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Compiler/Verifying syntax

From Rosetta Code
Compiler/Verifying syntax is a draft programming task. It is not yet considered ready to be promoted as a complete task, for reasons that should be found in its talk page.

Verifying Syntax
A Syntax Analyzer that verifies a token stream,
outputs a string "true" if the token stream matches the grammar requirement,
outputs a string "false" if the token stream does not match the grammar.

Task
The program reads input from a file of token stream,
reads it and outputs a string "true" if the token stream matches the grammar,
outputs a string "false" and error messages if the token stream does not match the grammar,
based on the grammar below. The grammar is written in Extended Backus-Naur Form (EBNF).

Grammar

stmt         =         expr ; 

expr         =         expr_level_2; 
expr_level_2 =         expr_level_3 {"or" expr_level_3} ; 
expr_level_3 =         expr_level_4 {"and" expr_level_4} ; 
expr_level_4 = ["not"] expr_level_5 [('=' | '<') expr_level_5] ; 
expr_level_5 =         expr_level_6 {('+' | '-') expr_level_6} ; 
expr_level_6 =         primary      {('*' | '/') primary} ; 

primary      =         Identifier
                     | Integer
                     | '(' expr ')'
                     | "true"
                     | "false"
                     ;
Integer      =         Digit {Digit};

Identifier   =         Letter {Letter | Digit | '_'};

Digit        =         "0" | "1" | "2" | "3" | "4" | "5" | "6" | "7" | "8" | "9" ;

Letter       =         "a" | "b" | "c" | "d" | "e" | "f" | "g" | "h" | "i" | "j" 
                     | "k" | "l" | "m" | "n" | "o" | "p" | "q" | "r" | "s" | "t" 
                     | "u" | "v" | "w" | "x" | "y" | "z" | "A" | "B" | "C" | "D" 
                     | "E" | "F" | "G" | "H" | "I" | "J" | "K" | "L" | "M" | "N" 
                     | "O" | "P" | "Q" | "R" | "S" | "T" | "U" | "V" | "W" | "X" 
                     | "Y" | "Z" ;


ALGOL W[edit]

Includes the test cases from the Go sample. Note, strings are limited to 256 characters in Algol W.

begin
 % verify expressions match expected syntax  %
procedure stmt ( string(256) value text ) ; begin
 % the parsing procedures return true if the expression matches the  %
 % required element, false otherwise - a parse tree is not built  %
logical haveInteger, haveIdentifier, haveEof, hadError;
integer currPos, maxPos, syPos;
string(1) currCh;
string(256) srcText;
string(256) sy;
logical procedure expr ; expr_level_2;
logical procedure expr_level_2 ; begin
logical ok;
ok := expr_level_3;
while ok and have( "or" ) do ok := next and expr_level_3;
ok
end expr_level_2 ;
logical procedure expr_level_3 ; begin
logical ok;
ok := expr_level_4;
while have( "and" ) and ok do ok := next and expr_level_4;
ok
end expr_level_3 ;
logical procedure expr_level_4 ; begin
logical ok;
ok := true;
if have( "not" ) then ok := next;
if ok then ok := expr_level_5;
if ok and ( have( "=" ) or have( "<" ) ) then ok := next and expr_level_5;
ok
end expr_level_4 ;
logical procedure expr_level_5 ; begin
logical ok;
ok := expr_level_6;
while ok and ( have( "+" ) or have( "-" ) ) do ok := next and expr_level_6;
ok
end expr_level_5 ;
logical procedure expr_level_6 ; begin
logical ok;
ok := primary;
while ok and ( have( "*" ) or have( "/" ) ) do ok := next and primary;
ok
end expr_level_6 ;
logical procedure primary ;
if haveIdentifier or haveInteger or have( "true" ) or have( "false" ) then begin
void( next );
true
end
else if have( "(" ) then next and expr and mustBe( ")" )
else error( "Expecting identifier, literal or ""(""" ) ;
logical procedure addAndNextChar ; begin
if syPos = 255 then void( error( "Symbol too long" ) )
else if syPos < 255 then begin
sy( syPos // 1 ) := currCh;
syPos := syPos + 1
end if_syPos_eq_255__lt_255 ;
nextChar
end addAndNextChar ;
logical procedure next ; begin
logical ok;
haveInteger := haveIdentifier := false;
ok  := skipSpaces;
sy  := "";
syPos  := 0;
if not ok then sy := "<eof>"
else begin
if haveDigit then begin
haveInteger := true;
while addAndNextChar and haveDigit do begin end
end
else if haveLetter then begin
while addAndNextChar and ( haveLetter or haveDigit or currCh = "_" ) do begin end;
haveIdentifier := sy not = "and" and sy not = "or" and sy not = "not" and sy not = "true" and sy not = "false"
end
else void( addAndNextChar );
end if_not_ok__ ;
ok
end next ;
logical procedure skipSpaces ; begin
logical ok;
ok := not haveEof;
while ok and currCh = " " do ok := nextChar;
ok
end skipSpaces ;
logical procedure haveLetter ; not haveEof and ( ( currCh >= "a" and currCh <= "z" )
or ( currCh >= "A" and currCh <= "Z" ) );
logical procedure haveDigit  ; not haveEof and ( currCh >= "0" and currCh <= "9" );
logical procedure have ( string(12) value text ) ; text = sy;
logical procedure mustBe ( string(12) value text ) ; begin
logical ok;
ok := have( text );
if ok then void( next )
else begin
string(256) msg;
msg := "Expected:";
msg( strlen( msg ) + 2 // 12 ) := text;
void( error( msg ) )
end if_ok;
ok
end mustBe ;
logical procedure nextChar ; begin
haveEof := currPos > maxPos;
if not haveEof then begin
currCh  := srcText( currPos // 1 );
currPos := currPos + 1
end if_not_haveEof ;
not haveEof
end nextChar ;
integer procedure strlen ( string(256) value text ) ; begin
integer length;
length := 255;
while length >= 0 and text( length // 1 ) = " " do length := length - 1;
length
end strlen ;
logical procedure error ( string(256) value msg ) ; begin
if not hadError then begin
 % have the first error %
writeon( " error at: ", I_W := 1, currPos, "(" );
showText( sy, strlen( sy ) );
writeon( "): " );
showText( msg, strlen( msg ) );
hadError := true
end if_not_hadError ;
false
end ewrror ;
procedure showText ( string(256) value text; integer value length ) ; for c := 0 until length do writeon( text( c // 1 ) );
procedure void ( logical value b ) ; begin end void ;
 % parse text and output messages indicating whether it is OK or not %
hadError := false;
sy  := "<bof>";
srcText  := text;
currPos  := 0;
maxPos  := strlen( srcText );
write();
showText( srcText, maxPos );
writeon( ": " );
if not nextChar then void( error( "Blank source text" ) )
else if not ( next and expr ) then void( error( "Expression expected" ) )
else if not haveEof then void( error( "Expected EOF after expression" ) );
if hadError then writeon( " false" )
else writeon( " true" )
end stmt ;
 % test cases %
stmt( "wombat" );
stmt( "wombat or monotreme" );
stmt( "( wombat and not )" );
stmt( "wombat or not" );
stmt( "a + 1" );
stmt( "a + b < c" );
stmt( "a + b - c * d / e < f and not ( g = h )" );
stmt( "a + b - c * d / e < f and not ( g = h" );
stmt( "a = b" );
stmt( "a or b = c" );
stmt( "$" );
 % test cases from Go %
stmt( "true or false = not true" );
stmt( "not true = false" );
stmt( "3 + not 5" );
stmt( "3 + (not 5)" );
stmt( "(42 + 3" );
stmt( " not 3 < 4 or (true or 3 / 4 + 8 * 5 - 5 * 2 < 56) and 4 * 3 < 12 or not true" );
stmt( " and 3 < 2" );
stmt( "not 7 < 2" );
stmt( "2 < 3 < 4" );
stmt( "2 < foobar - 3 < 4" );
stmt( "2 < foobar and 3 < 4" );
stmt( "4 * (32 - 16) + 9 = 73" );
stmt( "235 76 + 1" );
stmt( "a + b = not c and false" );
stmt( "a + b = (not c) and false" );
stmt( "a + b = (not c and false)" );
stmt( "ab_c / bd2 or < e_f7" );
stmt( "g not = h" );
stmt( "été = false" );
stmt( "i++" );
stmt( "j & k" );
stmt( "l or _m" )
end.
Output:
wombat:  true
wombat or monotreme:  true
( wombat and not ):  error at: 18  ()): Expecting identifier, literal or "(" false
wombat or not:  error at: 13  (<eof>): Expression expected false
a + 1:  true
a + b < c:  true
a + b - c * d / e < f and not ( g = h ):  true
a + b - c * d / e < f and not ( g = h:  error at: 37  (<eof>): Expected: ) false
a = b:  true
a or b = c:  true
$:  error at: 1  ($): Expecting identifier, literal or "(" false
true or false = not true:  error at: 20  (not): Expecting identifier, literal or "(" false
not true = false:  true
3 + not 5:  error at: 8  (not): Expecting identifier, literal or "(" false
3 + (not 5):  true
(42 + 3:  error at: 7  (<eof>): Expected: ) false
 not 3 < 4 or (true or 3 /  4 + 8 *  5 - 5 * 2 < 56) and 4 * 3  < 12 or not true:  true
 and 3 < 2:  error at: 5  (and): Expecting identifier, literal or "(" false
not 7 < 2:  true
2 < 3 < 4:  error at: 8  (<): Expected EOF after expression false
2 < foobar - 3 < 4:  error at: 17  (<): Expected EOF after expression false
2 < foobar and 3 < 4:  true
4 * (32 - 16) + 9 = 73:  true
235 76 + 1:  error at: 7  (76): Expected EOF after expression false
a + b = not c and false:  error at: 12  (not): Expecting identifier, literal or "(" false
a + b = (not c) and false:  true
a + b = (not c and false):  true
ab_c / bd2 or < e_f7:  error at: 16  (<): Expecting identifier, literal or "(" false
g not = h:  error at: 6  (not): Expected EOF after expression false
été = false:  error at: 2  (Ã): Expecting identifier, literal or "(" false
i++:  error at: 3  (+): Expecting identifier, literal or "(" false
j & k:  error at: 4  (&): Expected EOF after expression false
l or _m:  error at: 7  (_): Expecting identifier, literal or "(" false

