to TRUE.

```put TRUE
-- 1
put FALSE
-- 0
if 23 then put "Hello"
-- "Hello"```

## Little

For conditionals, numeric variables (including poly variables with a number in them), evaluate to true or false based on their value.

Use the defined() buildin to test if a variable is defined.

For the rest of variable types the value depend if the variable is defined or not.

```int a = 0;
int b = 1;
int c;
string str1 = "initialized string";
string str2; //  "uninitialized string";

if (a) {puts("first test a is false");}         // This should not print
if (b) {puts("second test b is true");}         // This should print
if (c) {puts("third test b is false");}         // This should not print
if (!defined(c)) {puts("fourth test is true");} // This should print
if (str1) {puts("fifth test str1 is true");}    // This should print
if (str2) {puts("sixth test str2 is false");}   // This should not print
```

## LiveCode

true and the string "true" are both logical true, similarly for false and "false" being logical false.

## Logo

Logo has predefined symbols for true and false (`"true` and `"false`), which are the values returned by predicates and required by logical operators and conditionals.

```print 1 < 0    ; false
print 1 > 0    ; true
if "true [print "yes]    ; yes
if not "false [print "no]  ; no```

Unlike other lispy languages, there are no other implicit conversions. You must test explicitly for zero or empty collections.

```if equal? 0 ln 1 [print "zero]
if empty? [] [print "empty]    ; empty list
if empty? "|| [print "empty]   ; empty word```

## Lua

All values in Lua other than `false` or `nil` are considered `true`:

```if 0 then print "0" end             -- This prints
if "" then print"empty string" end  -- This prints
if {} then print"empty table" end   -- This prints
if nil then print"this won't print" end
if true then print"true" end
if false then print"false" end      -- This does not print
```

## M2000 Interpreter

True is -1 and False is 0 (double type), but any comparison return boolean. We can define boolean type variables.

Using Switches "+sbl" in console or Set Switches "+sbl" in code in a module, we get Prints of boolean values as True/False or Αληθές/Ψευδές

use Greek to change to 1032 locale and Greek error messages and dialogs

use Latin to change to 1033 locale and English error messages and dialogs

We can use Locale 1032 to change only locale to Greek.

M2000 print in console any character from Unicode, and diacritics (one or more, without moving the cursor).

```Module CheckBoolean {
A=True
Print Type\$(A)="Double"
B=1=1
Print Type\$(B)="Boolean"
Print A=B  ' true
Print A, B   ' -1   True
Def boolean C=True, D=False
Print C, D , 1>-3 ' True False True
K\$=Str\$(C)
Print K\$="True"  ' True
Function ShowBoolean\$(&x) {
x=false
Try {
if keypress(32) then x=true : exit
If Keypress(13) then exit
loop
}
=str\$(x, locale)
}
Wait 100
Print "C (space for true, enter for false)="; : Print ShowBoolean\$(&c)
Print C
}
CheckBoolean

Print str\$(True, "\t\r\u\e;\t\r\u\e;\f\a\l\s\e")="true"
Print str\$(False, "\t\r\u\e;\t\r\u\e;\f\a\l\s\e")="false"
Print str\$(2, "\t\r\u\e;\t\r\u\e;\f\a\l\s\e")="true"```

## Maple

The keywords "true" and "false" are the default boolean values. Expressions involving relational operators are evaluated logically using the `evalb` command. Expressions under assumptions may be evaluated logically using the `is` command. Types may be tested, resulting in boolean values, using the `type` command.

## Mathematica /Wolfram Language

True and False are the default boolean values. To make any expression a boolean use the Boole[] function.

## MATLAB

The keywords "true" and "false" are the default boolean values. But, many functions prefer to return boolean "1" or "0" instead of "true" or "false". It is very important to note that having a function return a numerical 1 or 0 is not the same as a boolean "1" or "0". To make a number or array of numbers a boolean use the logical() function. logical() will convert any non-zero number to a boolean "1" and any zero entries a boolean "0".

Sample Usage: (islogical() is a function that returns a boolean "1" if the input is a boolean, "0" otherwise)

```>> islogical(true)

ans =

1

>> islogical(false)

ans =

1

>> islogical(logical(1))

ans =

1

>> islogical(logical(0))

ans =

1

>> islogical(1)

ans =

0

>> islogical(0)

ans =

0
```

## Maxima

```is(1 < 2);
/* true */

is(2 < 1);
/* false */

not true;
/* false */

not false;
/* true */
```

## Metafont

Metafont has the type boolean; a boolean variable can be true or false. Using non boolean values (or expressions that do not evaluate to a boolean value) results in a recoverable error; by default, any non-boolean value is interpreted as false.

