Draw a sphere

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Task
Draw a sphere
You are encouraged to solve this task according to the task description, using any language you may know.

The task is to draw a sphere.

The sphere can be represented graphically, or in ascii art, depending on the language capabilities.

Either static or rotational projection is acceptable for this task.

Contents

[edit] Ada

Library: GtkAda

Translation from the C code at http://cairographics.org/samples/gradient Uses the Cairo component of GtkAda to create and save as png

SphereAda.png
with Glib;                use Glib;
with Cairo; use Cairo;
with Cairo.Png; use Cairo.Png;
with Cairo.Pattern; use Cairo.Pattern;
with Cairo.Image_Surface; use Cairo.Image_Surface;
with Ada.Numerics;
 
procedure Sphere is
subtype Dub is Glib.Gdouble;
 
Surface  : Cairo_Surface;
Cr  : Cairo_Context;
Pat  : Cairo_Pattern;
Status_Out : Cairo_Status;
M_Pi  : constant Dub := Dub (Ada.Numerics.Pi);
 
begin
Surface := Create (Cairo_Format_ARGB32, 512, 512);
Cr  := Create (Surface);
Pat  :=
Cairo.Pattern.Create_Radial (230.4, 204.8, 51.1, 204.8, 204.8, 256.0);
Cairo.Pattern.Add_Color_Stop_Rgba (Pat, 0.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0);
Cairo.Pattern.Add_Color_Stop_Rgba (Pat, 1.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 1.0);
Cairo.Set_Source (Cr, Pat);
Cairo.Arc (Cr, 256.0, 256.0, 153.6, 0.0, 2.0 * M_Pi);
Cairo.Fill (Cr);
Cairo.Pattern.Destroy (Pat);
Status_Out := Write_To_Png (Surface, "SphereAda.png");
pragma Assert (Status_Out = Cairo_Status_Success);
end Sphere;
Library: Display

This uses a very loose binding to SDL as found in any GPS installation. For it to work, you must choose New Project From Templte|Empty Game

 
with Display; use Display;
with Display.Basic; use Display.Basic;
 
procedure Main is
Ball : Shape_Id := New_Circle
(X => 0.0,
Y => 0.0,
Radius => 20.0,
Color => Blue);
begin
null;
end Main;
 

[edit] Arendelle

[ #j , 
   [ #i , 
      { ( #x - 19 ) ^ 2 + 
        ( #y - 14 ) ^ 2 < 125 , p 
      } r
   ] [ #i , l ] d
]

[edit] AutoHotkey

Library: GDIP
#NoEnv
SetBatchLines, -1
#SingleInstance, Force
 
; Uncomment if Gdip.ahk is not in your standard library
#Include, Gdip.ahk
 
; Settings
X := 200, Y := 200, Width := 200, Height := 200 ; Location and size of sphere
rotation := -30 ; degrees
ARGB := 0xFFFF0000 ; Color=Solid Red
 
If !pToken := Gdip_Startup() ; Start gdi+
{
MsgBox, 48, gdiplus error!, Gdiplus failed to start. Please ensure you have gdiplus on your system
ExitApp
}
OnExit, Exit
 
Gui, -Caption +E0x80000 +LastFound +AlwaysOnTop +ToolWindow +OwnDialogs ; Create GUI
Gui, Show, NA ; Show GUI
hwnd1 := WinExist() ; Get a handle to this window we have created in order to update it later
hbm := CreateDIBSection(A_ScreenWidth, A_ScreenHeight) ; Create a gdi bitmap drawing area
hdc := CreateCompatibleDC() ; Get a device context compatible with the screen
obm := SelectObject(hdc, hbm) ; Select the bitmap into the device context
pGraphics := Gdip_GraphicsFromHDC(hdc) ; Get a pointer to the graphics of the bitmap, for use with drawing functions
Gdip_SetSmoothingMode(pGraphics, 4) ; Set the smoothing mode to antialias = 4 to make shapes appear smother
 
Gdip_TranslateWorldTransform(pGraphics, X, Y)
Gdip_RotateWorldTransform(pGraphics, rotation)
 
; Base ellipse
pBrush := Gdip_CreateLineBrushFromRect(0, 0, Width, Height, ARGB, 0xFF000000)
Gdip_FillEllipse(pGraphics, pBrush, 0, 0, Width, Height)
 
; First highlight ellipse
pBrush := Gdip_CreateLineBrushFromRect(Width*0.1, Height*0.01, Width*0.8, Height*0.6, 0x33FFFFFF, 0x00FFFFFF)
Gdip_FillEllipse(pGraphics, pBrush, Width*0.1, Height*0.01, Width*0.8, Height*0.6)
 
; Second highlight ellipse
pBrush := Gdip_CreateLineBrushFromRect(Width*0.3, Height*0.02, Width*0.3, Height*0.2, 0xBBFFFFFF, 0x00FFFFFF)
Gdip_FillEllipse(pGraphics, pBrush, Width*0.3, Height*0.02, Width*0.3, Height*0.2)
 
 
UpdateLayeredWindow(hwnd1, hdc, 0, 0, A_ScreenWidth, A_ScreenHeight)
SelectObject(hdc, obm) ; Select the object back into the hdc
Gdip_DeletePath(Path)
Gdip_DeleteBrush(pBrush)
DeleteObject(hbm) ; Now the bitmap may be deleted
DeleteDC(hdc) ; Also the device context related to the bitmap may be deleted
Gdip_DeleteGraphics(G) ; The graphics may now be deleted
Return
 
Exit:
; gdi+ may now be shutdown on exiting the program
Gdip_Shutdown(pToken)
ExitApp

[edit] BASIC

[edit] BASIC256

clg
color white
rect 0,0,graphwidth, graphheight
For n = 1 to 100
color rgb(2*n,2*n,2*n)
circle 150-2*n/3,150-n/2,150-n
next n
Output:

http://s30.postimg.org/7gup06lq9/Sphere_BASIC256_Output.jpg

[edit] BBC BASIC

Using Direct3D.

      MODE 8
INSTALL @lib$+"D3DLIB"
D3DTS_VIEW = 2
D3DTS_PROJECTION = 3
D3DRS_SPECULARENABLE = 29
 
SYS "LoadLibrary", @lib$+"D3DX8BBC.DLL" TO d3dx%
IF d3dx%=0 ERROR 100, "Couldn't load D3DX8BBC.DLL"
SYS "GetProcAddress", d3dx%, "D3DXCreateSphere" TO `D3DXCreateSphere`
SYS "GetProcAddress", d3dx%, "D3DXMatrixLookAtLH" TO `D3DXMatrixLookAtLH`
SYS "GetProcAddress", d3dx%, "D3DXMatrixPerspectiveFovLH" TO `D3DXMatrixPerspectiveFovLH`
 
DIM eyepos%(2), lookat%(2), up%(2), mat%(3,3)
 
DIM D3Dlight8{Type%, Diffuse{r%,g%,b%,a%}, Specular{r%,g%,b%,a%}, \
\ Ambient{r%,g%,b%,a%}, Position{x%,y%,z%}, Direction{x%,y%,z%}, \
\ Range%, Falloff%, Attenuation0%, Attenuation1%, Attenuation2%, \
\ Theta%, Phi%}
 
DIM D3Dmaterial8{Diffuse{r%,g%,b%,a%}, Ambient{r%,g%,b%,a%}, \
\ Specular{r%,g%,b%,a%}, Emissive{r%,g%,b%,a%}, Power%}
 
DIM D3Dbasemesh8{QueryInterface%, Addref%, Release%, \
\ DrawSubset%, GetNumFaces%, GetNumVertices%, GetFVF%, \
\ GetDeclaration%, GetOptions%, GetDevice%, \
\ CloneMeshFVF%, CloneMesh%, GetVertexBuffer%, GetIndexBuffer%, \
\ LockVertexBuffer%, UnlockVertexBuffer%, LockIndexBuffer%, \
\ UnlockIndexBuffer%, GetAttributeTable%}
 
DIM D3Ddevice8{QueryInterface%, AddRef%, Release%, TestCooperativeLevel%, \
\ GetAvailableTextureMem%, ResourceManagerDiscardBytes%, GetDirect3D%, \
\ GetDeviceCaps%, GetDisplayMode%, GetCreationParameters%, SetCursorProperties%, \
\ SetCursorPosition%, ShowCursor%, CreateAdditionalSwapChain%, Reset%, \
\ Present%, GetBackBuffer%, GetRasterStatus%, SetGammaRamp%, GetGammaRamp%, \
\ CreateTexture%, CreateVolumeTexture%, CreateCubeTexture%, CreateVertexBuffer%, \
\ CreateIndexBuffer%, CreateRenderTarget%, CreateDepthStencilSurface%, \
\ CreateImageSurface%, CopyRects%, UpdateTexture%, GetFrontBuffer%, \
\ SetRenderTarget%, GetRenderTarget%, GetDepthStencilSurface%, BeginScene%, \
\ EndScene%, Clear%, SetTransform%, GetTransform%, MultiplyTransform%, \
\ SetViewport%, GetViewport%, SetMaterial%, GetMaterial%, SetLight%, GetLight%, \
\ LightEnable%, GetLightEnable%, SetClipPlane%, GetClipPlane%, SetRenderState%, \
\ GetRenderState%, BeginStateBlock%, EndStateBlock%, ApplyStateBlock%, \
\ CaptureStateBlock%, DeleteStateBlock%, CreateStateBlock%, SetClipStatus%, \
\ GetClipStatus%, GetTexture%, SetTexture%, GetTextureStageState%, \
\ SetTextureStageState%, ValidateDevice%, GetInfo%, SetPaletteEntries%, \
\ GetPaletteEntries%, SetCurrentTexturePalette%, GetCurrentTexturePalette%, \
\ DrawPrimitive%, DrawIndexedPrimitive%, DrawPrimitiveUP%, \
\ DrawIndexedPrimitiveUP%, ProcessVertices%, CreateVertexShader%, \
\ SetVertexShader%, GetVertexShader%, DeleteVertexShader%, \
\ SetVertexShaderConstant%, GetVertexShaderConstant%, GetVertexShaderDeclaration%, \
\ GetVertexShaderFunction%, SetStreamSource%, GetStreamSource%, SetIndices%, \
\ GetIndices%, CreatePixelShader%, SetPixelShader%, GetPixelShader%, \
\ DeletePixelShader%, SetPixelShaderConstant%, GetPixelShaderConstant%, \
\ GetPixelShaderFunction%, DrawRectPatch%, DrawTriPatch%, DeletePatch%}
 
pDevice%=FN_initd3d(@hwnd%, 1, 1)
IF pDevice%=0 ERROR 100, "Couldn't create Direct3D8 device"
 !(^D3Ddevice8{}+4) = !pDevice%
 
SYS `D3DXCreateSphere`, pDevice%, FN_f4(1), 50, 50, ^meshSphere%, 0
IF meshSphere% = 0 ERROR 100, "D3DXCreateSphere failed"
 !(^D3Dbasemesh8{}+4) = !meshSphere%
 
REM. Point-source light:
D3Dlight8.Type%=1 : REM. point source
D3Dlight8.Diffuse.r% = FN_f4(1)
D3Dlight8.Diffuse.g% = FN_f4(1)
D3Dlight8.Diffuse.b% = FN_f4(1)
D3Dlight8.Specular.r% = FN_f4(1)
D3Dlight8.Specular.g% = FN_f4(1)
D3Dlight8.Specular.b% = FN_f4(1)
D3Dlight8.Position.x% = FN_f4(2)
D3Dlight8.Position.y% = FN_f4(1)
D3Dlight8.Position.z% = FN_f4(4)
D3Dlight8.Range% = FN_f4(10)
D3Dlight8.Attenuation0% = FN_f4(1)
 
REM. Material:
D3Dmaterial8.Diffuse.r% = FN_f4(0.2)
D3Dmaterial8.Diffuse.g% = FN_f4(0.6)
D3Dmaterial8.Diffuse.b% = FN_f4(1.0)
D3Dmaterial8.Specular.r% = FN_f4(0.4)
D3Dmaterial8.Specular.g% = FN_f4(0.4)
D3Dmaterial8.Specular.b% = FN_f4(0.4)
D3Dmaterial8.Power% = FN_f4(100)
 
fovy = RAD(30)
aspect = 5/4
znear = 1
zfar = 1000
bkgnd% = &7F7F7F
eyepos%() = 0, 0, FN_f4(6)
lookat%() = 0, 0, 0
up%() = 0, FN_f4(1), 0
 
SYS D3Ddevice8.Clear%, pDevice%, 0, 0, 3, bkgnd%, FN_f4(1), 0
SYS D3Ddevice8.BeginScene%, pDevice%
SYS D3Ddevice8.SetLight%, pDevice%, 0, D3Dlight8{}
SYS D3Ddevice8.LightEnable%, pDevice%, 0, 1
SYS D3Ddevice8.SetMaterial%, pDevice%, D3Dmaterial8{}
SYS D3Ddevice8.SetRenderState%, pDevice%, D3DRS_SPECULARENABLE, 1
 
SYS `D3DXMatrixLookAtLH`, ^mat%(0,0), ^eyepos%(0), ^lookat%(0), ^up%(0)
SYS D3Ddevice8.SetTransform%, pDevice%, D3DTS_VIEW, ^mat%(0,0)
 
SYS `D3DXMatrixPerspectiveFovLH`, ^mat%(0,0), FN_f4(fovy), \
\ FN_f4(aspect), FN_f4(znear), FN_f4(zfar)
SYS D3Ddevice8.SetTransform%, pDevice%, D3DTS_PROJECTION, ^mat%(0,0)
 
SYS D3Dbasemesh8.DrawSubset%, meshSphere%, 0
SYS D3Ddevice8.EndScene%, pDevice%
SYS D3Ddevice8.Present%, pDevice%, 0, 0, 0, 0
 
SYS D3Ddevice8.Release%, pDevice%
SYS D3Dbasemesh8.Release%, meshSphere%
SYS "FreeLibrary", d3dx%
END
 
Output:

Sphere BBC.jpeg

[edit] DarkBASIC

Some simple 3D objects are built into DarkBASIC. Creating a sphere only takes 1 line:

MAKE OBJECT SPHERE 1,1

[edit] FreeBASIC

' "\" = a integer division (CPU) 
' "/" = a floating point division (FPU)
' the compiler takes care of the conversion between floating point and integer
' compile with: FBC -s console "filename.bas" or FBC -s GUI "filename.bas"
' filename is whatever name you give it, .bas is mandatory
 
' Sphere using XPL0 code from rosetacode sphere page
' Altered freebasic version to compile in default mode
' version 17-06-2015
' compile with: fbc -s console or fbc -s gui
#Define W 640
#Define H 480
 
ScreenRes W, H, 32 ' set 640x480x32 graphics mode, 32 bits color mode
WindowTitle "32 bpp Cyan Sphere FreeBASIC"
 
' wait until keypress
' Color(RGB(255,255,255),RGB(0,0,0)) ' default white foreground, black background
Locate 50,2
Print "Enter any key to start"
Sleep
 
Dim As UInteger R = 100, R2 = R * R ' radius, in pixels; radius squared
Dim As UInteger X0 = W \ 2, Y0 = H \ 2 ' coordinates of center of screen
Dim As Integer X, Y, C, D2 ' coords, color, distance from center squared
 
For Y = -R To R ' for all the coordinates near the circle
For X = -R To R ' which is under the sphere
D2 = X * X + Y * Y
If D2 <= R2 Then ' coordinate is inside circle under sphere
' height of point on surface of sphere above X,Y
C = Sqr(R2 - D2) - ( X + Y) / 2 + 130 ' color is proportional; offset X and Y, and
 
Color C Shl 8 + C ' = color RGB(0, C, C)
' green + blue = cyan
PSet(X + X0, Y + Y0)
End If
Next
Next
 
' wait until keypress
Locate 50,2
Color(RGB(255,255,255),RGB(0,0,0)) ' foreground color is changed
' empty keyboard buffer
While InKey <> "" : Var _key_ = InKey : Wend
Print : Print "hit any key to end program"
Sleep
End
Works with: FreeBASIC

needs #Lang "fblite", #Lang "qb" or #Lang "deprecated" to compile.