C[edit]

// cverifyingsyntaxrosetta.c
// http://www.rosettacode.org/wiki/Compiler/_Verifying_Syntax
 
/*
# Makefile
CFLAGS = -O3 -Wall -Wfatal-errors
all: cverifyingsyntaxrosetta
*/

 
#include <stdio.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <ctype.h>
#include <setjmp.h>
 
#define AT(CHAR) ( *pos == CHAR && ++pos )
#define TEST(STR) ( strncmp( pos, STR, strlen(STR) ) == 0 \
&& ! isalnum(pos[strlen(STR)]) && pos[strlen(STR)] != '_' )

#define IS(STR) ( TEST(STR) && (pos += strlen(STR)) )
 
static char *pos; // current position in source
static char *startpos; // start of source
static jmp_buf jmpenv;
 
static int
error(char *message)
{
printf("false  %s\n%*s^ %s\n", startpos, pos - startpos + 7, "", message);
longjmp( jmpenv, 1 );
}
 
static int
expr(int level)
{
while( isspace(*pos) ) ++pos; // skip white space
if( AT('(') ) // find a primary (operand)
{
if( expr(0) && ! AT(')') ) error("missing close paren");
}
else if( level <= 4 && IS("not") && expr(6) ) { }
else if( TEST("or") || TEST("and") || TEST("not") )
{
error("expected a primary, found an operator");
}
else if( isdigit(*pos) ) pos += strspn( pos, "0123456789" );
else if( isalpha(*pos) ) pos += strspn( pos, "0123456789_"
"abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyzABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ" );
else error("expected a primary");
 
do // then look for zero or more valid following operators
{
while( isspace(*pos) ) ++pos;
}
while(
level <= 2 && IS("or") ? expr(3) :
level <= 3 && IS("and") ? expr(4) :
level <= 4 && (AT('=') || AT('<')) ? expr(5) :
level == 5 && (*pos == '=' || *pos == '<') ? error("non-associative") :
level <= 6 && (AT('+') || AT('-')) ? expr(7) :
level <= 7 && (AT('*') || AT('/')) ? expr(8) :
0 );
return 1;
}
 
static void
parse(char *source)
{
startpos = pos = source;
if( setjmp(jmpenv) ) return; // for catching errors during recursion
expr(0);
if( *pos ) error("unexpected character following valid parse");
printf(" true  %s\n", source);
}
 
static char *tests[] = {
"3 + not 5",
"3 + (not 5)",
"(42 + 3",
"(42 + 3 some_other_syntax_error",
"not 3 < 4 or (true or 3/4+8*5-5*2 < 56) and 4*3 < 12 or not true",
"and 3 < 2",
"not 7 < 2",
"2 < 3 < 4",
"2 < foobar - 3 < 4",
"2 < foobar and 3 < 4",
"4 * (32 - 16) + 9 = 73",
"235 76 + 1",
"a + b = not c and false",
"a + b = (not c) and false",
"a + b = (not c and false)",
"ab_c / bd2 or < e_f7",
"g not = h",
"i++",
"j & k",
"l or _m",
"wombat",
"WOMBAT or monotreme",
"a + b - c * d / e < f and not ( g = h )",
"$",
};
 