## min

Works with: min version 0.19.3

`true` and `false` are the only boolean values in min. The `bool` function converts various objects to boolean values:

• non-zero number: `true`
• zero number: `false`
• non-empty quotation: `true`
• empty quotation: `false`
• non-empty string: `true`
• empty string: `false`
• boolean: no conversion performed

## MiniScript

In MiniScript, numbers represent boolean values, with additional fuzzy logic for degrees of truth. Built-in constants `true` and `false` are simply aliases for 1 and 0, respectively.

```boolTrue = true
boolFalse = false

if boolTrue then print "boolTrue is true, and its value is: " + boolTrue

if not boolFalse then print "boolFalse is not true, and its value is: " + boolFalse

mostlyTrue = 0.8
kindaTrue = 0.4
print "mostlyTrue AND kindaTrue: " + (mostlyTrue and kindaTrue)
print "mostlyTrue OR kindaTrue: " + (mostlyTrue or kindaTrue)
```
Output:
```boolTrue is true, and its value is: 1
boolFalse is not true, and its value is: 0
mostlyTrue AND kindaTrue: 0.32
mostlyTrue OR kindaTrue: 0.88```

## Mirah

```import java.util.ArrayList
import java.util.HashMap

# booleans
puts 'true is true' if true
puts 'false is false' if (!false)

# lists treated as booleans
x = ArrayList.new
puts "empty array is true" if x
puts "full array is true" if x
puts "isEmpty() is false" if !x.isEmpty()

# maps treated as booleans
map = HashMap.new
puts "empty map is true" if map
map.put('a', '1')
puts "full map is true" if map
puts "size() is 0 is false" if !(map.size() == 0)

# these things do not compile
# value = nil   # ==> cannot assign nil to Boolean value
# puts 'nil is false' if false == nil  # ==> cannot compare boolean to nil
# puts '0 is false' if (0 == false)    # ==> cannot compare int to false

#puts 'TRUE is true' if TRUE   # ==> TRUE does not exist
#puts 'FALSE is false' if !FALSE   # ==> FALSE does not exist```

## Modula-2

```MODULE boo;

IMPORT  InOut;

VAR     result, done            : BOOLEAN;
A, B                    : INTEGER;

BEGIN
result := (1 = 2);
result := NOT result;
done := FALSE;
REPEAT
done := A > B
UNTIL done
END boo.
```

## Modula-3

Similar to Ada, Modula-3 has a built-in BOOLEAN type defined as

```TYPE BOOLEAN = {FALSE, TRUE}
```

## Monte

Much like E, Monte has built-in objects true and false, and a boolean guard.

```def example(input :boolean):
if input:
return "Input was true!"
return "Input was false."
```

## MUMPS

M[UMPS] has no data types per se, however, any value can be coerced to a specific interpretation by applying certain operators.

Internally, the language treats any "zero" value as a "false", and any "non-zero" value as a "true".
Values like 1, 2, 13245.08763, .1, "0.00001234ABC" and "1234ABC" are "true".
Values like 0, -3, "", " 123" (note the leading space in this one), "+++++567", "abc", "abc1245" are "false".

When a boolean operator is applied to an operand, the value of that operand is coerced to a logical value, that is: if the value starts out with a sequence of digits that look like a non-zero number, the value is "true" (1), and otherwise that value is "false" (0).

There are two standardized binary boolean operators: & (and) and ! (or). Newer implementations of the language may also support !! (exclusve or). There is one unary boolean operator: ' (not).

## Nanoquery

```a = true
b = false

if a
println "a is true"
else if b
println "b is true"
end```
Output:
`a is true`

## Neko

Neko includes a bool boolean data type, true and false. Conditional execution flow only reacts to bool, numeric values test as false as are string literals.

Neko also includes two low level builtins: \$not(value) and \$istrue(value). These return bool results. \$not returning true if value is false, 0 or null. \$istrue returning true if value is not false, not 0 and not null.

```/* boolean values */
\$print(true, "\n");
\$print(false, "\n");

if 0 {
\$print("literal 0 tests true\n");
} else {
\$print("literal 0 tests false\n");
}

if 1 {
\$print("literal 1 tests true\n");
} else {
\$print("literal 1 tests false\n");
}

if \$istrue(0) {
\$print("\$istrue(0) tests true\n");
} else {
\$print("\$istrue(0) tests false\n");
}

if \$istrue(1) {
\$print("\$istrue(1) tests true\n");
} else {
\$print("\$istrue(1) tests false\n");
}```
Output:
```prompt\$ nekoc boolean.neko
prompt\$ neko boolean
true
false
literal 0 tests false
literal 1 tests false
\$istrue(0) tests false
\$istrue(1) tests true```

## Nemerle

In Nemerle, boolean values are held in variables of type bool, and can be either true or false. Comparison expressions evaluate to boolean values as well.

## NetRexx

NetRexx inherits boolean functionality directly from the Java virtual machine with the exception that the `true` and `false` keywords are not defined to the language. Defining `true` and `false` variables can lead to name collisions during compilation so a simple expedient is to define boolean functions `isTrue` and `isFalse` to return the appropriate values.

