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# Logistic curve fitting in epidemiology

Logistic curve fitting in epidemiology is a draft programming task. It is not yet considered ready to be promoted as a complete task, for reasons that should be found in its talk page.

The least-squares method (see references below) in statistics is used to fit data to the best of a family of similar curves by finding the parameters for a curve which minimizes the total of the distances from each data point to the curve.

Often, the curve used is a straight line, in which case the method is also called linear regression. If a curve which uses logarithmic growth is fit, the method can be called logistic regression.

A commonly used family of functions used in statistical studies of populations, including the growth of epidemics, are curves akin to the logistic curve:

```        ƒ(x) = L / (1 + e-k(x-x0))
```

Though predictions based on fitting to such curves may error, especially if used to extrapolate from incomplete data, curves similar to the logistic curve have had good fits in population studies, including modeling the growth of past epidemics.

Given the following daily world totals since December 31, 2019 for persons who have become infected with the novel coronavirus Covid-19:

```Daily totals:
27, 27, 27, 44, 44, 59, 59, 59, 59, 59, 59, 59, 59, 60, 60,
61, 61, 66, 83, 219, 239, 392, 534, 631, 897, 1350, 2023, 2820,
4587, 6067, 7823, 9826, 11946, 14554, 17372, 20615, 24522, 28273,
31491, 34933, 37552, 40540, 43105, 45177, 60328, 64543, 67103,
69265, 71332, 73327, 75191, 75723, 76719, 77804, 78812, 79339,
80132, 80995, 82101, 83365, 85203, 87024, 89068, 90664, 93077,
95316, 98172, 102133, 105824, 109695, 114232, 118610, 125497,
133852, 143227, 151367, 167418, 180096, 194836, 213150, 242364,
271106, 305117, 338133, 377918, 416845, 468049, 527767, 591704,
656866, 715353, 777796, 851308, 928436, 1000249, 1082054, 1174652
```

Use the following variant of the logistic curve as a formula:

```        ƒ(t) = n0 e(r t) / ((1 + n0 (e(r t) - 1) / K)
```

Where:

•   r   is the rate of growth of the infection in the population.
•   K   is the world population, about 7.8 billion.
•   n0   is 27, the number of cases found in China at the start of the pandemic.

The   R0   of an infection (different from   r   above) is a measure of how many new individuals will become infected for every individual currently infected. It is an important measure of how quickly an infectious disease may spread.

R0   is related to the logistic curve's   r   parameter by the formula:

```        r ≈ ln(R0) / G
```

where   G   the generation time, is roughly the sum of the incubation time, perhaps 5 days, and the mean contagion period, perhaps 7 days, so, for covid-19, roughly we have:

```        R0 ≈ e12r
```

• Demonstrate code that finds a least-squares fits of the curve to the data.
• Show the calculated   r   for the logistic curve.
• Show the final   R0   parameter you calculate from the logistic curve   r   value parameter.

## 11l

Translation of: C++
`-V K = 7.8e9-V n0 = 27-V actual = [    27, 27, 27, 44, 44, 59, 59, 59, 59, 59, 59, 59, 59, 60, 60,    61, 61, 66, 83, 219, 239, 392, 534, 631, 897, 1350, 2023, 2820,    4587, 6067, 7823, 9826, 11946, 14554, 17372, 20615, 24522, 28273,    31491, 34933, 37552, 40540, 43105, 45177, 60328, 64543, 67103,    69265, 71332, 73327, 75191, 75723, 76719, 77804, 78812, 79339,    80132, 80995, 82101, 83365, 85203, 87024, 89068, 90664, 93077,    95316, 98172, 102133, 105824, 109695, 114232, 118610, 125497,    133852, 143227, 151367, 167418, 180096, 194836, 213150, 242364,    271106, 305117, 338133, 377918, 416845, 468049, 527767, 591704,    656866, 715353, 777796, 851308, 928436, 1000249, 1082054, 1174652] F f(Float r) -> Float   V sq = 0.0   L(act) :actual      V eri = exp(r * L.index)      V guess = (:n0 * eri) / (1 + :n0 * (eri - 1) / :K)      V diff = guess - act      sq += diff * diff   R sq F solve(func, =guess = 0.5, epsilon = 0.0)   V delta = I guess != 0 {guess} E 1   V f0 = func(guess)   V factor = 2.0   L delta > epsilon & guess != guess - delta      V nf = func(guess - delta)      I nf < f0         f0 = nf         guess -= delta      E         nf = func(guess + delta)         I nf < f0            f0 = nf            guess += delta         E            factor = 0.5      delta *= factor   R guess V r = solve(f)V R0 = exp(12 * r)print(‘r = #.6, R0 = #.6’.format(r, R0))`
Output:
```r = 0.112302, R0 = 3.848279
```

