# Solving coin problems

*is a*

**Solving coin problems****draft**programming task. It is not yet considered ready to be promoted as a complete task, for reasons that should be found in its talk page.

In 1964, Daniel G. Bobrow created the STUDENT AI program in order to solve the types of word problems found in high school algebra books. You can read Bobrow's 1964 Ph.D. thesis, *Natural Language Input for a Computer Problem Solving System*. The program consists of 3 main pieces:

- A pattern matcher that reads the english input,
- rules to translate english into equations, and
- an algebraic equation solver.

In chapter 7 of his book, *Paradigms of Artificial Intelligence Programming: Case Studies in Common Lisp*, Peter Norvig lays out the STUDENT program and then challenges his readers as follows:

- "
*Exercise 7.8 [d]*Find a mathematically oriented domain that is sufficiently limited so that STUDENT can solve problems in it. The chemistry of solutions (calculating pH concentrations) might be an example. Write the necessary *student-rules*, and test the resulting program." (PAIP, p. 236)

There are several types of word problems commonly encountered in high school algebra, for example coin problems, age problems, distance problems, mixture problems, finance problems, lever problems, and work problems.

For this task, let's focus specifically on coin problems. Example: "If a person has three times as many quarters as dimes and the total amount of money is $5.95, find the number of quarters and dimes." (Bluman, Allan G. *Math word problems demystified*. 2005. The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. p. 112, problem 1.)

Coin problems can all pretty much be schematized as follows:

- There are types of valuable things:
- There are instances of the th type of valuable thing.
- The value of the th type of thing is
- The total number of things is:
- The total value of all the things is:

A typical coin problem wants us to find the , given some of the other information from the schema.

The task is to write an AI program, inspired by Bobrow's STUDENT program and Norvig's challenge in PAIP, capable of solving the kinds of coin problems found in high school algebra.

The program should take coin problems written in plain english and output the solutions. The solutions needn't be output in English.

## Go[edit]

This relatively simple program can only solve problems with 2 types of coins (or other objects) or 3 types of coins (but not other objects) without the need for an equation solver. However, it is able to solve all 28 problems of these types which were originally listed in the Perl entry before it was restricted to the subset of those problems (24) involving coins and bills.

package main

import (

"fmt"

"math"

"regexp"

"sort"

"strconv"

"strings"

)

type kind struct {

name string

value float64

number int

}

// variable1 = constant1 * variable2 + constant2

type relation struct {

variable1 string

variable2 string

constant1 float64

constant2 float64

}

var nums = map[string]string{

"one-half": "0 times", "one": "1", "two": "2", "three": "3", "four": "4", "five": "5",

"six": "6", "seven": "7", "eight": "8", "nine": "9", "ten": "10", "eleven": "11", "twelve": "12",

"thirteen": "13", "fourteen": "14", "fifteen": "15", "sixteen": "16", "seventeen": "17",

"eighteen": "18", "nineteen": "19", "twenty": "20", "thirty": "30", "forty": "40",

"fifty": "50", "sixty": "60", "seventy": "70", "eighty": "80", "ninety": "90",

"hundred": "100"}

var nums2 = map[string]string{

"twenty-": "2", "thirty-": "3", "forty-": "4",

"fifty-": "5", "sixty-": "6", "seventy-": "7", "eighty-": "8", "ninety-": "9"}

var coins = map[string]float64{

"pennies": 0.01, "nickels": 0.05, "dimes": 0.10, "quarters": 0.25, "half-dollars": 0.50,

"one-dollar": 1.00, "two-dollar": 2.00, "five-dollar": 5.00, "ten-dollar": 10.00}

var bills = map[string]string{

"$1": "one-dollar", "$2": "two-dollar", "$5": "five-dollar", "$10": "ten-dollar"}

var (

rx1 = regexp.MustCompile(`\$\d+(\.\d+)?|\d+¢`)

rx2 = regexp.MustCompile(`\b(pennies|nickels|dimes|quarters|half-dollar|one-dollar|two-dollar|five-dollar|ten-dollar)\b`)

rx3 = regexp.MustCompile(`\s(\d+)\s`)

rx4 = regexp.MustCompile(`(\d+) times as many ([-\w]+) as (s?he (does|has) )?([-\w]+)`)

rx5 = regexp.MustCompile(`(\d+) more ([-\w]+) than (s?he (does|has) )?([-\w]+)`)

rx6 = regexp.MustCompile(`(\d+) less ([-\w]+) than (s?he (does|has) )?([-\w]+)`)

rx7 = regexp.MustCompile(`(\d+) dollars`)

)

func spaced(s string) string {

return fmt.Sprintf(" %s ", s)

}

// Gets a sorted slice of monetary values.

func getValues(q string) []float64 {

ss := rx1.FindAllString(q, -1)

if ss == nil {

return nil

}

var res []float64

for _, s := range ss {

if len(s) == 0 {

continue

}

if s[0] == '$' {

s = s[1:]

} else {

s = "." + s[:len(s)-2] // '¢' is 2 bytes

}

f, _ := strconv.ParseFloat(s, 64)

res = append(res, f)

}

sort.Float64s(res)

return res

}

// Gets a sorted slice of non-monetary integers.

func getNumbers(q string) []int {

ns := rx3.FindAllString(q, -1)

if ns == nil {

return nil

}

var res []int

for _, n := range ns {

i, _ := strconv.Atoi(strings.TrimSpace(n))

res = append(res, i)

}

sort.Ints(res)

return res

}

// Gets the 'kinds' for the problem.

func getKinds(a []string) (int, []kind) {

num, _ := strconv.Atoi(a[1])

kinds := []kind{{a[2], 0, 0}, {a[5], 0, 0}}

areCoins := false

for i := range kinds {

if v, ok := coins[kinds[i].name]; ok {

kinds[i].value = v

areCoins = true

}

}

if !areCoins {

return 0, nil

}

return num, kinds

}

// Checks if the problem involves 3 coins and

// also returns their names and the names of the coin which occurs most.

func hasThreeCoins(q string) ([]string, []string, bool) {

q = strings.ReplaceAll(q, ".", "")

q = strings.ReplaceAll(q, ",", "")

words := strings.Split(q, " ")

coinMap := make(map[string]int)

for _, word := range words {

if _, ok := coins[word]; ok {

coinMap[word]++

}

}

if len(coinMap) != 3 {

return nil, []string{}, false

}

maxNum := 0

var maxNames []string

var names []string

for k, v := range coinMap {

names = append(names, k)

if v > maxNum {

maxNum = v

maxNames = maxNames[:0]

maxNames = append(maxNames, k)

} else if v == maxNum {

maxNames = append(maxNames, k)

}

}

return names, maxNames, true

}

// Processes a problem which involves 3 coins.

func threeCoins(p, q string, names, maxNames []string) {

var relations []relation

am := rx4.FindAllStringSubmatch(q, -1)

for i := 0; i < len(am); i++ {

mult, kinds := getKinds(am[i])

relations = append(relations, relation{kinds[0].name, kinds[1].name, float64(mult), 0})

}

mt := rx5.FindAllStringSubmatch(q, -1)

for i := 0; i < len(mt); i++ {

plus, kinds := getKinds(mt[i])

relations = append(relations, relation{kinds[0].name, kinds[1].name, 1, float64(plus)})

}

lt := rx6.FindAllStringSubmatch(q, -1)

for i := 0; i < len(lt); i++ {

minus, kinds := getKinds(lt[i])

relations = append(relations, relation{kinds[0].name, kinds[1].name, 1, -float64(minus)})

}

le := len(relations)

if le > 2 {

errorMsg(p)

return

}

if le == 0 { // numbers of each coin must be the same

sum := 0.0

for _, name := range names {

sum += coins[name]

}

res := getValues(q)

tv := res[len(res)-1]

n := int(tv/sum + 0.5)

var kinds []kind

for _, name := range names {

kinds = append(kinds, kind{name, 0, n})

}

printAnswers(p, kinds)

} else {

res := getValues(q)

totalValue := res[len(res)-1]

for _, maxName := range maxNames {

for i := 0; i < le; i++ {

if relations[i].constant1 == 0 {

relations[i].constant1 = 0.5 // deals with 'one-half' cases

}

if le == 2 && maxName == relations[i].variable1 {

v := relations[i].variable2

relations[i].variable1, relations[i].variable2 = v, maxName

relations[i].constant1 = 1 / relations[i].constant1

relations[i].constant2 = -relations[i].constant2

}

}

tv := totalValue

var v1, v2, v3 string

var n1, n2, n3 int

if le == 2 {

tmc := coins[relations[0].variable1]*relations[0].constant1 +

coins[relations[1].variable1]*relations[1].constant1 + coins[maxName]

tv -= coins[relations[0].variable1]*relations[0].constant2 +

coins[relations[1].variable1]*relations[1].constant2

v1, v2, v3 = maxName, relations[0].variable1, relations[1].variable1

n1 = int(tv/tmc + 0.5)

n2 = int(relations[0].constant1*float64(n1) + relations[0].constant2 + 0.5)

n3 = int(relations[1].constant1*float64(n1) + relations[1].constant2 + 0.5)

} else {

res2 := getNumbers(q)

tn := float64(res2[len(res2)-1])

v1, v2 = relations[0].variable1, relations[0].variable2

for _, name := range names {

if name != v1 && name != v2 {

v3 = name

break

}

}

mult1, mult2, mult3 := coins[v1], coins[v2], coins[v3]

n2 = int(((tn-relations[0].constant2)*mult3-tv+relations[0].constant2*mult1)/

((relations[0].constant1+1)*mult3-relations[0].constant1*mult1-mult2) + 0.5)

n1 = int(float64(n2)*relations[0].constant1 + relations[0].constant2 + 0.5)

n3 = int(tn) - n1 - n2

}

calcValue := float64(n1)*coins[v1] + float64(n2)*coins[v2] + float64(n3)*coins[v3]

if math.Abs(totalValue-calcValue) <= 1e-14 {

kinds := []kind{kind{v1, 0, n1}, kind{v2, 0, n2}, kind{v3, 0, n3}}

printAnswers(p, kinds)

return

}

}

errorMsg(p)

}

return

}

func printAnswers(p string, kinds []kind) {

fmt.Println(p)

fmt.Print("ANSWER:")

for i, kind := range kinds {

if i > 0 {

fmt.Print(",")

}

fmt.Printf(" %d %s", kind.number, kind.name)

}

fmt.Println("\n")

}

func errorMsg(p string) {

fmt.Println(p)

fmt.Println("*** CAN'T SOLVE THIS ONE ***\n")

}

func main() {

ps := []string{

"If a person has three times as many quarters as dimes and the total amount of money is $5.95, find the number of quarters and dimes.",

"A pile of 18 coins consists of pennies and nickels. If the total amount of the coins is 38¢, find the number of pennies and nickels.",

"A small child has 6 more quarters than nickels. If the total amount of coins is $3.00, find the number of nickels and quarters the child has.",

"A child's bank contains 32 coins consisting of nickels and quarters. If the total amount of money is $3.80, find the number of nickels and quarters in the bank.",

"A person has twice as many dimes as she has pennies and three more nickels than pennies. If the total amount of the coins is $1.97, find the numbers of each type of coin the person has.",

"In a bank, there are three times as many quarters as half dollars and 6 more dimes than half dollars. If the total amount of the money in the bank is $4.65, find the number of each type of coin in the bank.",

"A person bought 12 stamps consisting of 37¢ stamps and 23¢ stamps. If the cost of the stamps is $3.74, find the number of each type of the stamps purchased.",

"A dairy store sold a total of 80 ice cream sandwiches and ice cream bars. If the sandwiches cost $0.69 each and the bars cost $0.75 each and the store made $58.08, find the number of each sold.",

"An office supply store sells college-ruled notebook paper for $1.59 a ream and wide-ruled notebook paper for $2.29 a ream. If a student purchased 9 reams of notebook paper and paid $15.71, how many reams of each type of paper did the student purchase?",

"A clerk is given $75 in bills to put in a cash drawer at the start of a workday. There are twice as many $1 bills as $5 bills and one less $10 bill than $5 bills. How many of each type of bill are there?",

"A person has 8 coins consisting of quarters and dimes. If the total amount of this change is $1.25, how many of each kind of coin are there?",

"A person has 3 times as many dimes as he has nickels and 5 more pennies than nickels. If the total amount of these coins is $1.13, how many of each kind of coin does he have?",

"A person bought ten greeting cards consisting of birthday cards costing $1.50 each and anniversary cards costing $2.00 each. If the total cost of the cards was $17.00, find the number of each kind of card the person bought.",

"A person has 9 more dimes than nickels. If the total amount of money is $1.20, find the number of dimes the person has.",

"A person has 20 bills consisting of $1 bills and $2 bills. If the total amount of money the person has is $35, find the number of $2 bills the person has.",

"A bank contains 8 more pennies than nickels and 3 more dimes than nickels. If the total amount of money in the bank is $3.10, find the number of dimes in the bank.",