```/* NetRexx */
options replace format comments java crossref savelog symbols nobinary

bval = [1, 0, 5, 'a', 1 == 1, 1 \= 1, isTrue, isFalse]

loop b_ = 0 for bval.length
select case bval[b_]
when isTrue  then say bval[b_] 'is true'
when isFalse then say bval[b_] 'is false'
otherwise         say bval[b_] 'is not boolean'
end
end b_

method isTrue public static returns boolean
return (1 == 1)

method isFalse public static returns boolean
return \isTrue
```
Output:
```1 is true
0 is false
5 is not boolean
a is not boolean
1 is true
0 is false
1 is true
0 is false
```

## Nim

```if true: echo "yes"
if false: echo "no"

# Other objects never represent true or false:
if 2: echo "compile error"
```

## Oberon-2

```VAR
a,b,c: BOOLEAN;
...
a := TRUE;
b := FALSE;
c := 1 > 2;
```

## Objeck

Objeck has a Bool type that is set to either true or false. By default boolean types are initialized to false. The boolean type also allows methods to be invoked, which perform simple conversions or print given values.

## Object Pascal

In addition to the `Boolean` type defined by standard Pascal, object Pascal defines the types `byteBool`, `wordBool` and `longBool`, having a `sizeOf` one, two, or four bytes respectively. They were introduced primarily to ease interfacing with code written in other languages, such as C. These types only have `ord(false)` defined as zero, and any other ordinal value represents `true`.

Nonetheless, `Boolean` is the preferred type.

## Objective-C

Objective-C follows pretty much the same rules as C. In addition to C, Objective-C has a `BOOL` boolean type, with values `YES` for true and `NO` for false. Objective-C also adds several special types of pointers; for pointers to objects (values of type `id`), the `nil` pointer is false, everything else is true; for pointers to classes (values of type `Class`), the `Nil` pointer is false, everything else is true.

## OCaml

OCaml defines a built-in data type `bool`, which has exactly two members, represented by the keywords `true` and `false`:

```type bool = false | true
```

In addition to all the functionality of any other OCaml algebraic data type (e.g. pattern matching), and the functionality of any other OCaml data type (e.g. comparisons `false = false`, `false < true`, etc.), `bool` is also used in the guards in pattern matching (“`when`”) and `if` and `while` syntaxes.

As with any other OCaml data type, there are no automatic conversions of other types to `bool`.

## Octave

Octave uses true (1) and false (0). The class of a variable holding a boolean value is logical, which however can be casted to a numeric class, so that `r = true; r * 2` gives 2 as result. Any non-zero value is interpreted as true, and 0 as false.

## Oforth

Oforth uses true (1) and false (0)

Any non-zero value is interpreted as true, and 0 as false.

## Ol

#true is True, #false is False; #t is synonym for #true, #f is synonym for #false.

In conditionals everything that is not #false is True.

p.s. Empty lists - '() - in conditionals is True.

## ooRexx

.true or 1 are true, .false or 0 are false

## Order

Order supplies the keywords `8true` and `8false`. Other types are not supposed to automatically convert to any boolean value (in practice some may do so due to implementation quirks, but this is not reliable).

## Oz

true and false are the only boolean values. No other values are automatically converted to bool.

## PARI/GP

Generally, false is 0 and true is nonzero. Certain other values also behave as false, like the vector [0]. Built-in boolean functions use 0 and 1 (but note that some functions like `ispower` are not boolean!).

The details of what is considered true or false is contained in see the function gequal0:

• An integer (t_INT), polynomial (t_POL), power series (t_SER), or element of a finite field (t_FFELT) is false if and only if it is 0.
• A real number (t_REAL) or complex number (t_COMPLEX) is false if and only if its absolute value rounds to 0 at the object's precision. Note that this can make nonzero complex numbers (with tiny norm) false.
• An integer mod m (t_INTMOD) is false if and only if its residue class is 0, i.e., if `lift(x)` is 0.
• A p-adic number (t_PADIC) is false if and only if it is zero up to the object's p-adic precision is 0, i.e., if `lift(x)` is 0.
• A vector (t_VEC), column vector (t_COL), or matrix (t_MAT) is false if and only if all of its components are 0. Note that `[]` is thus false.

## Pascal

Pascal defines the type `Boolean` as a “special” enumeration type with exactly two elements: `false` and `true`. It is guaranteed that `ord(false)` is `0` and `ord(true)` is `1`.

There is no automatic conversion from integer values to Boolean values, as it is prevalent in many other languages. Instead, one has to write a Boolean expression, for example `myInteger <> 0` in order to get an assignment-compatible type.

See Pascal

## Perl

```my \$x = 0.0;
my \$true_or_false = \$x ? 'true' : 'false';     # false
```

or

```my \$x = 1;          # true

my \$true_or_false;

if (\$x) {
\$true_or_false = 'true';
}
else {
\$true_or_false = 'false';
}
```

The values in Perl that are false are: 0 (as a number (including 0.0), or as the string '0', but not the string '0.0'), the empty string '', the empty list (), and undef. Everything else is true. See perlsyn.

### Short circuit evaluations

Boolean comparison of zero against itself gives a value of one, but Perl uses short circuit evaluations, so any true or false value may be returned from a boolean expression:

```print (7 && 2);  # 2, rather than 1(true)
print (2 && 7);  # 7, rather than 1(true)
print (7 xor 2); # empty string, rather than 0(false)
print ('apples' && 'pears');  # pears, rather than 1(true)
print ('apples' xor 'pears'); # empty string, rather than 0(false)
```

### There are no keywords for true and false

Perl has no builtin "true" or "false" keywords. An old trick of using them as bareword strings is strongly discouraged in modern Perl.

### Special cases

As a special case, literal 1s and 0s will never cause a "Useless use of a constant in void context" warning. Another special case worth pointing out here is that the string '0 but true' won't provoke a warning if it's used as a number.

## Phix

Zero is false, any other number is true. Attempting to use a string or sequence as a boolean is assumed to be a programming logic blunder and causes a fatal run-time error.

Conditions such as `if length(s) then` are permitted, but the more explicit `if length(s)!=0 then` is generally preferred, and conversely, `if flag then` is to be preferred over `if flag=true then`. Comparison operators evaluate to 1(true) or 0(false). A boolean test is inverted by preceding it with the keyword `not`. The null character ('\0') is considered false, all other characters are deemed true. The builtin constants TRUE/FALSE and their aliases True/true/False/false may also be used.

There is however a gotcha in JavaScript, and hence pwa/p2js, in that true !== 1 and false !== 0. In almost all other respects, true is 1 and false is 0, for instance 1+true evaluates to 2, just like desktop/Phix. It is only direct comparison for equality of booleans and numbers using an infix operator which fails, and I suppose you could argue that is a programming logic blunder, by which I mean in a particular source file of a specific application, rather than in the (Phix or JavaScript) programming language definition. There is no such issue with equal() and compare(), which pwa/p2js automatically maps to when needed, that is except for bool vs number, which is difficult because in desktop/Phix those are the same thing. Thankfully, there are very few places anyone ever actually compares bools against 0 and 1 using an infix operator.

The following example illustrates, and also emphasies the subtlety of the issue (no difference whatsoever if c, d, e, f are defined as bool):

```with javascript_semantics
for i=1 to 3 do
integer c = (i==2),         -- fine
d = (c==1),         -- oops
e = (c==true),      -- fine
f = equal(c,1)      -- fine, ditto equal(c,true)
printf(1,"%d==2:%5t(%d) ==1:%5t, eq1:%5t, ==true:%5t\n",
{i,     c, c,       d,       e,          f})
end for
--
-- output on desktop/Phix: 1==2:false(0) ==1:false, eq1:false, ==true:false
--                         2==2: true(1) ==1: true, eq1: true, ==true: true
--                         3==2:false(0) ==1:false, eq1:false, ==true:false
--
-- output on pwa/p2js:     1==2:false(0) ==1:false, eq1:false, ==true:false
--                         2==2: true(1) ==1:false, eq1: true, ==true: true
--                         3==2:false(0) ==1:false, eq1:false, ==true:false
--
```

## PHP

The values in PHP that are false are: FALSE, NULL, the number 0 (as an integer 0, float 0.0, or string '0', but not the string "0.0"), the empty string "", the empty array array(), and "SimpleXML objects created from empty tags"(?).

Everything else is true. The keyword TRUE exists. [1]

## Picat

Picat has the built-in `true/0` for true (it always succeeds) and `false/0` (or `fail/0`) for false. `false/0` (/`fail/0`) can be used to generate other solutions through backtracking.

```go ?=>
member(N,1..5),
println(N),
fail, % or false/0 to get other solutions
nl.
go => true.```
Output:
```1
2
3
4
5```

In the Picat shell, truth is represented as "yes" and false as "no".

```Picat> 2==2

yes

Picat> 2==3

no```

## PicoLisp

Like in all Lisps, the symbol 'NIL' denotes "false", any other value "true". PicoLisp also uses NIL as the empty list, so the empty list is false.

Some functions return the symbol 'T' for "true" if no other useful (non-NIL) value is available in the given context. Note that 'NIL' and 'T' are written in uppercase letters (PicoLisp is case-sensitive).

```> 0;
(3) Result: 0
> false;
(4) Result: 0
> 0;
(6) Result: 0
> !true;
(7) Result: 0
> true;
(8) Result: 1
> 1;
(9) Result: 1
>
```

## PL/I

True is `'1'b` and false is `'0'b`.

```Declare x bit(1);
x='1'b; /* True */
x='0'b; /* False */```

Using the macro facility one can define reasonable symbols for true and false

```*process source attributes xref macro or(!);
tf: proc options(main);
%Dcl true char; %true='''1''b';
%Dcl false char; %false='''0''b';
If true Then
Put Skip list('That''s true');
If false Then
Put Skip List('ERROR');
Else
Put Skip List('false was recognized');
End;```
Output:
```That's true
false was recognized```

## PL/M

In PL/M, even numbers are falsy and odd numbers are truthy. That is to say, conditional expressions test only the low bit of the value.