'Sphere for FreeBASIC May 2015
'spherefb4.bas
'Sphere using XPL0 code from rosetacode sphere page
'
screenres 640,480,32 '\set 640x480x32 graphics mode
windowtitle "32 bpp Blue Sphere FreeBASIC"
'
' wait until keypress
locate 50,2
color(rgb(255,255,255),rgb(0,0,0))
Print "Enter any key to start"
sleep
R=100 : R2=R*R '\radius, in pixels; radius squared
X0=640/2 : Y0=480/2 '\coordinates of center of screen
dim as integer X, Y, Z, C, D2 '\coords, color, distance from center squared
'
for Y= -R to +R '\for all the coordinates near the circle
for X = -R to +R '\ which is under the sphere
D2 = X*X + Y*Y '
C = 0 '\default color is black
if D2 <= R2 then '\coordinate is inside circle under sphere
Z = sqr(R2-D2) '\height of point on surface of sphere above X,Y
C = Z-(X+Y)/2+130 ' \color is proportional; offset X and Y, and
endif
color c ' \ shift color to upper limit of its range
'\green + blue = cyan orginal line don't understand
Pset(X+X0, Y+Y0)
next x
next y
'
' wait until keypress
locate 50,2
color(rgb(255,255,255),rgb(0,0,0))
Print "Enter any key to exit "
sleep
END

[edit] Liberty BASIC

 
WindowWidth =420
WindowHeight =460
 
nomainwin
 
open "Sphere" for graphics_nsb_nf as #w
 
#w "down ; fill lightgray"
 
xS =200
yS =200
for radius =150 to 0 step -1
level$ =str$( int( 256 -256 *radius /150))
c$ =level$ +" " +level$ +" " +level$
#w "color "; c$
#w "backcolor "; c$
#w "place "; xS; " "; yS
xS =xS -0.5
yS =yS -0.2
#w "circlefilled "; radius
next radius
 
#w "flush"
wait
close #w
end
 

[edit] PureBasic

3D Sphere animation.

; Original by Comtois @ 28/03/06
;
; Updated/Formated by Fluid Byte @ March.24,2009
;
; http://www.purebasic.fr/english/viewtopic.php?p=281258#p281258
 
Declare CreateSphere(M,P)
Declare UpdateMesh()
 
#_SIZEVERT = 36
#_SIZETRIS = 6
#FULLSCREEN = 0
 
Structure VECTOR
X.f
Y.f
Z.f
EndStructure
 
Structure VERTEX
X.f
Y.f
Z.f
NX.f
NY.f
NZ.f
Color.l
U.f
V.f
EndStructure
 
Structure TRIANGLE
V1.w
V2.w
V3.w
EndStructure
 
Macro CALC_NORMALS
*PtrV\NX = *PtrV\X
*PtrV\NY = *PtrV\Y
*PtrV\NZ = *PtrV\Z
EndMacro
 
Global *VBuffer, *IBuffer
Global Meridian = 50, Parallele = 50, PasLength = 4, Length
 
Define EventID, i, NbSommet, CameraMode, Angle.f, Pas.f = 0.5
 
InitEngine3D() : InitSprite() : InitKeyboard()
 
Add3DArchive(GetTemporaryDirectory(),#PB_3DArchive_FileSystem)
Add3DArchive(#PB_Compiler_Home + "Examples\Sources\Data\",#PB_3DArchive_FileSystem)
 
If #FULLSCREEN
OpenScreen(800,600,32,"Sphere 3D")
Else
OpenWindow(0,0,0,800,600,"Sphere 3D",#PB_Window_SystemMenu | 1)
OpenWindowedScreen(WindowID(0),0,0,800,600,0,0,0)
EndIf
 
;-Texture
CreateImage(0,128,128)
StartDrawing(ImageOutput(0))
For i = 0 To 127 Step 4
Box(0,i,ImageWidth(0),2,RGB(255,255,255))
Box(0,i + 2,ImageWidth(0),2,RGB(0,0,155))
Next i
StopDrawing()
SaveImage(0,GetTemporaryDirectory() + "temp.bmp") : FreeImage(0)
 
;-Material
CreateMaterial(0,LoadTexture(0,"temp.bmp"))
RotateMaterial(0,0.1,#PB_Material_Animated)
 
;-Mesh
CreateSphere(Meridian,Parallele)
 
;-Entity
CreateEntity(0,MeshID(0),MaterialID(0))
ScaleEntity(0,60,60,60)
 
;-Camera
CreateCamera(0,0,0,100,100)
MoveCamera(0,0,0,-200)
CameraLookAt(0,EntityX(0),EntityY(0),EntityZ(0))
 
;-Light
AmbientColor(RGB(105, 105, 105))
CreateLight(0, RGB(255, 255, 55), EntityX(0) + 150, EntityY(0) , EntityZ(0))
CreateLight(1, RGB( 55, 255, 255), EntityX(0) - 150, EntityY(0) , EntityZ(0))
CreateLight(2, RGB( 55, 55, 255), EntityX(0) , EntityY(0) + 150, EntityZ(0))
CreateLight(3, RGB(255, 55, 255), EntityX(0) , EntityY(0) - 150, EntityZ(0))
 
; ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
; MAINLOOP
; ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 
Repeat
If #FULLSCREEN = 0
Repeat
EventID = WindowEvent()
 
Select EventID
Case #PB_Event_CloseWindow : End
EndSelect
Until EventID = 0
EndIf
 
Angle + Pas
RotateEntity(0, Angle, Angle,Angle)
 
If PasLength > 0 : UpdateMesh() : EndIf
 
If ExamineKeyboard()
If KeyboardReleased(#PB_Key_F1)
CameraMode = 1 - CameraMode
CameraRenderMode(0, CameraMode)
EndIf
EndIf
 
RenderWorld()
FlipBuffers()
Until KeyboardPushed(#PB_Key_Escape)
 
; ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
; FUNCTIONS
; ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 
Procedure CreateSphere(M,P)
; M = Meridian
; P = Parallele
; The radius is 1. Front to remove it later, it's just for the demo.
 
If M < 3 Or P < 2  : ProcedureReturn 0 : EndIf
 
Protected Normale.VECTOR, NbSommet, i, j, Theta.f, cTheta.f, sTheta.f
Protected Alpha.f, cAlpha.f, sAlpha.f, *PtrV.VERTEX, *PtrF.TRIANGLE, NbTriangle
 
NbSommet = 2 + ((M + 1) * P)
*VBuffer = AllocateMemory(#_SIZEVERT * Nbsommet)
 
For i = 0 To M
Theta = i * #PI * 2.0 / M
cTheta = Cos(theta)
sTheta = Sin(theta)
 
For j = 1 To P
Alpha = j * #PI / (P + 1)
cAlpha = Cos(Alpha)
sAlpha = Sin(Alpha)
*PtrV = *VBuffer + #_SIZEVERT * ((i * P) + (j - 1))
*PtrV\X = sAlpha * cTheta
*PtrV\Y = sAlpha * sTheta
*PtrV\Z = cAlpha
*PtrV\U = Theta / (2.0 * #PI)
*PtrV\V = Alpha / #PI
CALC_NORMALS
Next j
Next i
 
; Southpole
*PtrV = *VBuffer + #_SIZEVERT * ((M + 1) * P)
*PtrV\X = 0
*PtrV\Y = 0
*PtrV\Z = -1
*PtrV\U = 0
*PtrV\V = 0
CALC_NORMALS
 
; Northpole
*PtrV + #_SIZEVERT
*PtrV\X = 0
*PtrV\Y = 0
*PtrV\Z = 1
*PtrV\U = 0
*PtrV\V = 0
CALC_NORMALS
 
; Les facettes
NbTriangle = 4 * M * P
*IBuffer = AllocateMemory(#_SIZETRIS * NbTriangle)
*PtrF = *IBuffer
 
For i = 0 To M - 1
For j = 1 To P - 1
*PtrF\V1 = ((i + 1) * P) + j
*PtrF\V2 = ((i + 1) * P) + (j - 1)
*PtrF\V3 = (i * P) + (j - 1)
*PtrF + #_SIZETRIS
*PtrF\V3 = ((i + 1) * P) + j ;Recto
*PtrF\V2 = ((i + 1) * P) + (j - 1) ;Recto
*PtrF\V1 = (i * P) + (j - 1) ;Recto
*PtrF + #_SIZETRIS
*PtrF\V1 = i * P + j
*PtrF\V2 = ((i + 1) * P) + j
*PtrF\V3 = (i * P) + (j - 1)
*PtrF + #_SIZETRIS
*PtrF\V3 = i * P + j ;Recto
*PtrF\V2 = ((i + 1) * P) + j ;Recto
*PtrF\V1 = (i * P) + (j - 1) ;Recto
*PtrF + #_SIZETRIS
Next j
Next i
 
; The Poles
For i = 0 To M - 1
*PtrF\V3 = (M + 1) * P + 1
*PtrF\V2 = (i + 1) * P
*PtrF\V1 = i * P
*PtrF + #_SIZETRIS
*PtrF\V1 = (M + 1) * P + 1 ;Recto
*PtrF\V2 = (i + 1) * P ;Recto
*PtrF\V3 = i * P ;Recto
*PtrF + #_SIZETRIS
Next i
 
For i = 0 To M - 1
*PtrF\V3 = (M + 1) * P
*PtrF\V2 = i * P + (P - 1)
*PtrF\V1 = (i + 1) * P + (P - 1)
*PtrF + #_SIZETRIS
*PtrF\V1 = (M + 1) * P ;Recto
*PtrF\V2 = i * P + (P - 1) ;Recto
*PtrF\V3 = (i + 1) * P + (P - 1) ;Recto
*PtrF + #_SIZETRIS
Next i
 
If CreateMesh(0,100)
Protected Flag = #PB_Mesh_Vertex | #PB_Mesh_Normal | #PB_Mesh_UVCoordinate | #PB_Mesh_Color
SetMeshData(0,Flag,*VBuffer,NbSommet)
SetMeshData(0,#PB_Mesh_Face,*IBuffer,NbTriangle)
ProcedureReturn 1
EndIf
 
ProcedureReturn 0
EndProcedure
 
; - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
 
Procedure UpdateMesh()
Protected NbTriangle = 4 * Meridian * Parallele
 
Length + PasLength
 
If Length >= NbTriangle
PasLength = 0
Length = Nbtriangle
EndIf
 
SetMeshData(0,#PB_Mesh_Face,*IBuffer,Length)
EndProcedure

PB Animated sphere.png

[edit] QBasic

SCREEN 13 ' enter high-color graphic mode
 
' sets palette colors B/N
FOR i = 0 TO 255
PALETTE 255 - i, INT(i / 4) + INT(i / 4) * 256 + INT(i / 4) * 65536
NEXT i
PALETTE 0, 0
 
' draw the sphere
FOR i = 255 TO 0 STEP -1
x = 50 + i / 3
y = 99
CIRCLE (x, y), i / 3, i
PAINT (x, y), i
NEXT i
 
' wait until keypress
DO: LOOP WHILE INKEY$ = ""
END

[edit] Run BASIC

'Run BASIC White Sphere, Black background
'runbasic.com
graphic #win, 300, 300
#win size(1)
R=100
R2=R*R
X0=300/2
Y0=300/2
for Y = -150 to 150
for X = -150 to 150
D2 = X*X + Y*Y
C = 0
if D2 <= R2 then Z = sqr(R2-D2) : C = int(Z-(X+Y)/2+130)
#win color(C,C,C)
#win set(X+X0, Y+Y0)
next X
next Y
render #win
'This is a simple Circle
graphic #g, 300, 300 'create a graphic object
#g place(100,100) 'place the drawing pen at 100,100
#g circle(75) 'make a circle with radius 75
render #g 'show it

[edit] Befunge

Translation of: C

While based on the C implementation, the algorithm has been considerably simplified to try and avoid floating point (which Befunge doesn't support) and minimise the need for sqrt calculations (which we approximate using the Babylonian method).

The first four values on the stack define the radius (45* = 20) and the light vector (65*65*"2" = 30;30;50). The k parameter has been hardcoded to 2, and the ambient light is approximated by adjusting the shade characters (defined on the last line).

Also note that the z-coordinate of the light vector is negated at runtime to more closely match the C defaults. This is preferable to making the initial constant negative since negative data values aren't supported across all Befunge implementations.

45*65*65*"2"30p20p10p::00p2*40p4*5vv<
>60p140g->:::*00g50g*60g40g-:*-\-v0>1
^_@#`\g0<|`\g04:+1, <*84$$_v#`\0:<>p^
>v>g2+:5^$>g:*++*/7g^>*:9$#<"~"/:"~"v
g:^06,+55<^03*<v09p07%"~"p09/"~"p08%<
^>#0 *#12#<0g:^>+::"~~"90g*80g+*70gv|
g-10g*+:9**00gv|!*`\2\`-20::/2-\/\+<>
%#&eo*!:..^g05<>$030g-*9/\20g*+60g40^
Output:
                               eeeeeeeeeee&&&&&#                               
                        eooo********oooooooeeee&&&&###%                        
                    oo****!!!!!!!!********ooooeeeee&&&###%%                    
                 o**!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!*****oooooeeee&&&####%%                 
              o*!!!!:::::::::::::::!!!!!!*****ooooeeee&&&&####%%%              
            **!!:::::::....::::::::::!!!!!!****ooooeeeee&&&####%%%%            
          **!!::::.............::::::::!!!!!****ooooeeee&&&&####%%%%%          
        o*!!::::.................::::::!!!!!!****ooooeeee&&&&####%%%%%%        
       *!!::::....................::::::!!!!!****ooooeeeee&&&&####%%%%%%       
     e*!!:::......................::::::!!!!!*****ooooeeee&&&&####%%%%%%%%     
    o*!!:::.......................::::::!!!!!*****ooooeeee&&&&#####%%%%%%%%    
   o*!!::::.......................::::::!!!!!****oooooeeee&&&&#####%%%%%%%%%   
  e**!!:::.......................::::::!!!!!*****ooooeeeee&&&&#####%%%%%%%%%%  
  o*!!!:::......................:::::::!!!!!*****ooooeeeee&&&&#####%%%%%%%%%%  
 o**!!!::::...................::::::::!!!!!*****oooooeeee&&&&&#####%%%%%%%%%%% 
 o**!!!:::::................::::::::!!!!!!*****oooooeeeee&&&&#####%%%%%%%%%%%% 
eo**!!!:::::::............:::::::::!!!!!!*****oooooeeeee&&&&&#####%%%%%%%%%%%%%
eo***!!!:::::::::::::::::::::::::!!!!!!******oooooeeeee&&&&&#####%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
eoo**!!!!!::::::::::::::::::::!!!!!!!!******oooooeeeee&&&&&######%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
eoo***!!!!!!:::::::::::::::!!!!!!!!!******ooooooeeeee&&&&&######%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
eeoo****!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!*******ooooooeeeeee&&&&&######%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
&eooo*****!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!********ooooooeeeeee&&&&&&######%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
&eeoooo*******!!!!!!!!!!***********oooooooeeeeeee&&&&&&######%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%#
&&eeeoooo***********************ooooooooeeeeeee&&&&&&#######%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%#
 &&eeeooooooo**************ooooooooooeeeeeeee&&&&&&#######%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%# 
 #&&eeeeeoooooooooooooooooooooooooeeeeeeee&&&&&&&########%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%## 
  #&&&eeeeeeeooooooooooooooooeeeeeeeeee&&&&&&&&########%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%##  
  %##&&&&eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee&&&&&&&&&&########%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%##&  
   %###&&&&&&eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee&&&&&&&&&&&#########%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%##&   
    %####&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&##########%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%##&    
     %%######&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&############%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%##e     
       %%%################################%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%##&       
        %%%%%########################%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%###&        
          %%%%%%%%%###########%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%###&          
            %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%###&            
              %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%##&&              
                 %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%###&                 
                    %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%####&                    
                        %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%####&                        
                               %%%%%%%%%%%%#####                               

[edit] Brlcad

opendb balls.g y            # Create a database to hold our shapes
units cm # Set the unit of measure
in ball.s sph 0 0 0 3 # Create a sphere of radius 3 cm named ball.s with its centre at 0,0,0

[edit] C

The lighting calculation is somewhere between crude and bogus, but hey, I'm shading it with ASCII characters, don't expect too much.