"Your uncle walks in, jingling the coins in his pocket. He grins at you and tells you that you can have all the coins if you can figure out how many of each kind of coin he is carrying. You're not too interested until he tells you that he's been collecting those gold-tone one-dollar coins. The twenty-six coins in his pocket are all dollars and quarters, and they add up to seventeen dollars in value. How many of each coin does he have?",

"A collection of 33 coins, consisting of nickels, dimes, and quarters, has a value of $3.30. If there are three times as many nickels as quarters, and one-half as many dimes as nickels, how many coins of each kind are there?",

"A wallet contains the same number of pennies, nickels, and dimes. The coins total $1.44. How many of each type of coin does the wallet contain?",

"Suppose Ken has 25 coins in nickels and dimes only and has a total of $1.65. How many of each coin does he have?",

"Terry has 2 more quarters than dimes and has a total of $6.80. The number of quarters and dimes is 38. How many quarters and dimes does Terry have?",

"In my wallet, I have one-dollar bills, five-dollar bills, and ten-dollar bills. The total amount in my wallet is $43. I have four times as many one-dollar bills as ten-dollar bills. All together, there are 13 bills in my wallet. How many of each bill do I have?",

"Marsha has three times as many one-dollar bills as she does five dollar bills. She has a total of $32. How many of each bill does she have?",

"A vending machine has $41.25 in it. There are 255 coins total and the machine only accepts nickels, dimes and quarters. There are twice as many dimes as nickels. How many of each coin are in the machine?",

"Michael had 27 coins in all, valuing $4.50. If he had only quarters and dimes, how many coins of each kind did he have?",

"Lucille had $13.25 in nickels and quarters. If she had 165 coins in all, how many of each type of coin did she have?",

"Ben has $45.25 in quarters and dimes. If he has 29 less quarters than dimes, how many of each type of coin does he have?",

"A person has 12 coins consisting of dimes and pennies. If the total amount of money is $0.30, how many of each coin are there?",

}

for _, p := range ps {

q := strings.ToLower(p)

q = strings.ReplaceAll(q, "twice", "two times")

for _, d := range []string{"half", "one", "two", "five", "ten"} {

q = strings.ReplaceAll(q, d+" dollar", d+"-dollar")

}

for k, v := range nums {

q = strings.ReplaceAll(q, spaced(k), spaced(v))

}

for k, v := range nums2 {

q = strings.ReplaceAll(q, k, v)

}

for k, v := range nums {

q = strings.ReplaceAll(q, k+" ", v+" ")

}

for k, v := range bills {

q = strings.ReplaceAll(q, k+" ", v+" ")

}

q = strings.ReplaceAll(q, " bills", "")

q = strings.ReplaceAll(q, " bill", "")

// check if there are 3 coins involved

if names, maxNames, ok := hasThreeCoins(q); ok {

threeCoins(p, q, names, maxNames)

continue

}

am := rx4.FindAllStringSubmatch(q, -1)

if len(am) == 1 {

mult, kinds := getKinds(am[0])

if kinds == nil {

errorMsg(p)

continue

}

res := getValues(q)

tv := res[len(res)-1]

fmult := float64(mult)

kinds[1].number = int(tv/(fmult*kinds[0].value+kinds[1].value) + 0.5)

kinds[0].number = kinds[1].number * mult

printAnswers(p, kinds)

continue

}

mt := rx5.FindAllStringSubmatch(q, -1)

if len(mt) == 1 {

plus, kinds := getKinds(mt[0])

if kinds == nil {

errorMsg(p)

continue

}

res := getValues(q)

tv := res[len(res)-1]

fplus := float64(plus)

kinds[1].number = int((tv-fplus*kinds[0].value)/(kinds[0].value+kinds[1].value) + 0.5)

kinds[0].number = kinds[1].number + plus

printAnswers(p, kinds)

continue

}

lt := rx6.FindAllStringSubmatch(q, -1)

if len(lt) == 1 {

minus, kinds := getKinds(lt[0])

if kinds == nil {

errorMsg(p)

continue

}

res := getValues(q)

tv := res[len(res)-1]

fminus := float64(minus)

kinds[1].number = int((tv+fminus*kinds[0].value)/(kinds[0].value+kinds[1].value) + 0.5)

kinds[0].number = kinds[1].number - minus

printAnswers(p, kinds)

continue

}

res := getValues(q)

var tv float64

if len(res) > 0 {

tv = res[len(res)-1]

} else {

res3 := rx7.FindAllStringSubmatch(q, -1)

i, _ := strconv.Atoi(res3[0][1])

tv = float64(i)

}

res2 := getNumbers(q)

tn := res2[len(res2)-1]

coinNames := rx2.FindAllString(q, -1)

sort.Strings(coinNames)

var kinds []kind

if len(coinNames) > 0 {

kinds = append(kinds, kind{coinNames[0], coins[coinNames[0]], 0})

for i := 1; i < len(coinNames); i++ {

if coinNames[i] != coinNames[i-1] {

kinds = append(kinds, kind{coinNames[i], coins[coinNames[i]], 0})

}

}

if len(kinds) != 2 {

errorMsg(p)

continue

}

} else if len(res) >= 3 {

kinds = append(kinds, kind{fmt.Sprintf("$%.2f item", res[0]), res[0], 0})

for i := 1; i < len(res)-1; i++ {

if res[i] != res[i-1] {

kinds = append(kinds, kind{fmt.Sprintf("$%.2f item", res[i]), res[i], 0})

}

}

if len(kinds) != 2 {

errorMsg(p)

continue

}

} else {

errorMsg(p)

continue

}

ftn := float64(tn)

kinds[0].number = int((tv-ftn*kinds[1].value)/(kinds[0].value-kinds[1].value) + 0.5)

kinds[1].number = tn - kinds[0].number

printAnswers(p, kinds)

}

}

- Output:

If a person has three times as many quarters as dimes and the total amount of money is $5.95, find the number of quarters and dimes. ANSWER: 21 quarters, 7 dimes A pile of 18 coins consists of pennies and nickels. If the total amount of the coins is 38¢, find the number of pennies and nickels. ANSWER: 5 nickels, 13 pennies A small child has 6 more quarters than nickels. If the total amount of coins is $3.00, find the number of nickels and quarters the child has. ANSWER: 11 quarters, 5 nickels A child's bank contains 32 coins consisting of nickels and quarters. If the total amount of money is $3.80, find the number of nickels and quarters in the bank. ANSWER: 21 nickels, 11 quarters A person has twice as many dimes as she has pennies and three more nickels than pennies. If the total amount of the coins is $1.97, find the numbers of each type of coin the person has. ANSWER: 7 pennies, 14 dimes, 10 nickels In a bank, there are three times as many quarters as half dollars and 6 more dimes than half dollars. If the total amount of the money in the bank is $4.65, find the number of each type of coin in the bank. ANSWER: 3 half-dollars, 9 quarters, 9 dimes A person bought 12 stamps consisting of 37¢ stamps and 23¢ stamps. If the cost of the stamps is $3.74, find the number of each type of the stamps purchased. ANSWER: 5 $0.23 item, 7 $0.37 item A dairy store sold a total of 80 ice cream sandwiches and ice cream bars. If the sandwiches cost $0.69 each and the bars cost $0.75 each and the store made $58.08, find the number of each sold. ANSWER: 32 $0.69 item, 48 $0.75 item An office supply store sells college-ruled notebook paper for $1.59 a ream and wide-ruled notebook paper for $2.29 a ream. If a student purchased 9 reams of notebook paper and paid $15.71, how many reams of each type of paper did the student purchase? ANSWER: 7 $1.59 item, 2 $2.29 item A clerk is given $75 in bills to put in a cash drawer at the start of a workday. There are twice as many $1 bills as $5 bills and one less $10 bill than $5 bills. How many of each type of bill are there? ANSWER: 5 five-dollar, 10 one-dollar, 4 ten-dollar A person has 8 coins consisting of quarters and dimes. If the total amount of this change is $1.25, how many of each kind of coin are there? ANSWER: 5 dimes, 3 quarters A person has 3 times as many dimes as he has nickels and 5 more pennies than nickels. If the total amount of these coins is $1.13, how many of each kind of coin does he have? ANSWER: 3 nickels, 9 dimes, 8 pennies A person bought ten greeting cards consisting of birthday cards costing $1.50 each and anniversary cards costing $2.00 each. If the total cost of the cards was $17.00, find the number of each kind of card the person bought. ANSWER: 6 $1.50 item, 4 $2.00 item A person has 9 more dimes than nickels. If the total amount of money is $1.20, find the number of dimes the person has. ANSWER: 11 dimes, 2 nickels A person has 20 bills consisting of $1 bills and $2 bills. If the total amount of money the person has is $35, find the number of $2 bills the person has. ANSWER: 5 one-dollar, 15 two-dollar A bank contains 8 more pennies than nickels and 3 more dimes than nickels. If the total amount of money in the bank is $3.10, find the number of dimes in the bank. ANSWER: 17 nickels, 25 pennies, 20 dimes Your uncle walks in, jingling the coins in his pocket. He grins at you and tells you that you can have all the coins if you can figure out how many of each kind of coin he is carrying. You're not too interested until he tells you that he's been collecting those gold-tone one-dollar coins. The twenty-six coins in his pocket are all dollars and quarters, and they add up to seventeen dollars in value. How many of each coin does he have? ANSWER: 14 one-dollar, 12 quarters A collection of 33 coins, consisting of nickels, dimes, and quarters, has a value of $3.30. If there are three times as many nickels as quarters, and one-half as many dimes as nickels, how many coins of each kind are there? ANSWER: 18 nickels, 6 quarters, 9 dimes A wallet contains the same number of pennies, nickels, and dimes. The coins total $1.44. How many of each type of coin does the wallet contain? ANSWER: 9 pennies, 9 nickels, 9 dimes Suppose Ken has 25 coins in nickels and dimes only and has a total of $1.65. How many of each coin does he have? ANSWER: 8 dimes, 17 nickels Terry has 2 more quarters than dimes and has a total of $6.80. The number of quarters and dimes is 38. How many quarters and dimes does Terry have? ANSWER: 20 quarters, 18 dimes In my wallet, I have one-dollar bills, five-dollar bills, and ten-dollar bills. The total amount in my wallet is $43. I have four times as many one-dollar bills as ten-dollar bills. All together, there are 13 bills in my wallet. How many of each bill do I have? ANSWER: 8 one-dollar, 2 ten-dollar, 3 five-dollar Marsha has three times as many one-dollar bills as she does five dollar bills. She has a total of $32. How many of each bill does she have? ANSWER: 12 one-dollar, 4 five-dollar A vending machine has $41.25 in it. There are 255 coins total and the machine only accepts nickels, dimes and quarters. There are twice as many dimes as nickels. How many of each coin are in the machine? ANSWER: 90 dimes, 45 nickels, 120 quarters Michael had 27 coins in all, valuing $4.50. If he had only quarters and dimes, how many coins of each kind did he have? ANSWER: 15 dimes, 12 quarters Lucille had $13.25 in nickels and quarters. If she had 165 coins in all, how many of each type of coin did she have? ANSWER: 140 nickels, 25 quarters Ben has $45.25 in quarters and dimes. If he has 29 less quarters than dimes, how many of each type of coin does he have? ANSWER: 121 quarters, 150 dimes A person has 12 coins consisting of dimes and pennies. If the total amount of money is $0.30, how many of each coin are there? ANSWER: 2 dimes, 10 pennies

## Julia[edit]

Uses the JuMP optimization library as a solver. The examples are from the Go code, and a few regex are from the Perl code.

using JuMP, GLPK

const nums = Dict(

"zero" => 0, "one" => 1, "two" => 2, "three" => 3,

"four" => 4, "five" => 5, "six" => 6, "seven" => 7,

"eight" => 8, "nine" => 9, "ten" => 10, "eleven" => 11,

"twelve" => 12, "thirteen" => 13, "fourteen" => 14, "fifteen" => 15,

"sixteen" => 16, "seventeen" => 17, "eighteen" => 18, "nineteen" => 19,

"twenty" => 20,

)

function coinproblemsolver(text, maxitems=4, verbose=false)

coin_problem = Model(GLPK.Optimizer)

for line in strip.(split(text, r"\n\n"))

# save original version

oldline = deepcopy(line)

# ignore short or commented lines

length(line) < 5 && continue

line[1] == '#' && continue

# create the data structures and registration function

monies = Dict(

"dollar_coin" => 100, "half_dollar" => 50, "quarter" => 25, "dime" => 10,

"nickel" => 5, "penny" => 1,

)

foreach(d -> (monies["_" * "$d" * "_bill"] = 100 * d), [1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 500, 1000])

itemnames = String[]

itemvalues = Int[]

function register_variables(vars)

indices = Int[]

for cap in vars

idx = findfirst(x -> cap == x, itemnames)

if !(idx isa Nothing)

push!(indices, idx)

else

push!(itemnames, cap)

push!(indices, length(itemnames))

push!(itemvalues, get(monies, cap, 0))

end

end

return indices

end

# set up the optimizer / problem solver

@variables(coin_problem, begin x[1:maxitems] >= 0 end)