Translation of: C++
`with Ada.Text_Io;with Ada.Numerics.Generic_Elementary_Functions; procedure Curve_Fitting is    type Real is new Long_Float;   type Fuction_Access is access function (X : Real) return Real;   type Time_Type is new Natural; -- Days    package Real_Io is new Ada.Text_Io.Float_Io (Real);   package Math is new Ada.Numerics.Generic_Elementary_Functions (Real);    Actual : constant array (Time_Type range <>) of Integer :=     (27, 27, 27, 44, 44, 59, 59, 59, 59, 59, 59, 59, 59, 60, 60,      61, 61, 66, 83, 219, 239, 392, 534, 631, 897, 1350, 2023, 2820,      4587, 6067, 7823, 9826, 11946, 14554, 17372, 20615, 24522, 28273,      31491, 34933, 37552, 40540, 43105, 45177, 60328, 64543, 67103,      69265, 71332, 73327, 75191, 75723, 76719, 77804, 78812, 79339,      80132, 80995, 82101, 83365, 85203, 87024, 89068, 90664, 93077,      95316, 98172, 102133, 105824, 109695, 114232, 118610, 125497,      133852, 143227, 151367, 167418, 180096, 194836, 213150, 242364,      271106, 305117, 338133, 377918, 416845, 468049, 527767, 591704,      656866, 715353, 777796, 851308, 928436, 1000249, 1082054, 1174652);    N0 : constant Real := Real (Actual (Actual'First));  -- Initially infected   K  : constant Real := 7.8e9;                         -- World population apx.    function Logistic_Curve_Function (R : Real) return Real is      sq  : Real := 0.0;   begin      for I in Actual'range loop         declare            Eri   : constant Real := Math.Exp (R * Real (I));            Guess : constant Real := (N0 * Eri) / (1.0 + N0 * (Eri - 1.0) / K);            Diff  : constant Real := Guess - Real (Actual (I));         begin            Sq := Sq + Diff * Diff;         end;      end loop;      return sq;   end Logistic_Curve_Function;    procedure Solve (Func      : Fuction_Access;                    Guess     : Real := 0.5;                    Epsilon   : Real := 0.0;                    New_Guess : out Real)   is      Delt   : Real := (if guess /= 0.0 then guess else 1.0);      f0     : Real := Func (Guess);      factor : Real := 2.0;   begin      New_Guess := Guess;      while        Delt > Epsilon and New_Guess /= New_Guess - Delt      loop         declare            nf : real := func (New_guess - delt);         begin            if nf < f0 then               f0    := nf;               New_guess := New_guess - delt;            else               nf := func (New_guess + delt);               if nf < f0 then                  f0    := nf;                  New_guess := New_guess + delt;               else                  Factor := 0.5;               end if;            end if;         end;         Delt := Delt * factor;      end loop;   end Solve;    use Ada.Text_Io;    Incubation_Time  : constant Real := 5.0; -- Days   Contagion_Period : constant Real := 7.0; -- Days   Generation_Time  : constant Real := Incubation_Time + Contagion_Period;    R  : Real; -- Rate   R0 : Real; -- Infection ratebegin   Solve (Logistic_Curve_Function'Access, New_Guess => R);   R0 := Math.Exp (Generation_Time * R);    Put ("r = ");     Real_IO.Put (R,  Exp => 0, Aft => 7);   Put (", R0 = ");  Real_Io.Put (R0, Exp => 0, Aft => 7);   New_Line;end Curve_Fitting;`
Output:
`r =  0.1123022, R0 =  3.8482793`

## C

Translation of: C++
`#include <math.h>#include <stdio.h> const double K = 7.8e9;const int n0 = 27;const double actual[] = {    27, 27, 27, 44, 44, 59, 59, 59, 59, 59, 59, 59, 59, 60, 60,    61, 61, 66, 83, 219, 239, 392, 534, 631, 897, 1350, 2023, 2820,    4587, 6067, 7823, 9826, 11946, 14554, 17372, 20615, 24522, 28273,    31491, 34933, 37552, 40540, 43105, 45177, 60328, 64543, 67103,    69265, 71332, 73327, 75191, 75723, 76719, 77804, 78812, 79339,    80132, 80995, 82101, 83365, 85203, 87024, 89068, 90664, 93077,    95316, 98172, 102133, 105824, 109695, 114232, 118610, 125497,    133852, 143227, 151367, 167418, 180096, 194836, 213150, 242364,    271106, 305117, 338133, 377918, 416845, 468049, 527767, 591704,    656866, 715353, 777796, 851308, 928436, 1000249, 1082054, 1174652};const size_t actual_size = sizeof(actual) / sizeof(double); double f(double r) {    double sq = 0;    size_t i;    for (i = 0; i < actual_size; ++i) {        double eri = exp(r * i);        double guess = (n0 * eri) / (1 + n0 * (eri - 1) / K);        double diff = guess - actual[i];        sq += diff * diff;    }    return sq;} double solve(double (*fn)(double), double guess, double epsilon) {    double delta, f0, factor;    for (delta = guess ? guess : 1, f0 = fn(guess), factor = 2;        delta > epsilon && guess != guess - delta;        delta *= factor) {        double nf = (*fn)(guess - delta);        if (nf < f0) {            f0 = nf;            guess -= delta;        } else {            nf = fn(guess + delta);            if (nf < f0) {                f0 = nf;                guess += delta;            } else {                factor = 0.5;            }        }    }    return guess;} double solve_default(double (*fn)(double)) {    return solve(fn, 0.5, 0);} int main() {    double r = solve_default(f);    double R0 = exp(12 * r);    printf("r = %f, R0 = %f\n", r, R0);    return 0;}`
Output:
`r = 0.112302, R0 = 3.848279`