int
main(int argc, char *argv[])
{
for( int i = 0; i < sizeof(tests)/sizeof(*tests); i++ ) parse(tests[i]);
}
Output:
false  3 + not 5
           ^ expected a primary, found an operator
 true  3 + (not 5)
false  (42 + 3
              ^ missing close paren
false  (42 + 3 some_other_syntax_error
               ^ missing close paren
 true  not 3 < 4 or (true or 3/4+8*5-5*2 < 56) and 4*3 < 12 or not true
false  and 3 < 2
       ^ expected a primary, found an operator
 true  not 7 < 2
false  2 < 3 < 4
             ^ non-associative
false  2 < foobar - 3 < 4
                      ^ non-associative
 true  2 < foobar and 3 < 4
 true  4 * (32 - 16) + 9 = 73
false  235 76 + 1
           ^ unexpected character following valid parse
false  a + b = not c and false
               ^ expected a primary, found an operator
 true  a + b = (not c) and false
 true  a + b = (not c and false)
false  ab_c / bd2 or < e_f7
                     ^ expected a primary
false  g not = h
         ^ unexpected character following valid parse
false  i++
         ^ expected a primary
false  j & k
         ^ unexpected character following valid parse
false  l or _m
            ^ expected a primary
 true  wombat
 true  WOMBAT or monotreme
 true  a + b - c * d / e < f and not ( g = h )
false  $
       ^ expected a primary

Go[edit]

If "and", "or", "not" and "=" are replaced by the corresponding symbols: "&&", "||", "!" and "==", then the task grammar is a subset of Go's own grammar - operator precedence and identifier construction are the same.

After making the appropriate substitutions, we can therefore use the parser in Go's standard library to verify whether the statements are valid or not. As expressions cannot be statements in Go, we simply parse the latter as expressions.

However, before applying the parser, we first need to ensure that the expressions don't include any characters (including non-ASCII) or usages thereof which Go would otherwise permit. Note that it's not necessary to specifically check for "++" and "--" as these are statements in Go and can't appear in expressions anyway.

In particular, after substitutions, "= not", "+ not" etc. would be allowed by the Go parser so we need to exclude them. Curiously, the Go parser allows something like "2 < 3 < 4" even though it doesn't compile. We need therefore to exclude that also (see Talk page).

package main
 
import (
"fmt"
"go/parser"
"regexp"
"strings"
)
 
var (
re1 = regexp.MustCompile(`[^_a-zA-Z0-9\+\-\*/=<\(\)\s]`)
re2 = regexp.MustCompile(`\b_\w*\b`)
re3 = regexp.MustCompile(`[=<+*/-]\s*not`)
re4 = regexp.MustCompile(`(=|<)\s*[^(=< ]+\s*([=<+*/-])`)
)
 
var subs = [][2]string{
{"=", "=="}, {" not ", " ! "}, {"(not ", "(! "}, {" or ", " || "}, {" and ", " && "},
}
 
func possiblyValid(expr string) error {
matches := re1.FindStringSubmatch(expr)
if matches != nil {
return fmt.Errorf("invalid character %q found", []rune(matches[0])[0])
}
if re2.MatchString(expr) {
return fmt.Errorf("identifier cannot begin with an underscore")
}
if re3.MatchString(expr) {
return fmt.Errorf("expected operand, found 'not'")
}
matches = re4.FindStringSubmatch(expr)
if matches != nil {
return fmt.Errorf("operator %q is non-associative", []rune(matches[1])[0])
}
return nil
}
 
func modify(err error) string {
e := err.Error()
for _, sub := range subs {
e = strings.ReplaceAll(e, strings.TrimSpace(sub[1]), strings.TrimSpace(sub[0]))
}
return strings.Split(e, ":")[2][1:] // remove location info as may be inaccurate
}
 
func main() {
exprs := []string{
"$",
"one",
"either or both",
"a + 1",
"a + b < c",
"a = b",
"a or b = c",
"3 + not 5",
"3 + (not 5)",
"(42 + 3",
"(42 + 3)",
" not 3 < 4 or (true or 3 / 4 + 8 * 5 - 5 * 2 < 56) and 4 * 3 < 12 or not true",
" and 3 < 2",
"not 7 < 2",
"2 < 3 < 4",
"2 < (3 < 4)",
"2 < foobar - 3 < 4",
"2 < foobar and 3 < 4",
"4 * (32 - 16) + 9 = 73",
"235 76 + 1",
"true or false = not true",
"true or false = (not true)",
"not true or false = false",
"not true = false",
"a + b = not c and false",
"a + b = (not c) and false",
"a + b = (not c and false)",
"ab_c / bd2 or < e_f7",
"g not = h",
"été = false",
"i++",
"j & k",
"l or _m",
}
 
for _, expr := range exprs {
fmt.Printf("Statement to verify: %q\n", expr)
if err := possiblyValid(expr); err != nil {
fmt.Printf("\"false\" -> %s\n\n", err.Error())
continue
}
expr = fmt.Sprintf(" %s ", expr) // make sure there are spaces at both ends
for _, sub := range subs {
expr = strings.ReplaceAll(expr, sub[0], sub[1])
}
_, err := parser.ParseExpr(expr)
if err != nil {
fmt.Println(`"false" ->`, modify(err))
} else {
fmt.Println(`"true"`)
}
fmt.Println()
}
}
Output:
Statement to verify: "$"
"false" -> invalid character '$' found

Statement to verify: "one"
"true"

Statement to verify: "either or both"
"true"

Statement to verify: "a + 1"
"true"

Statement to verify: "a + b < c"
"true"

Statement to verify: "a = b"
"true"

Statement to verify: "a or b = c"
"true"

Statement to verify: "3 + not 5"
"false" -> expected operand, found 'not'

Statement to verify: "3 + (not 5)"
"true"

Statement to verify: "(42 + 3"
"false" -> expected ')', found newline

Statement to verify: "(42 + 3)"
"true"

Statement to verify: " not 3 < 4 or (true or 3 /  4 + 8 *  5 - 5 * 2 < 56) and 4 * 3  < 12 or not true"
"true"

Statement to verify: " and 3 < 2"
"false" -> expected operand, found 'and'

Statement to verify: "not 7 < 2"
"true"

Statement to verify: "2 < 3 < 4"
"false" -> operator '<' is non-associative

Statement to verify: "2 < (3 < 4)"
"true"

Statement to verify: "2 < foobar - 3 < 4"
"false" -> operator '<' is non-associative

Statement to verify: "2 < foobar and 3 < 4"
"true"

Statement to verify: "4 * (32 - 16) + 9 = 73"
"true"

Statement to verify: "235 76 + 1"
"false" -> expected 'EOF', found 76

Statement to verify: "true or false = not true"
"false" -> expected operand, found 'not'