# Simplify sentence and standardize quantities

# convert hyphens to spaces, lowercase, newlines to spaces

line = replace(replace(lowercase(line), "-" => " "), "\n" => " ")

# fractions/multipliers to parsable forms

line = replace(line, r"half.dollars?" => "half_dollar")

line = replace(line, r"\bone\s+half\b" => "0.5")

line = replace(line, r"\btwice\b" => "two times")

# convert spelled out number to integer text per nums dictionary

for p in nums

line = replace(line, Regex("\\b" * p[1] * "\\b") => string(p[2]))

end

# remove plurals of coinage

line = replace(line, r"(quarter|dime|nickel|dollar|coin|bill)s" => s"\1")

line = replace(line, "pennies" => "penny")

# change numerals to quantites and monies

line = replace(line, r"dollar coin|all dollar" => "dollar_coin")

line = replace(line, r"\$(\d+) bill" => s"_\1_bill")

line = replace(line, r"(\d+) dollar bill" => s"_\1_bill")

line = replace(line, r"((?:\d+\s+)+\d+)" => (s) -> mapreduce(x -> parse(Int, x), +, split(s))) # 20 6 -> 26

# remove most unparsed words

line = replace(line, r"\b(the|a|to|of|i|is|that|it|on|you|this|for|but|with|are|have|be|at|or|was|so|if|out|not|he|she|they|has|do|did|does)\b" => "")

# simplify spacing

line = replace(line, r"\s+" => " ")

# Add variables and constraints to the problem

for m in eachmatch(r"([\d\.]+) (?:times )?as many (\w+) as (\w+)", line)

indices = register_variables([m[2], m[3]])

@constraints(coin_problem, begin x[indices[1]] == x[indices[2]] * parse(Float64, m[1]) end)

end

for m in eachmatch(r"(\d+) more (\w+) than (\w+)", line)

indices = register_variables([m[2], m[3]])

@constraints(coin_problem, begin x[indices[1]] == x[indices[2]] + parse(Int, m[1]) end)

end

for m in eachmatch(r"(\d+) less (\w+) than (\w+)", line)

indices = register_variables([m[2], m[3]])

@constraints(coin_problem, begin x[indices[1]] == x[indices[2]] - parse(Int, m[1]) end)

end

if (m = match(r"same number (\w+), (\w+),? and (\w+)", line)) != nothing

indices = register_variables(m.captures)

@constraints(coin_problem, begin

x[indices[1]] == x[indices[2]]

x[indices[2]] == x[indices[3]]

end)

end

if (m = match(r"(\d+) (?:\w+ )?(\w+),? consist\D+\$([\d\.]+)\D+\$([\d\.]+)", line)) != nothing

n1, n2 = Int(round(100 * parse(Float64, m[3]))), Int(round(100 * parse(Float64, m[4])))

s1, s2 = m[2] * "_costing_" * string(n1), m[2] * "_costing_" * string(n2)

monies[s1], monies[s2] = n1, n2

indices = register_variables([s1, s2])

@constraints(coin_problem, begin sum(x) == parse(Int, m[1]) end)

end

if (m = match(r"(\d+) (?:\w+ )?(\w+),? consist\D+([\d\.]+)¢\D+([\d\.]+)¢", line)) != nothing

n1, n2 = parse(Int, m[3]), parse(Int, m[4])

s1, s2 = m[2] * "_costing_" * string(n1), m[2] * "_costing_" * string(n2)

monies[s1], monies[s2] = n1, n2

indices = register_variables([s1, s2])

@constraints(coin_problem, begin sum(x) == parse(Int, m[1]) end)

end

if (m = match(r"(\d+) (?:coin|bill),? consist(?:s|ing) (\w+) and (\w+)", line)) != nothing

indices = register_variables([m[2], m[3]])

@constraints(coin_problem, begin sum(x) == parse(Int, m[1]) end)

end

if (m = match(r"(\d+) (?:coin)[^\d\.,]+pocket (\w+) and (\w+)", line)) != nothing

indices = register_variables([m[2], m[3]])

@constraints(coin_problem, begin sum(x) == parse(Int, m[1]) end)

end

if (m = match(r"(\d+) (?:coin|bill),? consist(?:s|ing) (\w+), (\w+), and (\w+)", line)) != nothing

indices = register_variables([m[2], m[3], m[4]])

@constraints(coin_problem, begin sum(x) == parse(Int, m[1]) end)

end

if (m = match(r"\$([\d\.]+) ream\D+\$([\d\.]+)\D+(\d+) reams", line)) != nothing

n1, n2 = Int(round(100 * parse(Float64, m[1]))), Int(round(100 * parse(Float64, m[2])))

s1, s2 = "ream_costing_" * string(n1), "ream_costing_" * string(n2)

monies[s1], monies[s2] = n1, n2

indices = register_variables([s1, s2])

@constraints(coin_problem, begin sum(x) == parse(Int, m[3]) end)

end

if (m = match(r"(?:in my wallet,?|only accepts) (\w+), (\w+),? and (\w+)", line)) != nothing

indices = register_variables([m.captures[1], m.captures[2], m.captures[3]])

end

if (m = match(r"(\d+) coin in (\w+) and (\w+) only", line)) != nothing

indices = register_variables([m.captures[2], m.captures[3]])

@constraints(coin_problem, begin sum(x) == parse(Int, m[1]) end)

end

if (m = match(r"(\d+) coin (?:total|in all)", line)) != nothing

@constraints(coin_problem, begin sum(x) == parse(Int, m[1]) end)

end

if (m = match(r"(?:had only|in) (\w+) and (\w+)[,\.\?]", line)) != nothing

indices = register_variables([m.captures[1], m.captures[2]])

end

if (m = match(r"(?:sold total|all together,? there) (\d+)", line)) != nothing

@constraints(coin_problem, begin sum(x) == parse(Int, m[1]) end)

end

for m in eachmatch(r"cost \$([\d\.]+) each", line)

s = "item_costing_" * m.captures[1]

monies[s] = Int(round(100 * parse(Float64, m.captures[1])))

register_variables([s])

end

# find a total

m = match(r"add up \$?([\d\.]+)", line)

if m isa Nothing

m = match(r"(?:cost stamps|total cost|paid|value|valuing|store made)[^\$]+\$([\d\.]+)", line)

end

if m isa Nothing

m = match(r"(?:total|value of|store made|given)[^\$]+\$([\d\.]+)", line)

end

if m isa Nothing

m = match(r"\$([\d\.]+) (?:coin )?in", line)

end

if !(m isa Nothing)

m1 = m.captures[1][end] == '.' ? m.captures[1][1:end-1] : m.captures[1]

@constraints(coin_problem, begin

sum([itemvalues[i] * x[i] for i in 1:length(itemnames)]) == Int(round(100 * parse(Float64, m1)))

end)

else

m = match(r"total (?:amount coin )([\d\.]+)¢", line)

if !(m isa Nothing)

@constraints(coin_problem, begin

sum([itemvalues[i] * x[i] for i in 1:length(itemnames)]) == parse(Int, m[1])

end)

else

error("Missing or unparsed total funds constraint")

end

end

# set unused x components to 0

for i in length(itemnames)+1:maxitems

@constraints(coin_problem, begin x[i] == 0 end)

end

# solve

optimize!(coin_problem)

verbose && println(line)

verbose && println(coin_problem)

print(oldline, "\nAnswer: ")

for i in eachindex(itemnames)

print(rpad(itemnames[i] * "(s)", 10), ": ", rpad(Int(round(JuMP.value(x[i]))), 10))

end

println("\n")

JuMP.empty!(coin_problem)

end

end

const DATA = raw"""

If a person has three times as many quarters as dimes and the total amount of money is $5.95,

find the number of quarters and dimes.

A pile of 18 coins consists of pennies and nickels. If the total amount of the coins is 38¢,

find the number of pennies and nickels.

A small child has 6 more quarters than nickels. If the total amount of coins is $3.00,

find the number of nickels and quarters the child has.

A child's bank contains 32 coins consisting of nickels and quarters. If the total amount of

money is $3.80, find the number of nickels and quarters in the bank.

A person has twice as many dimes as she has pennies and three more nickels than pennies. If

the total amount of the coins is $1.97, find the numbers of each type of coin the person has.

In a bank, there are three times as many quarters as half dollars and 6 more dimes than

half dollars. If the total amount of the money in the bank is $4.65, find the number of

each type of coin in the bank.

A person bought 12 stamps consisting of 37¢ stamps and 23¢ stamps. If the cost of the stamps

is $3.74, find the number of each type of the stamps purchased.

A dairy store sold a total of 80 ice cream sandwiches and ice cream bars. If the sandwiches

cost $0.69 each and the bars cost $0.75 each and the store made $58.08, find the number

of each sold.

An office supply store sells college-ruled notebook paper for $1.59 a ream and wide-ruled

notebook paper for $2.29 a ream. If a student purchased 9 reams of notebook paper and

paid $15.71, how many reams of each type of paper did the student purchase?

A clerk is given $75 in bills to put in a cash drawer at the start of a workday. There are

twice as many $1 bills as $5 bills and one less $10 bill than $5 bills. How many of each

type of bill are there?

A person has 8 coins consisting of quarters and dimes. If the total amount of this change

is $1.25, how many of each kind of coin are there?

A person has 3 times as many dimes as he has nickels and 5 more pennies than nickels. If the

total amount of these coins is $1.13, how many of each kind of coin does he have?

A person bought ten greeting cards consisting of birthday cards costing $1.50 each and

anniversary cards costing $2.00 each. If the total cost of the cards was $17.00, find the

number of each kind of card the person bought.

A person has 9 more dimes than nickels. If the total amount of money is $1.20, find the

number of dimes the person has.

A person has 20 bills consisting of $1 bills and $2 bills. If the total amount of money

the person has is $35, find the number of $2 bills the person has.

A bank contains 8 more pennies than nickels and 3 more dimes than nickels. If the total

amount of money in the bank is $3.10, find the number of dimes in the bank.

Your uncle walks in, jingling the coins in his pocket. He grins at you and tells you that you

can have all the coins if you can figure out how many of each kind of coin he is carrying.

You're not too interested until he tells you that he's been collecting those gold-tone

one-dollar coins. The twenty-six coins in his pocket are all dollars and quarters, and they

add up to seventeen dollars in value. How many of each coin does he have?

A collection of 33 coins, consisting of nickels, dimes, and quarters, has a value of $3.30.

If there are three times as many nickels as quarters, and one-half as many dimes as nickels,

how many coins of each kind are there?

A wallet contains the same number of pennies, nickels, and dimes. The coins total $1.44. How

many of each type of coin does the wallet contain?

Suppose Ken has 25 coins in nickels and dimes only and has a total of $1.65. How many of

each coin does he have?

Terry has 2 more quarters than dimes and has a total of $6.80. The number of quarters and dimes

is 38. How many quarters and dimes does Terry have?

In my wallet, I have one-dollar bills, five-dollar bills, and ten-dollar bills. The total

amount in my wallet is $43. I have four times as many one-dollar bills as ten-dollar bills.

All together, there are 13 bills in my wallet. How many of each bill do I have?

Marsha has three times as many one-dollar bills as she does five dollar bills. She has a

total of $32. How many of each bill does she have?

A vending machine has $41.25 in it. There are 255 coins total and the machine only accepts

nickels, dimes and quarters. There are twice as many dimes as nickels. How many of each coin

are in the machine?

Michael had 27 coins in all, valuing $4.50. If he had only quarters and dimes, how many coins

of each kind did he have?

Lucille had $13.25 in nickels and quarters. If she had 165 coins in all, how many of each

type of coin did she have?

Ben has $45.25 in quarters and dimes. If he has 29 less quarters than dimes, how many of each

type of coin does he have?

A person has 12 coins consisting of dimes and pennies. If the total amount of money is $0.30,

how many of each coin are there?