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <ctype.h>
#include <math.h>
 
const char *shades = ".:!*oe&#%@";
 
double light[3] = { 30, 30, -50 };
void normalize(double * v)
{
double len = sqrt(v[0]*v[0] + v[1]*v[1] + v[2]*v[2]);
v[0] /= len; v[1] /= len; v[2] /= len;
}
 
double dot(double *x, double *y)
{
double d = x[0]*y[0] + x[1]*y[1] + x[2]*y[2];
return d < 0 ? -d : 0;
}
 
void draw_sphere(double R, double k, double ambient)
{
int i, j, intensity;
double b;
double vec[3], x, y;
for (i = floor(-R); i <= ceil(R); i++) {
x = i + .5;
for (j = floor(-2 * R); j <= ceil(2 * R); j++) {
y = j / 2. + .5;
if (x * x + y * y <= R * R) {
vec[0] = x;
vec[1] = y;
vec[2] = sqrt(R * R - x * x - y * y);
normalize(vec);
b = pow(dot(light, vec), k) + ambient;
intensity = (1 - b) * (sizeof(shades) - 1);
if (intensity < 0) intensity = 0;
if (intensity >= sizeof(shades) - 1)
intensity = sizeof(shades) - 2;
putchar(shades[intensity]);
} else
putchar(' ');
}
putchar('\n');
}
}
 
 
int main()
{
normalize(light);
draw_sphere(20, 4, .1);
draw_sphere(10, 2, .4);
 
return 0;
}
Output:
                               #############%%%%                                 
                       ##&&eeeeeeeeee&&&&&&&####%%%%%%%%                         
                   &&eeooooooooooooooeeeee&&&&######%%%%%%%%                     
                 eeoo**************oooooooeeee&&&&####%%%%%%%%                   
             &&oo**!!!!!!::!!!!!!!!****oooooee&&&&######%%%%%%%%%%               
           eeoo!!!!::::::::::::::!!!!*****ooeeee&&&&####%%%%%%%%%%%%             
         ee**!!::::............::::!!!!***ooooeeee&&######%%%%%%%%%%%%           
       &&oo!!::..................::!!!!*****ooeeee&&&&####%%%%%%%%%%%%%%         
       oo!!::....................::::!!*****ooeeee&&&&####%%%%%%%%%%%%%%         
     ee**!!::....................::::!!*****ooeeee&&&&####%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%       
   &&oo!!::......................::::!!*****ooeeee&&&&######%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%     
   ee**!!::......................::::!!*****ooeeee&&&&######%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%     
 ##oo**!!::......................::!!!!*****ooeeee&&&&####%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%   
 &&oo**::::....................::::!!!!***ooooeeee&&&&####%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%   
 eeoo**!!::..................::::!!!!*****ooooee&&&&######%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%   
 eeoo**!!::................::::!!!!****oooooeeee&&&&######%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%   
#eeoo**!!::::............::::!!!!!!****oooeeee&&&&&&######%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 
#eeoo**!!!!::::::::::::::::!!!!!!****oooooeeee&&&&######%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 
#eeoooo**!!!!!!::::::::!!!!!!******ooooeeeee&&&&&&######%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 
#&&eeoo****!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!******ooooeeeee&&&&&&######%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 
#&&eeoooo********************ooooooeeee&&&&&&&######%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 
#&&&&eeoooooo************ooooooeeeeee&&&&&&&########%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 
%##&&eeeeeeooooooooooooooooooeeeeee&&&&&&&########%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 
%####&&&&eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee&&&&&&&&#########%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 
 %%##&&&&&&eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee&&&&&&&&&&#########%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%   
 %%######&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&###########%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%   
 %%%%########&&&&&&&&&&&&&&############%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%   
 %%%%%%##############################%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%   
   %%%%%%%%######################%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%     
   %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%####%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%     
     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%       
       %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%         
       %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%         
         %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%           
           %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%             
             %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%               
                 %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%                   
                   %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%                     
                       %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%                         
                               %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%                                 
                                                                                 
             ::..:::::!!**               
         .............::!!**oo           
     ...................::!!**ooee       
   .......................::!!ooeeee     
   .......................::!!**ooee     
 .........................::!!**ooeeee   
 .........................::!!**ooeeee   
:.........................::!!**ooeeeeee 
........................::!!**ooooeeeeee 
:.......................::!!**ooeeeeeeee 
:.....................::!!****ooeeeeeeee 
!::................:::!!****ooeeeeeeeeee 
*!!::..........::::!!!****ooooeeeeeeeeee 
 **!!::::::::::!!!!*****ooooeeeeeeeeee   
 oo**!!!!!!!!!!*******ooooeeeeeeeeeeee   
   oooo********oooooooeeeeeeeeeeeeee     
   eeeeooooooooooeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee     
     eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee       
         eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee           
             eeeeeeeeeeeee               

[edit] Fun with 3D noise texture

Sphere-perlin.png

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <math.h>
 
#define MAXD 8
int g[] = { -1, 1, -1, 1 };
/* Perlin-like noise */
inline void
hashed(int *data, int *out, int len) {
# define ror(a, d) ((a << (d)) | (a >> (32 - d)))
register unsigned int h = 0x12345678, tmp;
unsigned int *d = (void*)data;
int i = len;
 
while (i--) {
tmp = *d++;
h += ror(h, 15) ^ ror(tmp, 5);
}
 
h ^= ror(h, 7);
h += ror(h, 23);
h ^= ror(h, 19);
h += ror(h, 11);
h ^= ror(h, 13);
h += ror(h, 17);
# undef ror
for (i = len; i--; ) {
out[i] = g[h & 3];
h >>= 2;
}
}
 
double scale[MAXD], scale_u[MAXD];
void noise_init()
{
int i;
for (i = 1; i < MAXD; i++) {
scale[i] = 1 / (1 + sqrt(i + 1));
scale_u[i] = scale[i] / sqrt(i + 1);
}
}
 
double noise(double *x, int d)
{
# define sum(s, x) for (s = 0, j = 0; j < d; j++) s += x
register int i, j;
int n[MAXD], o[MAXD], g[MAXD], tmp;
double s, r, t, w, ret, u[MAXD];
 
sum(s, x[j]);
s *= scale[d];
 
for (i = 0; i < d; i++) {
o[i] = i;
t = x[i] + s;
u[i] = t - (n[i] = floor(t));
}
o[d] = 0;
 
for (i = 0; i < d - 1; i++)
for (j = i; j < d; j++)
if (u[o[i]] < u[o[j]])
tmp = o[i], o[i] = o[j], o[j] = tmp;
 
ret = w = 0, r = 1;
for (s = 0, j = 0; j < d; j++) s += n[j];
s *= scale_u[d];
 
for (i = 0; i <= d; i++) {
for (j = 0; j < d; j++)
u[j] = x[j] + s - n[j];
 
for (t = (d + 1.) / (2 * d), j = 0; j < d; j++) {
t -= u[j] * u[j];
if (t <= 0) break;
}
 
if (t >= 0) {
r = 0;
hashed(n, g, d);
for (j = 0; j < d; j++)
if (g[j]) r += (g[j] == 1 ? u[j] : -u[j]);
t *= t;
ret += r * t * t;
}
 
if (i < d) {
n[o[i]]++;
s += scale_u[d];
}
}
return ret * (d * d);
}
 
double get_noise2(double x, double y)
{
int i, ws;
double r = 0, v[2];
 
for (i = 1, ws = 0; i <= 128; i <<= 1) {
v[0] = x * i, v[1] = y * i;
r += noise(v, 2);
ws ++;
}
r /= ws;
return r;
}
 
double get_noise3(double x, double y, double z)
{
int i, ws;
double r = 0, v[3], w;
 
for (i = 1, ws = 0; i <= 32; i <<= 1) {
v[0] = x * i, v[1] = y * i, v[2] = z * i;
w = 1./sqrt(i);
r += noise(v, 3) * w;
ws += w;
}
return r / ws;
}
 
 
int main(int c, char** v)
{
unsigned char pix[256 * 256], *p;
int i, j;
double x, y, z, w;
FILE *fp;
 
noise_init();
 
for (p = pix, i = 0; i < 256 * 256; i++) *p++ = 0;
 
for (p = pix, i = 0; i < 256; i++) {
y = (i - 128) / 125.;
for (j = 0; j < 256; j++, p++) {
x = (j - 128) / 125.;
*p = (get_noise2(i/256., j/256.) + 1) / 6 * i;
 
z = 1- x*x - y*y;
if (z < 0) continue;
 
z = sqrt(z);
 
w = get_noise3(x, y, z);
 
w = (w + 1) / 2;
w *= (1 + x - y + z) / 3.5;
if (w < 0) w = 0;
 
*p = w * 255;
}
}
 
fp = fopen("out.pgm", "w+");
fprintf(fp, "P5\n256 256\n255\n");
fwrite(pix, 1, 256 * 256, fp);
fclose(fp);
 
return 0;
}

[edit] C#

Translation of: C
using System;
 
namespace Sphere {
internal class Program {
private const string Shades = ".:!*oe%&#@";
private static readonly double[] Light = {30, 30, -50};
 
private static void Normalize(double[] v) {
double len = Math.Sqrt(v[0]*v[0] + v[1]*v[1] + v[2]*v[2]);
v[0] /= len;
v[1] /= len;
v[2] /= len;
}
 
private static double Dot(double[] x, double[] y) {
double d = x[0]*y[0] + x[1]*y[1] + x[2]*y[2];
return d < 0 ? -d : 0;
}
 
public static void DrawSphere(double r, double k, double ambient) {
var vec = new double[3];
for(var i = (int)Math.Floor(-r); i <= (int)Math.Ceiling(r); i++) {
double x = i + .5;
for(var j = (int)Math.Floor(-2*r); j <= (int)Math.Ceiling(2*r); j++) {
double y = j/2.0 + .5;
if(x*x + y*y <= r*r) {
vec[0] = x;
vec[1] = y;
vec[2] = Math.Sqrt(r*r - x*x - y*y);
Normalize(vec);
double b = Math.Pow(Dot(Light, vec), k) + ambient;
int intensity = (b <= 0)
? Shades.Length - 2
: (int)Math.Max((1 - b)*(Shades.Length - 1), 0);
Console.Write(Shades[intensity]);
}
else
Console.Write(' ');
}
Console.WriteLine();
}
}
 
private static void Main() {
Normalize(Light);
DrawSphere(6, 4, .1);
DrawSphere(10, 2, .4);
Console.ReadKey();
}
}
}

[edit] Clojure

Library: quil
 
(use 'quil.core)
 
(def w 500)
(def h 400)
 
(defn setup []
(background 0))
 
(defn draw []
(push-matrix)
(translate 250 200 0)
(sphere 100)
(pop-matrix))
 
(defsketch main
 :title "sphere"
 :setup setup
 :size [w h]
 :draw draw
 :renderer :opengl)
 
Output:

[1]

[edit] D

Translation of: C
import std.stdio, std.math, std.algorithm, std.numeric;
 
alias V3 = double[3];
immutable light = normalize([30.0, 30.0, -50.0]);
 
V3 normalize(V3 v) pure @nogc {
v[] /= dotProduct(v, v) ^^ 0.5;
return v;
}
 
double dot(in ref V3 x, in ref V3 y) pure nothrow @nogc {
immutable double d = dotProduct(x, y);
return d < 0 ? -d : 0;
}
 
void drawSphere(in double R, in double k, in double ambient) @nogc {
enum shades = ".:!*oe&#%@";
foreach (immutable i; cast(int)floor(-R) .. cast(int)ceil(R) + 1) {
immutable double x = i + 0.5;
foreach (immutable j; cast(int)floor(-2 * R) ..
cast(int)ceil(2 * R) + 1) {
immutable double y = j / 2. + 0.5;
if (x ^^ 2 + y ^^ 2 <= R ^^ 2) {
immutable vec = [x, y, (R^^2 - x^^2 - y^^2) ^^ 0.5]
.normalize;
immutable double b = dot(light, vec) ^^ k + ambient;
int intensity = cast(int)((1 - b) * (shades.length-1));
intensity = min(shades.length - 1, max(intensity, 0));
shades[intensity].putchar;
} else
' '.putchar;
}
'\n'.putchar;
}
}
 
void main() {
drawSphere(20, 4, 0.1);
drawSphere(10, 2, 0.4);
}

[edit] Delphi

Translation of: C

Under Microsoft Windows: If you notice the big sphere loses its roundness, then try increasing the width of the Windows console. By default it’s 80; so put it to something bigger, let’s say 90.

Steps: Run the CMD Windows shell. Then follow this path to setup the new width: Main Menu-> Properties -> Layout -> Window Size -> Width.

 
program DrawASphere;
 
{$APPTYPE CONSOLE}
 
uses
SysUtils,
Math;
 
type
TDouble3 = array[0..2] of Double;
TChar10 = array[0..9] of Char;
 
var
shades: TChar10 = ('.', ':', '!', '*', 'o', 'e', '&', '#', '%', '@');
light: TDouble3 = (30, 30, -50 );
 
procedure normalize(var v: TDouble3);
var
len: Double;
begin
len:= sqrt(v[0]*v[0] + v[1]*v[1] + v[2]*v[2]);
v[0] := v[0] / len;
v[1] := v[1] / len;
v[2] := v[2] / len;
end;
 
function dot(x, y: TDouble3): Double;
begin
Result:= x[0]*y[0] + x[1]*y[1] + x[2]*y[2];
Result:= IfThen(Result < 0, -Result, 0 );
end;
 
procedure drawSphere(R, k, ambient: Double);
var
vec: TDouble3;
x, y, b: Double;
i, j,
intensity: Integer;
begin
for i:= Floor(-R) to Ceil(R) do
begin
x := i + 0.5;
for j:= Floor(-2*R) to Ceil(2 * R) do
begin
y:= j / 2 + 0.5;
if(x * x + y * y <= R * R) then
begin
vec[0]:= x;
vec[1]:= y;
vec[2]:= sqrt(R * R - x * x - y * y);
normalize(vec);
b:= Power(dot(light, vec), k) + ambient;
intensity:= IfThen(b <= 0,
Length(shades) - 2,
Trunc(max( (1 - b) * (Length(shades) - 1), 0 )));
Write(shades[intensity]);
end
else
Write(' ');
end;
Writeln;
end;
end;
 
begin
normalize(light);
drawSphere(19, 4, 0.1);
drawSphere(10, 2, 0.4);
Readln;
end.
 
Output:
                             &&&&&&&&&&#######
                       &eeeeeooeeeeeeee&&&&&&#######
                   eeooo*********oooooeeeee&&&&&#######%
                eo***!!!!!!!!!!!*****ooooeeee&&&&&#######%%
             eo**!!!::::::::::!!!!!****ooooeeee&&&&########%%%
           eo*!!::::........:::::!!!!****oooeeee&&&&########%%%%
         eo*!!::..............:::::!!!***ooooeeee&&&&#########%%%%
       eo*!!::..................:::!!!!***oooeeee&&&&&########%%%%%%
      eo*!::....................::::!!!***ooooeeee&&&&#########%%%%%%
     o**!::.....................::::!!!***ooooeeee&&&&#########%%%%%%%
    eo*!::......................::::!!!***ooooeeee&&&&##########%%%%%%%
   eo*!!::......................:::!!!!***ooooeee&&&&&##########%%%%%%%%
  eo**!!::.....................:::!!!!***ooooeeee&&&&&##########%%%%%%%%%
 &eo**!!::...................::::!!!!****oooeeeee&&&&&##########%%%%%%%%%%
 eeo**!!:::................:::::!!!!****ooooeeee&&&&&##########%%%%%%%%%%%
&eoo**!!!::::............:::::!!!!****oooooeeee&&&&&###########%%%%%%%%%%%%
&eeo***!!!::::::::::::::::::!!!!!****ooooeeeee&&&&&&##########%%%%%%%%%%%%%
&eeoo***!!!!::::::::::::!!!!!!*****oooooeeeee&&&&&&###########%%%%%%%%%%%%%
&&eeoo****!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!*****oooooeeeee&&&&&&############%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
&&eeeooo*****!!!!!!!!!!*******ooooooeeeeee&&&&&&############%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
#&&eeeoooo*****************oooooooeeeeee&&&&&&&############%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
#&&&eeeeoooooooooooooooooooooooeeeeeee&&&&&&&#############%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
##&&&&eeeeeoooooooooooooooeeeeeeeee&&&&&&&&##############%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
 ###&&&&eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee&&&&&&&&&&##############%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
 ####&&&&&&&eeeeeeeeeeeeeee&&&&&&&&&&&################%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
  #####&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&#################%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
   ########&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&####################%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
    ############################################%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
     %#######################################%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
      %%##################################%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
       %%%%###########################%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
         %%%%%%#################%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
           %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
             %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
                %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
                   %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
                       %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
                             %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

             ::...:::!!!*o
         ..............::!!*oo
      ..................::!!**ooe
    .....................::!!**ooee
   .......................::!!**ooee
  ........................::!!**oooee
 .........................::!!**oooeee
:........................::!!!**oooeeee
........................::!!!**ooooeeee
:......................::!!!***oooeeeee
:....................:::!!!***oooeeeeee
!:.................:::!!!****oooeeeeeee
*!:::...........::::!!!!***ooooeeeeeeee
 *!!!:::::::::::!!!!!****oooooeeeeeeee
  o**!!!!!!!!!!!!!*****oooooeeeeeeeee
   oo**************ooooooeeeeeeeeeee
    eoooooooooooooooooeeeeeeeeeeeee
      eeeooooooooeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee
         eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee
             eeeeeeeeeeeee

[edit] DWScript

PBM output magnified 5 times
Translation of: C
but adapted to spit out a PGM image
 
type
TFloat3 = array[0..2] of Float;
 
var
light : TFloat3 = [ 30, 30, -50 ];
 
procedure normalize(var v : TFloat3);
var
len: Float;
begin
len := sqrt(v[0]*v[0] + v[1]*v[1] + v[2]*v[2]);
v[0] /= len;
v[1] /= len;
v[2] /= len;
end;
 
function dot(x, y : TFloat3) : Float;
begin
Result := x[0]*y[0] + x[1]*y[1] + x[2]*y[2];
if Result<0 then
Result:=-Result
else Result:=0;
end;
 
procedure drawSphere(R, k, ambient : Float);
var
vec : TFloat3;
x, y, b : Float;
i, j, size, intensity : Integer;
begin
size:=Trunc(Ceil(R)-Floor(-R)+1);
PrintLn('P2');
PrintLn(IntToStr(size)+' '+IntToStr(size));
PrintLn('255');
for i := Floor(-R) to Ceil(R) do begin
x := i + 0.5;
for j := Floor(-R) to Ceil(R) do begin
y := j + 0.5;
if (x * x + y * y <= R * R) then begin
vec[0] := x;
vec[1] := y;
vec[2] := sqrt(R * R - x * x - y * y);
normalize(vec);
b := Power(dot(light, vec), k) + ambient;
intensity := ClampInt( Round(b*255), 0, 255);
Print(intensity);
Print(' ')
end else Print('0 ');
end;
PrintLn('');
end;
end;
 
normalize(light);
drawSphere(19, 4, 0.1);
 

[edit] ERRE

Using ASCII art: output is written to 'SPHERE.PRN' sequential file.