```IF 0 THEN /* THIS WON'T RUN */;
IF 1 THEN /* THIS WILL */;
IF 2 THEN /* THIS WON'T */;
IF 3 THEN /* THIS WILL */;```

Canonically, false is represented by `0` (all bits clear), and true by `0FFH` (all bits set). These are the values that conditional operators (like `=`) return.

```DECLARE A BYTE;
A = 4 < 5;
/* A IS NOW 0FFH */```

Boolean literals are not included by default, but it is not uncommon for programmers to define them by hand:

`DECLARE FALSE LITERALLY '0', TRUE LITERALLY '0FFH';`

## Plain English

Boolean values are called flags. The flag literals are `yes` and `no`. You can `set` and `clear` flags.

## Pony

Boolean values are `true` and `false`. Conditions must have type Bool, i.e. they are always true or false.

## PostScript

Predefined constants are:

```true
false
```

## PowerShell

Two automatic variables exist for this purpose:

```\$true
\$false
```

However, nearly everything can be converted to a boolean value, as detailed in the following list:

• any non-zero number evaluates to true, zero evaluates to false
• any non-empty string evaluates to true, an empty string evaluates to false
• an empty array evaluates to false
• an array containing exactly one item evaluates to whatever the only item evaluates to
• any array with more than one item evaluates to true
• a reference to any object evaluates to true, `\$null` evaluates to false

## Python

Python has a boolean data type with the only two possible values denoted by `True` and `False`.

The boolean type is a member of the numeric family of types (specifically a subclass of `int`), and when used in a numeric, but not boolean context, `True` has the value one and `False` the value zero. Also `hash(True) == hash(1)` and same goes for `False` and `0`. Conversely, when numbers are used in a boolean context, zero is false and anything other than zero is true. (Note however, that `True` is equal to `1`, so for example `True + True != True`.)

In a boolean context, Python extends what is meant by true and false by accepting empty collection types, such as an empty dict or an empty list as being False, and non-empty collection types as being True, so in an if statement one might branch on a list which would be the same as testing if the list had any contents.

In Python 2, a user-created class that defines a __nonzero__ method to return False or 0, or whose __len__ method returns 0, will be treated as `False`, otherwise the instance is treated as `True`. In Python 3, the magic method __nonzero__ has been changed to __bool__, which can only return values of type bool (not even int or None).

`None` is also `False` in a boolean context.

Some examples:

```>>> True
True
>>> not True
False
>>> # As numbers
>>> False + 0
0
>>> True + 0
1
>>> False + 0j
0j
>>> True * 3.141
3.141
>>> # Numbers as booleans
>>> not 0
True
>>> not not 0
False
>>> not 1234
False
>>> bool(0.0)
False
>>> bool(0j)
False
>>> bool(1+2j)
True
>>> # Collections as booleans
>>> bool([])
False
>>> bool([None])
True
>>> 'I contain something' if (None,) else 'I am empty'
'I contain something'
>>> bool({})
False
>>> bool("")
False
>>> bool("False")
True
```

## Quackery

Translation of: Forth

In conditionals, zero is false, non-zero is true. There are predefined words for the canonical forms, `false` returns zero and `true` returns 1.

## R

Similarly to Octave, R uses TRUE and FALSE, kept in variable of class logical, which is silently casted to 1 (TRUE) or 0 (FALSE) if used as numeric value. The opposite is also true: the value 0 can be used as FALSE, and non-zero numbers as TRUE.

The values T and F are given the values TRUE and FALSE respectively (for compatibility with S-Plus), though these may be changed to other values by the user.

## Racket

Racket has the standard Scheme Boolean values #t and #f, and will also accept #true and #false. This is a literal syntax, so it can be used anywhere including in quoted positions. There are also bindings for true and false (but of course when these are quoted, the result is plain symbols). Like other Scheme descendants, many conditional constructs treat any non-false value as "truthy." So, for instance,

```(cond ([(< 4 3) 'apple]
['bloggle 'pear]
[else 'nectarine])
```

... evaluates to 'pear, because 'bloggle is not false.

## Raku

(formerly Perl 6)

Works with: Rakudo version 2015.12

Raku provides an enumeration `Bool` with two values, `True` and `False`. Values of enumerations can be used as ordinary values or as mixins:

```my Bool \$crashed = False;
my \$val = 0 but True;
```

For a discussion of Boolean context (how Raku decides whether something is True or False): https://docs.raku.org/language/contexts#index-entry-Boolean_context.

## Raven

Raven considers 0 as `FALSE`, -1 as `TRUE`

```TRUE print
FALSE print
2 1 > print   # TRUE (-1)
3 2 < print   # FALSE (0)
42 FALSE !=   # TRUE (-1)```

## REBOL

REBOL uses values of type logic! to represent boolean values. A boolean value can be 'true' or 'false', which also happen to be understood as predefined constants. Other constants are also provided to improve program readability:

logic! Constants
True False
true false
yes no
on off
any [block! series! date! number! string! ...] none

As the last true value implies, pretty much any other type will evaluate to true. This is important to remember if you're used to a language where the value "0" is considered to be false -- in REBOL, it's true.