"""

coinproblemsolver(DATA)

- Output:

If a person has three times as many quarters as dimes and the total amount of money is $5.95, find the number of quarters and dimes. Answer: quarter(s): 21 dime(s) : 7 A pile of 18 coins consists of pennies and nickels. If the total amount of the coins is 38¢, find the number of pennies and nickels. Answer: penny(s) : 13 nickel(s) : 5 A small child has 6 more quarters than nickels. If the total amount of coins is $3.00, find the number of nickels and quarters the child has. Answer: quarter(s): 11 nickel(s) : 5 A child's bank contains 32 coins consisting of nickels and quarters. If the total amount of money is $3.80, find the number of nickels and quarters in the bank. Answer: nickel(s) : 21 quarter(s): 11 A person has twice as many dimes as she has pennies and three more nickels than pennies. If the total amount of the coins is $1.97, find the numbers of each type of coin the person has. Answer: dime(s) : 14 penny(s) : 7 nickel(s) : 10 In a bank, there are three times as many quarters as half dollars and 6 more dimes than half dollars. If the total amount of the money in the bank is $4.65, find the number of each type of coin in the bank. Answer: quarter(s): 9 half_dollar(s): 3 dime(s) : 9 A person bought 12 stamps consisting of 37¢ stamps and 23¢ stamps. If the cost of the stamps is $3.74, find the number of each type of the stamps purchased. Answer: stamps_costing_37(s): 7 stamps_costing_23(s): 5 A dairy store sold a total of 80 ice cream sandwiches and ice cream bars. If the sandwiches cost $0.69 each and the bars cost $0.75 each and the store made $58.08, find the number of each sold. Answer: item_costing_0.69(s): 32 item_costing_0.75(s): 48 An office supply store sells college-ruled notebook paper for $1.59 a ream and wide-ruled notebook paper for $2.29 a ream. If a student purchased 9 reams of notebook paper and paid $15.71, how many reams of each type of paper did the student purchase? Answer: ream_costing_159(s): 7 ream_costing_229(s): 2 A clerk is given $75 in bills to put in a cash drawer at the start of a workday. There are twice as many $1 bills as $5 bills and one less $10 bill than $5 bills. How many of each type of bill are there? Answer: _1_bill(s): 10 _5_bill(s): 5 _10_bill(s): 4 A person has 8 coins consisting of quarters and dimes. If the total amount of this change is $1.25, how many of each kind of coin are there? Answer: quarter(s): 3 dime(s) : 5 A person has 3 times as many dimes as he has nickels and 5 more pennies than nickels. If the total amount of these coins is $1.13, how many of each kind of coin does he have? Answer: dime(s) : 9 nickel(s) : 3 penny(s) : 8 A person bought ten greeting cards consisting of birthday cards costing $1.50 each and anniversary cards costing $2.00 each. If the total cost of the cards was $17.00, find the number of each kind of card the person bought. Answer: cards_costing_150(s): 6 cards_costing_200(s): 4 A person has 9 more dimes than nickels. If the total amount of money is $1.20, find the number of dimes the person has. Answer: dime(s) : 11 nickel(s) : 2 A person has 20 bills consisting of $1 bills and $2 bills. If the total amount of money the person has is $35, find the number of $2 bills the person has. Answer: _1_bill(s): 5 _2_bill(s): 15 A bank contains 8 more pennies than nickels and 3 more dimes than nickels. If the total amount of money in the bank is $3.10, find the number of dimes in the bank. Answer: penny(s) : 25 nickel(s) : 17 dime(s) : 20 Your uncle walks in, jingling the coins in his pocket. He grins at you and tells you that you can have all the coins if you can figure out how many of each kind of coin he is carrying. You're not too interested until he tells you that he's been collecting those gold-tone one-dollar coins. The twenty-six coins in his pocket are all dollars and quarters, and they add up to seventeen dollars in value. How many of each coin does he have? Answer: dollar_coin(s): 14 quarter(s): 12 A collection of 33 coins, consisting of nickels, dimes, and quarters, has a value of $3.30. If there are three times as many nickels as quarters, and one-half as many dimes as nickels, how many coins of each kind are there? Answer: nickel(s) : 18 quarter(s): 6 dime(s) : 9 A wallet contains the same number of pennies, nickels, and dimes. The coins total $1.44. How many of each type of coin does the wallet contain? Answer: penny(s) : 9 nickel(s) : 9 dime(s) : 9 Suppose Ken has 25 coins in nickels and dimes only and has a total of $1.65. How many of each coin does he have? Answer: nickel(s) : 17 dime(s) : 8 Terry has 2 more quarters than dimes and has a total of $6.80. The number of quarters and dimes is 38. How many quarters and dimes does Terry have? Answer: quarter(s): 20 dime(s) : 18 In my wallet, I have one-dollar bills, five-dollar bills, and ten-dollar bills. The total amount in my wallet is $43. I have four times as many one-dollar bills as ten-dollar bills. All together, there are 13 bills in my wallet. How many of each bill do I have? Answer: _1_bill(s): 8 _10_bill(s): 2 _5_bill(s): 3 Marsha has three times as many one-dollar bills as she does five dollar bills. She has a total of $32. How many of each bill does she have? Answer: _1_bill(s): 12 _5_bill(s): 4 A vending machine has $41.25 in it. There are 255 coins total and the machine only accepts nickels, dimes and quarters. There are twice as many dimes as nickels. How many of each coin are in the machine? Answer: dime(s) : 90 nickel(s) : 45 quarter(s): 120 Michael had 27 coins in all, valuing $4.50. If he had only quarters and dimes, how many coins of each kind did he have? Answer: quarter(s): 12 dime(s) : 15 Lucille had $13.25 in nickels and quarters. If she had 165 coins in all, how many of each type of coin did she have? Answer: nickel(s) : 140 quarter(s): 25 Ben has $45.25 in quarters and dimes. If he has 29 less quarters than dimes, how many of each type of coin does he have? Answer: quarter(s): 121 dime(s) : 150 A person has 12 coins consisting of dimes and pennies. If the total amount of money is $0.30, how many of each coin are there? Answer: dime(s) : 2 penny(s) : 10

## Perl[edit]

Coin-type 'word problems' are analyzed into their constituent algebraic relationships, in a format suitable for processing by MAXIMA, a free computer algebra system. NB: MAXIMA **must** be locally installed for this task to function.

use strict;

use warnings;

use List::Util qw(sum uniq);

use File::Temp qw(tempfile);

my %nums = (

zero => 0, one => 1, two => 2, three => 3,

four => 4, five => 5, six => 6, seven => 7,

eight => 8, nine => 9, ten => 10, eleven => 11,

twelve => 12, thirteen => 13, fourteen => 14, fifteen => 15,

sixteen => 16, seventeen => 17, eighteen => 18, nineteen => 19,

twenty => 20,

);

my $decimal = qr/(?:[1-9][0-9]*\.?[0-9]*)|(?:0?\.[0-9]+)/;

while (<DATA>) {

chomp;

next if /^\s*$/ or /^\s*#.*$/; # skip blank and comment lines

my($count, $total) = (0, 0);

our @words = our @eqns = our @vars = our @types = ();

sub add_type {

my($type,$value) = @_;

push @vars, "v_$type: $value";

push @types, $type;

}

# Step 1: standardize language

s/-/ /g; # convert hyphens to spaces

$_ = lc($_); # convert to lower case

# tokenize sentence boundaries, punctuation, symbols

s/([\.\?\!]) / $1\n/g;

s/([\.\?\!])$/ $1\n/g;

s/\$(.)/\$ $1/g; # prefix

s/(.)([\;\:\%',¢])/$1 $2/g; # suffix

# fractions/multipliers

s/half.dollars?/half_dollar/g;

s/\b(one )?half\b/0.5/g;

s/\btwice\b/two times/g;

# convert English number-names to numbers

foreach my $key (keys %nums) { s/\b$key\b/$nums{$key}/eg }

# remove plurals

s/(quarter|dime|nickel|dollar|coin|bill)s/$1/g;

s/pennies/penny/g;

# misc

s/dollar coin/dollar_coin/g;

s/(\d+) dollar\b/\$ $1/g;

s/((?:\d+ )*\d+)/sum(split(' ',$1))/eg;

# remove non-essential words

s/\b(the|a|to|of|i|is|that|it|on|you|this|for|but|with|are|have|be|at|or|was|so|if|out|not|he|she|they|has|do|did|does)\b\s*//g;

# Step 2: assign numeric values to terms

add_type('dollar_coin',100) if /dollar_coin/;

add_type('half_dollar',50) if /half_dollar/;

add_type('quarter',25) if /quarter/;

add_type('dime',10) if /dime/;

add_type('nickel',5) if /nickel/;

add_type('penny',1) if /penny/;

add_type($1, 100 * $1) while /\$ (\d+) bill/g;

# Step 3: determine algebraic relationships

while (/($decimal) (?:times )?as many \$ (\d+) bill as \$ (\d+) bill/g) { push @eqns, "n_$2 = n_$3 * $1" }

while (/($decimal) (?:times )?as many (\w+) as (\w+)/g) { push @eqns, "n_$2 = n_$3 * $1" }

while (/(\d+) more (\w+) than (\w+)/g) { push @eqns, "n_$2 = n_$3 + $1" }

while (/(\d+) less (\w+) than (\w+)/g) { push @eqns, "n_$2 = n_$3 - $1" }

while (/(\d+) less \$ (\d+) bill than \$ (\d+) bill/g) { push @eqns, "n_$2 = n_$3 - $1" }

if (/same number (\w+) , (\w+) (?:, )?and (\w+)/) {

push @eqns, "n_$1 = n_$2";

push @eqns, "n_$2 = n_$3";

}

if (/(\d+) (?:\w+ )*consists/ or /(?<!\$ )(\d+) coin/ or /[^\$] (\d+) bill/) {

$count = $1; push @vars, "count: $count"

}

if (/total (?:\w+ )*\$ ($decimal)/ or /valu(?:e|ing) \$ ($decimal)/ or /\$ ($decimal) ((bill|coin) )?in/) {

$total = 100 * $1;

push @vars, "total: $total";

}

if (/total (?:\w+ )*($decimal)/) {

$total = $1;

push @vars, "total: $total";

}

# Step 4: tally final total value, coin count

# sum total, dot product of values and quantities

my $dot_product = join(' + ', map {"n_$_ * v_$_"} uniq @types);

push @eqns, "total = $dot_product" if $total and @types;

# count of all coins, sum of counts of each coin type

my $trace = join(' + ', map {"n_$_"} uniq @types);

push @eqns, "count = $trace" if $count and @types;

# Step 5: prepare batch file for external processing, run 'MAXIMA', output results

printf "problem: %s\n", s/\n/ /gr; # condensed problem statement

my $maxima_vars = join("\$\n", uniq @vars);

my $maxima_eqns = '['. join(', ', @eqns) . ']';

my $maxima_find = '['. join(', ', map {"n_$_"} @types) . ']';

if (@eqns and @vars) {

my ($fh, $maxima_script) = tempfile(UNLINK => 1);

open $fh, '>', $maxima_script or die "Couldn't open temporary file: $!\n";

print $fh <<~"END";

$maxima_vars\$

solve($maxima_eqns, $maxima_find);

END

close $fh;

open my $maxima_output, "/opt/local/bin/maxima -q -b $maxima_script |" or die "Couldn't open maxima: $!\n";

while (<$maxima_output>) {

print "solution: $1\n" if /\(\%o\d+\)\s+\[\[([^\]]+)\]\]/; # only display solution

}

close $maxima_output;

} else {

print "Couldn't deduce enough information to formulate equations.\n"

}

print "\n";

}

__DATA__

If a person has three times as many quarters as dimes and the total amount of money is $5.95, find the number of quarters and dimes.

A pile of 18 coins consists of pennies and nickels. If the total amount of the coins is 38¢, find the number of pennies and nickels.

A small child has 6 more quarters than nickels. If the total amount of coins is $3.00, find the number of nickels and quarters the child has.

A childs bank contains 32 coins consisting of nickels and quarters. If the total amount of money is $3.80, find the number of nickels and quarters in the bank.

A person has twice as many dimes as she has pennies and three more nickels than pennies. If the total amount of the coins is $1.97, find the numbers of each type of coin the person has.

In a bank, there are three times as many quarters as half dollars and 6 more dimes than half dollars. If the total amount of the money in the bank is $4.65, find the number of each type of coin in the bank.

A clerk is given $75 in bills to put in a cash drawer at the start of a workday. There are twice as many $1 bills as $5 bills and one less $10 bill than $5 bills. How many of each type of bill are there?

A person has 8 coins consisting of quarters and dimes. If the total amount of this change is $1.25, how many of each kind of coin are there?

A person has 3 times as many dimes as he has nickels and 5 more pennies than nickels. If the total amount of these coins is $1.13, how many of each kind of coin does he have?

A person has 9 more dimes than nickels. If the total amount of money is $1.20, find the number of dimes the person has.

A person has 20 bills consisting of $1 bills and $2 bills. If the total amount of money the person has is $35, find the number of $2 bills the person has.

A bank contains 8 more pennies than nickels and 3 more dimes than nickels. If the total amount of money in the bank is $3.10, find the number of dimes in the bank.

The twenty-six coins in my pocket are all dollar coins and quarters, and they add up to seventeen dollars in value. How many of each coin are there?

A collection of 33 coins, consisting of nickels, dimes, and quarters, has a value of $3.30. If there are three times as many nickels as quarters, and one-half as many dimes as nickels, how many coins of each kind are there?

A wallet contains the same number of pennies, nickels, and dimes. The coins total $1.44. How many of each type of coin does the wallet contain?

Suppose Ken has 25 coins in nickels and dimes only and has a total of $1.65. How many of each coin does he have?

Terry has 2 more quarters than dimes and has a total of $6.80. The number of quarters and dimes is 38. How many quarters and dimes does Terry have?

In my wallet, I have one-dollar bills, five-dollar bills, and ten-dollar bills. The total amount in my wallet is $43. I have four times as many one-dollar bills as ten-dollar bills. All together, there are 13 bills in my wallet. How many of each bill do I have?