## C++

Translation of: Phix
`#include <cmath>#include <functional>#include <iostream> constexpr double K = 7.8e9;constexpr int n0 = 27;constexpr double actual[] = {    27, 27, 27, 44, 44, 59, 59, 59, 59, 59, 59, 59, 59, 60, 60,    61, 61, 66, 83, 219, 239, 392, 534, 631, 897, 1350, 2023, 2820,    4587, 6067, 7823, 9826, 11946, 14554, 17372, 20615, 24522, 28273,    31491, 34933, 37552, 40540, 43105, 45177, 60328, 64543, 67103,    69265, 71332, 73327, 75191, 75723, 76719, 77804, 78812, 79339,    80132, 80995, 82101, 83365, 85203, 87024, 89068, 90664, 93077,    95316, 98172, 102133, 105824, 109695, 114232, 118610, 125497,    133852, 143227, 151367, 167418, 180096, 194836, 213150, 242364,    271106, 305117, 338133, 377918, 416845, 468049, 527767, 591704,    656866, 715353, 777796, 851308, 928436, 1000249, 1082054, 1174652}; double f(double r) {    double sq = 0;    constexpr size_t len = std::size(actual);    for (size_t i = 0; i < len; ++i) {        double eri = std::exp(r * i);        double guess = (n0 * eri)/(1 + n0 * (eri - 1)/K);        double diff = guess - actual[i];        sq += diff * diff;    }    return sq;} double solve(std::function<double(double)> fn, double guess=0.5, double epsilon=0) {    for (double delta = guess ? guess : 1, f0 = fn(guess), factor = 2;             delta > epsilon && guess != guess - delta;             delta *= factor) {        double nf = fn(guess - delta);        if (nf < f0) {            f0 = nf;            guess -= delta;        } else {            nf = fn(guess + delta);            if (nf < f0) {                f0 = nf;                guess += delta;            } else                factor = 0.5;        }    }    return guess;} int main() {    double r = solve(f);    double R0 = std::exp(12 * r);    std::cout << "r = " << r << ", R0 = " << R0 << '\n';    return 0;}`
Output:
```r = 0.112302, R0 = 3.84828
```

## D

Translation of: C++
`import std.math;import std.stdio; immutable K = 7.8e9;immutable n0 = 27;immutable actual = [    27, 27, 27, 44, 44, 59, 59, 59, 59, 59, 59, 59, 59, 60, 60,    61, 61, 66, 83, 219, 239, 392, 534, 631, 897, 1350, 2023, 2820,    4587, 6067, 7823, 9826, 11946, 14554, 17372, 20615, 24522, 28273,    31491, 34933, 37552, 40540, 43105, 45177, 60328, 64543, 67103,    69265, 71332, 73327, 75191, 75723, 76719, 77804, 78812, 79339,    80132, 80995, 82101, 83365, 85203, 87024, 89068, 90664, 93077,    95316, 98172, 102133, 105824, 109695, 114232, 118610, 125497,    133852, 143227, 151367, 167418, 180096, 194836, 213150, 242364,    271106, 305117, 338133, 377918, 416845, 468049, 527767, 591704,    656866, 715353, 777796, 851308, 928436, 1000249, 1082054, 1174652]; double f(double r) {    double sq = 0.0;    auto len = actual.length;    for (size_t i = 0; i < len; ++i) {        auto eri = exp(r * i);        auto guess = (n0 * eri) / (1 + n0 * (eri - 1) / K);        auto diff = guess - actual[i];        sq += diff * diff;    }    return sq;} double solve(double function(double) fn, double guess = 0.5, double epsilon = 0) {     for (double delta = guess ? guess : 1, f0 = fn(guess), factor = 2;            delta > epsilon && guess != guess - delta;            delta *= factor    ) {        double nf = fn(guess - delta);        if (nf < f0) {            f0 = nf;            guess -= delta;        } else {            nf = fn(guess + delta);            if (nf < f0) {                f0 = nf;                guess += delta;            } else {                factor = 0.5;            }        }    }    return guess;} void main() {    double r = solve(&f);    double R0 = exp(12 * r);    writeln("r = ", r, ", R0 = ", R0);}`
Output:
`r = 0.112302, R0 = 3.84828`

## Go

Library: lm

This uses the Levenberg-Marquardt method.

`package main import (    "fmt"    "github.com/maorshutman/lm"    "log"    "math") const (    K  = 7_800_000_000 // approx world population    n0 = 27            // number of cases at day 0) var y = []float64{    27, 27, 27, 44, 44, 59, 59, 59, 59, 59, 59, 59, 59, 60, 60,    61, 61, 66, 83, 219, 239, 392, 534, 631, 897, 1350, 2023,    2820, 4587, 6067, 7823, 9826, 11946, 14554, 17372, 20615,    24522, 28273, 31491, 34933, 37552, 40540, 43105, 45177,    60328, 64543, 67103, 69265, 71332, 73327, 75191, 75723,    76719, 77804, 78812, 79339, 80132, 80995, 82101, 83365,    85203, 87024, 89068, 90664, 93077, 95316, 98172, 102133,    105824, 109695, 114232, 118610, 125497, 133852, 143227,    151367, 167418, 180096, 194836, 213150, 242364, 271106,    305117, 338133, 377918, 416845, 468049, 527767, 591704,    656866, 715353, 777796, 851308, 928436, 1000249, 1082054,    1174652,} func f(dst, p []float64) {    for i := 0; i < len(y); i++ {        t := float64(i)        dst[i] = (n0*math.Exp(p[0]*t))/(1+n0*(math.Exp(p[0]*t)-1)/K) - y[i]    }} func main() {    j := lm.NumJac{Func: f}    prob := lm.LMProblem{        Dim:        1,        Size:       len(y),        Func:       f,        Jac:        j.Jac,        InitParams: []float64{0.5},        Tau:        1e-6,        Eps1:       1e-8,        Eps2:       1e-8,    }    res, err := lm.LM(prob, &lm.Settings{Iterations: 100, ObjectiveTol: 1e-16})    if err != nil {        log.Fatal(err)    }    r := res.X[0]    fmt.Printf("The logistic curve r for the world data is %.8f\n", r)    fmt.Printf("R0 is then approximately equal to %.7f\n", math.Exp(12*r))}`
Output:
```The logistic curve r for the world data is 0.11230218
R0 is then approximately equal to 3.8482793
```