## ReScript

A ReScript boolean has the type bool and can be either true or false.

ReScript's true/false compiles into a JavaScript true/false.

## Retro

Zero is false and non-zero is true. Comparison functions return -1 for true and 0 for false.

## REXX

The REXX language enforces the values for   true   and   false,   only the two values are valid:

• 0     (zero)   [for false]
• 1     (one)     [for true]

The following aren't   true   or   false:

• 0.
• 0.0
• 00
• 1.
• 1.0
• 001
• +1
• 2
•       (a null value, that is, length=0)
• any value with a blank before/in/after the value.

### simplistic

``` true = 1
false = 0
```

### spruced up

Some programmers like to "spruce up" such a simple assignment:

```true  = (1=1)
false = (1=0)
```

### more exactitudeness

```true  = (1==1)
false = (1==0)
```

### oblique

```true  = (1==1)
false = \true
```

[The parentheses aren't necessary in all of the above versions.]

Some REXX interpreters allow the   NOT   (`¬`) character for negation:

```false = ¬true
```

### esoteric

```true  =            1984  =  1984
false =           'war'  =  'peace'
false =       'freedom'  =  'slavery'
false =     'ignorance'  =  'strength'
```

Of course, in Orwellian terms, the above   false   statements are   true,   but REXX isn't an Eric Arthur Blair reader.

## Ring

```x = True
y = False
see "x and y : " + (x and y) + nl
see "x or y : " + (x or y) + nl
see "not x : " + (not x) + nl```

## Rockstar

There are several synonyms for true and false. These include yes and no, or right and wrong. Therefore, to make a variable called Alice true and a variable called Bob false, you can write this.

```Alice was right.
Bob was wrong.```

## RPL

There is no boolean variable type in RPL. Boolean values are real numbers, zero meaning 'FALSE' and any other value meaning 'TRUE'; built-in boolean operators and functions always return 1 for TRUE. RPL users have also access to boolean registers named flags, identified by a number, that can be cleared, set or tested.

Works with: Halcyon Calc version 4.2.7
```1 == 1
1 == 2
≪ IF 42 THEN "TRUE" ELSE "FALSE" END ≫ EVAL
14 CF 14 FS?
14 SF 14 FS?
```
Output:
```5: 1
4: 0
3: "TRUE"
2: 0
1: 1
```

## Ruby

The only values in Ruby that are false are: `false` and `nil`. They have synonyms `FALSE` and `NIL`.

Everything else is true. Constants `true` (and `TRUE`) exist. Note for Python and Perl users: unlike Python, in Ruby, the number `0`, the empty string, the empty array, and the empty hash, etc. are all true; you can instead use the `zero?` method to test for 0, and the `.empty?` method to test for an empty sequence.

`false`, `nil` and `true` are singleton instances of classes `FalseClass`, `NilClass` and `TrueClass` respectively. [2]

## Rust

```fn main() {
// Rust contains a single boolean type: `bool`, represented by the keywords `true` and `false`.
// Expressions inside `if` and `while` statements must result in type `bool`. There is no
// automatic conversion to the boolean type.

let true_value = true;
if true_value {
println!("foo is {}.", true_value);
}

let false_value = false;
if !false_value {
println!("bar is {}.", false_value);
}
}
```
Output:
```foo is true.
bar is false.
```

## Sather

The BOOL type can be `true` or `false`. Sather never implicitly does casting of a type in another, so numeric value or other types cannot be used (implicitly) as boolean value; nonetheless an explicit "cast" can be done:

```v:BOOL := true; -- ok
i:INT := 1;
v := 1; -- wrong
if i then ... end; -- wrong: if requires a bool!
-- BUT
v := 1.bool; -- ok
if i.bool then ... end; -- ok```

In this case, `0.bool` is false, and `n.bool` with n not equal to 0 is true.

## S-BASIC

Although S-BASIC has no explicit boolean data type, it allows integer, real, fixed, string, and character variables to hold the results of boolean operations and to represent true and false conditions in IF, WHILE, and REPEAT statements. For types real.double, real, and fixed, a value of zero is false, and any non-zero value is true. For integers, the value 0 is treated as false, while -1 (or FFFFH), the bit-wise negation of zero, is treated as true. For characters and strings, 'Y', 'y', 'T', and 't' are treated as true, while 'N', 'n', 'F', and 'f' are treated as false. (For strings, only the first character is considered.) For convenience, the \$CONSTANT compiler directive can be used to provide values for "true" and "false".