Marsha has three times as many one-dollar bills as she does five dollar bills. She has a total of $32. How many of each bill does she have?

A vending machine has $41.25 in it. There are 255 coins total and the machine only accepts nickels, dimes and quarters. There are twice as many dimes as nickels. How many of each coin are in the machine.

Michael had 27 coins in all, valuing $4.50. If he had only quarters and dimes, how many coins of each kind did he have?

Lucille had $13.25 in nickels and quarters. If she had 165 coins in all, how many of each type of coin did she have?

Ben has $45.25 in quarters and dimes. If he has 29 less quarters than dimes, how many of each type of coin does he have?

A person has 12 coins consisting of dimes and pennies. If the total amount of money is $0.30, how many of each coin are there?

- Output:

problem: person 3 times as many quarter as dime and total amount money $ 5.95 , find number quarter and dime . solution: n_quarter = 21, n_dime = 7 problem: pile 18 coin consists penny and nickel . total amount coin 38 ¢ , find number penny and nickel . solution: n_nickel = 5, n_penny = 13 problem: small child 6 more quarter than nickel . total amount coin $ 3.0 , find number nickel and quarter child . solution: n_quarter = 11, n_nickel = 5 problem: childs bank contains 32 coin consisting nickel and quarter . total amount money $ 3.80 , find number nickel and quarter in bank . solution: n_quarter = 11, n_nickel = 21 problem: person 2 times as many dime as penny and 3 more nickel than penny . total amount coin $ 1.97 , find numbers each type coin person . solution: n_dime = 14, n_nickel = 10, n_penny = 7 problem: in bank , 3 times as many quarter as half_dollar and 6 more dime than half_dollar . total amount money in bank $ 4.65 , find number each type coin in bank . solution: n_half_dollar = 3, n_quarter = 9, n_dime = 9 problem: clerk given $ 75 in bill put in cash drawer start workday . 2 times as many $ 1 bill as $ 5 bill and 1 less $ 10 bill than $ 5 bill . how many each type bill ? solution: n_1 = 10, n_10 = 4, n_5 = 5 problem: person 8 coin consisting quarter and dime . total amount change $ 1.25 , how many each kind coin ? solution: n_quarter = 3, n_dime = 5 problem: person 3 times as many dime as nickel and 5 more penny than nickel . total amount these coin $ 1.13 , how many each kind coin ? solution: n_dime = 9, n_nickel = 3, n_penny = 8 problem: person 9 more dime than nickel . total amount money $ 1.20 , find number dime person . solution: n_dime = 11, n_nickel = 2 problem: person 20 bill consisting $ 1 bill and $ 2 bill . total amount money person $ 35 , find number $ 2 bill person . solution: n_1 = 5, n_2 = 15 problem: bank contains 8 more penny than nickel and 3 more dime than nickel . total amount money in bank $ 3.10 , find number dime in bank . solution: n_dime = 20, n_nickel = 17, n_penny = 25 problem: 26 coin in my pocket all dollar_coin and quarter , and add up $ 17 in value . how many each coin ? solution: n_dollar_coin = 14, n_quarter = 12 problem: collection 33 coin , consisting nickel , dime , and quarter , value $ 3.30 . 3 times as many nickel as quarter , and 0.5 as many dime as nickel , how many coin each kind ? solution: n_quarter = 6, n_dime = 9, n_nickel = 18 problem: wallet contains same number penny , nickel , and dime . coin total $ 1.44 . how many each type coin wallet contain ? solution: n_dime = 9, n_nickel = 9, n_penny = 9 problem: suppose ken 25 coin in nickel and dime only and total $ 1.65 . how many each coin ? solution: n_dime = 8, n_nickel = 17 problem: terry 2 more quarter than dime and total $ 6.80 . number quarter and dime 38 . how many quarter and dime terry ? solution: n_quarter = 20, n_dime = 18 problem: in my wallet , $ 1 bill , $ 5 bill , and $ 10 bill . total amount in my wallet $ 43 . 4 times as many $ 1 bill as $ 10 bill . all together , 13 bill in my wallet . how many each bill ? solution: n_5 = 3, n_1 = 8, n_10 = 2 problem: marsha 3 times as many $ 1 bill as $ 5 bill . total $ 32 . how many each bill ? solution: n_1 = 12, n_5 = 4 problem: vending machine $ 41.25 in . 255 coin total and machine only accepts nickel , dime and quarter . 2 times as many dime as nickel . how many each coin in machine . solution: n_quarter = 120, n_dime = 90, n_nickel = 45 problem: michael had 27 coin in all , valuing $ 4.50 . had only quarter and dime , how many coin each kind ? solution: n_quarter = 12, n_dime = 15 problem: lucille had $ 13.25 in nickel and quarter . had 165 coin in all , how many each type coin ? solution: n_quarter = 25, n_nickel = 140 problem: ben $ 45.25 in quarter and dime . 29 less quarter than dime , how many each type coin ? solution: n_quarter = 121, n_dime = 150 problem: person 12 coin consisting dime and penny . total amount money $ 0.30 , how many each coin ? solution: n_dime = 2, n_penny = 10

## Phix[edit]

The title of this task is solving *coin* problems, therefore I have ruthlessly eradicated stamps, sandwiches, paper, and cards.
It just adds unnecessary fiddling, along with the need to add custom assets and asset-values, such as 37c stamps, $1.50 cards, etc.
Hence this covers 24/28 of the Perl/Go examples. On the plus side, there is no hard limit on the number of unknowns,
though all examples below are for 2 and 3 only. A couple (14 and 17) also sail perilously close to getting a divide by zero.
This task was quite a bit of fun, once I got stuck in.