## Java

Translation of: Kotlin
`import java.util.List;import java.util.function.Function; public class LogisticCurveFitting {    private static final double K = 7.8e9;    private static final int N0 = 27;     private static final List<Double> ACTUAL = List.of(        27.0, 27.0, 27.0, 44.0, 44.0, 59.0, 59.0, 59.0, 59.0, 59.0, 59.0, 59.0, 59.0, 60.0, 60.0,        61.0, 61.0, 66.0, 83.0, 219.0, 239.0, 392.0, 534.0, 631.0, 897.0, 1350.0, 2023.0, 2820.0,        4587.0, 6067.0, 7823.0, 9826.0, 11946.0, 14554.0, 17372.0, 20615.0, 24522.0, 28273.0,        31491.0, 34933.0, 37552.0, 40540.0, 43105.0, 45177.0, 60328.0, 64543.0, 67103.0,        69265.0, 71332.0, 73327.0, 75191.0, 75723.0, 76719.0, 77804.0, 78812.0, 79339.0,        80132.0, 80995.0, 82101.0, 83365.0, 85203.0, 87024.0, 89068.0, 90664.0, 93077.0,        95316.0, 98172.0, 102133.0, 105824.0, 109695.0, 114232.0, 118610.0, 125497.0,        133852.0, 143227.0, 151367.0, 167418.0, 180096.0, 194836.0, 213150.0, 242364.0,        271106.0, 305117.0, 338133.0, 377918.0, 416845.0, 468049.0, 527767.0, 591704.0,        656866.0, 715353.0, 777796.0, 851308.0, 928436.0, 1000249.0, 1082054.0, 1174652.0    );     private static double f(double r) {        var sq = 0.0;        var len = ACTUAL.size();        for (int i = 0; i < len; i++) {            var eri = Math.exp(r * i);            var guess = (N0 * eri) / (1.0 + N0 * (eri - 1.0) / K);            var diff = guess - ACTUAL.get(i);            sq += diff * diff;        }        return sq;    }     private static double solve(Function<Double, Double> fn) {        return solve(fn, 0.5, 0.0);    }     private static double solve(Function<Double, Double> fn, double guess, double epsilon) {        double delta;        if (guess != 0.0) {            delta = guess;        } else {            delta = 1.0;        }         var f0 = fn.apply(guess);        var factor = 2.0;         while (delta > epsilon && guess != guess - delta) {            var nf = fn.apply(guess - delta);            if (nf < f0) {                f0 = nf;                guess -= delta;            } else {                nf = fn.apply(guess + delta);                if (nf < f0) {                    f0 = nf;                    guess += delta;                } else {                    factor = 0.5;                }            }             delta *= factor;        }         return guess;    }     public static void main(String[] args) {        var r = solve(LogisticCurveFitting::f);        var r0 = Math.exp(12.0 * r);        System.out.printf("r = %.16f, R0 = %.16f\n", r, r0);    }}`
Output:
`r = 0.1123021756975501, R0 = 3.8482792809167194`

## jq

Translation of: Wren
Works with: jq

Works with gojq, the Go implementation of jq

`def K: 7800000000;   # approx world populationdef n0: 27;          # number of cases at day 0 def y: [    27, 27, 27, 44, 44, 59, 59, 59, 59, 59, 59, 59, 59, 60, 60,    61, 61, 66, 83, 219, 239, 392, 534, 631, 897, 1350, 2023,    2820, 4587, 6067, 7823, 9826, 11946, 14554, 17372, 20615,    24522, 28273, 31491, 34933, 37552, 40540, 43105, 45177,    60328, 64543, 67103, 69265, 71332, 73327, 75191, 75723,    76719, 77804, 78812, 79339, 80132, 80995, 82101, 83365,    85203, 87024, 89068, 90664, 93077, 95316, 98172, 102133,    105824, 109695, 114232, 118610, 125497, 133852, 143227,    151367, 167418, 180096, 194836, 213150, 242364, 271106,    305117, 338133, 377918, 416845, 468049, 527767, 591704,    656866, 715353, 777796, 851308, 928436, 1000249, 1082054,    1174652]; def f:  . as \$r  | reduce range(0; y|length) as \$i (0;        ((\$r*\$i)|exp) as \$eri        | ((n0*\$eri)/(1+n0*(\$eri-1)/K) - y[\$i]) as \$dst        | . + \$dst * \$dst); def solve(f; \$guess; \$epsilon):  { f0:    (\$guess|f),    delta: \$guess,    factor: 2,    \$guess}  # double until f0 best, then halve until delta <= epsilon  | until(.delta <= \$epsilon;      .nf = ((.guess - .delta)|f)      | if .nf < .f0      then .f0 = .nf      |  .guess = .guess - .delta      else .nf = ((.guess + .delta)|f)      | if .nf < .f0        then .f0 = .nf        | .guess = .guess + .delta        else .factor = 0.5        end      end      | .delta = .delta * .factor )  | .guess; ((solve(f; 0.5; 0) * 1e10)|round / 1e10 ) as \$r| ((((12 * \$r)|exp) * 1e8)|round / 1e8) as \$R0| "r = \(\$r), R0 = \(\$R0)"`
Output:
```r = 0.1123021757, R0 = 3.84827928
```