PROGRAM SPHERE
 
CONST SHADES$=".:!*oe&#%@"
 
DIM LIGHT[2],X[2],Y[2],V[2],VEC[2]
 
PROCEDURE DOT(X[],Y[]->D)
D=X[0]*Y[0]+X[1]*Y[1]+X[2]*Y[2]
IF D<0 THEN D=-D ELSE D=0 END IF
END PROCEDURE
 
PROCEDURE NORMALIZE(V[]->V[])
LUNG=SQR(V[0]*V[0]+V[1]*V[1]+V[2]*V[2])
V[0]=V[0]/LUNG
V[1]=V[1]/LUNG
V[2]=V[2]/LUNG
END PROCEDURE
 
PROCEDURE PDRAW(R,K,AMBIENT)
FOR I=INT(-R) TO INT(R) DO
X=I+0.5
FOR J=INT(-2*R) TO INT(2*R) DO
Y=J/2+0.5
IF (X*X+Y*Y<=R*R) THEN
VEC[0]=X
VEC[1]=Y
VEC[2]=SQR(R*R-X*X-Y*Y)
NORMALIZE(VEC[]->VEC[])
DOT(LIGHT[],VEC[]->D)
B=D^K+AMBIENT
INTENSITY%=(1-B)*(LEN(SHADES$)-1)
IF (INTENSITY%<0) THEN INTENSITY%=0 END IF
IF (INTENSITY%>=LEN(SHADES$)-1) THEN
INTENSITY%=LEN(SHADES$)-2
END IF
PRINT(#1,MID$(SHADES$,INTENSITY%+1,1);)
ELSE
PRINT(#1,(" ");)
END IF
END FOR
PRINT(#1,)
END FOR
END PROCEDURE
 
BEGIN
LIGHT[]=(30,30,-50)
OPEN("O",1,"SPHERE.PRN")
NORMALIZE(LIGHT[]->LIGHT[])
PDRAW(10,2,0.4)
 
PRINT(#1,STRING$(79,"="))
PDRAW(20,4,0.1)
CLOSE(1)
END PROGRAM
 
Output:
             !::::::!!!**o               
         ............:::!!**oe           
      :................::!!**ooee        
    :...................::!!**ooeee      
   ......................::!!**ooeee     
  .......................::!!**ooeeee    
 .......................:::!!**ooeeeee   
:.......................::!!***ooeeeeee  
:......................::!!!**oooeeeeee  
:....................:::!!!**oooeeeeeee  
!:..................:::!!***oooeeeeeeee  
!!:..............::::!!!***oooeeeeeeeee  
*!!::::.....::::::!!!!***ooooeeeeeeeeee  
 o*!!!!::::::!!!!!!****ooooeeeeeeeeeee   
  o****!!!!!!!******oooooeeeeeeeeeeee    
   eooo********oooooooeeeeeeeeeeeeee     
    eeeoooooooooooeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee      
      eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee        
         eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee           
             eeeeeeeeeeeee               
                                         
===============================================================================
                               ##############%%%                                 
                        #&&eeeeeeeeeee&&&&&&######%%%%%                          
                    &eeeoooooooooooooeeeee&&&&&######%%%%%%                      
                 &eooo**************oooooeeee&&&&&#####%%%%%%%                   
              &eoo**!!!!!!!!!!!!!!*****ooooeeee&&&&######%%%%%%%%                
            eoo**!!!::::::::::::!!!!****ooooeeee&&&&######%%%%%%%%%              
          eoo*!!!::::.......::::::!!!!****oooeeee&&&&######%%%%%%%%%%            
        &eo*!!:::..............::::!!!!***ooooeeee&&&&######%%%%%%%%%%%          
       eo**!!::.................::::!!!****oooeeee&&&&######%%%%%%%%%%%%         
     &eo*!!:::..................::::!!!!***oooeeee&&&&&######%%%%%%%%%%%%%       
    &eo*!!:::...................::::!!!!***oooeeee&&&&&######%%%%%%%%%%%%%%      
   &eo**!!::....................::::!!!****oooeeee&&&&&######%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%     
  #eoo*!!:::...................::::!!!!***ooooeeee&&&&#######%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%    
  &eo**!!:::.................:::::!!!!****oooeeee&&&&&#######%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%    
 &eoo**!!::::...............:::::!!!!****ooooeeee&&&&#######%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%   
 &eoo**!!!::::...........::::::!!!!*****ooooeeee&&&&&#######%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%   
#&eoo***!!!::::::::::::::::::!!!!!****ooooeeeee&&&&&#######%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%  
#&eeoo***!!!!::::::::::::!!!!!!!*****ooooeeeee&&&&&#######%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%  
#&eeooo****!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!******ooooeeeee&&&&&&#######%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%  
#&&eeooo******!!!!!!!!!!!*******ooooooeeeee&&&&&&#######%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%  
#&&&eeooooo******************ooooooeeeeee&&&&&&########%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%  
##&&&eeeooooooo********oooooooooeeeeeee&&&&&&#########%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%  
###&&&eeeeeooooooooooooooooooeeeeeee&&&&&&&&#########%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%  
%###&&&&eeeeeeeeeeeoeeeeeeeeeeeee&&&&&&&&##########%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%  
 %####&&&&&eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee&&&&&&&&&&##########%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%   
 %%#####&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&############%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%   
  %%#######&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&##############%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%    
  %%%%############&&&&&###################%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%    
   %%%%%##############################%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%     
    %%%%%%%#######################%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%      
     %%%%%%%%%%%%%#########%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%       
       %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%         
        %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%          
          %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%            
            %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%              
              %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%                
                 %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%                   
                    %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%                      
                        %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%                          
                               %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%                                 
                                                                                 

[edit] Go

Output png
Translation of: C

Using image library rather than ASCII art.

package main
 
import (
"fmt"
"image"
"image/color"
"image/png"
"math"
"os"
)
 
type vector [3]float64
 
func normalize(v *vector) {
invLen := 1 / math.Sqrt(dot(v, v))
v[0] *= invLen
v[1] *= invLen
v[2] *= invLen
}
 
func dot(x, y *vector) float64 {
return x[0]*y[0] + x[1]*y[1] + x[2]*y[2]
}
 
func drawSphere(r int, k, amb float64, dir *vector) *image.Gray {
w, h := r*4, r*3
img := image.NewGray(image.Rect(-w/2, -h/2, w/2, h/2))
vec := new(vector)
for x := -r; x < r; x++ {
for y := -r; y < r; y++ {
if z := r*r - x*x - y*y; z >= 0 {
vec[0] = float64(x)
vec[1] = float64(y)
vec[2] = math.Sqrt(float64(z))
normalize(vec)
s := dot(dir, vec)
if s < 0 {
s = 0
}
lum := 255 * (math.Pow(s, k) + amb) / (1 + amb)
if lum < 0 {
lum = 0
} else if lum > 255 {
lum = 255
}
img.SetGray(x, y, color.Gray{uint8(lum)})
}
}
}
return img
}
 
func main() {
dir := &vector{-30, -30, 50}
normalize(dir)
img := drawSphere(200, 1.5, .2, dir)
f, err := os.Create("sphere.png")
if err != nil {
fmt.Println(err)
return
}
if err = png.Encode(f, img); err != nil {
fmt.Println(err)
}
if err = f.Close(); err != nil {
fmt.Println(err)
}
}

[edit] HTML

See Draw_a_sphere#Javascript

[edit] Haskell

Sphere Haskell.png
import Graphics.Rendering.OpenGL.GL
import Graphics.UI.GLUT.Objects
import Graphics.UI.GLUT
 
setProjection :: IO ()
setProjection = do
matrixMode $= Projection
ortho (-1) 1 (-1) 1 0 (-1)
 
grey1,grey9,red,white :: Color4 GLfloat
grey1 = Color4 0.1 0.1 0.1 1
grey9 = Color4 0.9 0.9 0.9 1
red = Color4 1 0 0 1
white = Color4 1 1 1 1
 
setLights :: IO ()
setLights = do
let l = Light 0
ambient l $= grey1
diffuse l $= white
specular l $= white
position l $= Vertex4 (-4) 4 3 (0 :: GLfloat)
light l $= Enabled
lighting $= Enabled
 
setMaterial :: IO ()
setMaterial = do
materialAmbient Front $= grey1
materialDiffuse Front $= red
materialSpecular Front $= grey9
materialShininess Front $= (32 :: GLfloat)
 
display :: IO()
display = do
clear [ColorBuffer]
renderObject Solid $ Sphere' 0.8 64 64
swapBuffers
 
main :: IO()
main = do
_ <- getArgsAndInitialize
_ <- createWindow "Sphere"
clearColor $= Color4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
setProjection
setLights
setMaterial
displayCallback $= display
mainLoop

[edit] Icon and Unicon

Unicon provides a built-in interface to openGL including some higher level abstractions (for more information see Unicon Technical References, 3D Graphics). The example below draws a blue sphere on a black background and waits for input to quit.
Unicon Sphere
procedure main()
W := open("Demo", "gl", "size=400,400", "bg=black") | stop("can't open window!")
WAttrib(W, "slices=40", "rings=40", "light0=on, ambient white; diffuse gold; specular gold; position 5, 0, 0" )
Fg(W, "emission blue")
DrawSphere(W, 0, 0, -5, 1)
Event(W)
end

[edit] J

J Sphere

The simplest way to draw a sphere is to run the sphere demo code from J's simple demos. (This assumes J version 6.)

Normally you would bring up this demo by using the menu system:

Studio
 > Demos...
  > opengl simple... [ok]
    > sphere [Run]

But bringing up the example with a line of code is trivial enough:

load 'system/examples/graphics/opengl/simple/sphere.ijs'

[edit] Raytracing Solution

Here's a version using raytracing computed in J. luminosity is an array of luminosity values with theoretical maximum 1 and minimum 0, and viewmat is used to display this.

'R k ambient' =. 10 2 0.4
light =. (% +/&.:*:) 30 30 _50
pts =. (0&*^:(0={:))@:(,,(0>.(*:R)-+)&.*:)"0/~ i:15j200
luminosity =. (>:ambient) %~ (ambient * * +/&.:*:"1 pts) + k^~ 0>. R%~ pts +/@:*"1 -light
 
load 'viewmat'
torgb =. 256 #. [: <. 255 255 255 *"1 0 ]
'rgb' viewmat torgb luminosity

[edit] Java

Translation of: C
public class Sphere{
static char[] shades = {'.', ':', '!', '*', 'o', 'e', '&', '#', '%', '@'};
 
static double[] light = { 30, 30, -50 };
private static void normalize(double[] v){
double len = Math.sqrt(v[0]*v[0] + v[1]*v[1] + v[2]*v[2]);
v[0] /= len; v[1] /= len; v[2] /= len;
}
 
private static double dot(double[] x, double[] y){
double d = x[0]*y[0] + x[1]*y[1] + x[2]*y[2];
return d < 0 ? -d : 0;
}
 
public static void drawSphere(double R, double k, double ambient){
double[] vec = new double[3];
for(int i = (int)Math.floor(-R); i <= (int)Math.ceil(R); i++){
double x = i + .5;
for(int j = (int)Math.floor(-2 * R); j <= (int)Math.ceil(2 * R); j++){
double y = j / 2. + .5;
if(x * x + y * y <= R * R) {
vec[0] = x;
vec[1] = y;
vec[2] = Math.sqrt(R * R - x * x - y * y);
normalize(vec);
double b = Math.pow(dot(light, vec), k) + ambient;
int intensity = (b <= 0) ?
shades.length - 2 :
(int)Math.max((1 - b) * (shades.length - 1), 0);
System.out.print(shades[intensity]);
} else
System.out.print(' ');
}
System.out.println();
}
}
 
public static void main(String[] args){
normalize(light);
drawSphere(20, 4, .1);
drawSphere(10, 2, .4);
}
}
Output:
                               &&&&&&&&&&#######                                 
                        &eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee&&&&&&#######%                          
                    &eoooo*******oooooooeeeee&&&&&########%                      
                 eoo****!!!!!!!!******oooooeeee&&&&&########%%                   
              eoo**!!!!::::::::!!!!!*****ooooeeee&&&&&########%%%                
            eo**!!::::::...:::::::!!!!!***ooooeeee&&&&&########%%%%              
          eo*!!:::.............:::::!!!!***ooooeeee&&&&&########%%%%%            
        eo*!!:::.................::::!!!!***ooooeeee&&&&#########%%%%%%          
       eo*!!::....................::::!!!****oooeeee&&&&&#########%%%%%%         
     &o**!::......................::::!!!****oooeeee&&&&&##########%%%%%%%       
    &o**!::.......................::::!!!****oooeeee&&&&&##########%%%%%%%%      
   &oo*!!::.......................:::!!!!***ooooeeee&&&&&##########%%%%%%%%%     
  &eo*!!::.......................::::!!!****ooooeeee&&&&&##########%%%%%%%%%%    
  eo**!!::......................::::!!!!***ooooeeeee&&&&&##########%%%%%%%%%%    
 &eo**!!:::...................:::::!!!!****ooooeeee&&&&&###########%%%%%%%%%%%   
 eeo**!!::::................:::::!!!!!****ooooeeee&&&&&&###########%%%%%%%%%%%   
&eeo***!!:::::...........::::::!!!!!****oooooeeee&&&&&&###########%%%%%%%%%%%%%  
&eeoo**!!!!::::::::::::::::::!!!!!*****ooooeeeee&&&&&&############%%%%%%%%%%%%%  
&eeooo***!!!!::::::::::::!!!!!!!*****oooooeeeee&&&&&&############%%%%%%%%%%%%%%  
&&eeooo***!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!******oooooeeeeee&&&&&&############%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%  
&&eeeooo******!!!!!!!!!!********ooooooeeeeee&&&&&&&############%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%  
#&&eeeooooo******************oooooooeeeeee&&&&&&&#############%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%  
#&&&eeeeoooooooo******oooooooooooeeeeeee&&&&&&&&#############%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%  
##&&&&eeeeeooooooooooooooooooeeeeeeee&&&&&&&&&##############%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%  
 ##&&&&&eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee&&&&&&&&&################%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%   
 ####&&&&&&eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee&&&&&&&&&&&################%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%   
  #####&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&#################%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%    
  %#######&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&###################%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%    
   %###########&&&&&&&&&&&&&#######################%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%     
    %############################################%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%      
     %%#######################################%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%       
       %%#################################%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%         
        %%%%%#########################%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%          
          %%%%%%%%#############%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%            
            %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%              
              %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%                
                 %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%                   
                    %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%                      
                        %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%                          
                               %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%                                 
                                                                                 
             ::...:::!!!*o               
         ..............::!!*oo           
      ..................::!!**ooe        
    .....................::!!**ooee      
   .......................::!!**ooee     
  ........................::!!**oooee    
 .........................::!!**oooeee   
:........................::!!!**oooeeee  
........................::!!!**ooooeeee  
:......................::!!!***oooeeeee  
:....................:::!!!***oooeeeeee  
!:.................:::!!!****oooeeeeeee  
*!:::...........::::!!!!***ooooeeeeeeee  
 *!!!:::::::::::!!!!!****oooooeeeeeeee   
  o**!!!!!!!!!!!!!*****oooooeeeeeeeee    
   oo**************ooooooeeeeeeeeeee     
    eoooooooooooooooooeeeeeeeeeeeee      
      eeeooooooooeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee        
         eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee           
             eeeeeeeeeeeee               
                                         

[edit] JavaScript

Translation of: C

This Javascript entry uses an HTML wrapper to offer easy running and some interactivity. It is made as such, though, that the entire HTML wrapper can be removed (except for a canvas with id c) and still work. If you remove the HTML, call the draw_sphere function to draw the thing.