-- demo\rosetta\Solving_coin_problems.exw with javascript_semantics constant source = """ If a person has three times as many quarters as dimes and the total amount of money is $5.95, find the number of quarters and dimes. --==>expected:quarters = 21, dimes = 7 A pile of 18 coins consists of pennies and nickels. If the total amount of the coins is 38c, find the number of pennies and nickels. --==>expected:pennies = 13, nickels = 5 A small child has 6 more quarters than nickels. If the total amount of coins is $3.00, find the number of nickels and quarters the child has. --==>expected:quarters = 11, nickels = 5 A child's bank contains 32 coins consisting of nickels and quarters. If the total amount of money is $3.80, find the number of nickels and quarters in the bank. --==>expected:nickels = 21, quarters = 11 A person has twice as many dimes as she has pennies and three more nickels than pennies. If the total amount of the coins is $1.97, find the numbers of each type of coin the person has. --==>expected:dimes = 14, pennies = 7, nickels = 10 In a bank, there are three times as many quarters as half dollars and 6 more dimes than half dollars. If the total amount of the money in the bank is $4.65, find the number of each type of coin in the bank. --==>expected:quarters = 9, half_dollars = 3, dimes = 9 A clerk is given $75 in bills to put in a cash drawer at the start of a workday. There are twice as many $1 bills as $5 bills and one less $10 bill than $5 bills. How many of each type of bill are there? --==>expected:one_dollar_bills = 10, five_dollar_bills = 5, ten_dollar_bills = 4 A person has 8 coins consisting of quarters and dimes. If the total amount of this change is $1.25, how many of each kind of coin are there? --==>expected:quarters = 3, dimes = 5 A person has 3 times as many dimes as he has nickels and 5 more pennies than nickels. If the total amount of these coins is $1.13, how many of each kind of coin does he have? --==>expected:dimes = 9, nickels = 3, pennies = 8 A person has 9 more dimes than nickels. If the total amount of money is $1.20, find the number of dimes the person has. --==>expected:dimes = 11, nickels = 2 A person has 20 bills consisting of $1 bills and $2 bills. If the total amount of money the person has is $35, find the number of $2 bills the person has. --==>expected:one_dollar_bills = 5, two_dollar_bills = 15 A bank contains 8 more pennies than nickels and 3 more dimes than nickels. If the total amount of money in the bank is $3.10, find the number of dimes in the bank. --==>expected:pennies = 25, nickels = 17, dimes = 20 Your uncle walks in, jingling the coins in his pocket. He grins at you and tells you that you can have all the coins if you can figure out how many of each kind of coin he is carrying. You're not too interested until he tells you that he's been collecting those gold-tone one-dollar coins. The twenty-six coins in his pocket are all dollars and quarters, and they add up to seventeen dollars in value. How many of each coin does he have? --==>expected:dollars = 14, quarters = 12 A collection of 33 coins, consisting of nickels, dimes, and quarters, has a value of $3.30. If there are three times as many nickels as quarters, and one-half as many dimes as nickels, how many coins of each kind are there? --==>expected:nickels = 18, dimes = 9, quarters = 6 A wallet contains the same number of pennies, nickels, and dimes. The coins total $1.44. How many of each type of coin does the wallet contain? --==>expected:pennies = 9, nickels = 9, dimes = 9 Suppose Ken has 25 coins in nickels and dimes only and has a total of $1.65. How many of each coin does he have? --==>expected:nickels = 17, dimes = 8 Terry has 2 more quarters than dimes and has a total of $6.80. The number of quarters and dimes is 38. How many quarters and dimes does Terry have? --==>expected:quarters = 20, dimes = 18 In my wallet, I have one-dollar bills, five-dollar bills, and ten-dollar bills. The total amount in my wallet is $43. I have four times as many one-dollar bills as ten-dollar bills. All together, there are 13 bills in my wallet. How many of each bill do I have? --==>expected:one_dollar_bills = 8, five_dollar_bills = 3, ten_dollar_bills = 2 Marsha has three times as many one-dollar bills as she does five dollar bills. She has a total of $32. How many of each bill does she have? --==>expected:one_dollar_bills = 12, five_dollar_bills = 4 A vending machine has $41.25 in it. There are 255 coins total and the machine only accepts nickels, dimes and quarters. There are twice as many dimes as nickels. How many of each coin are in the machine. --==>expected:nickels = 45, dimes = 90, quarters = 120 Michael had 27 coins in all, valuing $4.50. If he had only quarters and dimes, how many coins of each kind did he have? --==>expected:quarters = 12, dimes = 15 Lucille had $13.25 in nickels and quarters. If she had 165 coins in all, how many of each type of coin did she have? --==>expected:nickels = 140, quarters = 25 Ben has $45.25 in quarters and dimes. If he has 29 less quarters than dimes, how many of each type of coin does he have? --==>expected:quarters = 121, dimes = 150 A person has 12 coins consisting of dimes and pennies. If the total amount of money is $0.30, how many of each coin are there? --==>expected:dimes = 2, pennies = 10""", {texts,replacements} = columnize({{"."," ."}, {","," ,"}, {"had","has"}, {"contain?","have?"}, {"there?","have?"}, {"has .","have?"}, {"in the bank .","have?"}, {"in the machine .","have?"}, {"as many","asmany"}, {" , and they add up"," . total"}, {" , has a value"," . total"}, {" only and has a total"," . total"}, {" and has a total"," . total"}, {"All together ,","total"}, {"A vending machine has","total"}, {"valuing","total"}, {"coins in all ,","coins ."}, {"coins total and","coins ."}, {"find","many"}, {"consists","consisting"}, {"twenty-six","26"}, {"seventeen dollars in value","$17.00"}, {" one "," 1 "}, {"three","3"}, {"four","4"}, {"twice","2 times"}, {"ten","10"}, {" and the total"," . total"}, {"half dollars","half_dollars"}, {"$1 bills","one_dollar_bills"}, {"$2 bills","two_dollar_bills"}, {"$5 bills","five_dollar_bills"}, {"$10 bill","ten_dollar_bills"}, {"one-dollar bills","one_dollar_bills"}, {"five-dollar bills","five_dollar_bills"}, {"five dollar bills","five_dollar_bills"}, {"10-dollar bills","ten_dollar_bills"}, {"10_dollar_bills","ten_dollar_bills"}}), noise = split("the|a|to|of|i|is|that|it|on|you|this|for|but|with|are|have|be|at|or|was|so|if|out|not|he|she|they|has|do|does"& "|in|these|person|small|child|child's|bank|pile|clerk|given|put|there|cash|drawer|start|workday|his|suppose|ken"& "|terry|how|my|marsha|machine|accepts|michael|lucille|ben|number|type|kind|amount|collection|contains|change"& "|wallet|did|numbers|pocket","|"), -- one spectacularly irksome preamble containing absolutely no useful information whatsoever...: uncle = "your uncle walks in , jingling the coins in his pocket . "& "he grins at you and tells you that you can have all the coins "& "if you can figure out how many of each kind of coin he is carrying . "& "you're not too interested until he tells you that he's been collecting "& "those gold-tone one-dollar coins . ", vocab = {"times","asmany","quarters","as","dimes","and","total","money","many","have?", "coins","consisting","pennies","nickels","more","less","than","each","coin", "half_dollars","bills","bill","all","dollars","one-half","same","only", "one_dollar_bills","two_dollar_bills","five_dollar_bills","ten_dollar_bills"}, {assets,assetv} = columnize({{"ten_dollar_bills",1000}, {"five_dollar_bills",500}, {"two_dollar_bills",200}, {"one_dollar_bills",100}, {"dollars",100}, {"half_dollars",50}, {"quarters",25}, {"dimes",10}, {"nickels",5}, {"pennies",1}}) integer count = 0 sequence lines = split(substitute_all(source,texts,replacements),"\n"), expectations = {}, vused = repeat(false,length(vocab)) procedure cleanup_lines() sequence words for i=1 to length(lines) by 2 do string li = lower(lines[i]) if match("your uncle",li)=1 then -- note: if you tweak texts/replacements then you may -- need to tweak the uncle constant to match. if match(uncle,li)!=1 then ?9/0 end if li = li[length(uncle)+1..$] end if words = split(li) for n=1 to length(noise) do words = remove_all(noise[n],words) end for if words[$]="." and find(words[$-1],{"dimes","nickels"}) then words[$] = "have?" end if if words[1]="," then words = words[2..$] end if for w=length(words) to 2 by -1 do -- re-join eg "$3" and ".99" (oops) if length(words[w])>1 and words[w][1]='.' then words[w-1..w] = {words[w-1]&words[w]} end if end for words = match_replace({",","many"},words,{".","many"}) words = match_replace({","},words,{}) count += 1 lines[count] = words li = lines[i+1] if match("--==>expected:",li)!=1 then ?9/0 end if li = li[15..$] li = substitute(li," ,",",") expectations = append(expectations,li) end for lines = lines[1..count] printf(1,"%d puzzles:\n",count) printf(1,"Step 1: remove noise and otherwise simplify (if nothing else, down to a %d-word vocab):\n\n",length(vocab)) for i=1 to count do printf(1,"%d: %s\n",{i,join(lines[i])}) end for end procedure cleanup_lines() function add_unknowns(sequence unknowns, words) for i=1 to length(words) do string word = words[i] if not find(word,unknowns) and not find(word,{"as","consisting","all","and","than","only"}) then unknowns = append(unknowns,word) end if end for return unknowns end function function parse_sentence(sequence words, unknowns) -- Converts eg {"$1.00","quarters","and","nickels"} to {100,25,5}. -- An "equation" of {100,25,5} means "100==25*unknown[1]+5*unknown[2]". -- Obviously this is suitably scruffy, but the 31-word vocab certainly helps! -- It is worth noting that by this stage most sentences begin or end in a number. -- Since we may not have the full set of unknowns, each equation ends with a code: -- 0: pad with 0, 1: pad with 1, 'a': pad with the unknown asset values sequence sentences = {}, sentence, rest = {}, isnumber = repeat(0,length(words)) integer k bool set_asset_sum = false unknowns = deep_copy(unknowns) for w=1 to length(words) do string ww = words[w] k = find(ww,vocab) if k=0 then sequence r for f=1 to 3 do r = scanf(ww,{"%d","%dc","$%f"}[f]) if r!={} then isnumber[w] = iif(f=3?round(r[1][1]*100):r[1][1]) exit end if end for if r={} then ?ww ?9/0 end if else vused[k] = true end if end for if isnumber[1] then if words[2]="times" then if words[3]!="asmany" then ?9/0 end if k = find("and",words) if k then rest = words[k+1..$] words = words[1..k-1] end if -- eg {"3","times","asmany","quarters","as","dimes"} if length(words)!=6 or words[5]!="as" then ?9/0 end if unknowns = add_unknowns(unknowns, words[4..6]) sentence = repeat(0,length(unknowns)+1) k = find(words[4],unknowns) sentence[k+1] = 1 k = find(words[6],unknowns) sentence[k+1] = -isnumber[1] sentence &= 0 sentences = append(sentences,sentence) elsif words[2]="coins" or (words[2]="bills" and length(words)>2) then --/* eg: {"18","coins","consisting","pennies","and","nickels"} {"26","coins","all","dollars","and","quarters"} {"25","coins","nickels","and","dimes"} {"33","coins","consisting","nickels","dimes","and","quarters"} {"27","coins"} {"20","bills","consisting","one_dollar_bills","and","two_dollar_bills"} --*/ unknowns = add_unknowns(unknowns, words[3..$]) sentence = {isnumber[1]}&repeat(1,length(unknowns)) sentence &= 1 sentences = append(sentences,sentence) elsif find(words[2],{"more","less"}) then k = find("and",words) if k then rest = words[k+1..$] words = words[1..k-1] end if --/* eg: {"5","more","pennies","than","nickels"} {"29","less","quarters","than","dimes"} --*/ if length(words)!=5 or words[4]!="than" then ?9/0 end if unknowns = add_unknowns(unknowns, words[3..$]) sentence = {isnumber[1]}&repeat(0,length(unknowns)) integer less = iff(words[2]="less"?-1:+1) k = find(words[3],unknowns) sentence[k+1] = less k = find(words[5],unknowns) sentence[k+1] = -less sentence &= 0 sentences = append(sentences,sentence) else --/* eg: {"$75","bills"} {"$45.25","quarters","and","dimes"} --*/ if length(words)>2 then -- log assets: -- eg {"$13.25","nickels","and","quarters"} if words[3]!="and" or length(words)!=4 then ?9/0 end if unknowns = add_unknowns(unknowns, words[2..$]) end if sentence = {isnumber[1]} set_asset_sum = true end if elsif isnumber[$] then if words[1]="total" or (length(words)=3 and words[1..2]={"coins","total"}) then --/* {"total","money","$5.95"} {"total","coins","38c"} {"total","coins","$3.00"} {"total","$3.74"} {"total","cost","$17.00"} {"coins","total","$1.44"} --*/ sentence = {isnumber[$]} set_asset_sum = true else -- eg {"quarters","and","dimes","38"} unknowns = add_unknowns(unknowns, words[1..$-1]) sentence = {isnumber[$]}&repeat(1,length(unknowns)) sentence &= 1 sentences = append(sentences,sentence) end if elsif words[1]="one-half" then -- eg {"one-half","asmany","dimes","as","nickels"} if length(words)!=5 or words[2]!="asmany" or words[4]!="as" then ?9/0 end if unknowns = add_unknowns(unknowns, words[3..$]) sentence = repeat(0,length(unknowns)+1) k = find(words[3],unknowns) sentence[k+1] = -2 k = find(words[5],unknowns) sentence[k+1] = 1 sentence &= 0 sentences = append(sentences,sentence) elsif words[1]="many" then --/* eg {"many","quarters","and","dimes","have?"} {"many","each","coin","have?"} {"many","each","have?"} {"many","each","bill","have?"} {"many","dimes","have?"} {"many","coins","each","have?"} --*/ if words[$]!="have?" then ?9/0 end if -- no rule, as yet, just outputs everything instead. elsif words[1]="same" then -- eg {"same","pennies","nickels","and","dimes"} unknowns = add_unknowns(unknowns, words[2..$]) if length(unknowns)!=3 then ?9/0 end if sentences = append(sentences,{0,1,-1,0,0}) -- (p==n) sentences = append(sentences,{0,0,1,-1,0}) -- (n==d) elsif words[1]="total" then -- eg {"total","13","bills"} if length(words)!=3 or not isnumber[2] or words[3]!="bills" then ?9/0 end if sentence = {isnumber[2]}&repeat(1,length(unknowns)) sentence &= 1 sentences = append(sentences,sentence) else --/* eg: {"one_dollar_bills","five_dollar_bills","and","ten_dollar_bills"} {"only","nickels","dimes","and","quarters"} {"only","quarters","and","dimes"} --*/ -- just log assets: unknowns = add_unknowns(unknowns, words) end if if set_asset_sum then -- common code for eg {"total","$3.74"} and {"$75","bills"} for u=1 to length(unknowns) do string uu = unknowns[u] k = find(uu,assets) sentence &= assetv[k] end for sentence &= 'a' sentences = append(sentences,sentence) end if if length(rest) then -- {sequence s2,unknowns} = parse_sentence(rest,unknowns) sequence s2 {s2,unknowns} = parse_sentence(rest,unknowns) sentences &= s2 end if return {sentences,unknowns} end function procedure solveN(integer n, sequence rules, unknowns, string expected) -- -- Based on https://mathcs.clarku.edu/~djoyce/ma105/simultaneous.html -- aka the ancient Chinese Jiuzhang suanshu ~100 B.C. (!!) -- -- Example (ignoring n, which is solely for output): -- rules = {{18,1,1},{38,1,5}}, ie 18==p+n, 38==p+5*n -- unknowns = {"pennies","nickels"} -- expected = "pennies = 13, nickels = 5" -- -- In the elimination phase, both p have multipliers of 1, so we can -- ignore those two sq_mul and just do (38=p+5n)-(18=p+n)==>(20=4n). -- Obviously therefore n is 5 and substituting backwards p is 13. -- string res sequence sentences = rules, ri, rj integer l = length(rules), rii, rji rules = deep_copy(rules) for i=1 to l do -- successively eliminate (grow lower left triangle of 0s) ri = rules[i] if length(ri)!=l+1 then ?9/0 end if rii = ri[i+1] if rii=0 then ?9/0 end if for j=i+1 to l do rj = rules[j] rji = rj[i+1] if rji!=0 then rj = sq_sub(sq_mul(rj,rii),sq_mul(ri,rji)) if rj[i+1]!=0 then ?9/0 end if -- (job done) rules[j] = rj end if end for end for for i=l to 1 by -1 do -- then substitute each backwards ri = rules[i] rii = ri[1]/ri[i+1] -- (all else should be 0) rules[i] = sprintf("%s = %d",{unknowns[i],rii}) for j=i-1 to 1 by -1 do rj = rules[j] rji = rj[i+1] if rji!=0 then rules[j] = 0 rj[1] -= rji*rii rj[i+1] = 0 rules[j] = rj end if end for end for res = join(rules,", ") printf(1,"%d: %v ==> %s\n",{n,sentences,res}) -- printf(1,"%d: %s\n",{n,res}) -- (maybe pref.) if res!=expected then ?9/0 end if end procedure printf(1,"\nStep 2: convert sentences into structures/equations, and solve them:\n") for i=1 to count do sequence words = split(lines[i],{"."}) sequence sentences = {}, sentencii, -- (one ...but some still contain "and") unknowns = {} for w=1 to length(words) do {sentencii,unknowns} = parse_sentence(words[w],unknowns) sentences &= sentencii end for if length(sentences)>length(unknowns) then -- messy: puzzle has too much info! -- (14 aka "33 coins" and 17 "Terry" with 38 coins, -- eliminate wrongly and get a divide by zero...) -- sentences = sentences[1..length(unknowns)] sentences[-2] = sentences[-1] sentences = sentences[1..length(unknowns)] end if if length(sentences)!=length(unknowns) then ?9/0 end if for s=1 to length(sentences) do -- pad any short equations, eg 3 more nickels than dimes -- needs a 0 for quarters, if were not mentioned before. sequence ss = sentences[s] integer padcode = ss[$] ss = ss[1..$-1] integer shortlen = length(sentences)+1-length(ss) if shortlen then switch padcode do case 0: ss &= repeat(0,shortlen) case 1: ss &= repeat(1,shortlen) case 'a': for u=-shortlen to -1 do string uu = unknowns[u] integer k = find(uu,assets) ss &= assetv[k] end for default: ?9/0 end switch end if sentences[s] = ss end for solveN(i,sentences,unknowns,expectations[i]) end for integer k = find(false,vused) if k then ?{"unused vocab",vocab[k]} end if

- Output:

You just gotta love this Pidgin English! The problem numbering system used below is mine alone.

I was slightly unsure whether to interpolate these q&a outputs, but I think the separation chosen has its own merits.

The structures/equations of part 2 are completely unreadable at first, but quite simple really.