```\$constant true = 0FFFFH
\$constant false = 0

var a, another = char
var b, adult, age = integer
var c = real

repeat
begin
input "Applicant's age in years"; age
print "Applicant has full access"
else
print "Applicant has restricted access"
input "Do another (y/n)"; another
end
until not another

a = (2 > 3)
b = (2 > 3)
c = (2 > 3)
print "2 > 3 as char: "; a
print "2 > 3 as int : "; b
print "not (2 > 3)  : "; not b
print "2 > 3 as real: "; c
print "not (2 > 3)  : "; not c

end
```
Output:
```Applicant's age in years? 19
Applicant has full access
Do another (y/n)? n
2 > 3 as char: F
2 > 3 as int : 0
not (2 > 3)  :-1
2 > 3 as real: 0
not (2 > 3)  :-1
```

## Scala

Booleans in Scala are given by the literals `true` and `false`, case sensitive, which are the only instances of the class `Boolean`.

## Scheme

The only value in Scheme that is false is #f.

Everything else (including the empty list, unlike Lisp) is true. The constant #t represents the canonical true value.

## Seed7

Seed7 defines the type boolean. The only values of boolean are TRUE and FALSE. There are no automatic conversions from any other types into boolean, and it is a compile-time error to use any type other than boolean in a place that expects a boolean (e.g. if-statement condition, while-statement condition, operand of a logical operator, etc.).

## Self

Self has two objects, true and false.

## SenseTalk

True, Yes, and On are true; False, No, Off and Empty (an empty string) are false.

```repeat with each item of [True, False, Yes, No, On, Off, ""]
put it & " is " & (it is true)
end repeat```
Output:
```True is True
False is False
Yes is True
No is False
On is True
Off is False
is False
```

## Sidef

Sidef defines the true and false boolean values, which are part of the Bool type.

```var t = true;
var f = false;
```

In conditional expressions, anything that evaluates to zero or nothing is considered false, including empty arrays and empty hashes.

```if (0 || "0" || false || nil || "" || [] || :()) {
say "true"
} else {
say "false";
}
```
Output:
`false`

## Simula

Simula has true and false keywords, representing the only values of type boolean. There are no automatic conversions from any other types into boolean, and it is a compile-time error to use any type other than boolean in a place that expects a boolean (e.g. if-statement condition, while-statement condition, operand of a logical operator, etc.).

## Slate

Use True or False.

## Smalltalk

Use "true" and "false".
Smalltalk uses the Boolean class, which has two subclasses (True and False). true and false are singleton instances of those classes. E.g. an expression like 5 = 5 returns true.

## SNUSP

Zero is false and non-zero is true, as used by the sole skip-if-zero operator (?).

```\$!/?\=false= + =true=#
\-/```

## SPL

In SPL zero is false, any other value is true.

## Standard ML

Standard ML defines a top-level data type `bool`, which has exactly two members, `true` and `false`:

`datatype bool = false | true`

In addition to all the functionality of any other Standard ML algebraic data type (e.g. pattern matching, equality `false = false`), `bool` is also used in `if` and `while` syntaxes.

As with any other Standard ML data type, there are no automatic conversions of other types to bool.

## Stata

Stata uses the values 0 for "false" and 1 for "true". In expressions involving boolean operators, any nonzero numeric value (including missing values) is considered true.

## Swift

Swift defines a built-in data type `Bool`, which has two values, represented by the keywords `true` and `false`. There is no conversion between booleans and other data types. Conditionals require a type that conforms to the `BooleanType` protocol, which provides a conversion to `Bool` for that type; types that conform include `Bool` and some other types.

## Tcl

True values
1 (or other non-zero number, e.g., 42), true, yes, on
False values
0 (or other zero number, e.g., 0.0), false, no, off

Any of these values may be abbreviated, and mixed-case spellings are also acceptable. [3] Any other value gives an error. In an interactive tclsh session:

```% if {""} then {puts true} else {puts false}
expected boolean value but got ""```

Test for the boolean value of a string can be stuff like

`if {[string is false -strict \$string]} ...`

which will test for "no" or "NO" or "0" or "False" or ...

## Trith

The boolean constants are true and false. In a conditional context, the only false values are false and nil -- every other value is true.

## UNIX Shell

The traditional Bourne shell does not provide a reserved keyword for true or false.

Truth is determined by exit codes rather than values

The evaluation of true and false within the shell is different to the evaluation of truth from within a high level language. Within the shell, a truth is based on the exitcode of the last command in the evaluation block:

• An exitcode of zero is considered to be a true condition
• An exitcode of nonzero is considered to be a false condition

In the following example, after running the test command, the then syntactical component runs the optional branch if an exitcode is of zero determined:

```if
echo 'Looking for file'  # This is the evaluation block
test -e foobar.fil       # The exit code from this statement determines whether the branch runs
then
echo 'The file exists'   # This is the optional branch
echo 'I am going to delete it'
rm foobar.fil
fi```

In some later shells, the values true and false are defined, respectively, as a return code of 0 and a return code of greater-than zero. While there are built-in functions for each of these values, booleans are most commonly the result of a test or a process termination.

Works with: bash
Works with: ksh
`true && echo "true" || echo "false"`

## Ursa

Ursa has the boolean data type which can be declared using the declare (or decl) function.

`decl boolean bool`

Boolean values can be set to either true or false, or the result of an expression.