Statement to verify: "true or false = (not true)"
"true"

Statement to verify: "not true or false = false"
"true"

Statement to verify: "not true = false"
"true"

Statement to verify: "a + b = not c and false"
"false" -> expected operand, found 'not'

Statement to verify: "a + b = (not c) and false"
"true"

Statement to verify: "a + b = (not c and false)"
"true"

Statement to verify: "ab_c / bd2 or < e_f7"
"false" -> expected operand, found '<'

Statement to verify: "g not = h"
"false" -> expected 'EOF', found 'not'

Statement to verify: "été = false"
"false" -> invalid character 'é' found

Statement to verify: "i++"
"false" -> expected 'EOF', found '++'

Statement to verify: "j & k"
"false" -> invalid character '&' found

Statement to verify: "l or _m"
"false" -> identifier cannot begin with an underscore

Julia[edit]

function substituteinnerparentheses(s, subs)
((i = findlast('(', s)) == nothing) && return (s, false)
((j = findfirst(')', s[i:end])) == nothing) && return (s, false)
okparse(s[i+1:j+i-2]) || return (s, false)
return s[1:i-1] * " " * subs * " " * s[j+i:end], true
end
 
function okparse(s)
while findfirst('(', s) != nothing
s, okinparentheses = substituteinnerparentheses(s, "true")
okinparentheses || return false
end
s = strip(s)
# Julia allows expressions like 2 + + + 3, or like true = not false, but these are not allowed here
# = or < can be used only once within parentheses
if occursin(r"(and|or|[\=\<\+\-\*\/])\s*(and|or|[\=\<\+\-\*\/])", s) ||
occursin(r"(^(and|^or|^[\=\<\+\-\*\/]))|((and|or|[\=\<\+\-\*\/])$)", s) ||
occursin(r"(\=|\<)\s*not\s", s) || count(c -> c == '=' || c == '<', s) > 1
return false
end
# Julia allows ., ,, ; and operators like % but these are not allowed here
# permitted: -+*/ true false and or not, ascii identifiers, and integers
for item in split(s, r"\s+")
 !occursin(
r"^[a-zA-Z][a-zA-Z_0-9]*$|^\d+$|^true$|^false$|^or$|^and$|^not$|^\=$|^\<$|^\+$|^-$|^\*$|^\/$",
item) && return false
end
# change and, or, and not to the corresponding Julia operators
s = replace(replace(replace(s, "and" => "&&"), "or" => "||"), "not" => "!")
try
# Use Julia's parser, which will throw exception if it parses an error
Meta.parse(s)
catch
return false
end
return true
end
 
teststatements = [
" not 3 < 4 or (true or 3 / 4 + 8 * 5 - 5 * 2 < 56) and 4 * 3 < 12 or not true",
" and 3 < 2",
"not 7 < 2",
"4 * (32 - 16) + 9 = 73",
"235 76 + 1",
"true or false = not true",
"not true = false",
"2 < 5 < 9"
]
 
for s in teststatements
println("The compiler parses the statement { $s } and outputs: ", okparse(s))
end
 
Output:
The compiler parses the statement {  not 3 < 4 or (true or 3 /  4 + 8 *  5 - 5 * 2 < 56) and 4 * 3  < 12 or not true } and outputs: true
The compiler parses the statement {  and 3 < 2 } and outputs: false
The compiler parses the statement { not 7 < 2 } and outputs: true
The compiler parses the statement { 4 * (32 - 16) + 9 = 73 } and outputs: true
The compiler parses the statement { 235 76 + 1 } and outputs: false
The compiler parses the statement { true or false = not true } and outputs: false
The compiler parses the statement { not true = false } and outputs: true
The compiler parses the statement { 2 < 5 < 9 } and outputs: false

Nim[edit]

import strutils, tables
 
type
 
# List of tokens with their textual representation.
Token = enum tkError = "invalid token", tkIdent = "identifier", tkInt = "integer",
tkLPar = "'('", tkRPar = "')'", tkFalse = "'false'", tkTrue = "'true'",
tkLt = "'<'", tkEq = "'='", tkAdd = "'+'", tkSub = "'-'", tkMul = "'*'",
tkDiv = "'/'", tkOr = "'or'", tkAnd = "'and'", tkNot = "'not'", tkEOF = "EOF"
 
Lexer = object
str: string # String to parse.
len: Natural # String length.
pos: int # Current lexer position.
token: Token # Current token.
error: string # Error message.
 
const
 
# Mapping of reserved identifiers to tokens.
IdentTokens = {"false": tkFalse, "true": tkTrue, "or": tkOr, "and": tkAnd, "not": tkNot}.toTable
 
# Mapping of characters to tokens.
CharTokens = {'(': tkLPar, ')': tkRPar, '<': tkLt, '=': tkEq,
'+': tkAdd, '-': tkSub, '*': tkMul, '/': tkDiv}.toTable
 
 
####################################################################################################
# Lexer.
 
# Forward reference.
func nextToken(lex: var Lexer)
 
 
func initLexer(str: string): Lexer =
## Initialize a lexer.
result = Lexer(str: str, len: str.len, pos: 0)
result.nextToken() # Always a token ahead.
 
 
func getIdToken(lex: var Lexer) =
## Get the token for an identifier.
var str: string
while lex.pos < lex.len and lex.str[lex.pos] in IdentChars:
str.add lex.str[lex.pos]
inc lex.pos
lex.token = IdentTokens.getOrDefault(str, tkIdent)
 
 
func getInt(lex: var Lexer) =
## Get an integer token.
while lex.pos < lex.len and lex.str[lex.pos] in Digits:
inc lex.pos
lex.token = tkInt
 
 
func nextToken(lex: var Lexer) =
## Find the next token.
 
# Skip spaces.
while lex.pos < lex.str.len and lex.str[lex.pos] == ' ':
inc lex.pos
 
if lex.pos == lex.str.len:
lex.token = tkEOF
 
else:
let ch = lex.str[lex.pos]
case ch
of 'a'..'z':
lex.getIdToken()
of '0'..'9':
lex.getint()
else:
inc lex.pos
lex.token = CharTokens.getOrDefault(ch, tkError)
 
 
####################################################################################################
# Parser.
 