24 puzzles: Step 1: remove noise and otherwise simplify (if nothing else, down to a 31-word vocab): 1: 3 times asmany quarters as dimes . total money $5.95 . many quarters and dimes have? 2: 18 coins consisting pennies and nickels . total coins 38c . many pennies and nickels have? 3: 6 more quarters than nickels . total coins $3.00 . many nickels and quarters have? 4: 32 coins consisting nickels and quarters . total money $3.80 . many nickels and quarters have? 5: 2 times asmany dimes as pennies and 3 more nickels than pennies . total coins $1.97 . many each coin have? 6: 3 times asmany quarters as half_dollars and 6 more dimes than half_dollars . total money $4.65 . many each coin have? 7: $75 bills . 2 times asmany one_dollar_bills as five_dollar_bills and 1 less ten_dollar_bills than five_dollar_bills . many each bill have? 8: 8 coins consisting quarters and dimes . total $1.25 . many each coin have? 9: 3 times asmany dimes as nickels and 5 more pennies than nickels . total coins $1.13 . many each coin have? 10: 9 more dimes than nickels . total money $1.20 . many dimes have? 11: 20 bills consisting one_dollar_bills and two_dollar_bills . total money $35 . many two_dollar_bills have? 12: 8 more pennies than nickels and 3 more dimes than nickels . total money $3.10 . many dimes have? 13: 26 coins all dollars and quarters . total $17.00 . many each coin have? 14: 33 coins consisting nickels dimes and quarters . total $3.30 . 3 times asmany nickels as quarters and one-half asmany dimes as nickels . many coins each have? 15: same pennies nickels and dimes . coins total $1.44 . many each coin have? 16: 25 coins nickels and dimes . total $1.65 . many each coin have? 17: 2 more quarters than dimes . total $6.80 . quarters and dimes 38 . many quarters and dimes have? 18: one_dollar_bills five_dollar_bills and ten_dollar_bills . total $43 . 4 times asmany one_dollar_bills as ten_dollar_bills . total 13 bills . many each bill have? 19: 3 times asmany one_dollar_bills as five_dollar_bills . total $32 . many each bill have? 20: total $41.25 . 255 coins . only nickels dimes and quarters . 2 times asmany dimes as nickels . many each coin have? 21: 27 coins . total $4.50 . only quarters and dimes . many coins each have? 22: $13.25 nickels and quarters . 165 coins . many each coin have? 23: $45.25 quarters and dimes . 29 less quarters than dimes . many each coin have? 24: 12 coins consisting dimes and pennies . total money $0.30 . many each coin have? Step 2: convert sentences into structures/equations, and solve them: 1: {{0,1,-3},{595,25,10}} ==> quarters = 21, dimes = 7 2: {{18,1,1},{38,1,5}} ==> pennies = 13, nickels = 5 3: {{6,1,-1},{300,25,5}} ==> quarters = 11, nickels = 5 4: {{32,1,1},{380,5,25}} ==> nickels = 21, quarters = 11 5: {{0,1,-2,0},{3,0,-1,1},{197,10,1,5}} ==> dimes = 14, pennies = 7, nickels = 10 6: {{0,1,-3,0},{6,0,-1,1},{465,25,50,10}} ==> quarters = 9, half_dollars = 3, dimes = 9 7: {{7500,100,500,1000},{0,1,-2,0},{1,0,1,-1}} ==> one_dollar_bills = 10, five_dollar_bills = 5, ten_dollar_bills = 4 8: {{8,1,1},{125,25,10}} ==> quarters = 3, dimes = 5 9: {{0,1,-3,0},{5,0,-1,1},{113,10,5,1}} ==> dimes = 9, nickels = 3, pennies = 8 10: {{9,1,-1},{120,10,5}} ==> dimes = 11, nickels = 2 11: {{20,1,1},{3500,100,200}} ==> one_dollar_bills = 5, two_dollar_bills = 15 12: {{8,1,-1,0},{3,0,-1,1},{310,1,5,10}} ==> pennies = 25, nickels = 17, dimes = 20 13: {{26,1,1},{1700,100,25}} ==> dollars = 14, quarters = 12 14: {{33,1,1,1},{330,5,10,25},{0,1,-2,0}} ==> nickels = 18, dimes = 9, quarters = 6 15: {{0,1,-1,0},{0,0,1,-1},{144,1,5,10}} ==> pennies = 9, nickels = 9, dimes = 9 16: {{25,1,1},{165,5,10}} ==> nickels = 17, dimes = 8 17: {{2,1,-1},{38,1,1}} ==> quarters = 20, dimes = 18 18: {{4300,100,500,1000},{0,1,0,-4},{13,1,1,1}} ==> one_dollar_bills = 8, five_dollar_bills = 3, ten_dollar_bills = 2 19: {{0,1,-3},{3200,100,500}} ==> one_dollar_bills = 12, five_dollar_bills = 4 20: {{4125,5,10,25},{255,1,1,1},{0,-2,1,0}} ==> nickels = 45, dimes = 90, quarters = 120 21: {{27,1,1},{450,25,10}} ==> quarters = 12, dimes = 15 22: {{1325,5,25},{165,1,1}} ==> nickels = 140, quarters = 25 23: {{4525,25,10},{29,-1,1}} ==> quarters = 121, dimes = 150 24: {{12,1,1},{30,10,1}} ==> dimes = 2, pennies = 10

## Wren[edit]

import "/dynamic" for Struct

import "/pattern" for Pattern

import "/str" for Str

import "/sort" for Sort

import "/fmt" for Fmt

var Kind = Struct.create("Kind", ["name", "value", "number"])

// variable1 = constant1 * variable2 + constant2

var Relation = Struct.create("Relation", ["variable1", "variable2", "constant1", "constant2"])

var nums = {

"one-half": "0 times", "one": "1", "two": "2", "three": "3", "four": "4", "five": "5",

"six": "6", "seven": "7", "eight": "8", "nine": "9", "ten": "10", "eleven": "11", "twelve": "12",

"thirteen": "13", "fourteen": "14", "fifteen": "15", "sixteen": "16", "seventeen": "17",

"eighteen": "18", "nineteen": "19", "twenty": "20", "thirty": "30", "forty": "40",

"fifty": "50", "sixty": "60", "seventy": "70", "eighty": "80", "ninety": "90", "hundred": "100"

}

var nums2 = {

"twenty-": "2", "thirty-": "3", "forty-": "4",

"fifty-": "5", "sixty-": "6", "seventy-": "7", "eighty-": "8", "ninety-": "9"

}

var coins = {

"pennies": 0.01, "nickels": 0.05, "dimes": 0.10, "quarters": 0.25, "half-dollars": 0.50,

"one-dollar": 1.00, "two-dollar": 2.00, "five-dollar": 5.00, "ten-dollar": 10.00

}

var bills = {

"$1": "one-dollar", "$2": "two-dollar", "$5": "five-dollar", "$10": "ten-dollar"

}

var rx1 = Pattern.new("[/$+1/f|+1/d¢]")

var rx2 = Pattern.new("[pennies|nickels|dimes|quarters|half-dollar|one-dollar|two-dollar|five-dollar|ten-dollar]")

var rx3 = Pattern.new("/s[+1/d]/s")

var rx4 = Pattern.new("[+1/d] times as many [+1/y] as [~she has |][+1/y]")

var rx5 = Pattern.new("[+1/d] more [+1/y] than [~she has |][+1/y]")

var rx6 = Pattern.new("[+1/d] less [+1/y] than [~she has |][+1/y]")

var rx7 = Pattern.new("[+1/d] dollars")

var spaced = Fn.new { |s| " %(s) " }

// Gets a sorted list of monetary values.

var getValues = Fn.new { |q|

var ss = rx1.findAll(q).map { |m| m.text.trimEnd(".") }.toList

if (ss.count == 0) return []

var res = []

for (s in ss) {

if (s == "") continue

if (s[0] == "$") {

s = s[1..-1]

} else {

s = "." + s[0..-3] // '¢' is 2 bytes

}

var f = Num.fromString(s)

res.add(f)

}

res.sort()

return res

}

// Gets a sorted slice of non-monetary integers.

var getNumbers = Fn.new { |q|

var ns = rx3.findAll(q).map { |m| m.text }.toList

if (ns.count == 0) return null

var res = []

for (n in ns) {

var i = Num.fromString(n)

res.add(i)

}

res.sort()

return res

}

// Gets the 'kinds' for the problem.

var getKinds = Fn.new { |a|

var num = Num.fromString(a[1])

var kinds = [Kind.new(a[2], 0, 0), Kind.new(a[4], 0, 0)]

var areCoins = false

for (i in 0...kinds.count) {

var v = coins[kinds[i].name]

if (v) {

kinds[i].value = v

areCoins = true

}

}

if (!areCoins) return [0, null]

return [num, kinds]

}

// Checks if the problem involves 3 coins and

// also returns their names and the names of the coins which occur most.

var hasThreeCoins = Fn.new { |q|

q = q.replace(".", "").replace(",", "")

var words = q.split(" ")

var coinMap = {}

for (word in words) {

if (coins.containsKey(word)) {

var v = coinMap[word]

if (v) {

coinMap[word] = v + 1

} else {

coinMap[word] = 1

}

}

}

if (coinMap.count != 3) return [null, "", false]

var maxNum = 0

var maxNames = []

var names = []

for (me in coinMap) {

names.add(me.key)

if (me.value > maxNum) {

maxNum = me.value

maxNames = [me.key]

} else if (me.value == maxNum) {

maxNames.add(me.key)

}

}

return [names, maxNames, true]

}

var errorMsg = Fn.new { |p|

System.print(p)

System.print("*** CAN'T SOLVE THIS ONE ***\n")

}

var printAnswers = Fn.new { |p, kinds|

System.print(p)

System.write("ANSWER:")

var i = 0

for (kind in kinds) {

if (i > 0) System.write(",")

System.write(" %(kind.number) %(kind.name)")

i = i + 1

}

System.print("\n")

}

// Processes a problem which involves 3 coins.

var threeCoins = Fn.new { |p, q, names, maxNames|

var relations = []

var am = rx4.findAll(q).map { |m| [m.text] + m.capsText }.toList

for (i in 0...am.count) {

var res = getKinds.call(am[i])

var mult = res[0]

var kinds = res[1]

relations.add(Relation.new(kinds[0].name, kinds[1].name, mult, 0))

}

var mt = rx5.findAll(q).map { |m| [m.text] + m.capsText }.toList

for (i in 0...mt.count) {

var res = getKinds.call(mt[i])

var plus = res[0]

var kinds = res[1]

relations.add(Relation.new(kinds[0].name, kinds[1].name, 1, plus))

}

var lt = rx6.findAll(q).map { |m| [m.text] + m.capsText }.toList

for (i in 0...lt.count) {

var res = getKinds.call(lt[i])

var minus = res[0]

var kinds = res[1]

relations.add(Relation.new(kinds[0].name, kinds[1].name, 1, -minus))

}

var le = relations.count

if (le > 2) {

errorMsg.call(p)

return

}

if (le == 0) { // numbers of each coin must be the same

var sum = 0

for (name in names) sum = sum + coins[name]

var tv = getValues.call(q)[-1]

var n = (tv/sum + 0.5).floor

var kinds = []

for (name in names) kinds.add(Kind.new(name, 0, n))

printAnswers.call(p, kinds)

} else {

var totalValue = getValues.call(q)[-1]

for (maxName in maxNames) {

for (i in 0...le) {

if (relations[i].constant1 == 0) {

relations[i].constant1 = 0.5 // deals with 'one-half' cases

}

if (le == 2 && maxName == relations[i].variable1) {

var v = relations[i].variable2

relations[i].variable1 = v

relations[i].variable2 = maxName

relations[i].constant1 = 1 / relations[i].constant1

relations[i].constant2 = -relations[i].constant2

}

}

var tv = totalValue

var v1 = ""

var v2 = ""

var v3 = ""

var n1 = 0

var n2 = 0

var n3 = 0

if (le == 2) {

var tmc = coins[relations[0].variable1] * relations[0].constant1 +

coins[relations[1].variable1] * relations[1].constant1 + coins[maxName]

tv = tv - coins[relations[0].variable1] * relations[0].constant2 -

coins[relations[1].variable1] * relations[1].constant2

v1 = maxName

v2 = relations[0].variable1

v3 = relations[1].variable1

n1 = (tv/tmc + 0.5).floor

n2 = (relations[0].constant1*n1 + relations[0].constant2 + 0.5).floor

n3 = (relations[1].constant1*n1 + relations[1].constant2 + 0.5).floor

} else {

var tn = getNumbers.call(q)[-1]

v1 = relations[0].variable1

v2 = relations[0].variable2

for (name in names) {

if (name != v1 && name != v2) {

v3 = name

break

}

}

var mult1 = coins[v1]

var mult2 = coins[v2]

var mult3 = coins[v3]

n2 = (((tn-relations[0].constant2)*mult3-tv+relations[0].constant2*mult1)/

((relations[0].constant1+1)*mult3-relations[0].constant1*mult1-mult2) + 0.5).floor

n1 = (n2*relations[0].constant1 + relations[0].constant2 + 0.5).floor

n3 = tn.floor - n1 - n2

}

var calcValue = n1 * coins[v1] + n2 * coins[v2] + n3 * coins[v3]

if ((totalValue - calcValue).abs <= 1e-14) {

var kinds = [Kind.new(v1, 0, n1), Kind.new(v2, 0, n2), Kind.new(v3, 0, n3)]

printAnswers.call(p, kinds)

return

}

}

errorMsg.call(p)

}

}

var ps = [

"If a person has three times as many quarters as dimes and the total amount of money is $5.95, find the number of quarters and dimes.",

"A pile of 18 coins consists of pennies and nickels. If the total amount of the coins is 38¢, find the number of pennies and nickels.",

"A small child has 6 more quarters than nickels. If the total amount of coins is $3.00, find the number of nickels and quarters the child has.",

"A child's bank contains 32 coins consisting of nickels and quarters. If the total amount of money is $3.80, find the number of nickels and quarters in the bank.",

"A person has twice as many dimes as she has pennies and three more nickels than pennies. If the total amount of the coins is $1.97, find the numbers of each type of coin the person has.",

"In a bank, there are three times as many quarters as half dollars and 6 more dimes than half dollars. If the total amount of the money in the bank is $4.65, find the number of each type of coin in the bank.",