```set bool true
# same as
set bool (= 2 2)```

or

```set bool false
# same as
set bool (not (= 2 2))```

## VBA

VBA has a boolean type. As an integer False is 0 and anything else is True. However True converts to -1. Booleans are False by default.

```Dim a As Integer
Dim b As Boolean
Debug.Print b
a = b
Debug.Print a
b = True
Debug.Print b
a = b
Debug.Print a```
Output:

Output of above lines:

```False
0
True
-1```

## VBScript

VBScript has the boolean subdatatype and also the two constants `True` and `False`. When converting an integer to a boolean, `0` is `False` and anything not equal to `0` is `True`.

```a = True
b = False
Randomize Timer
x = Int(Rnd * 2) <> 0
y = Int(Rnd * 2) = 0
MsgBox a & " " & b & " " & x & " " & y```
Output:
```True False True False
```

## Vim Script

A non-zero `Number` is true, 0 is false.

Since a `String` is converted automatically to a `Number` when necessary, the following will print "false" because "foo" is converted to 0:

```if "foo"
echo "true"
else
echo "false"
endif```

## V (Vlang)

V has a bool type, with literal values for true and false. Numeric values are not used in conditional statements. 0 is not treated as false, and non-zero does not mean true, in V.

```// Boolean Value, in V
// Tectonics: v run boolean-value.v
module main

// V bool type, with values true or false are the V booleans.
// true and false are V keywords, and display as true/false
// Numeric values are not booleans in V, 0 is not boolean false
pub fn main() {
t := true
f := false

if t { println(t) }

// this code would fail to compile
// if 1 { println(t) }

if 0 == 1 { println("bad result") } else { println(f) }
}```
Output:
```prompt\$ v run boolean-value.v
true
false```

## WDTE

WDTE has a built-in boolean type, the two values of which are exposed by the `std` package's `true` and `false` functions. In general, however, built-in conditional functionality, such as `switch` expressions, considers any value that is not `true` to be `false`.

```let io => import 'io';
let ex => switch 'this is irrelevant for this example' {
false => 'This is, obviously, not returned.';
'a string' => 'This is also not returned.';
true => 'This is returned.';
};
ex -- io.writeln io.stdout;```

The above prints "This is returned."

## Wren

Wren has a core class, Bool, which has two instances true and false which are also reserved words in the language.

This class has two methods: the operator ! which returns the logical complement of its receiver and toString which returns its string representation.

```var embed = true
System.printAll([embed, ", ", !embed, ", ", "Is Wren embeddable? " + embed.toString])```
Output:
```true, false, Is Wren embeddable? true
```

## XLISP

Boolean "false" may be represented by #F, #!FALSE, NIL, or the empty list; any other value is counted as true in conditional expressions, but it is also possible to represent the Boolean value "true" using your choice of the symbols #T, #!TRUE, and T. All these symbols are case-insensitive. Note that T, unlike the others, is a variable: it is bound by default to the constant #T, but you can (although you shouldn't) assign it any other value including "false" (by doing something like (setq t nil)). Boolean values are printed as #T and ().

## XPL0

An integer value equal to 0 is false, and a value not equal to 0 is true. Relational operations evaluate to 0 for false and -1 for true. The command word 'true' equals -1, and 'false' equals 0.

## XSLT

```<xsl:if test="true() or false()">
True and false are returned by built-in XPath functions.
</xsl:if>
<xsl:if test="@myAttribute='true'">
Node attributes set to "true" or "false" are just strings. Use string comparison to convert them to booleans.
</xsl:if>
<xsl:if test="@myAttribute or not(\$nodeSet)">
Test an attribute for its presence (empty or not), or whether a node set is empty.
</xsl:if>```

## Z80 Assembly

There are no official constants for True or False, however the common convention is to use 0 for false and nonzero for true. In reality, any mutually exclusive condition will work. True/False can be tested using a variety of instructions. The most common are `CP` and `BIT` but in certain cases it can be done faster using `AND` or even `RRCA`.

All of the following can be used to test if the rightmost bit of a byte is 1.

```BIT 0,A
jr nz,true
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
AND 1
jr nz,true
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
RRCA
jr c,true```

Of these three methods, the last one is the fastest and takes the least amount of bytes to encode. However, it does destroy the variable, which may not be an option depending on what you need to do with that data later. `BIT` is slower than the rest but doesn't alter registers or memory, just the flags, which is sometimes exactly what you need.

## zkl

```a:=True;
b:=False;
True.dir();```
Output:
```True : Bool
Methods:
-- BaseClass Method Property __sGet __sSet copy create dir fp fp1 fp2
fpM fpN isChildOf isInstanceOf isType len method noop print println
property resolve toBool toData toFloat toInt toList toString toType
Properties:
-- createReturnsSelf fullName id isContainer isThreadSafe itype methods
name numObjects oID otype properties size type typeID vaultPath
```

```var
a,b,c: boolean;
begin
a := false;
b := true;
c := 1 > 2;
...```