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
<meta charset="utf-8">
<title>Draw a sphere</title>
<script>
var light=[30,30,-50],gR,gk,gambient;
 
function normalize(v){
var len=Math.sqrt(v[0]*v[0]+v[1]*v[1]+v[2]*v[2]);
v[0]/=len;
v[1]/=len;
v[2]/=len;
return v;
}
 
function dot(x,y){
var d=x[0]*y[0]+x[1]*y[1]+x[2]*y[2];
return d<0?-d:0;
}
 
function draw_sphere(R,k,ambient){
var i,j,intensity,b,vec,x,y,cvs,ctx,imgdata,idx;
cvs=document.getElementById("c");
ctx=cvs.getContext("2d");
cvs.width=cvs.height=2*Math.ceil(R)+1;
imgdata=ctx.createImageData(2*Math.ceil(R)+1,2*Math.ceil(R)+1);
idx=0;
for(i=Math.floor(-R);i<=Math.ceil(R);i++){
x=i+.5;
for(j=Math.floor(-R);j<=Math.ceil(R);j++){
y=j+.5;
if(x*x+y*y<=R*R){
vec=[x,y,Math.sqrt(R*R-x*x-y*y)];
vec=normalize(vec);
b=Math.pow(dot(light,vec),k)+ambient;
intensity=(1-b)*256;
if(intensity<0)intensity=0;
if(intensity>=256)intensity=255;
imgdata.data[idx++]=imgdata.data[idx++]=255-~~(intensity); //RG
imgdata.data[idx++]=imgdata.data[idx++]=255; //BA
} else {
imgdata.data[idx++]=imgdata.data[idx++]=imgdata.data[idx++]=imgdata.data[idx++]=255; //RGBA
}
}
}
ctx.putImageData(imgdata,0,0);
}
 
light=normalize(light);
</script>
</head>
<body onload="gR=200;gk=4;gambient=.2;draw_sphere(gR,gk,gambient)">
R=<input type="range" id="R" name="R" min="5" max="500" value="200" step="5" onchange="document.getElementById('lR').innerHTML=gR=parseFloat(this.value);draw_sphere(gR,gk,gambient)">
<label for="R" id="lR">200</label><br>
k=<input type="range" id="k" name="k" min="0" max="10" value="4" step=".25" onchange="document.getElementById('lk').innerHTML=gk=parseFloat(this.value);draw_sphere(gR,gk,gambient)">
<label for="k" id="lk">4</label><br>
ambient=<input type="range" id="ambient" name="ambient" min="0" max="1" value=".2" step=".05" onchange="document.getElementById('lambient').innerHTML=gambient=parseFloat(this.value);draw_sphere(gR,gk,gambient)">
<label for="ambient" id="lambient">0.2</label><br>
<canvas id="c">Unsupportive browser...</canvas><br>
</body>
</html>

[edit] jq

Works with: jq version 1.4

The approach adopted here is to generate an SVG file, which may then be viewed, for example, in a web browser.

def svg:
"<svg width='100%' height='100%' version='1.1'
xmlns='http://www.w3.org/2000/svg'
xmlns:xlink='http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink'>" ;
 
# A radial gradient to make a circle look like a sphere.
# "colors" should be [startColor, intermediateColor, endColor]
# or null for ["white", "teal", "black"]
def sphericalGradient(id; colors):
"<defs>
<radialGradient id = '\(id)' cx = '30%' cy = '30%' r = '100%' fx='10%' fy='10%' >
<stop stop-color = '\(colors[0]//"white")' offset = '0%'/>
<stop stop-color = '\(colors[1]//"teal")' offset = '50%'/>
<stop stop-color = '\(colors[1]//"black")' offset = '100%'/>
</radialGradient>
</defs>" ;
 
def sphere(cx; cy; r; gradientId):
"<circle fill='url(#\(gradientId))' cx='\(cx)' cy='\(cy)' r='\(r)' />" ;

Example:

def draw_sphere:
svg,
"<title>Teal sphere</title>",
sphericalGradient("tealGradient"; null), # define the gradient to use
sphere(100;100;100; "tealGradient"), # draw a sphere using the gradient
sphere(100;300;100; "tealGradient"), # draw another sphere using the same gradient
"</svg>" ;
 
draw_sphere
Output:
$ jq -r -n -f spheres.jq > spheres.svg

One way to view the output as an image is to point your browser to the generated SVG.


[edit]

Drawing a sphere is actually very simple in logo, using the perspective function to make life easier.

Works with: MSWlogo
to sphere :r
cs perspective ht ;making the room ready to use
repeat 180 [polystart circle :r polyend down 1]
polyview
end

[edit] Lua

Translation of: C
Works with: Lua version 5.1.4
require ("math")
 
shades = {'.', ':', '!', '*', 'o', 'e', '&', '#', '%', '@'}
 
function normalize (vec)
len = math.sqrt(vec[1]^2 + vec[2]^2 + vec[3]^2)
return {vec[1]/len, vec[2]/len, vec[3]/len}
end
 
light = normalize{30, 30, -50}
 
function dot (vec1, vec2)
d = vec1[1]*vec2[1] + vec1[2]*vec2[2] + vec1[3]*vec2[3]
return d < 0 and -d or 0
end
 
function draw_sphere (radius, k, ambient)
for i = math.floor(-radius),-math.floor(-radius) do
x = i + .5
local line = ''
for j = math.floor(-2*radius),-math.floor(-2*radius) do
y = j / 2 + .5
if x^2 + y^2 <= radius^2 then
vec = normalize{x, y, math.sqrt(radius^2 - x^2 - y^2)}
b = dot(light,vec) ^ k + ambient
intensity = math.floor ((1 - b) * #shades)
line = line .. (shades[intensity] or shades[1])
else
line = line .. ' '
end
end
print (line)
end
end
 
draw_sphere (20, 4, 0.1)
draw_sphere (10, 2, 0.4)
Output:
                               &&&&&&&&&&&&#####                                 
                        &eeeoooooooooeeeeee&&&&&#######                          
                    eooo*************oooooeeee&&&&&########                      
                 eo**!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!*****ooooeeee&&&&#########                   
              eo*!!!:::::...:::::::!!!!****oooeeee&&&&&##########                
            o**!:::..............::::!!!!***ooooeee&&&&&###########              
          o*!!::...................::::!!!***ooooeee&&&&&############            
        eo*!::......................::::!!!***oooeeee&&&&&#############          
       o*!::.........................:::!!!***ooooeee&&&&&##############         
     &o*!::..........................:::!!!***ooooeeee&&&&###############%       
    eo*!::...........................:::!!!***ooooeeee&&&&&###############%      
   eo*!::............................:::!!!***ooooeeee&&&&&###############%%     
  &o*!!::...........................:::!!!!***oooeeee&&&&&#################%%    
  eo*!!:...........................::::!!!***ooooeeee&&&&&#################%%    
 eo**!!::.........................::::!!!****oooeeee&&&&&&#################%%%   
 eo**!!::.......................::::!!!!****oooeeeee&&&&&##################%%%   
&eo**!!:::....................:::::!!!!***ooooeeeee&&&&&&##################%%%%  
&eoo**!!::::................:::::!!!!****ooooeeeee&&&&&&###################%%%%  
&eoo***!!!:::::........:::::::!!!!!****oooooeeeee&&&&&&###################%%%%%  
&eeoo***!!!!:::::::::::::::!!!!!!*****ooooeeeee&&&&&&&####################%%%%%  
&&eeoo****!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!*****oooooeeeeee&&&&&&######################%%%%%  
&&eeeooo******!!!!!!!!!!!*******ooooooeeeeee&&&&&&&######################%%%%%%  
#&&eeeooooo******************oooooooeeeeee&&&&&&&#######################%%%%%%%  
##&&&eeeeoooooooooo*ooooooooooooeeeeeeee&&&&&&&&#######################%%%%%%%%  
 ##&&&eeeeeeooooooooooooooooeeeeeeeee&&&&&&&&&########################%%%%%%%%   
 ###&&&&&eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee&&&&&&&&&&##########################%%%%%%%%%   
  ####&&&&&&&eeeeeeeeeeeeeee&&&&&&&&&&&&############################%%%%%%%%%    
  ######&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&##############################%%%%%%%%%%    
   ########&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&################################%%%%%%%%%%%     
    ###############&&&&&#######################################%%%%%%%%%%%%      
     #########################################################%%%%%%%%%%%%       
       #####################################################%%%%%%%%%%%%         
        #################################################%%%%%%%%%%%%%%          
          #############################################%%%%%%%%%%%%%%            
            ########################################%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%              
              ##################################%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%                
                 %##########################%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%                   
                    %%%%############%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%                      
                        %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%                          
                               %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%                                 
                                                                                 
             ........::!!*               
         ...............::!!*o           
      ....................::!**oo        
    .......................::!**ooo      
   ........................::!!**ooo     
  .........................::!!**oooo    
 ..........................::!!**ooooe   
...........................::!!**ooooee  
..........................::!!***ooooee  
.........................::!!!**oooooee  
.......................:::!!!**oooooeee  
:.....................::!!!***ooooooeee  
!::................:::!!!!***ooooooeeee  
 !!::..........:::::!!!****ooooooeeeee   
  *!!!::::::::::!!!!!****oooooooeeeee    
   o***!!!!!!!!!******ooooooooeeeeee     
    ooo***********ooooooooooeeeeeee      
      oooooooooooooooooooeeeeeeee        
         eooooooooooeeeeeeeeee           
             eeeeeeeeeeeee               
                                         

[edit] Mathematica

Mathematica has many 3D drawing capabilities. To create a sphere with radius one centered at (0,0,0):

Graphics3D[Sphere[{0,0,0},1]]

[edit] Maxima

/* Two solutions */
plot3d(1, [theta, 0, %pi], [phi, 0, 2 * %pi],
[transform_xy, spherical_to_xyz], [grid, 30, 60],
[box, false], [legend, false])$
 
load(draw)$
draw3d(xu_grid=30, yv_grid=60, surface_hide=true,
parametric_surface(cos(phi)*sin(theta),
sin(phi)*sin(theta),
cos(theta),
theta, 0, %pi, phi, 0, 2 * %pi))$

[edit] Nim

Translation of: C
import math
 
type Point = tuple[x,y,z: float]
 
const shades = ".:!*oe&#%@"
 
proc normalize(x, y, z: float): Point =
let len = sqrt(x*x + y*y + z*z)
(x / len, y / len, z / len)
 
proc dot(a, b: Point): float =
result = max(0, - a.x*b.x - a.y*b.y - a.z*b.z)
 
let light = normalize(30.0, 30.0, -50.0)
 
proc drawSphere(r, k, ambient) =
for i in -r .. r:
let x = i.float + 0.5
for j in -2*r .. 2*r:
let y = j.float / 2.0 + 0.5
if x*x + y*y <= float r*r:
let
v = normalize(x, y, sqrt(float(r*r) - x*x - y*y))
b = pow(dot(light, v), k) + ambient
i = clamp(int((1.0 - b) * shades.high.float), 0, shades.high)
stdout.write shades[i]
else: stdout.write ' '
stdout.write "\n"
 
drawSphere 20, 4.0, 0.1
drawSphere 10, 2.0, 0.4
Output:
                               &&&&&&&&&&#######                                 
                        &eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee&&&&&&#######%                          
                    &eoooo*******oooooooeeeee&&&&&########%                      
                 eoo****!!!!!!!!******oooooeeee&&&&&########%%                   
              eoo**!!!!::::::::!!!!!*****ooooeeee&&&&&########%%%                
            eo**!!::::::...:::::::!!!!!***ooooeeee&&&&&########%%%%              
          eo*!!:::.............:::::!!!!***ooooeeee&&&&&########%%%%%            
        eo*!!:::.................::::!!!!***ooooeeee&&&&#########%%%%%%          
       eo*!!::....................::::!!!****oooeeee&&&&&#########%%%%%%         
     &o**!::......................::::!!!****oooeeee&&&&&##########%%%%%%%       
    &o**!::.......................::::!!!****oooeeee&&&&&##########%%%%%%%%      
   &oo*!!::.......................:::!!!!***ooooeeee&&&&&##########%%%%%%%%%     
  &eo*!!::.......................::::!!!****ooooeeee&&&&&##########%%%%%%%%%%    
  eo**!!::......................::::!!!!***ooooeeeee&&&&&##########%%%%%%%%%%    
 &eo**!!:::...................:::::!!!!****ooooeeee&&&&&###########%%%%%%%%%%%   
 eeo**!!::::................:::::!!!!!****ooooeeee&&&&&&###########%%%%%%%%%%%   
&eeo***!!:::::...........::::::!!!!!****oooooeeee&&&&&&###########%%%%%%%%%%%%%  
&eeoo**!!!!::::::::::::::::::!!!!!*****ooooeeeee&&&&&&############%%%%%%%%%%%%%  
&eeooo***!!!!::::::::::::!!!!!!!*****oooooeeeee&&&&&&############%%%%%%%%%%%%%%  
&&eeooo***!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!******oooooeeeeee&&&&&&############%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%  
&&eeeooo******!!!!!!!!!!********ooooooeeeeee&&&&&&&############%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%  
#&&eeeooooo******************oooooooeeeeee&&&&&&&#############%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%  
#&&&eeeeoooooooo******oooooooooooeeeeeee&&&&&&&&#############%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%  
##&&&&eeeeeooooooooooooooooooeeeeeeee&&&&&&&&&##############%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%  
 ##&&&&&eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee&&&&&&&&&################%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%   
 ####&&&&&&eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee&&&&&&&&&&&################%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%   
  #####&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&#################%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%    
  %#######&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&###################%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%    
   %###########&&&&&&&&&&&&&#######################%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%     
    %############################################%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%      
     %%#######################################%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%       
       %%#################################%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%         
        %%%%%#########################%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%          
          %%%%%%%%#############%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%            
            %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%              
              %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%                
                 %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%                   
                    %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%                      
                        %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%                          
                               %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%                                 
                                                                                 
             ::...:::!!!*o               
         ..............::!!*oo           
      ..................::!!**ooe        
    .....................::!!**ooee      
   .......................::!!**ooee     
  ........................::!!**oooee    
 .........................::!!**oooeee   
:........................::!!!**oooeeee  
........................::!!!**ooooeeee  
:......................::!!!***oooeeeee  
:....................:::!!!***oooeeeeee  
!:.................:::!!!****oooeeeeeee  
*!:::...........::::!!!!***ooooeeeeeeee  
 *!!!:::::::::::!!!!!****oooooeeeeeeee   
  o**!!!!!!!!!!!!!*****oooooeeeeeeeee    
   oo**************ooooooeeeeeeeeeee     
    eoooooooooooooooooeeeeeeeeeeeee      
      eeeooooooooeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee        
         eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee           
             eeeeeeeeeeeee

[edit] Openscad

Drawing a sphere is easy in openscad:

// This will produce a sphere of radius 5
sphere(5);

[edit] Pascal

Works with: Free_Pascal

After changing "{$APPTYPE CONSOLE}" to "{$mode delphi}" or "{$mode objfpc}" the Delphi example works with FreePascal.


[edit] Perl

Translation of: Perl 6

This produces a PGM image which can't be uploaded on rosettacode at the moment. It looks similar as the Perl 6 solution, though.

use strict;
use warnings;
 
my $x = my $y = 255;
$x |= 1; # must be odd
my $depth = 255;
 
my $light = Vector->new(rand, rand, rand)->normalized;
 
print "P2\n$x $y\n$depth\n";
 
my ($r, $ambient) = (($x - 1)/2, 0);
my ($r2) = $r ** 2;
{
for my $x (-$r .. $r) {
my $x2 = $x**2;
for my $y (-$r .. $r) {
my $y2 = $y**2;
my $pixel = 0;
if ($x2 + $y2 < $r2) {
my $v = Vector->new($x, $y, sqrt($r2 - $x2 - $y2))->normalized;
my $I = $light . $v + $ambient;
$I = $I < 0 ? 0 : $I > 1 ? 1 : $I;
$pixel = int($I * $depth);
}
print $pixel;
print $y == $r ? "\n" : " ";
}
}
}
 
package Vector {
sub new {
my $class = shift;
bless ref($_[0]) eq 'Array' ? $_[0] : [ @_ ], $class;
}
sub normalized {
my $this = shift;
my $norm = sqrt($this . $this);
ref($this)->new( map $_/$norm, @$this );
}
use overload q{.} => sub {
my ($a, $b) = @_;
my $sum = 0;
for (0 .. @$a - 1) {
$sum += $a->[$_] * $b->[$_]
}
return $sum;
},
q{""} => sub { sprintf "Vector:[%s]", join ' ', @{shift()} };
}

[edit] Perl 6

Translation of: C

The C code is modified to output a .pgm file.