## Julia

`using LsqFit const K = 7_800_000_000  # approximate world populationconst n0 = 27  # starting at day 0 with 27 Chinese cases """ The model for logistic regression with a given r """@. model(t, r) = (n0 * exp(r * t)) / (( 1 + n0 * (exp(r * t) - 1) / K)) # Daily world totals of covid cases, all countriesydata = [27, 27, 27, 44, 44, 59, 59, 59, 59, 59, 59, 59, 59, 60, 60,61, 61, 66, 83, 219, 239, 392, 534, 631, 897, 1350, 2023,2820, 4587, 6067, 7823, 9826, 11946, 14554, 17372, 20615,24522, 28273, 31491, 34933, 37552, 40540, 43105, 45177,60328, 64543, 67103, 69265, 71332, 73327, 75191, 75723,76719, 77804, 78812, 79339, 80132, 80995, 82101, 83365,85203, 87024, 89068, 90664, 93077, 95316, 98172, 102133,105824, 109695, 114232, 118610, 125497, 133852, 143227,151367, 167418, 180096, 194836, 213150, 242364, 271106,305117, 338133, 377918, 416845, 468049, 527767, 591704,656866, 715353, 777796, 851308, 928436, 1000249, 1082054,1174652,]tdata = collect(LinRange(0.0, 96, 97)) # starting approximation for r of 1/2rparam = [0.5] fit = curve_fit(model, tdata, ydata, rparam) # Our answer for r given the world data and simplistic modelr = fit.paramprintln("The logistic curve r for the world data is: ", r)println("The confidence interval at 5% significance is: ",    confidence_interval(fit, 0.05))println("Since R0 ≈ exp(G * r), and G ≈ 12 days, R0 ≈ ", exp(12r[1])) `
Output:
```The logistic curve r for the world data is: [0.11230217572265622]
The confidence interval at 5% significance is: [(0.11199074156706985, 0.11261360987824258)]
Since R0 ≈ exp(G * r), and G ≈ 12 days, R0 ≈ 3.8482792820761063
```

## Kotlin

Translation of: D
`import kotlin.math.exp const val K = 7.8e9const val n0 = 27val actual = arrayOf(    27.0, 27.0, 27.0, 44.0, 44.0, 59.0, 59.0, 59.0, 59.0, 59.0, 59.0, 59.0, 59.0, 60.0, 60.0,    61.0, 61.0, 66.0, 83.0, 219.0, 239.0, 392.0, 534.0, 631.0, 897.0, 1350.0, 2023.0, 2820.0,    4587.0, 6067.0, 7823.0, 9826.0, 11946.0, 14554.0, 17372.0, 20615.0, 24522.0, 28273.0,    31491.0, 34933.0, 37552.0, 40540.0, 43105.0, 45177.0, 60328.0, 64543.0, 67103.0,    69265.0, 71332.0, 73327.0, 75191.0, 75723.0, 76719.0, 77804.0, 78812.0, 79339.0,    80132.0, 80995.0, 82101.0, 83365.0, 85203.0, 87024.0, 89068.0, 90664.0, 93077.0,    95316.0, 98172.0, 102133.0, 105824.0, 109695.0, 114232.0, 118610.0, 125497.0,    133852.0, 143227.0, 151367.0, 167418.0, 180096.0, 194836.0, 213150.0, 242364.0,    271106.0, 305117.0, 338133.0, 377918.0, 416845.0, 468049.0, 527767.0, 591704.0,    656866.0, 715353.0, 777796.0, 851308.0, 928436.0, 1000249.0, 1082054.0, 1174652.0) fun f(r: Double): Double {    var sq = 0.0    val len = actual.size    for (i in 0 until len) {        val eri = exp(r * i)        val guess = (n0 * eri) / (1.0 + n0 * (eri - 1.0) / K)        val diff = guess - actual[i]        sq += diff * diff    }    return sq} fun solve(fn: (Double) -> Double, guess: Double = 0.5, epsilon: Double = 0.0): Double {    var guess2 = guess     var delta = if (guess2 != 0.0) guess2 else 1.0    var f0 = fn(guess2)    var factor = 2.0     while (delta > epsilon && guess2 != guess2 - delta) {        var nf = fn(guess2 - delta)        if (nf < f0) {            f0 = nf            guess2 -= delta        } else {            nf = fn(guess2 + delta)            if (nf < f0) {                f0 = nf                guess2 += delta            } else {                factor = 0.5            }        }         delta *= factor    }     return guess2} fun main() {    val r = solve(::f)    val r0 = exp(12.0 * r)    println("r = \$r, R0 = \$r0")}`
Output:
`r = 0.11230217569755005, R0 = 3.8482792809167194`

## Nim

Translation of: Kotlin
`import math, sugar const  K = 7.8e9  N0 = 27  Actual = [     27.0,      27.0,      27.0,      44.0,      44.0,      59.0,      59.0,                 59.0,      59.0,      59.0,      59.0,      59.0,      59.0,      60.0,                 60.0,      61.0,      61.0,      66.0,      83.0,     219.0,     239.0,                392.0,     534.0,     631.0,     897.0,    1350.0,    2023.0,    2820.0,               4587.0,    6067.0,    7823.0,    9826.0,   11946.0,   14554.0,   17372.0,              20615.0,   24522.0,   28273.0,   31491.0,   34933.0,   37552.0,   40540.0,              43105.0,   45177.0,   60328.0,   64543.0,   67103.0,   69265.0,   71332.0,              73327.0,   75191.0,   75723.0,   76719.0,   77804.0,   78812.0,   79339.0,              80132.0,   80995.0,   82101.0,   83365.0,   85203.0,   87024.0,   89068.0,              90664.0,   93077.0,   95316.0,   98172.0,  102133.0,  105824.0,  109695.0,             114232.0,  118610.0,  125497.0,  133852.0,  143227.0,  151367.0,  167418.0,             180096.0,  194836.0,  213150.0,  242364.0,  271106.0,  305117.0,  338133.0,             377918.0,  416845.0,  468049.0,  527767.0,  591704.0,  656866.0,  715353.0,             777796.0,  851308.0,  928436.0, 1000249.0, 1082054.0, 1174652.0] type Func = (float) -> float func f(r: float): float =  for i in 0..Actual.high:    let      eri = exp(r * i.toFloat)      guess = (N0 * eri) / (1 + N0 * (eri - 1) / K)      diff = guess - Actual[i]    result += diff * diff  func solve(fn: Func; guess = 0.5, epsilon = 0.0): float  =    result = guess    var delta = if result != 0: result else: 1.0    var f0 = fn(result)    var factor = 2.0     while delta > epsilon and result != result - delta:      var nf = fn(result - delta)      if nf < f0:        f0 = nf        result -= delta      else:        nf = fn(result + delta)        if nf < f0:          f0 = nf          result += delta        else:          factor = 0.5      delta *= factor  let r = f.solve()let r0 = exp(12 * r)echo "r = ", r, ", R0 = ", r0`
Output:
`r = 0.11230217569755, R0 = 3.848279280916719`