# Forward reference.
proc checkExpr(lex: var Lexer): bool
 
 
proc checkPrimary(lex: var Lexer): bool =
## Check validity of a primary.
 
if lex.token in {tkIdent, tkInt, tkFalse, tkTrue}:
lex.nextToken()
return true
 
elif lex.token == tkLPar:
lex.nextToken()
if not lex.checkExpr():
return false
if lex.token != tkRPar:
lex.error = "Encountered $#; expected ')'.".format(lex.token)
return false
else:
lex.nextToken()
return true
 
else:
lex.error = "Encountered $#; expected identifier, litteral or '('.".format(lex.token)
return false
 
 
proc checkExpr6(lex: var Lexer): bool =
## Check validity of an expr6.
 
if not lex.checkPrimary(): return false
while lex.token in [tkMul, tkDiv]:
lex.nextToken()
if not lex.checkPrimary(): return false
result = true
 
 
proc checkExpr5(lex: var Lexer): bool =
## Check validity of an expr5.
 
if not lex.checkExpr6(): return false
while lex.token in [tkAdd, tkSub]:
lex.nextToken()
if not lex.checkExpr6(): return false
result = true
 
 
proc checkExpr4(lex: var Lexer): bool =
## Check validity of an expr4.
 
if lex.token == tkNot: lex.nextToken()
if not lex.checkExpr5(): return false
if lex.token in [tkLt, tkEq]:
lex.nextToken()
if not lex.checkExpr5(): return false
result = true
 
 
proc checkExpr3(lex: var Lexer): bool =
## Check validity of an expr3.
 
if not lex.checkExpr4(): return false
while lex.token == tkAnd:
lex.nextToken()
if not lex.checkExpr4(): return false
result = true
 
 
proc checkExpr2(lex: var Lexer): bool =
## Check validity of an expr2.
 
if not lex.checkExpr3(): return false
while lex.token == tkOr:
lex.nextToken()
if not lex.checkExpr3(): return false
result = true
 
 
proc checkExpr(lex: var Lexer): bool =
## Check validity of an expr.
lex.checkExpr2()
 
 
proc checkStmt(lex: var Lexer): bool =
## Check validity of a statement.
 
result = lex.checkExpr()
if result and lex.pos < lex.len:
lex.error = "Extra characters at end of statement."
result = false
 
#———————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————
 
# Using test set from Algol68 version.
 
const Tests = ["wombat",
"wombat or monotreme",
"( wombat and not )",
"wombat or not",
"a + 1",
"a + b < c",
"a + b - c * d / e < f and not ( g = h )",
"a + b - c * d / e < f and not ( g = h",
"a = b",
"a or b = c",
"$",
"true or false = not true",
"not true = false",
"3 + not 5",
"3 + (not 5)",
"(42 + 3",
" not 3 < 4 or (true or 3 / 4 + 8 * 5 - 5 * 2 < 56) and 4 * 3 < 12 or not true",
" and 3 < 2",
"not 7 < 2",
"2 < 3 < 4",
"2 < foobar - 3 < 4",
"2 < foobar and 3 < 4",
"4 * (32 - 16) + 9 = 73",
"235 76 + 1",
"a + b = not c and false",
"a + b = (not c) and false",
"a + b = (not c and false)",
"ab_c / bd2 or < e_f7",
"g not = h",
"été = false",
"i++",
"j & k",
"l or _m"]
 
for test in Tests:
var lex = initLexer(test)
let ok = checkStmt(lex)
echo test, " → ", ok
if not ok: echo "*** Error at position $1. $2 ".format(lex.pos, lex.error)
Output:
wombat → true
wombat or monotreme → true
( wombat and not ) → false
*** Error at position 18. Encountered ')'; expected identifier, litteral or '('. 
wombat or not → false
*** Error at position 13. Encountered EOF; expected identifier, litteral or '('. 
a + 1 → true
a + b < c → true
a + b - c * d / e < f and not ( g = h ) → true
a + b - c * d / e < f and not ( g = h → false
*** Error at position 37. Encountered EOF; expected ')'. 
a = b → true
a or b = c → true
$ → false
*** Error at position 1. Encountered invalid token; expected identifier, litteral or '('. 
true or false = not true → false
*** Error at position 19. Encountered 'not'; expected identifier, litteral or '('. 
not true = false → true
3 + not 5 → false
*** Error at position 7. Encountered 'not'; expected identifier, litteral or '('. 
3 + (not 5) → true
(42 + 3 → false
*** Error at position 7. Encountered EOF; expected ')'. 
 not 3 < 4 or (true or 3 /  4 + 8 *  5 - 5 * 2 < 56) and 4 * 3  < 12 or not true → true
 and 3 < 2 → false
*** Error at position 4. Encountered 'and'; expected identifier, litteral or '('. 
not 7 < 2 → true
2 < 3 < 4 → false
*** Error at position 7. Extra characters at end of statement. 
2 < foobar - 3 < 4 → false
*** Error at position 16. Extra characters at end of statement. 
2 < foobar and 3 < 4 → true
4 * (32 - 16) + 9 = 73 → true
235 76 + 1 → false
*** Error at position 6. Extra characters at end of statement. 
a + b = not c and false → false
*** Error at position 11. Encountered 'not'; expected identifier, litteral or '('. 
a + b = (not c) and false → true
a + b = (not c and false) → true
ab_c / bd2 or < e_f7 → false
*** Error at position 15. Encountered '<'; expected identifier, litteral or '('. 
g not = h → false
*** Error at position 5. Extra characters at end of statement. 
été = false → false
*** Error at position 1. Encountered invalid token; expected identifier, litteral or '('. 
i++ → false
*** Error at position 3. Encountered '+'; expected identifier, litteral or '('. 
j & k → false
*** Error at position 3. Extra characters at end of statement. 
l or _m → false
*** Error at position 6. Encountered invalid token; expected identifier, litteral or '('.

Perl[edit]

Made fix for 'not' see Discussion. Added 'not' and non-assoc fixes. Cooler output.

#!/usr/bin/perl
 
use strict; # http://www.rosettacode.org/wiki/Compiler/_Verifying_Syntax
use warnings;
 
sub error
{
my $pos = pos($_) // 0;
die $_, ' ' x ($pos + 7), "^ $_[0]\n";
}
sub want { /\G\Q$_[0]/gc or error $_[1] }
 
sub expr
{
my $level = shift;
/\G\h+/gc;
/\G\(/gc && want ')', "expected a closing paren", expr(0) or
$level <= 4 && /\Gnot\b/gc && expr(5) or
/\G (?!(?:and|or|not)\b) (?:\d+|[a-zA-Z]\w*)/gcx or
error "expected a primary";
/\G\h+/gc ? 1 :
$level <= 2 && /\Gor\b/gc ? expr(3) :
$level <= 3 && /\Gand\b/gc ? expr(4) :
$level <= 4 && /\G[=<]/gc ? expr(4.5) :
$level == 4.5 && /\G(?=[=<])/gc ? error "non-associative operator" :
$level <= 5 && /\G[+-]/gc ? expr(6) :
$level <= 6 && /\G[*\/]/gc ? expr(7) :
return 1 while 1;
}
 
while( <DATA> )
{
print eval { want "\n", "expected end of input", expr(0) } ?
" true $_" : "false [email protected]";
}
 