Sphere-perl6.png
my $x = my $y = 255;
$x +|= 1; # must be odd
 
my @light = normalize([ 3, 2, -5 ]);
 
my $depth = 255;
 
sub MAIN ($outfile = 'sphere-perl6.pgm') {
my $out = open( $outfile, :w, :bin ) or die "$!\n";
$out.say("P5\n$x $y\n$depth"); # .pgm header
$out.write( Blob.new(draw_sphere( ($x-1)/2, .9, .2) ) );
$out.close;
}
 
sub normalize (@vec) { return @vec »/» ([+] @vec Z* @vec).sqrt }
 
sub dot (@x, @y) { return -([+] @x Z* @y) max 0 }
 
sub draw_sphere ( $rad, $k, $ambient ) {
my @pixels;
my $r2 = $rad * $rad;
my @range = -$rad .. $rad;
for @range X @range -> $x, $y {
if (my $x2 = $x * $x) + (my $y2 = $y * $y) < $r2 {
my @vector = normalize([$x, $y, ($r2 - $x2 - $y2).sqrt]);
my $intensity = dot(@light, @vector) ** $k + $ambient;
my $pixel = (0 max ($intensity * $depth).Int) min $depth;
@pixels.push($pixel);
}
else {
@pixels.push(0);
}
}
return @pixels;
}

[edit] PicoLisp

Library: GLUT

This is for the 64-bit version.

(load "@lib/openGl.l")
 
(glutInit)
(glutInitDisplayMode (| GLUT_RGBA GLUT_DOUBLE GLUT_ALPHA GLUT_DEPTH))
(glutInitWindowSize 400 400)
(glutCreateWindow "Sphere")
 
(glEnable GL_LIGHTING)
(glEnable GL_LIGHT0)
(glLightiv GL_LIGHT0 GL_POSITION (10 10 -10 0))
 
(glEnable GL_COLOR_MATERIAL)
(glColorMaterial GL_FRONT_AND_BACK GL_AMBIENT_AND_DIFFUSE)
 
(glClearColor 0.3 0.3 0.5 0)
(glColor4f 0.0 0.8 0.0 1.0)
 
(displayPrg
(glClear (| GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT GL_DEPTH_BUFFER_BIT))
(glutSolidSphere 0.9 40 32)
(glFlush)
(glutSwapBuffers) )
 
# Exit upon mouse click
(mouseFunc '((Btn State X Y) (bye)))
(glutMainLoop)
Translation of: C
(scl 24)
 
(setq *Shades
(list "." ":" "!" "*" "o" "e" "&" "#" "%" "@"))
 
(setq *Light
(list 30.0 30.0 -50.0))
 
(de normalize (V)
(let Len
(sqrt
(sum
(quote (X)
(** X 2))
V))
(mapcar
(quote (X)
(*/ X 1.0 Len))
V)))
 
(de dot (X Y)
(let D (sum (quote (A B) (*/ A B 1.0)) X Y)
(if (< D 0) (- D) 0)))
 
(de floor (N)
(* 1.0 (*/ (- N 0.5) 1.0)))
 
(de ceil (N)
(* 1.0 (*/ (+ N 0.5) 1.0)))
 
(de drawSphere (R K Ambient)
(let Vec NIL
(for (I (floor (- R)) (<= I (ceil R)) (+ I 1.0))
(let X (+ I 0.5)
(for (J (floor (* -2 R)) (<= J (ceil (* 2 R))) (+ J 1.0))
(let Y (+ (/ J 2) 0.5)
(if (<= (+ (*/ X X 1.0) (*/ Y Y 1.0)) (*/ R R 1.0))
(prog
(setq Vec
(list X Y
(sqrt
(* 1.0
(- (*/ R R 1.0)
(*/ X X 1.0)
(*/ Y Y 1.0))))))
(setq Vec (normalize Vec))
(let (B NIL
Intensity NIL)
(setq B (+ (/ (** (dot *Light Vec) K) (** 1.0 (- K 1))) Ambient))
(setq Intensity
(if (<= B 0)
(- (length *Shades) 2)
(max (format (round (*/ (- 1.0 B) (* (- (length *Shades) 1) 1.0) 1.0) 0)) 0)))
(prin (nth *Shades (+ Intensity 1) 1))))
(prin " "))))
(prinl)))))
 
(setq *Light (normalize *Light))
(drawSphere 20.0 4 0.1)
(drawSphere 10.0 2 0.4)
Output:
                               ##############%%%                                  
                        #&&eeeeeeeeeee&&&&&&######%%%%%                           
                    &eeeoooooooooooooeeeee&&&&&######%%%%%%                       
                 &eooo**************oooooeeee&&&&&#####%%%%%%%                    
              &eoo**!!!!!!!!!!!!!!*****ooooeeee&&&&######%%%%%%%%                 
            eoo**!!!::::::::::::!!!!****ooooeeee&&&&######%%%%%%%%%               
          eoo*!!!::::.......::::::!!!!****oooeeee&&&&######%%%%%%%%%%             
        &eo*!!:::..............::::!!!!***ooooeeee&&&&######%%%%%%%%%%%           
       eo**!!::.................::::!!!****oooeeee&&&&######%%%%%%%%%%%%          
     &eo*!!:::..................::::!!!!***oooeeee&&&&&######%%%%%%%%%%%%%        
    &eo*!!:::...................::::!!!!***oooeeee&&&&&######%%%%%%%%%%%%%%       
   &eo**!!::....................::::!!!****oooeeee&&&&&######%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%      
  #eoo*!!:::...................::::!!!!***ooooeeee&&&&#######%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%     
  &eo**!!:::.................:::::!!!!****oooeeee&&&&&#######%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%     
 &eoo**!!::::...............:::::!!!!****ooooeeee&&&&#######%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%    
 &eoo**!!!::::...........::::::!!!!*****ooooeeee&&&&&#######%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%    
#&eoo***!!!::::::::::::::::::!!!!!****ooooeeeee&&&&&#######%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%   
#&eeoo***!!!!::::::::::::!!!!!!!*****ooooeeeee&&&&&#######%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%   
#&eeooo****!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!******ooooeeeee&&&&&&#######%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%   
#&&eeooo******!!!!!!!!!!!*******ooooooeeeee&&&&&&#######%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%   
#&&&eeooooo******************ooooooeeeeee&&&&&&########%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%   
##&&&eeeooooooo********oooooooooeeeeeee&&&&&&#########%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%   
###&&&eeeeeooooooooooooooooooeeeeeee&&&&&&&&#########%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%   
%###&&&&eeeeeeeeeeeoeeeeeeeeeeeee&&&&&&&&##########%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%   
 %####&&&&&eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee&&&&&&&&&&##########%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%    
 %%#####&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&############%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%    
  %%#######&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&##############%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%     
  %%%%############&&&&&###################%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%     
   %%%%%##############################%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%      
    %%%%%%%#######################%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%       
     %%%%%%%%%%%%%#########%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%        
       %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%          
        %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%           
          %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%             
            %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%               
              %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%                 
                 %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%                    
                    %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%                       
                        %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%                           
                               %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%                                  
                                                                                  
                                                                                  
             !::::::!!!**o                
         ............:::!!**oe            
      :................::!!**ooee         
    :...................::!!**ooeee       
   ......................::!!**ooeee      
  .......................::!!**ooeeee     
 .......................:::!!**ooeeeee    
:.......................::!!***ooeeeeee   
:......................::!!!**oooeeeeee   
:....................:::!!!**oooeeeeeee   
!:..................:::!!***oooeeeeeeee   
!!:..............::::!!!***oooeeeeeeeee   
*!!::::.....::::::!!!!***ooooeeeeeeeeee   
 o*!!!!::::::!!!!!!****ooooeeeeeeeeeee    
  o****!!!!!!!******oooooeeeeeeeeeeee     
   eooo********oooooooeeeeeeeeeeeeee      
    eeeoooooooooooeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee       
      eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee         
         eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee            
             eeeeeeeeeeeee                
                                          
                                          

[edit] PostScript

Gradient filled circle:

%!PS-Adobe-3.0
%%BoundingBox 0 0 300 300
 
150 150 translate 0 0 130 0 360 arc
 
/Pattern setcolorspace
<< /PatternType 2
/Shading <<
/ShadingType 3
/ColorSpace /DeviceRGB
/Coords [-60 60 0 0 0 100]
/Function <<
/FunctionType 2
/Domain [0 1]
/C0 [1 1 1]
/C1 [0 0 0]
/N 2
>>
>>
>> matrix makepattern setcolor fill
 
showpage
%%EOF
 

[edit] POV-Ray

This is what POVray was made for. An example with a sky, surface and transparency:

 
camera { location <0.0 , .8 ,-3.0> look_at 0}
 
light_source{< 3,3,-3> color rgb 1}
 
sky_sphere { pigment{ gradient <0,1,0> color_map {[0 color rgb <.2,.1,0>][.5 color rgb 1]} scale 2}}
 
plane {y,-2 pigment { hexagon color rgb .7 color rgb .5 color rgb .6 }}
 
sphere { 0,1
texture {
pigment{ color rgbft <.8,1,1,.4,.4> }
finish { phong 1 reflection {0.40 metallic 0.5} }
}
interior { ior 1.5}
}
 

Yields this:

PovRay-sphere.jpg

[edit] Processing

3D rendering is built into Processing.

void setup() {
size(500,500,P3D);
background(200);
}
 
void draw() {
stroke(200);
translate(250,250);
lights();
sphere(100);
}

[edit] Python

[edit] Ascii-Art

Translation of: C
import math
 
shades = ('.',':','!','*','o','e','&','#','%','@')
 
def normalize(v):
len = math.sqrt(v[0]**2 + v[1]**2 + v[2]**2)
return (v[0]/len, v[1]/len, v[2]/len)
 
def dot(x,y):
d = x[0]*y[0] + x[1]*y[1] + x[2]*y[2]
return -d if d < 0 else 0
 
def draw_sphere(r, k, ambient, light):
for i in range(int(math.floor(-r)),int(math.ceil(r)+1)):
x = i + 0.5
line = ''
 
for j in range(int(math.floor(-2*r)),int(math.ceil(2*r)+1)):
y = j/2 + 0.5
if x*x + y*y <= r*r:
vec = normalize((x,y,math.sqrt(r*r - x*x - y*y)))
b = dot(light,vec)**k + ambient
intensity = int((1-b)*(len(shades)-1))
line += shades[intensity] if 0 <= intensity < len(shades) else shades[0]
else:
line += ' '
 
print(line)
 
light = normalize((30,30,-50))
draw_sphere(20,4,0.1, light)
draw_sphere(10,2,0.4, light)
Output:
                                &&&&&&&&&&######                                 
                        &&eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee&&&&&&######%%                         
                    &&oooo********ooooooeeeeee&&&&########%%                     
                  oo****!!!!!!!!******ooooooeeee&&&&########%%                   
              eeoo**!!!!::::::::!!!!******ooooeeee&&&&########%%%%               
            ee**!!::::::....::::::!!!!!!**ooooeeee&&&&&&########%%%%             
          ee**!!::..............::::!!!!****ooooeeee&&&&########%%%%%%           
        ee**!!::..................::::!!!!**ooooeeee&&&&##########%%%%%%         
        oo!!::....................::::!!!!****ooeeee&&&&&&########%%%%%%         
      oo**::......................::::!!!!****ooeeee&&&&&&##########%%%%%%       
    &&**!!::......................::::!!!!****ooeeee&&&&&&##########%%%%%%%%     
    oo**!!::......................::::!!!!**ooooeeee&&&&&&##########%%%%%%%%     
  &&oo!!::........................::::!!****ooooeeee&&&&&&##########%%%%%%%%%%   
  ee**!!::......................::::!!!!****ooooeeee&&&&&&##########%%%%%%%%%%   
  ee**!!::::..................::::::!!!!****ooooeeee&&&&############%%%%%%%%%%   
  ee**!!::::................::::::!!!!****ooooeeee&&&&&&############%%%%%%%%%%   
&&ee****!!::::............::::::!!!!****ooooooeeee&&&&&&##########%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 
&&eeoo**!!!!::::::::::::::::::!!!!******ooooeeee&&&&&&############%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 
&&eeoo****!!!!::::::::::::!!!!!!******ooooeeeeee&&&&&&############%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 
&&eeoooo**!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!******ooooeeeeee&&&&&&############%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 
&&eeeeoo******!!!!!!!!!!********ooooooeeeeee&&&&&&&&############%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 
##&&eeoooooo******************ooooooeeeeee&&&&&&&&############%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 
##&&eeeeoooooooo******ooooooooooooeeeeee&&&&&&&&##############%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 
##&&&&eeeeeeooooooooooooooooooeeeeeeee&&&&&&&&##############%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 
  ##&&&&eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee&&&&&&&&&&################%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%   
  ####&&&&&&eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee&&&&&&&&&&&&################%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%   
  ######&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&##################%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%   
  %%######&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&####################%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%   
    ############&&&&&&&&&&&&########################%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%     
    %%############################################%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%     
      %%######################################%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%       
        %%################################%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%         
        %%%%%%########################%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%         
          %%%%%%%%##############%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%           
            %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%             
              %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%               
                  %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%                   
                    %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%                     
                        %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%                         
                                %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%                                 
                                                                                 
              ::..::::!!**               
          ..............::!!oo           
      ..................::!!**ooee       
    ......................::!!**ooee     
    ......................::!!**ooee     
  ........................::!!**ooooee   
  ........................::!!**ooooee   
::........................::!!**ooooeeee 
........................::!!!!**ooooeeee 
::......................::!!****ooeeeeee 
::....................::!!!!**ooooeeeeee 
!!..................::!!!!****ooeeeeeeee 
**::::..........::::!!!!****ooooeeeeeeee 
  !!!!::::::::::!!!!!!****ooooeeeeeeee   
  oo**!!!!!!!!!!!!******ooooeeeeeeeeee   
    oo**************ooooooeeeeeeeeee     
    eeooooooooooooooooeeeeeeeeeeeeee     
      eeeeooooooooeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee       
          eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee           
              eeeeeeeeeeee