## Perl

Translation of: Phix
`use strict;use warnings; my \$K  = 7_800_000_000; #  populationmy \$n0 = 27;            #  cases @ day 0 my @y = (    27,     27,     27,     44,     44,     59,     59,     59,    59,      59,     59,     59,     59,    60,     60,     61,     61,     66,     83,    219,    239,    392,    534,    631,    897,   1350,  2023,   2820,   4587,   6067,   7823,   9826,  11946,  14554,  17372,  20615,  24522,  28273,  31491, 34933,  37552,  40540,  43105,  45177,  60328,  64543,  67103,  69265,  71332,  73327,  75191,  75723, 76719,  77804,  78812,  79339,  80132,  80995,  82101,  83365,  85203,  87024,  89068,  90664,  93077, 95316,  98172, 102133, 105824, 109695, 114232, 118610, 125497, 133852, 143227, 151367, 167418, 180096,194836, 213150, 242364, 271106, 305117, 338133, 377918, 416845, 468049, 527767, 591704, 656866, 715353,777796, 851308, 928436,1000249,1082054,1174652); sub logistic_func {    my(\$r) = @_;    my \$sq = 0;    for my \$i (0 .. @y-1) {        my \$eri = exp(\$r * \$i);        my \$dst = (\$n0 * \$eri) / (1 + \$n0 * (\$eri-1) / \$K) - \$y[\$i];        \$sq = \$sq + \$dst**2;    }    \$sq} sub solve {    my(\$fn, \$guess, \$epsilon) = @_;    my(\$nfm,\$nfp);    my \$f0 = &\$fn(\$guess);    my \$delta = \$guess;    my \$factor = 2;    while (\$delta > \$epsilon) {        (\$nfm = &\$fn(\$guess - \$delta)) < \$f0 ?            (\$f0 = \$nfm, \$guess -= \$delta, \$delta *= \$factor)        :        (\$nfp = &\$fn(\$guess + \$delta)) < \$f0 ?            (\$f0 = \$nfp, \$guess += \$delta, \$delta *= \$factor)        :            \$delta /= \$factor    }    \$guess} my \$r  = solve(\&logistic_func, 0.5, 0);my \$R0 = exp(12 * \$r);printf "r = %%(%.3f), R0 = %%(%.3f)\n", \$r, \$R0;`
Output:
`r = %(0.112), R0 = %(3.848)`

## Phix

Simplified, my interpretation of shift-cutting (from wp:Non-linear_least_squares)

```-- demo\rosetta\Curve_fit.exw
with javascript_semantics
constant K  = 7_800_000_000,    -- approx world population
n0 = 27,               -- number of cases at day 0
actual = {
27, 27, 27, 44, 44, 59, 59, 59, 59, 59, 59, 59, 59, 60, 60,
61, 61, 66, 83, 219, 239, 392, 534, 631, 897, 1350, 2023,
2820, 4587, 6067, 7823, 9826, 11946, 14554, 17372, 20615,
24522, 28273, 31491, 34933, 37552, 40540, 43105, 45177,
60328, 64543, 67103, 69265, 71332, 73327, 75191, 75723,
76719, 77804, 78812, 79339, 80132, 80995, 82101, 83365,
85203, 87024, 89068, 90664, 93077, 95316, 98172, 102133,
105824, 109695, 114232, 118610, 125497, 133852, 143227,
151367, 167418, 180096, 194836, 213150, 242364, 271106,
305117, 338133, 377918, 416845, 468049, 527767, 591704,
656866, 715353, 777796, 851308, 928436, 1000249, 1082054,
1174652 }

function f(atom r)
atom sq = 0
for i=1 to length(actual) do
atom eri = exp(r*(i-1)),
guess = (n0*eri)/(1+n0*(eri-1)/K),
diff = guess-actual[i]
sq += diff*diff
end for
return sq
end function

function solve(integer f, atom guess=0.5, epsilon=0)
atom f0 = f(guess),
delta = iff(guess?guess:1),
factor = 2 -- double until f0 best, then
-- halve until delta<=epsilon
--  or we hit precision limit
while delta>epsilon             -- (predefined limit)
and guess!=guess-delta do     -- (precision limit)
atom nf = f(guess-delta)
if nf<f0 then
f0 = nf
guess -= delta
else
nf = f(guess+delta)
if nf<f0 then
f0 = nf
guess += delta
else
factor = 0.5
end if
end if
delta *= factor
end while
return guess
end function

atom r = solve(f),
R0 = exp(12 * r)
printf(1,"r = %.10f, R0 = %.8f\n",{r,R0})
```
Output:
```r = 0.1123021757, R0 = 3.84827928
```

## Python

Uses NumPy/SciPy's optimize package.