__DATA__
3 + not 5
3 + (not 5)
(42 + 3
(42 + 3 syntax_error
not 3 < 4 or (true or 3/4+8*5-5*2 < 56) and 4*3 < 12 or not true
and 3 < 2
not 7 < 2
2 < 3 < 4
2 < foobar - 3 < 4
2 < foobar and 3 < 4
4 * (32 - 16) + 9 = 73
235 76 + 1
a + b = not c and false
a + b = (not c) and false
a + b = (not c and false)
ab_c / bd2 or < e_f7
g not = h
i++
j & k
l or _m
UPPER_cAsE_aNd_letter_and_12345_test
Output:
false  3 + not 5
           ^ expected a primary
 true  3 + (not 5)
false  (42 + 3
              ^ expected a closing paren
false  (42 + 3 syntax_error
               ^ expected a closing paren
 true  not 3 < 4 or (true or 3/4+8*5-5*2 < 56) and 4*3 < 12 or not true
false  and 3 < 2
       ^ expected a primary
 true  not 7 < 2
false  2 < 3 < 4
             ^ non-associative operator
false  2 < foobar - 3 < 4
                      ^ non-associative operator
 true  2 < foobar and 3 < 4
 true  4 * (32 - 16) + 9 = 73
false  235 76 + 1
           ^ expected end of input
false  a + b = not c and false
               ^ expected a primary
 true  a + b = (not c) and false
 true  a + b = (not c and false)
false  ab_c / bd2 or < e_f7
                     ^ expected a primary
false  g not = h
         ^ expected end of input
false  i++
         ^ expected a primary
false  j & k
         ^ expected end of input
false  l or _m
            ^ expected a primary
 true  UPPER_cAsE_aNd_letter_and_12345_test

Phix[edit]

-- demo\rosetta\Compiler\Verify_Syntax.exw
with javascript_semantics
string src
integer ch, sdx
 
procedure skip_spaces()
    while 1 do
        if sdx>length(src) then exit end if
        ch = src[sdx]
        if not find(ch,{' ','\t','\r','\n'}) then exit end if
        sdx += 1
    end while
end procedure
 
enum SYMBOL, INTEGER, IDENT, ERROR, EOF
constant toktypes = {"SYMBOL","INTEGER","IDENT","ERROR","EOF"}
sequence tok

function sprintok(string fmt)
    tok[1] = toktypes[tok[1]]
    return sprintf(fmt,{tok})
end function

procedure next_token()
-- yeilds one of:
--  {SYMBOL,ch} where ch is one of "()+-/*=&<", or
--  {INTEGER,n}, or
--  {IDENT,string}, or
--  {ERROR,msg}, or
--  {EOF}
    skip_spaces()
    integer tokstart = sdx
    if tok[1]=ERROR then
        ?{"erm, tok is",tok} -- looping??
    elsif sdx>length(src) then
        tok = {EOF}
    elsif find(ch,"()+-/*=&<") then
        sdx += 1
        tok = {SYMBOL,ch&""}
    elsif (ch>='0' and ch<='9') then
        integer n = ch-'0'
        while true do
            sdx += 1
            if sdx>length(src) then exit end if
            ch = src[sdx]
            if ch<'0' or ch>'9' then exit end if
            n = n*10 + ch-'0'
        end while
        tok = {INTEGER,n}       
    elsif (ch>='a' and ch<='z')
       or (ch>='A' and ch<='Z') then
        while true do
            sdx += 1
            if sdx>length(src) then exit end if
            ch = src[sdx]
            if ch!='_' 
            and (ch<'a' or ch>'z')
            and (ch<'A' or ch>'Z')
            and (ch<'0' or ch>'9') then
                exit
            end if
        end while
        tok = {IDENT,src[tokstart..sdx-1]}
    elsif ch='_' then
        tok = {ERROR,"identifiers may not start with _"}
        sdx += 1
    else
        tok = {ERROR,sprintf("illegal char (%c/%d)",ch)}
        sdx += 1
    end if
end procedure

forward procedure or_expr()

procedure primary()
    integer tt = tok[1]
    if tt=IDENT
    or tt=INTEGER then
        next_token()
    elsif tok={SYMBOL,"("} then
        next_token()
        or_expr()
        if tok!={SYMBOL,")"} then
            tok = {ERROR,") expected"}
        else
            next_token()
        end if
    else
        tok = {ERROR,sprintok("invalid [%v]")}
    end if
end procedure

procedure mul_expr()
    while true do
        primary()
        if not find(tok,{{SYMBOL,"*"},{SYMBOL,"/"}}) then exit end if
        next_token()
    end while
end procedure

procedure sum_expr()
    while true do
        mul_expr()
        if not find(tok,{{SYMBOL,"+"},{SYMBOL,"-"}}) then exit end if
        next_token()
    end while
end procedure

procedure cmp_expr()
    if tok=={IDENT,"not"} then next_token() end if
--  while true do
--      sum_expr()
--      if not find(tok,{{SYMBOL,"="},{SYMBOL,"<"}}) then exit end if
--      next_token()
--  end while
    sum_expr()
    if find(tok,{{SYMBOL,"="},{SYMBOL,"<"}}) then
        next_token()
        sum_expr()
    end if
end procedure

procedure and_expr()
    while true do
        cmp_expr()
        if tok!={IDENT,"and"} then exit end if
        next_token()
    end while
end procedure

procedure or_expr()
    while true do
        and_expr()
        if tok!={IDENT,"or"} then exit end if
        next_token()
    end while
end procedure

procedure statement()
    or_expr()
end procedure
 
procedure verify_syntax(string source)
    src = source
    sdx = 1
    tok = {0} -- ("not error"/invalid-ish)
    next_token()
    statement()
    printf(1,"%30s  ==>  %s\n",{source,iff(tok[1]=EOF?"true":sprintok("false [tok=%v]"))})
end procedure

constant tests = {
        "$",
        "one",
        "either or both",
        "a + 1",
        "a + b < c",
        "a = b",
        "a or b = c",
        "3 + not 5",
        "3 + (not 5)",
        "(42 + 3",
        "(42 + 3)",
        " not 3 < 4 or (true or 3 /  4 + 8 *  5 - 5 * 2 < 56) and 4 * 3  < 12 or not true",
        " and 3 < 2",
        "not 7 < 2",
        "2 < 3 < 4",
        "2 < (3 < 4)",
        "2 < foobar - 3 < 4",
        "2 < foobar and 3 < 4",
        "4 * (32 - 16) + 9 = 73",
        "235 76 + 1",
        "true or false = not true",
        "true or false = (not true)",
        "not true or false = false",
        "not true = false",
        "a + b = not c and false",
        "a + b = (not c) and false",
        "a + b = (not c and false)",
        "ab_c / bd2 or < e_f7",
        "g not = h",
        "i++",
        "j & k",
        "l or _m"}

printf(1,"Verify Syntax:\n")
for i=1 to length(tests) do
    verify_syntax(tests[i])
end for

?"done"
{} = wait_key()
Output:

Note that "= not c" fails, whereas "= (not c)" passes, see talk page. (Arguably the task definition should be fixed.)