[edit]
Library: Pygame

Python Sphere

Renders a sphere with random Perlin noise.
This code contains unnecessary functions which are part of a 3D graphics library I wrote.
Uses Pygame and Python 3.2.2

 
import pygame
from pygame.locals import *
import time
import sys
import random
import math
 
 
class Tricubic:
def __init__(self,pts):
self.coefficients = []
for plane in pts:
planecoeffs = []
for line in plane:
p = (line[3]-line[2])-(line[0]-line[1])
q = (line[0]-line[1])-p
r = line[2]-line[0]
s = line[1]
planecoeffs.append([p,q,r,s])
self.coefficients.append(planecoeff)
def Eval(at):
return Misc.Cubic([CoeffBicubic(coeffs[0],d),CoeffBicubic(coeffs[1],d),CoeffBicubic(coeffs[2],d),CoeffBicubic(coeffs[3],d)],d.z)
def CoeffCubic(coeffs,d):
return (coeffs[0]*(d.x**3))+(coeffs[1]*(d.x**2))+(coeffs[2]*d.x)+coeffs[3]
def CoeffBicubic(coeffs,d):
return Misc.Cubic([CoeffCubic(coeffs[0],d),CoeffCubic(coeffs[1],d),CoeffCubic(coeffs[2],d),CoeffCubic(coeffs[3],d)],d.y)
class Misc:
def LinePara(line,t):
return Vector3.Add(line[0],Vector3.Scale(Vector3.Subtract(line[1],line[0]),t))
def LUR(at,above):
look = at.Unit()
right = Vector3.Cross(look,above).Unit()
up = Vector3.Scale(Vector3.Cross(look,right),-1)
return [look,up,right]
def LinePlane(line,triangle,cp=True):
try:
u = Vector3.Subtract(triangle.points[1].point,triangle.points[0])
v = Vector3.Subtract(triangle.points[2],triangle.points[0])
n = Vector3.Cross(u,v)
r = (Vector3.Dot(n,Vector3.Subtract(triangle.points[0],line.start))/Vector3.Dot(n,line.direction))
if stp:
point = Vector3.Add(Vector3.Scale(line.direction,r),line.start)
w = Vector3.Subtract(point,triangle.points[0])
udv = Vector3.Dot(u,v)
wdv = Vector3.Dot(w,v)
vdv = Vector3.Dot(v,v)
wdu = Vector3.Dot(w,u)
udu = Vector3.Dot(u,u)
denominator = (udv**2)-(udu*vdv)
s = ((udv*wdv)-(vdv*wdu))/denominator
t = ((udv*wdu)-(udu*wdv))/denominator
return [r,Vector2(s,t),point]
print('hooray')
else:
return [r]
except:
return None
def Cubic(pts,d):
p = (pts[3]-pts[2])-(pts[0]-pts[1])
q = (pts[0]-pts[1])-p
r = pts[2]-pts[0]
s = pts[1]
return (p*(d**3))+(q*(d**2))+(r*d)+s
def Bicubic(pts,d):
return Misc.Cubic([Misc.Cubic(pts[0],d.x),Misc.Cubic(pts[1],d.x),Misc.Cubic(pts[2],d.x),Misc.Cubic(pts[3],d.x)],d.y)
def Tricubic(pts,d):
return Misc.Cubic([Misc.Bicubic(pts[0],d),Misc.Bicubic(pts[1],d),Misc.Bicubic(pts[2],d),Misc.Bicubic(pts[3],d)],d.z)
def Quadcubic(pts,d):
return Misc.Cubic([Misc.Tricubic(pts[0],d),Misc.Tricubic(pts[1],d),Misc.Tricubic(pts[2],d),Misc.Tricubic(pts[3],d)],d.w)
def Linear(pts,d):
return (pts[2]*d)+(pts[1]*(1-d))
def Bilinear(pts,d):
return Misc.Linear([0,Misc.Linear(pts[1],d.x),Misc.Linear(pts[2],d.x)],d.y)
def Trilinear(pts,d):
return Misc.Linear([0,Misc.Bilinear(pts[1],d),Misc.Bilinear(pts[2],d)],d.z)
def LP2(line,triangle,cp=True):
try:
bla = triangle.points[1]
bla = triangle.points[0]
u = Vector3.Subtract(triangle.points[1].point,triangle.points[0].point)
v = Vector3.Subtract(triangle.points[2].point,triangle.points[0].point)
n = Vector3.Cross(u,v)
d = Vector3.Subtract(line[1],line[0])
r = (Vector3.Dot(n,Vector3.Subtract(triangle.points[0].point,line[0]))/Vector3.Dot(n,d))
if cp:
point = Vector3.Add(Vector3.Scale(d,r),line[0])
w = Vector3.Subtract(point,triangle.points[0].point)
udv = Vector3.Dot(u,v)
wdv = Vector3.Dot(w,v)
vdv = Vector3.Dot(v,v)
wdu = Vector3.Dot(w,u)
udu = Vector3.Dot(u,u)
denominator = (udv**2)-(udu*vdv)
s = ((udv*wdv)-(vdv*wdu))/denominator
t = ((udv*wdu)-(udu*wdv))/denominator
return (r,Vector2(s,t),point)
else:
return (r)
except:
return None
def Phong(normal,viewer,light,material,term):
# light (vector_to,diffuse,specular)
# material (ambient,diffuse,specular,shininess)
n = normal.Unit()
v = viewer.Unit()
l = light[0].Unit()
ldn = Vector3.Dot(l,n)
#print(ldn)
val = 0
if ldn > 0:
val += material[1][term]*ldn*light[1][term]
rdv = Vector3.Dot(Vector3.Subtract(Vector3.Scale(n,2*ldn),l),v)
if rdv > 0:
val += (material[2][term]*(rdv**material[3])*light[2][term])
#print(val)
return val
def Lighting(ambient,normal,viewer,lights,material,term):
# lights [(vector_to,diffuse,specular)]
# material (ambient,diffuse,specular,shininess)
val = material[0][term]*ambient[term]
for light in lights:
val += Misc.Phong(normal,viewer,light,material,term)
return val
def Lighting2(start,direction,ambient,intersect,triangle,lights):
coord = intersect[1]
val = Color.Add(Color.Multiply(ambient,Color.Multiply(triangle.material.color['ambient'],triangle.Map('ambient',coord))),
Color.Multiply(triangle.material.color['glow'],triangle.Map('glow',coord)))
for light in lights:
for n in range(3):
val[n] += Misc.Phong(triangle.InterpolatedNormal(coord),
Vector3.Scale(direction,-1),
(light.To(intersect[2]),light.Diffuse(intersect[2]),light.Specular(intersect[2])),
(Color(),
Color.Multiply(triangle.material.color['diffuse'],triangle.Map('diffuse',coord)),
Color.Multiply(triangle.material.color['specular'],triangle.Map('specular',coord)),
triangle.material.shiny),n)
return val
def Ray(start,direction,scene,color=True,sector=None):
intersect = None
intersected = None
col = None
for triangle in scene.triangles:
possible = True
if sector != None:
possible = False
for point in triangle.points:
if not(point.sector.x < sector.x):
possible = True
if possible:
possible = False
for point in triangle.points:
if not(point.sector.x > sector.x):
possible = True
if possible:
possible = False
for point in triangle.points:
if not(point.sector.y < sector.y):
possible = True
if possible:
possible = False
for point in triangle.points:
if not(point.sector.y > sector.y):
possible = True
possible = True
if possible:
tmp = Misc.LP2([start,Vector3.Add(start,direction)],triangle,color)
write = False
if type(tmp) == type(5.1):
tmp = None
if (tmp != None):
if (intersect == None):
if (tmp[0] > 0) and (tmp[1].x >= 0) and (tmp[1].y >= 0) and (tmp[1].x+tmp[1].y <= 1):
write = True
elif (tmp[0] > 0) and (tmp[0] < intersect[0]) and (tmp[1].x >= 0) and (tmp[1].y >= 0) and (tmp[1].x+tmp[1].y <= 1):
write = True
if write:
intersect = tmp
intersected = triangle
if color and (intersect != None):
applicable = []
for light in scene.lights:
block = Misc.Ray(intersect[2],light.To(intersect[2]),scene,False)
if block == None:
applicable.append(light)
elif light.location != None:
if Vector3.Subtract(light.location,intersect[2]).Magnitude() < block[0]:
applicable.append(light)
col = Misc.Lighting2(start,direction,scene.ambient,intersect,intersected,applicable)
return (intersect,col)
else:
return intersect
class DirLight:
def __init__(self,direction,diffuse,specular):
self.location = None
self.direction = direction.Unit()
self.diffuse = diffuse
self.specular = specular
def To(self,frm):
return Vector3.Scale(self.direction,-1)
def Diffuse(self,to):
return self.diffuse
def Specular(self,to):
return self.specular
class Material:
def __init__(self):
self.color = {'ambient':Color(1,1,1),
'diffuse':Color(1,1,1),
'specular':Color(1,1,1),
'glow':Color(1,1,1)}
self.maps = {'ambient':Map(),
'diffuse':Map(),
'specular':Map(),
'glow':Map(),
'bump':Map()}
self.shiny = 10
class Map:
def __init__(self,surface=None):
self.surface = surface
if self.surface != None:
self.width = self.surface.get_width()
self.height = self.surface.get_height()
def __getitem__(self,index):
if self.surface == None:
return Color(1,1,1)
else:
try:
return Color.From255(self.surface.get_at((int(index.x*(self.width-1)),int(index.y*(self.height-1)))))
except:
return Color(0,0,1)
class Color:
def __init__(self,r=0,g=0,b=0):
self.r = r
self.g = g
self.b = b
def __getitem__(self,index):
if index == 0:
return self.r
elif index == 1:
return self.g
elif index == 2:
return self.b
def __setitem__(self,index,value):
if index == 0:
self.r = value
elif index == 1:
self.g = value
elif index == 2:
self.b = value
def Multiply(A,B):
return Color(A.r*B.r,A.g*B.g,A.b*B.b)
def Add(A,B):
return Color(A.r+B.r,A.g+B.g,A.b+B.b)
def From255(A):
return Color(A.r/255,A.g/255,A.b/255)
class Vertex:
def __init__(self,point,normal,maps):
self.bpoint = point
self.bnormal = normal
self.maps = maps
for name in ['ambient','diffuse','specular','glow','bump']:
try:
bla = self.maps[name]
except:
self.maps[name] = Vector2()
self.sector = None
def Transform(self,points,norms):
self.point = Matrix2.Multiply(self.bpoint.Horizontal(),points).Vectorize()
self.normal = Matrix2.Multiply(self.bnormal.Horizontal(),norms).Vectorize()
class Triangle:
def __init__(self,vertices,material=Material()):
self.points = vertices
self.material = material
def Map(self,name,coord):
pts = []
for n in range(3):
pts.append(self.points[n].maps[name])
loc = Vector2.Add(pts[0],
Vector2.Add(Vector2.Scale(Vector2.Subtract(pts[1],pts[0]),coord.x),
Vector2.Scale(Vector2.Subtract(pts[2],pts[0]),coord.y)))
#print(loc.x,loc.y)
return self.material.maps[name][loc]
def InterpolatedNormal(self,coord):
return Vector3.Add(Vector3.Scale(self.points[0].normal,1-coord.x-coord.y),
Vector3.Add(Vector3.Scale(self.points[1].normal,coord.x),Vector3.Scale(self.points[2].normal,coord.y))).Unit()
class Line:
def __init__(self,A,B=None,direction=None):
self.start = A
if B != None:
self.direction = Vector3.Subtract(B,A).Unit()
elif direction != None:
self.direction = direction
else:
raise RuntimeError('Neither B nor direction are specified')
class Scene:
def __init__(self):
self.triangles = []
self.vertices = []
self.lights = []
self.exterior = []
self.ambient = 0
class Matrix2:
def __init__(self,data=[[]]):
self.FromData(data)
def __getitem__(self,index):
return self.data[index[1]][index[0]]
def __setitem__(self,index,value):
self.data[index[1]][index[0]]=value
def Dimension(self):
self.rows = len(self.data)
self.cols = len(self.data[0])
def FromData(self,data):
self.data = data
length=len(data[0])
for row in data:
if len(row)!=length:
self.data=None
raise RuntimeError('Data rows are not of uniform length.')
self.Dimension()
def Multiply(A,B):
if A.cols!=B.rows:
raise RuntimeError('Column count of Matrix2 \"A\" does not match row count of Matrix2 \"B\".')
matrix = Matrix2.Empty(B.cols,A.rows)
x=0
while x<matrix.cols:
y=0
while y<matrix.rows:
val=0
n=0
while n<A.cols:
val+=A[(n,y)]*B[(x,n)]
n+=1
matrix[(x,y)]=val
y+=1
x+=1
return matrix
def Scalar(A,n):
pass
def Empty(rows,cols):
data = []
row = [0]*rows
n = 0
while n < cols:
data.append(row[:])
n+=1
matrix=Matrix2(data)
matrix.Dimension()
return matrix
def Identity(cols):
matrix = Matrix2.Empty(cols,cols)
n = 0
while n < cols:
matrix[(n,n)]=1
n += 1
return matrix
def Vectorize(self):
if self.cols==1:
if self.rows!=4:
raise RuntimeError('Only 1 by 4 or 4 by 1 Matrix2s can be cast to Vector3s.')
vertical=True
elif self.rows==1:
if self.cols!=4:
raise RuntimeError('Only 1 by 4 or 4 by 1 Matrix2s can be cast to Vector3s.')
vertical = False
else:
raise RuntimeError('Only 1 by 4 or 4 by 1 Matrix2s can be cast to Vector3s.')
vector=[0]*4
n=0
while n<4:
if vertical:
vector[n]=self[(0,n)]
else:
vector[n]=self[(n,0)]
n+=1
return Vector3(vector[0],vector[1],vector[2],vector[3])
def Print(self,decimals,spaces):
length=0
for row in self.data:
for val in row:
string=str(round(val,decimals))
if length<len(string):
length=len(string)
text=''
for row in self.data:
temp=''
for value in row:
val=str(round(float(value),decimals))
pads=length-len(val)
pad=int(pads/2)
temp+=(' '*pad)+val+(' '*(pads-pad))+(' '*spaces)
text+=(' '*spaces)+temp[0:len(temp)-1]+(' '*spaces)+'\n'
return(text[0:len(text)-1])
def RotX(angle):
return Matrix2([
[1,0,0,0],
[0,math.cos(angle),0-math.sin(angle),0],
[0,math.sin(angle),math.cos(angle),0],
[0,0,0,1]])
def RotY(angle):
return Matrix2([
[math.cos(angle),0,0-math.sin(angle),0],
[0,1,0,0],
[math.sin(angle),0,math.cos(angle),0],
[0,0,0,1]])
def RotZ(angle):
return Matrix2([
[math.cos(angle),0-math.sin(angle),0,0],
[math.sin(angle),math.cos(angle),0,0],
[0,0,1,0],
[0,0,0,1]])
def Translate(vector):
return Matrix2([
[1,0,0,0],
[0,1,0,0],
[0,0,1,0],
[vector.x,vector.y,vector.z,1]])
def Scale(vector):
return Matrix2([
[vector.x,0,0,0],
[0,vector.y,0,0],
[0,0,vector.z,0],
[0,0,0,1]])
def Clone(self):
data = []
for row in self.data:
data.append(row[:])
return Matrix2(data)
def Inverse(self):
adjoint = self.Adjoint()
det = self.Determinant()
if det == 0:
raise RuntimeError('Cannot find the inverse of a matrix with a determinant of 0')
inverse = Matrix2.Empty(self.rows,self.cols)
x = 0
while x < self.cols:
y = 0
while y < self.rows:
inverse[(x,y)] = adjoint[(x,y)]/det
y += 1
x += 1
return inverse
def Transpose(self):
transpose = Matrix2.Empty(self.cols,self.rows)
x = 0
while x < self.cols:
y = 0
while y < self.rows:
transpose[(y,x)] = self[(x,y)]
y += 1
x += 1
return transpose
def Adjoint(self):
return self.Cofactors().Transpose()
def Determinant(self):
if self.rows != self.cols:
raise RuntimeError('Cannot find the determinant of a non-square matrix')
if self.rows == 1:
return self[(0,0)]
cofactors = self.Cofactors()
determinant = 0
n = 0
while n < self.cols:
determinant += self[(n,0)]*cofactors[(n,0)]
n += 1
return determinant
def Minors(self):
if self.rows != self.cols:
raise RuntimeError('Cannot find the minors of a non-square matrix')
if self.rows == 1:
raise RuntimeError('Cannot find the minors of a 1 by 1 matrix')
minors = Matrix2.Empty(self.rows,self.cols)
lines = range(self.rows)
x = 0
while x < self.cols:
y = 0
while y < self.cols:
tiny = Matrix2.Empty(self.rows-1,self.cols-1)
ox = 0
nx = 0
while ox < self.cols:
oy = 0
ny = 0
while oy < self.cols:
if not((ox == x) or (oy == y)):
tiny[(nx,ny)] = self[(ox,oy)]
if oy != y:
ny += 1
oy += 1
if ox != x:
nx += 1
ox += 1
minors[(x,y)] = tiny.Determinant()
y += 1
x += 1
return minors
def Cofactors(self):
minors = self.Minors()
cofactors = Matrix2.Empty(self.rows,self.cols)
x = 0
while x < self.cols:
y = 0
while y < self.rows:
if int((x+y)/2) == ((x+y)/2):
cofactors[(x,y)] = minors[(x,y)]
else:
cofactors[(x,y)] = -1*minors[(x,y)]
y += 1
x += 1
return cofactors
def Perspective(e):
return Matrix2([
[1,0,0,0],
[0,1,0,0],
[0,0,1,1/e[2]],
[-e[0],-e[1],0,0]])
def Add(A,B):
if A.rows != B.rows:
RuntimeError('The row counts of Matrix \"A\" and Matrix \"B\" are not identical.')
if A.cols != B.cols:
RuntimeError('The column counts of Matrix \"A\" and Matrix \"B\" are not identical.')
matrix = Matrix.Empty(A.rows,A.cols)
for x in range(A.cols):
for y in range(A.rows):
matrix[(x,y)] = A[(x,y)]+B[(x,y)]
return matrix
def Subtract(A,B):
if A.rows != B.rows:
RuntimeError('The row counts of Matrix \"A\" and Matrix \"B\" are not identical.')
if A.cols != B.cols:
RuntimeError('The column counts of Matrix \"A\" and Matrix \"B\" are not identical.')
matrix = Matrix.Empty(A.rows,A.cols)
for x in range(A.cols):
for y in range(A.rows):
matrix[(x,y)] = A[(x,y)]+B[(x,y)]
return matrix
def DivHomogeneous(self):
if (self.cols,self.rows) == (1,4):
for y in range(3):
self[(0,y)] = self[(0,y)]/self[(0,3)]
self[(0,3)] = 1
if (self.cols,self.rows) == (4,1):
for x in range(3):
self[(x,0)] = self[(x,0)]/self[(3,0)]
self[(3,0)] = 1
else:
raise RuntimeError('1 by 4 or 4 by 1 Matrix2 expected')
def Object(pos,look,up,right):
return Matrix2([
[right.x,right.y,right.z,0],
[up.x,up.y,up.z,0],
[look.x,look.y,look.z,0],
[pos.x,pos.y,pos.z,1]])
def Camera(eye,look,up,right):
return Matrix2([
[right.x,up.x,look.x,0],
[right.y,up.y,look.y,0],
[right.z,up.z,look.z,0],
[-Vector3.Dot(eye,right),
-Vector3.Dot(eye,up),
-Vector3.Dot(eye,look),1]])
def YPR(rot):
return Matrix2.Multiply(
Matrix2.Multiply(Matrix2.RotZ(rot.z),
Matrix2.RotX(rot.x)),
Matrix2.RotY(rot.y))
class Vector2:
def __init__(self,data=0,y=0):
if (type(data) == type(5)) or (type(data) == type(5.1)):
self.x = data
self.y = y
else:
self.x = data[0]
self.y = data[1]
def __getitem__(self,index):
if index == 0:
return self.x
elif index == 1:
return self.y
def __setitem__(self,index,value):
if index == 0:
self.x = value
elif index == 1:
self.y = 1
def Add(A,B):
return Vector2(A.x+B.x,A.y+B.y)
def Subtract(A,B):
return Vector2(A.x-B.x,A.y-B.y)
def Scale(A,n):
return Vector2(A.x*n,A.y*n)
def Magnitude(self):
return ((self.x**2)+(self.y**2))**.5
def Unit(self):
return Vector2.Scale(self,1/self.Magnitude())
def Clone(self):
return Vector2(self.x,self.y)
class Vector3:
def __init__(self,data=0,y=0,z=0,w=1):
if (type(data) == type(5)) or (type(data) == type(5.1)):
self.x = data/w
self.y = y/w
self.z = z/w
else:
try:
temp = data[3]
except:
temp = 1
self.x = data[0]/temp
self.y = data[1]/temp
self.z = data[2]/temp
def __getitem__(self,index):
if index == 0:
return self.x
elif index == 1:
return self.y
elif index == 2:
return self.z
def __setitem__(self,index,value):
if index == 0:
self.x = value
elif index == 1:
self.y = value
elif index == 2:
self.z = value
def Vertical(self):
return Matrix2([[self.x],[self.y],[self.z],[1]])
def Horizontal(self):
return Matrix2([[self.x,self.y,self.z,1]])
def Dot(A,B):
return (A.x*B.x)+(A.y*B.y)+(A.z*B.z)
def Cross(A,B):
return Vector3([
(A.y*B.z)-(A.z*B.y),
(A.z*B.x)-(A.x*B.z),
(A.x*B.y)-(A.y*B.x)])
def Add(A,B):
return Vector3(A.x+B.x,A.y+B.y,A.z+B.z)
def Subtract(A,B):
return Vector3(A.x-B.x,A.y-B.y,A.z-B.z)
def Scale(A,n):
return Vector3(A.x*n,A.y*n,A.z*n)
def Magnitude(self):
return ((self.x**2)+(self.y**2)+(self.z**2))**.5
def Print(self,decimals,spaces):
return self.Horizontal().Print(decimals,spaces)
def Same(A,B):
same = False
if A.x == B.x:
if A.y == B.y:
if A.z == B.z:
same = True
return same
def Unit(self):
return Vector3.Scale(self,1/self.Magnitude())
def Clone(self):
return Vector3(self.x,self.y,self.z)
class Vector4:
def __init__(self,data=0,y=0,z=0,w=0):
if (type(data) == type(5)) or (type(data) == type(5.1)):
self.x = data
self.y = y
self.z = z
self.w = w
else:
self.x = data[0]
self.y = data[0]
self.z = data[0]
self.w = data[0]
 