`import numpy as npimport scipy.optimize as opt n0, K = 27, 7_800_000_000 def f(t, r):    return (n0 * np.exp(r * t)) / (( 1 + n0 * (np.exp(r * t) - 1) / K)) y = [27, 27, 27, 44, 44, 59, 59, 59, 59, 59, 59, 59, 59, 60, 60,61, 61, 66, 83, 219, 239, 392, 534, 631, 897, 1350, 2023,2820, 4587, 6067, 7823, 9826, 11946, 14554, 17372, 20615,24522, 28273, 31491, 34933, 37552, 40540, 43105, 45177,60328, 64543, 67103, 69265, 71332, 73327, 75191, 75723,76719, 77804, 78812, 79339, 80132, 80995, 82101, 83365,85203, 87024, 89068, 90664, 93077, 95316, 98172, 102133,105824, 109695, 114232, 118610, 125497, 133852, 143227,151367, 167418, 180096, 194836, 213150, 242364, 271106,305117, 338133, 377918, 416845, 468049, 527767, 591704,656866, 715353, 777796, 851308, 928436, 1000249, 1082054,1174652,]x = np.linspace(0.0, 96, 97) r, cov = opt.curve_fit(f, x, y, [0.5]) # Our answer for r given the world data and simplistic modelprint("The r for the world Covid-19 data is:", r,    ", with covariance of", cov)   print("The calculated R0 is then", np.exp(12 * r)) `
Output:
```The r for the world Covid-19 data is: [0.11230218] , with covariance of [[2.46164331e-08]]
The calculated R0 is then [3.8482793]
```

## R

` library(minpack.lm) K <- 7800000000  # approximate world populationn0 <- 27  # starting at day 0 with 27 Chinese cases x <- seq(from=0.0, 96.0, length=97) # The model for logistic regression with a given r0 getPred <- function(par, xx) (n0 * exp(par\$r * xx)) / (( 1 + n0 * (exp(par\$r * xx) - 1) / K)) residFun <- function(p, observed, xx) observed - getPred(p, xx) parStart <- list(r=0.5) # Daily world totals of covid cases, all countriesobserved <- c(  27, 27, 27, 44, 44, 59, 59, 59, 59, 59, 59, 59, 59, 60, 60,  61, 61, 66, 83, 219, 239, 392, 534, 631, 897, 1350, 2023,  2820, 4587, 6067, 7823, 9826, 11946, 14554, 17372, 20615,  24522, 28273, 31491, 34933, 37552, 40540, 43105, 45177,  60328, 64543, 67103, 69265, 71332, 73327, 75191, 75723,  76719, 77804, 78812, 79339, 80132, 80995, 82101, 83365,  85203, 87024, 89068, 90664, 93077, 95316, 98172, 102133,  105824, 109695, 114232, 118610, 125497, 133852, 143227,  151367, 167418, 180096, 194836, 213150, 242364, 271106,  305117, 338133, 377918, 416845, 468049, 527767, 591704,  656866, 715353, 777796, 851308, 928436, 1000249, 1082054,  1174652) nls.out <- nls.lm(par=parStart, fn=residFun, observed=observed, xx = x) cat("The r for the model is: ", coef(nls.out), "\n") cat("Therefore, R0 is approximately: ", exp(12 * coef(nls.out))) `
Output:
```The r for the model is:  0.1123022
Therefore, R0 is approximately:  3.848279
```

## Raku

Works with: Rakudo version 2020.05
Translation of: Perl

Original task numbers of cases per day as of April 05 plus updated, as of today, May 11 numbers.