Verify Syntax:
                             $  ==>  false [tok={"ERROR",`invalid [{"ERROR","illegal char ($/36)"}]`}]
                           one  ==>  true
                either or both  ==>  true
                         a + 1  ==>  true
                     a + b < c  ==>  true
                         a = b  ==>  true
                    a or b = c  ==>  true
                     3 + not 5  ==>  false [tok={"INTEGER",5}]
                   3 + (not 5)  ==>  true
                       (42 + 3  ==>  false [tok={"ERROR",") expected"}]
                      (42 + 3)  ==>  true
 not 3 < 4 or (true or 3 /  4 + 8 *  5 - 5 * 2 < 56) and 4 * 3  < 12 or not true  ==>  true
                     and 3 < 2  ==>  false [tok={"INTEGER",3}]
                     not 7 < 2  ==>  true
                     2 < 3 < 4  ==>  false [tok={"SYMBOL","<"}]
                   2 < (3 < 4)  ==>  true
            2 < foobar - 3 < 4  ==>  false [tok={"SYMBOL","<"}]
          2 < foobar and 3 < 4  ==>  true
        4 * (32 - 16) + 9 = 73  ==>  true
                    235 76 + 1  ==>  false [tok={"INTEGER",76}]
      true or false = not true  ==>  false [tok={"IDENT","true"}]
    true or false = (not true)  ==>  true
     not true or false = false  ==>  true
              not true = false  ==>  true
       a + b = not c and false  ==>  false [tok={"IDENT","c"}]
     a + b = (not c) and false  ==>  true
     a + b = (not c and false)  ==>  true
          ab_c / bd2 or < e_f7  ==>  false [tok={"ERROR",`invalid [{"SYMBOL","<"}]`}]
                     g not = h  ==>  false [tok={"IDENT","not"}]
                           i++  ==>  false [tok={"ERROR",`invalid [{"SYMBOL","+"}]`}]
                         j & k  ==>  false [tok={"SYMBOL","&"}]
                       l or _m  ==>  false [tok={"ERROR",`invalid [{"ERROR","identifiers may not start with _"}]`}]

Raku[edit]

Format of task grammar is changed from EBNF to ABNF to cater for the Grammar::ABNF module and testing data is taken from the Perl entry.

# 20200511 Raku programming solution
 
use Grammar::ABNF;
 
grammar G is Grammar::ABNF { token CRLF { "\n" } };
 
my $g = G.generate(Q:to<RULES>
stmt = expr
expr = expr_level_2
expr_level_2 = expr_level_3 *( " or " expr_level_3 )
expr_level_3 = expr_level_4 *( " and " expr_level_4 )
expr_level_4 = ["not "] expr_level_5 [ [ " = " / " < " ] expr_level_5 ]
expr_level_5 = expr_level_6 *( [ " + " / " - " ] expr_level_6 )
expr_level_6 = primary *( [ " * " / " / " ] primary )
Integer = Digit *( Digit )
Identifier = Letter *( Letter / Digit / "
_" )
primary = Identifier / Integer / "
(" expr ")" / " true " / " false "
Digit = "
0" / "1" / "2" / "3" / "4" / "5" / "6" / "7" / "8" / "9"
Letter = "
a" / "b" / "c" / "d" / "e" / "f" / "g" / "h" / "i" / "j"
/ "
k" / "l" / "m" / "n" / "o" / "p" / "q" / "r" / "s" / "t"
/ "
u" / "v" / "w" / "x" / "y" / "z" / "A" / "B" / "C" / "D"
/ "
E" / "F" / "G" / "H" / "I" / "J" / "K" / "L" / "M" / "N"
/ "
O" / "P" / "Q" / "R" / "S" / "T" / "U" / "V" / "W" / "X"
/ "
Y" / "Z"
RULES
);
 
my \DATA = Q:to<DATA>;
3 + not 5
3 + (not 5)
(42 + 3
(42 + 3 syntax_error
not 3 < 4 or (true or 3 / 4 + 8 * 5 - 5 * 2 < 56) and 4 * 3 < 12 or not true
and 3 < 2
not 7 < 2
2 < 3 < 4
2 < foobar - 3 < 4
2 < foobar and 3 < 4
4 * (32 - 16) + 9 = 73
235 76 + 1
a + b = not c and false
a + b = (not c) and false
a + b = (not c and false)
ab_c / bd2 or < e_f7
g not = h
i++
j & k
l or _m
UPPER_cAsE_aNd_letter_and_12345_test
DATA
 
say $g.parse($_).Bool, "
\t", $_ for DATA.lines
Output:
False   3 + not 5
True    3 + (not 5)
False   (42 + 3
False   (42 + 3 syntax_error
True    not 3 < 4 or (true or 3 / 4 + 8 * 5 - 5 * 2 < 56) and 4 * 3 < 12 or not true
False   and 3 < 2
True    not 7 < 2
False   2 < 3 < 4
False   2 < foobar - 3 < 4
True    2 < foobar and 3 < 4
True    4 * (32 - 16) + 9 = 73
False   235 76 + 1
False   a + b = not c and false
True    a + b = (not c) and false
True    a + b = (not c and false)
False   ab_c / bd2 or < e_f7
False   g not = h
False   i++
False   j & k
False   l or _m
True    UPPER_cAsE_aNd_letter_and_12345_test

Wren[edit]

Translation of: Nim
Library: Wren-dynamic
Library: Wren-str
import "/dynamic" for Enum
import "/str" for Char
 
var Token = Enum.create(
"Token", ["error", "ident", "int", "lpar", "rpar", "False", "True",
"lt", "eq", "add", "sub", "mul", "div", "or", "and", "not", "eof"]
)
 
var Token2Text = {
Token.error: "invalid token", Token.ident: "identifier", Token.int: "integer",
Token.lpar: "'('", Token.rpar: "')'", Token.False: "'false'", Token.True: "'true'",
Token.lt: "'<'", Token.eq: "'='", Token.add: "'+'", Token.sub: "'-'",
Token.mul: "'*'", Token.div: "'/'", Token.or: "'or'", Token.and: "'and'",
Token.not: "'not'", Token.eof: "EOF"
}
 
var IdentTokens = {
"false": Token.False, "true": Token.True, "or": Token.or,
"and": Token.and, "not": Token.not
}
 
var CharTokens = {
"(": Token.lpar, ")": Token.rpar, "<": Token.lt, "=": Token.eq,
"+": Token.add, "-": Token.sub, "*": Token.mul, "/": Token.div
}
 
var IsIdentChar = Fn.new { |c| Char.isAsciiAlphaNum(c) || c == "_" }
 
class Lexer {
static init(s) {
var lex = Lexer.new(s, s.count, 0, "", "")
lex.nextToken
return lex
}
 
construct new(str, len, pos, token, error) {
_str = str // string to parse
_len = len // string length
_pos = pos // current lexer position
_token = token // current token
_error = error // error message
}
 