"A person bought 12 stamps consisting of 37¢ stamps and 23¢ stamps. If the cost of the stamps is $3.74, find the number of each type of the stamps purchased.",

"A dairy store sold a total of 80 ice cream sandwiches and ice cream bars. If the sandwiches cost $0.69 each and the bars cost $0.75 each and the store made $58.08, find the number of each sold.",

"An office supply store sells college-ruled notebook paper for $1.59 a ream and wide-ruled notebook paper for $2.29 a ream. If a student purchased 9 reams of notebook paper and paid $15.71, how many reams of each type of paper did the student purchase?",

"A clerk is given $75 in bills to put in a cash drawer at the start of a workday. There are twice as many $1 bills as $5 bills and one less $10 bill than $5 bills. How many of each type of bill are there?",

"A person has 8 coins consisting of quarters and dimes. If the total amount of this change is $1.25, how many of each kind of coin are there?",

"A person has 3 times as many dimes as he has nickels and 5 more pennies than nickels. If the total amount of these coins is $1.13, how many of each kind of coin does he have?",

"A person bought ten greeting cards consisting of birthday cards costing $1.50 each and anniversary cards costing $2.00 each. If the total cost of the cards was $17.00, find the number of each kind of card the person bought.",

"A person has 9 more dimes than nickels. If the total amount of money is $1.20, find the number of dimes the person has.",

"A person has 20 bills consisting of $1 bills and $2 bills. If the total amount of money the person has is $35, find the number of $2 bills the person has.",

"A bank contains 8 more pennies than nickels and 3 more dimes than nickels. If the total amount of money in the bank is $3.10, find the number of dimes in the bank.",

"Your uncle walks in, jingling the coins in his pocket. He grins at you and tells you that you can have all the coins if you can figure out how many of each kind of coin he is carrying. You're not too interested until he tells you that he's been collecting those gold-tone one-dollar coins. The twenty-six coins in his pocket are all dollars and quarters, and they add up to seventeen dollars in value. How many of each coin does he have?",

"A collection of 33 coins, consisting of nickels, dimes, and quarters, has a value of $3.30. If there are three times as many nickels as quarters, and one-half as many dimes as nickels, how many coins of each kind are there?",

"A wallet contains the same number of pennies, nickels, and dimes. The coins total $1.44. How many of each type of coin does the wallet contain?",

"Suppose Ken has 25 coins in nickels and dimes only and has a total of $1.65. How many of each coin does he have?",

"Terry has 2 more quarters than dimes and has a total of $6.80. The number of quarters and dimes is 38. How many quarters and dimes does Terry have?",

"In my wallet, I have one-dollar bills, five-dollar bills, and ten-dollar bills. The total amount in my wallet is $43. I have four times as many one-dollar bills as ten-dollar bills. All together, there are 13 bills in my wallet. How many of each bill do I have?",

"Marsha has three times as many one-dollar bills as she does five dollar bills. She has a total of $32. How many of each bill does she have?",

"A vending machine has $41.25 in it. There are 255 coins total and the machine only accepts nickels, dimes and quarters. There are twice as many dimes as nickels. How many of each coin are in the machine?",

"Michael had 27 coins in all, valuing $4.50. If he had only quarters and dimes, how many coins of each kind did he have?",

"Lucille had $13.25 in nickels and quarters. If she had 165 coins in all, how many of each type of coin did she have?",

"Ben has $45.25 in quarters and dimes. If he has 29 less quarters than dimes, how many of each type of coin does he have?",

"A person has 12 coins consisting of dimes and pennies. If the total amount of money is $0.30, how many of each coin are there?"

]

for (p in ps) {

var q = Str.lower(p).replace("twice", "two times").replace(" does ", " has ")

for (d in ["half", "one", "two", "five", "ten"]) {

q = q.replace(d + " dollar", d + "-dollar")

}

for (me in nums) {

q = q.replace(spaced.call(me.key), spaced.call(me.value))

}

for (me in nums2) {

q = q.replace(me.key, me.value)

}

for (me in nums) {

q = q.replace(me.key + " ", me.value + " ")

}

for (me in bills) {

q = q.replace(me.key + " ", me.value + " ")

}

q = q.replace(" bills", "").replace(" bill", "")

// check if there are 3 coins involved

var res = hasThreeCoins.call(q)

if (res[2]){

threeCoins.call(p, q, res[0], res[1])

continue

}

var am = rx4.findAll(q).map { |m| [m.text] + m.capsText }.toList

if (am.count == 1) {

var res = getKinds.call(am[0])

var mult = res[0]

var kinds = res[1]

if (!kinds) {

errorMsg.call(p)

continue

}

var tv = getValues.call(q)[-1]

kinds[1].number = (tv/(mult*kinds[0].value + kinds[1].value) + 0.5).floor

kinds[0].number = kinds[1].number * mult

printAnswers.call(p, kinds)

continue

}

var mt = rx5.findAll(q).map { |m| [m.text] + m.capsText }.toList

if (mt.count == 1) {

var res = getKinds.call(mt[0])

var plus = res[0]

var kinds = res[1]

if (!kinds) {

errorMsg.call(p)

continue

}

var tv = getValues.call(q)[-1]

kinds[1].number = ((tv-plus*kinds[0].value)/(kinds[0].value + kinds[1].value) + 0.5).floor

kinds[0].number = kinds[1].number + plus

printAnswers.call(p, kinds)

continue

}

var lt = rx6.findAll(q).map { |m| [m.text] + m.capsText }.toList

if (lt.count == 1) {

var res = getKinds.call(lt[0])

var minus = res[0]

var kinds = res[1]

if (!kinds) {

errorMsg.call(p)

continue

}

var tv = getValues.call(q)[-1]

kinds[1].number = ((tv+minus*kinds[0].value)/(kinds[0].value + kinds[1].value) + 0.5).floor

kinds[0].number = kinds[1].number - minus

printAnswers.call(p, kinds)

continue

}

res = getValues.call(q)

var tv = 0

if (res.count > 0) {

tv = res[-1]

} else {

var res3 = rx7.findAll(q).map { |m| [m.text] + m.capsText }.toList

tv = Num.fromString(res3[0][1])

}

var tn = getNumbers.call(q)[-1]

var coinNames = rx2.findAll(q).map { |m| m.text }.toList

Sort.insertion(coinNames)

var kinds = []

if (coinNames.count > 0) {

kinds.add(Kind.new(coinNames[0], coins[coinNames[0]], 0))

for (i in 1...coinNames.count) {

if (coinNames[i] != coinNames[i-1]) {

kinds.add(Kind.new(coinNames[i], coins[coinNames[i]], 0))

}

}

if (kinds.count != 2) {

errorMsg.call(p)

continue

}

} else if (res.count >= 3) {

kinds.add(Kind.new(Fmt.swrite("$$$.2f item", res[0]), res[0], 0))

for (i in 1...res.count-1) {

if (res[i] != res[i-1]) {

kinds.add(Kind.new(Fmt.swrite("$$$.2f item", res[i]), res[i], 0))

}

}

if (kinds.count!= 2) {

errorMsg.call(p)

continue

}

} else {

errorMsg.call(p)

continue

}

kinds[0].number = ((tv-tn*kinds[1].value)/(kinds[0].value-kinds[1].value) + 0.5).floor

kinds[1].number = tn - kinds[0].number

printAnswers.call(p, kinds)

}

- Output:

If a person has three times as many quarters as dimes and the total amount of money is $5.95, find the number of quarters and dimes. ANSWER: 21 quarters, 7 dimes A pile of 18 coins consists of pennies and nickels. If the total amount of the coins is 38¢, find the number of pennies and nickels. ANSWER: 5 nickels, 13 pennies A small child has 6 more quarters than nickels. If the total amount of coins is $3.00, find the number of nickels and quarters the child has. ANSWER: 11 quarters, 5 nickels A child's bank contains 32 coins consisting of nickels and quarters. If the total amount of money is $3.80, find the number of nickels and quarters in the bank. ANSWER: 21 nickels, 11 quarters A person has twice as many dimes as she has pennies and three more nickels than pennies. If the total amount of the coins is $1.97, find the numbers of each type of coin the person has. ANSWER: 7 pennies, 14 dimes, 10 nickels In a bank, there are three times as many quarters as half dollars and 6 more dimes than half dollars. If the total amount of the money in the bank is $4.65, find the number of each type of coin in the bank. ANSWER: 3 half-dollars, 9 quarters, 9 dimes A person bought 12 stamps consisting of 37¢ stamps and 23¢ stamps. If the cost of the stamps is $3.74, find the number of each type of the stamps purchased. ANSWER: 5 $0.23 item, 7 $0.37 item A dairy store sold a total of 80 ice cream sandwiches and ice cream bars. If the sandwiches cost $0.69 each and the bars cost $0.75 each and the store made $58.08, find the number of each sold. ANSWER: 32 $0.69 item, 48 $0.75 item An office supply store sells college-ruled notebook paper for $1.59 a ream and wide-ruled notebook paper for $2.29 a ream. If a student purchased 9 reams of notebook paper and paid $15.71, how many reams of each type of paper did the student purchase? ANSWER: 7 $1.59 item, 2 $2.29 item A clerk is given $75 in bills to put in a cash drawer at the start of a workday. There are twice as many $1 bills as $5 bills and one less $10 bill than $5 bills. How many of each type of bill are there? ANSWER: 5 five-dollar, 10 one-dollar, 4 ten-dollar A person has 8 coins consisting of quarters and dimes. If the total amount of this change is $1.25, how many of each kind of coin are there? ANSWER: 5 dimes, 3 quarters A person has 3 times as many dimes as he has nickels and 5 more pennies than nickels. If the total amount of these coins is $1.13, how many of each kind of coin does he have? ANSWER: 3 nickels, 9 dimes, 8 pennies A person bought ten greeting cards consisting of birthday cards costing $1.50 each and anniversary cards costing $2.00 each. If the total cost of the cards was $17.00, find the number of each kind of card the person bought. ANSWER: 6 $1.50 item, 4 $2.00 item A person has 9 more dimes than nickels. If the total amount of money is $1.20, find the number of dimes the person has. ANSWER: 11 dimes, 2 nickels A person has 20 bills consisting of $1 bills and $2 bills. If the total amount of money the person has is $35, find the number of $2 bills the person has. ANSWER: 5 one-dollar, 15 two-dollar A bank contains 8 more pennies than nickels and 3 more dimes than nickels. If the total amount of money in the bank is $3.10, find the number of dimes in the bank. ANSWER: 17 nickels, 25 pennies, 20 dimes Your uncle walks in, jingling the coins in his pocket. He grins at you and tells you that you can have all the coins if you can figure out how many of each kind of coin he is carrying. You're not too interested until he tells you that he's been collecting those gold-tone one-dollar coins. The twenty-six coins in his pocket are all dollars and quarters, and they add up to seventeen dollars in value. How many of each coin does he have? ANSWER: 14 one-dollar, 12 quarters A collection of 33 coins, consisting of nickels, dimes, and quarters, has a value of $3.30. If there are three times as many nickels as quarters, and one-half as many dimes as nickels, how many coins of each kind are there? ANSWER: 18 nickels, 6 quarters, 9 dimes A wallet contains the same number of pennies, nickels, and dimes. The coins total $1.44. How many of each type of coin does the wallet contain? ANSWER: 9 pennies, 9 dimes, 9 nickels Suppose Ken has 25 coins in nickels and dimes only and has a total of $1.65. How many of each coin does he have? ANSWER: 8 dimes, 17 nickels Terry has 2 more quarters than dimes and has a total of $6.80. The number of quarters and dimes is 38. How many quarters and dimes does Terry have? ANSWER: 20 quarters, 18 dimes In my wallet, I have one-dollar bills, five-dollar bills, and ten-dollar bills. The total amount in my wallet is $43. I have four times as many one-dollar bills as ten-dollar bills. All together, there are 13 bills in my wallet. How many of each bill do I have? ANSWER: 8 one-dollar, 2 ten-dollar, 3 five-dollar Marsha has three times as many one-dollar bills as she does five dollar bills. She has a total of $32. How many of each bill does she have? ANSWER: 12 one-dollar, 4 five-dollar A vending machine has $41.25 in it. There are 255 coins total and the machine only accepts nickels, dimes and quarters. There are twice as many dimes as nickels. How many of each coin are in the machine? ANSWER: 90 dimes, 45 nickels, 120 quarters Michael had 27 coins in all, valuing $4.50. If he had only quarters and dimes, how many coins of each kind did he have? ANSWER: 15 dimes, 12 quarters Lucille had $13.25 in nickels and quarters. If she had 165 coins in all, how many of each type of coin did she have? ANSWER: 140 nickels, 25 quarters Ben has $45.25 in quarters and dimes. If he has 29 less quarters than dimes, how many of each type of coin does he have? ANSWER: 121 quarters, 150 dimes A person has 12 coins consisting of dimes and pennies. If the total amount of money is $0.30, how many of each coin are there? ANSWER: 2 dimes, 10 pennies