`my \$K  = 7_800_000_000; #  populationmy \$n0 = 27;            #  cases @ day 0 my @Apr05 = <         27      27      27      44      44      59      59      59      59      59         59      59      59      60      60      61      61      66      83     219        239     392     534     631     897    1350    2023    2820    4587    6067       7823    9826   11946   14554   17372   20615   24522   28273   31491   34933      37552   40540   43105   45177   60328   64543   67103   69265   71332   73327      75191   75723   76719   77804   78812   79339   80132   80995   82101   83365      85203   87024   89068   90664   93077   95316   98172  102133  105824  109695     114232  118610  125497  133852  143227  151367  167418  180096  194836  213150     242364  271106  305117  338133  377918  416845  468049  527767  591704  656866     715353  777796  851308  928436 1000249 1082054 1174652>; my @May11 = <         27      27      27      44      44      59      59      59      59      59         59      59      59      60      60      61      61      66      83     219        239     392     534     631     897    1350    2023    2820    4587    6067       7823    9826   11946   14554   17372   20615   24522   28273   31491   34933      37552   40540   43105   45177   60328   64543   67103   69265   71332   73327      75191   75723   76719   77804   78812   79339   80132   80995   82101   83365      85203   87026   89068   90865   93077   95316   98172  102133  105824  109695     114235  118613  125497  133853  143259  154774  167418  180094  194843  213149     242374  271116  305235  338235  377968  416881  468092  527839  591796  656834     715377  777187  851587  928491 1006063 1087822 1174306 1245601 1316988 1391881    1476792 1563819 1653160 1734868 1807256 1873639 1953786 2033745 2117297 2199460    2278484 2350993 2427353 2513399 2579823 2657910 2731217 2832750 2915977 2981542    3054404 3131487 3216467 3308341 3389459 3468047 3545486 3624789 3714816 3809262    3899379 3986931 4063525>; sub logistic-func (\$rate, @y) {    my \$sq = 0;    for ^@y -> \$time {        my \$ert = exp(\$rate * \$time);        my \$δt = (\$n0 * \$ert) / (1 + \$n0 * (\$ert-1) / \$K) - @y[\$time];        \$sq += \$δt²;    }    \$sq} sub solve (&f, \$guess, \ε, @y) {    my \$fₙ-minus;    my \$fₙ-plus;    my \$rate   = \$guess;    my \$fₙ     = f \$rate, @y;    my \$Δ      = \$rate;    my \$factor = 2;    while \$Δ > ε {        (\$fₙ-minus = f \$rate - \$Δ, @y) < \$fₙ ??        do {            \$fₙ    = \$fₙ-minus;            \$rate -= \$Δ;            \$Δ    *= \$factor;        } !!        (\$fₙ-plus = f \$rate + \$Δ, @y) < \$fₙ ??        do {            \$fₙ    = \$fₙ-plus;            \$rate += \$Δ;            \$Δ    *= \$factor;        } !!        \$Δ /= \$factor    }    \$rate} for @Apr05, 'Dec 31 - Apr 5',    @May11, 'Dec 31 - May 11' -> @y, \$period {    my \$rate = solve(&logistic-func, 0.5, 0, @y);    my \$R0   = exp(12 * \$rate);    say "\nFor period: \$period";    say "Instantaneous rate of growth: r = " , \$rate.fmt('%08f');    say "Reproductive rate: R0 = ", \$R0.fmt('%08f');} `
Output:
```For period: Dec 31 - Apr 5
Instantaneous rate of growth: r = 0.112302
Reproductive rate: R0 = 3.848279

For period: Dec 31 - May 11
Instantaneous rate of growth: r = 0.093328
Reproductive rate: R0 = 3.064672```

## Ruby

Translation of: C++
`K = 7.9e9N0 = 27ACTUAL = [    27, 27, 27, 44, 44, 59, 59, 59, 59, 59, 59, 59, 59, 60, 60,    61, 61, 66, 83, 219, 239, 392, 534, 631, 897, 1350, 2023, 2820,    4587, 6067, 7823, 9826, 11946, 14554, 17372, 20615, 24522, 28273,    31491, 34933, 37552, 40540, 43105, 45177, 60328, 64543, 67103,    69265, 71332, 73327, 75191, 75723, 76719, 77804, 78812, 79339,    80132, 80995, 82101, 83365, 85203, 87024, 89068, 90664, 93077,    95316, 98172, 102133, 105824, 109695, 114232, 118610, 125497,    133852, 143227, 151367, 167418, 180096, 194836, 213150, 242364,    271106, 305117, 338133, 377918, 416845, 468049, 527767, 591704,    656866, 715353, 777796, 851308, 928436, 1000249, 1082054, 1174652] def f(r)    sq = 0.0    len = ACTUAL.length    for i in 1 .. len        j = i - 1        eri = Math.exp(r * j)        guess = (N0 * eri) / (1 + N0 * (eri - 1.0) / K)        diff = guess - ACTUAL[j]        sq += diff * diff    end    return sqend def solve(fn, guess=0.5, epsilon=0.0)    delta = guess ? guess : 1.0    f0 = send(fn, guess)    factor = 2.0    while delta > epsilon and guess != guess - delta        nf = send(fn, guess - delta)        if nf < f0 then            f0 = nf            guess -= delta        else            nf = send(fn, guess + delta)            if nf < f0 then                f0 = nf                guess += delta            else                factor = 0.5            end        end         delta *= factor    end    return guessend def main    r = solve(:f)    r0 = Math.exp(12.0 * r)    print "r = ", r, ", R0 = ", r0, "\n"end main()`
Output:
`r = 0.11230215850810021, R0 = 3.8482784871191575`

## Wren

Translation of: Phix
Library: Wren-math
`import "/math" for Math var K = 7800000000 // approx world populationvar n0 = 27        // number of cases at day 0 var y = [    27, 27, 27, 44, 44, 59, 59, 59, 59, 59, 59, 59, 59, 60, 60,    61, 61, 66, 83, 219, 239, 392, 534, 631, 897, 1350, 2023,    2820, 4587, 6067, 7823, 9826, 11946, 14554, 17372, 20615,    24522, 28273, 31491, 34933, 37552, 40540, 43105, 45177,    60328, 64543, 67103, 69265, 71332, 73327, 75191, 75723,    76719, 77804, 78812, 79339, 80132, 80995, 82101, 83365,    85203, 87024, 89068, 90664, 93077, 95316, 98172, 102133,    105824, 109695, 114232, 118610, 125497, 133852, 143227,    151367, 167418, 180096, 194836, 213150, 242364, 271106,    305117, 338133, 377918, 416845, 468049, 527767, 591704,    656866, 715353, 777796, 851308, 928436, 1000249, 1082054,    1174652] var f = Fn.new { |r|    var sq = 0    for (i in 0...y.count) {        var eri = Math.exp(r*i)        var dst = (n0*eri)/(1+n0*(eri-1)/K) - y[i]        sq = sq + dst * dst    }    return sq} var solve = Fn.new { |f, guess, epsilon|    var f0 = f.call(guess)    var delta = guess    var factor = 2 // double until f0 best then halve until delta <= epsilon    while (delta > epsilon) {        var nf = f.call(guess - delta)        if (nf < f0) {            f0 = nf            guess = guess - delta        } else {            nf = f.call(guess + delta)            if (nf < f0) {                f0 = nf                guess = guess + delta            } else {                factor = 0.5            }        }        delta = delta * factor    }    return guess} var r = (solve.call(f, 0.5, 0) * 1e10).round / 1e10var R0 = (Math.exp(12 * r) * 1e8).round / 1e8System.print("r = %(r), R0 = %(R0)")`
Output:
```r = 0.1123021757, R0 = 3.84827928
```