// property getters required
pos { _pos }
error { _error }
 
// get the token for an identifier
getIdToken {
var s = ""
while (_pos < _len && IsIdentChar.call(_str[_pos])) {
s = s + _str[_pos]
_pos = _pos + 1
}
_token = IdentTokens.containsKey(s) ? IdentTokens[s] : Token.ident
}
 
// get an integer token
getInt {
while (_pos < _len && Char.isDigit(_str[_pos])) _pos = _pos + 1
_token = Token.int
}
 
// find the next token
nextToken {
// skip spaces
while (_pos < _len && _str[_pos] == " ") _pos = _pos + 1
if (_pos == _len) {
_token = Token.eof
} else {
var ch = _str[_pos]
if (Char.isAsciiLower(ch)) {
getIdToken
} else if (Char.isDigit(ch)) {
getInt
} else {
_pos = _pos + 1
_token = CharTokens.containsKey(ch) ? CharTokens[ch] : Token.error
}
}
}
 
// check validity of a primary
checkPrimary {
if ([Token.ident, Token.int, Token.False, Token.True].contains(_token)) {
nextToken
return true
} else if (_token == Token.lpar) {
nextToken
if (!checkExpr) return false
if (_token != Token.rpar) {
_error = "Encountered %(Token2Text[_token]); expected ')'"
return false
} else {
nextToken
return true
}
} else {
_error = "Encountered %(Token2Text[_token]); expected identifier, literal or '('"
return false
}
}
 
// check validity of an expr6
checkExpr6 {
if (!checkPrimary) return false
while ([Token.mul, Token.div].contains(_token)) {
nextToken
if (!checkPrimary) return false
}
return true
}
 
// check validity of an expr5
checkExpr5 {
if (!checkExpr6) return false
while ([Token.add, Token.sub].contains(_token)) {
nextToken
if (!checkExpr6) return false
}
return true
}
 
// check validity of an expr4
checkExpr4 {
if (_token == Token.not) nextToken
if (!checkExpr5) return false
if ([Token.lt, Token.eq].contains(_token)) {
nextToken
if (!checkExpr5) return false
}
return true
}
 
// check validity of an expr3
checkExpr3 {
if (!checkExpr4) return false
while (_token == Token.and) {
nextToken
if (!checkExpr4) return false
}
return true
}
 
// check validity of an expr2
checkExpr2 {
if (!checkExpr3) return false
while (_token == Token.or) {
nextToken
if (!checkExpr3) return false
}
return true
}
 
// check validity of an expr
checkExpr { checkExpr2 }
 
// check validity of a statement
checkStmt {
var result = checkExpr
if (result && _pos < _len) {
_error = "Extra characters at end of statement."
result = false
}
return result
}
}
 
// using test set from Algol68 version
 
var tests = [
"wombat",
"wombat or monotreme",
"( wombat and not )",
"wombat or not",
"a + 1",
"a + b < c",
"a + b - c * d / e < f and not ( g = h )",
"a + b - c * d / e < f and not ( g = h",
"a = b",
"a or b = c",
"$",
"true or false = not true",
"not true = false",
"3 + not 5",
"3 + (not 5)",
"(42 + 3",
" not 3 < 4 or (true or 3 / 4 + 8 * 5 - 5 * 2 < 56) and 4 * 3 < 12 or not true",
" and 3 < 2",
"not 7 < 2",
"2 < 3 < 4",
"2 < foobar - 3 < 4",
"2 < foobar and 3 < 4",
"4 * (32 - 16) + 9 = 73",
"235 76 + 1",
"a + b = not c and false",
"a + b = (not c) and false",
"a + b = (not c and false)",
"ab_c / bd2 or < e_f7",
"g not = h",
"été = false",
"i++",
"j & k",
"l or _m"
]
 
for (test in tests) {
var lex = Lexer.init(test)
var ok = lex.checkStmt
System.print("%(test) -> %(ok)")
if (!ok) {
System.print("*** Error at position %(lex.pos). %(lex.error)\n")
}
}
Output:
wombat -> true
wombat or monotreme -> true
( wombat and not ) -> false
*** Error at position 18. Encountered ')'; expected identifier, literal or '('

wombat or not -> false
*** Error at position 13. Encountered EOF; expected identifier, literal or '('

a + 1 -> true
a + b < c -> true
a + b - c * d / e < f and not ( g = h ) -> true
a + b - c * d / e < f and not ( g = h -> false
*** Error at position 37. Encountered EOF; expected ')'

a = b -> true
a or b = c -> true
$ -> false
*** Error at position 1. Encountered invalid token; expected identifier, literal or '('

true or false = not true -> false
*** Error at position 19. Encountered 'not'; expected identifier, literal or '('

not true = false -> true
3 + not 5 -> false
*** Error at position 7. Encountered 'not'; expected identifier, literal or '('

3 + (not 5) -> true
(42 + 3 -> false
*** Error at position 7. Encountered EOF; expected ')'

 not 3 < 4 or (true or 3 /  4 + 8 *  5 - 5 * 2 < 56) and 4 * 3  < 12 or not true -> true
 and 3 < 2 -> false
*** Error at position 4. Encountered 'and'; expected identifier, literal or '('

not 7 < 2 -> true
2 < 3 < 4 -> false
*** Error at position 7. Extra characters at end of statement.

2 < foobar - 3 < 4 -> false
*** Error at position 16. Extra characters at end of statement.

2 < foobar and 3 < 4 -> true
4 * (32 - 16) + 9 = 73 -> true
235 76 + 1 -> false
*** Error at position 6. Extra characters at end of statement.

a + b = not c and false -> false
*** Error at position 11. Encountered 'not'; expected identifier, literal or '('

a + b = (not c) and false -> true
a + b = (not c and false) -> true
ab_c / bd2 or < e_f7 -> false
*** Error at position 15. Encountered '<'; expected identifier, literal or '('

g not = h -> false
*** Error at position 5. Extra characters at end of statement.

été = false -> false
*** Error at position 1. Encountered invalid token; expected identifier, literal or '('

i++ -> false
*** Error at position 3. Encountered '+'; expected identifier, literal or '('

j & k -> false
*** Error at position 3. Extra characters at end of statement.

l or _m -> false
*** Error at position 6. Encountered invalid token; expected identifier, literal or '('