points = [Vector3([-1,-1,0]),Vector3([1,-1,0]),Vector3([0,1,0])]
width = 255
height = width
screen = pygame.display.set_mode((width,height),0,32)
scl = 2
pos = Vector3([0,0,5])
view = Vector3([0,0,1])
frames = 0
 
def Transform(point,mat):
return Matrix2.Multiply(point.Horizontal(),mat).Vectorize()
 
def RV():
return Vector3([random.random(),random.random(),random.random()])
 
green = pygame.Color(0,255,0)
def XY(bla):
return (((width*bla[0])+width)/2,((height*bla[1])+width)/2)
 
screen.fill(pygame.Color(0,0,0))
size = 255
 
world = Matrix2.Identity(4)
inv = world.Inverse()
invt = world.Inverse().Transpose()
center = Vector3(0,0,2)
 
 
def Texture(size):
texture = []
for pa in range(size):
plane = []
for pb in range(size):
line = []
for pc in range(size):
line.append(random.random())
plane.append(line)
texture.append(plane)
return texture
 
lights = [(Vector3(-10,6,-9),[.7,.7*.9,.7*.8],[.7,.7*.9,.9*.8])]
lights = [(Vector3(-10,6,-9),[.8,.8,.8],[.7,.7,.7])]
 
depth = 3
groups = []
for n in range(1):
textures = []
for n in range(depth):
textures.append(Texture(4**(n+1)))
groups.append(textures)
 
def Select(texture,at):
sel = []
for pa in range(4):
aplane = texture[pa+math.floor(at.z)]
bplane = []
for pb in range(4):
aline = aplane[pb+math.floor(at.y)]
bline = []
for pc in range(4):
bline.append(aline[pc+math.floor(at.x)])
bplane.append(bline)
sel.append(bplane)
return (sel,Vector3(at.x%1,at.y%1,at.z%1))
def Round(val):
return val-(val-math.floor(val))
 
theta = math.tan(70*math.pi/360)
for x in range(width):
for event in pygame.event.get():
if event.type == QUIT:
pygame.quit()
sys.exit()
if event.type == KEYDOWN:
pass
for y in range(height):
l = Vector3(theta*2*((x/width)-.5),theta*2*((y/width)-.5),1).Unit()
ldc = Vector3.Dot(l,center)
d = ldc-(((ldc**2)-Vector3.Dot(center,center)+1)**.5)
if type(d) != type((-1)**.5):
intersection = Vector3.Scale(l,d)
normal = Vector3.Subtract(intersection,center).Unit()
point = Transform(normal,world)
 
s = Vector3.Scale(Vector3.Add(point,Vector3(1,1,1)),.5)
val = 0
for i in range(depth):
sel = Select(groups[0][i],Vector3.Scale(s,4**i))
val += Misc.Tricubic(sel[0],sel[1])*((1/2)**i)/4
 
val = (25*val)%1
vals = [0,Misc.Linear([0,.3,1],val),1]
 
coloring = []
for i in range(3):
#light = Misc.Lighting([1,1,1],normal,Vector3.Scale(intersection,-1),lights,([0,.03*val,.03],[0,.7*val,.7],[.3,.3,.3],7),i)
light = Misc.Lighting([.1,.1,.1],normal,Vector3.Scale(intersection,-1),lights,(vals,vals,[1,1,1],10),i)
if light > 1:
light = 1
elif light < 0:
light = 0
coloring.append(round(255*light))
screen.set_at((x,height-y),pygame.Color(coloring[0],coloring[1],coloring[2]))
pygame.display.update()
pygame.image.save(screen,"PythonSphere.png")
while True:
for event in pygame.event.get():
if event.type == QUIT:
pygame.quit()
sys.exit()
if event.type == KEYDOWN:
pass
 

[edit]
Library: VPython

Works with: Python version 2.7.5

Short version:

from visual import *
scene.title = "VPython: Draw a sphere"
sphere() # using defaults, see http://www.vpython.org/contents/docs/defaults.html

Regular version, with some window-dressing:

 
from __future__ import print_function, division
from visual import *
 
title = "VPython: Draw a sphere"
scene.title = title
print( "%s\n" % title )
 
print( 'Drag with right mousebutton to rotate view' )
print( 'Drag up+down with middle mousebutton to zoom')
 
scene.autocenter = True
 
# uncomment any (or all) of those variants:
S1 = sphere(pos=(0.0, 0.0, 0.0), radius=1.0, color=color.blue)
#S2 = sphere(pos=(2.0, 0.0, 0.0), radius=1.0, material=materials.earth)
#S3 = sphere(pos=(0.0, 2.0, 0.0), radius=1.0, material=materials.BlueMarble)
#S4 = sphere(pos=(0.0, 0.0, 2.0), radius=1.0,
# color=color.orange, material=materials.marble)
 
while True: # Animation-loop
rate(100)
pass # no animation in this demo
 

[edit] Racket

Racket-sphere-plot.png

Using the Typed Racket language with the plot library:

 
#lang typed/racket
 
(require plot/typed)
(plot3d (polar3d (λ (θ ρ) 1)) #:altitude 25)
 

[edit] REXX

This program is modeled after the   C   version.
The REXX language doesn't have a   SQRT   function, so a version is included here.
Same with the   CEILing   and   FLOOR   functions.

Programming note:   the output will appear slightly different when executed on an EBCDIC machine   (due to different dithering characters).

/*REXX program expresses a lighted sphere  with simple characters for shading.*/
call drawSphere 19, 4, 2/10 /*draw a sphere with a radius of 19. */
call drawSphere 10, 2, 4/10 /* " " " " " " " ten. */
exit /*stick a fork in it, we're all done. */
/*──────────────────────────────────DRAWSPHERE subroutine─────────────────────*/
drawSphere: procedure; parse arg r, k, ambient /*get the arguments from CL*/
if 1=='f1'x then shading='.:!*oe&#%@' /* EBCDIC dithering chars. */
else shading='·:!°oe@░▒▓' /* ASCII " " */
lightSource = '30 30 -50' /*position of light source.*/
parse value norm(lightSource) with s1 s2 s3 /*normalize light source. */
sLen=length(shading)-1; rr=r*r /*handy-dandy variables. */
 
do i=floor(-r) to ceil(r)  ; x= i+.5; xx=x**2; aLine=
do j=floor(-2*r) to ceil(r+r); y=j/2+.5; yy=y**2
if xx+yy<=rr then do /*is point within sphere ? */
parse value norm(x y sqrt(rr-xx-yy)) with v1 v2 v3
dot=s1*v1 + s2*v2 + s3*v3 /*the dot product of the Vs*/
if dot>0 then dot=0 /*if positive, make it zero*/
b=abs(dot)**k + ambient /*calculate the brightness.*/
if b<=0 then brite=sLen
else brite=trunc( max( (1-b) * sLen, 0) )
aLine=(aLine)substr(shading,brite+1,1) /*build a line.*/
end
else aLine=aLine' ' /*append a blank to line. */
end /*j*/
say strip(aLine,'trailing') /*show a line of the sphere*/
end /*i*/ /* [↑] display the sphere.*/
return
/*─────────────────────────────────────one─liner subroutines──────────────────*/
ceil: procedure; parse arg x; _=trunc(x); return _ + (x>0) *(x\=_)
floor: procedure; parse arg x; _=trunc(x); return _ - (x<0) *(x\=_)
norm: parse arg _1 _2 _3; _=sqrt(_1**2+_2**2+_3**2); return _1/_ _2/_ _3/_
/*─────────────────────────────────────SQRT subroutine────────────────────────*/
sqrt: procedure; parse arg x; if x=0 then return 0; d=digits(); p=d+d%4+2; m.=11
numeric digits m.; numeric form;parse value format(x,2,1,,0) 'E0' with g 'E' _ .
g=g*.5'E'_%2; do j=0 while p>9; m.j=p; p=p%2+1; end
do k=j+5 to 0 by -1; if m.k>11 then numeric digits m.k; g=.5*(g+x/g); end
numeric digits d; return g/1

output when executed on an ASCII machine:

                             eeeeeeeeee@@@@@@@
                       eoooooooooooooooeeeee@@@@@@@░
                   oo°°°!!!!!!!!°°°°°°ooooeeeee@@@@@@@░░
                o°°!!!:::::::::!!!!!°°°°°ooooeeee@@@@@@@░░░
             o°!!::::·········:::::!!!!°°°ooooeeeee@@@@@@@░░░░
           o°!:::················::::!!!°°°°oooeeeee@@@@@@@░░░░░
         o°!::····················::::!!!°°°°oooeeeee@@@@@@@░░░░░░
       o°!::·······················:::!!!!°°°ooooeeee@@@@@@@@░░░░░░░
      o°!::·························:::!!!°°°ooooeeeee@@@@@@@░░░░░░░░
     o°!:···························:::!!!°°°°oooeeeee@@@@@@@@░░░░░░░░
    o°!::··························::::!!!°°°ooooeeeee@@@@@@@@░░░░░░░░░
   o°!::···························:::!!!!°°°ooooeeeee@@@@@@@@░░░░░░░░░░
  o°!!::··························::::!!!°°°°ooooeeeee@@@@@@@@░░░░░░░░░░░
 eo°!!::·························::::!!!°°°°ooooeeeee@@@@@@@@@░░░░░░░░░░░░
 oo°!!::························::::!!!°°°°ooooeeeeee@@@@@@@@░░░░░░░░░░░░░
eoo°!!:::·····················::::!!!!°°°°oooooeeeee@@@@@@@@@░░░░░░░░░░░░░░
eoo°°!!:::·················:::::!!!!!°°°°ooooeeeeee@@@@@@@@@░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░
eoo°°!!!:::::··········:::::::!!!!!°°°°oooooeeeeee@@@@@@@@@@░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░
eeoo°°°!!!:::::::::::::::::!!!!!!°°°°°oooooeeeeee@@@@@@@@@@░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░
eeooo°°°!!!!!!!:::::::!!!!!!!!°°°°°°oooooeeeeee@@@@@@@@@@@░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░
@eeooo°°°°°!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!°°°°°°°ooooooeeeeeee@@@@@@@@@@@░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░
@@eeeoooo°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°oooooooeeeeeee@@@@@@@@@@@@░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░
@@@eeeoooooo°°°°°°°°°°°°°oooooooooeeeeeeee@@@@@@@@@@@@░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░
 @@@eeeeeooooooooooooooooooooooeeeeeeeee@@@@@@@@@@@@@░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░
 @@@@@eeeeeeeooooooooooooeeeeeeeeeeee@@@@@@@@@@@@@@░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░
  @@@@@@eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░
   @@@@@@@@@eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░
    ░@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░
     ░░@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░
      ░░░░@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░
       ░░░░░░░@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░
         ░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░
           ░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░
             ░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░
                ░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░
                   ░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░
                       ░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░
                             ░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░

             ::···:::!!!°o
         ··············::!!°oo
      ··················::!!°°ooe
    ·····················::!!°°ooee
   ·······················::!!°°ooee
  ························::!!°°oooee
 ·························::!!°°oooeee
:························::!!!°°oooeeee
························::!!!°°ooooeeee
:······················::!!!°°°oooeeeee
:····················:::!!!°°°oooeeeeee
!:·················:::!!!°°°°oooeeeeeee
°!:::···········::::!!!!°°°ooooeeeeeeee
 °!!!:::::::::::!!!!!°°°°oooooeeeeeeee
  o°°!!!!!!!!!!!!!°°°°°oooooeeeeeeeee
   oo°°°°°°°°°°°°°°ooooooeeeeeeeeeee
    eoooooooooooooooooeeeeeeeeeeeee
      eeeooooooooeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee
         eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee
             eeeeeeeeeeeee

[edit] Ruby

Library: Shoes

Shoes comes with this sample program.

Sphere.shoes.png
Shoes.app :width => 500, :height => 500, :resizable => false do
image 400, 470, :top => 30, :left => 50 do
nostroke
fill "#127"
image :top => 230, :left => 0 do
oval 70, 130, 260, 40
blur 30
end
oval 10, 10, 380, 380
image :top => 0, :left => 0 do
fill "#46D"
oval 30, 30, 338, 338
blur 10
end
fill gradient(rgb(1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 0.7), rgb(1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 0.0))
oval 80, 14, 240, 176
image :top => 0, :left => 0 do
fill "#79F"
oval 134, 134, 130, 130
blur 40
end
image :top => 150, :left => 40, :width => 320, :height => 260 do
fill gradient(rgb(0.7, 0.9, 1.0, 0.0), rgb(0.7, 0.9, 1.0, 0.6))
oval 60, 60, 200, 136
blur 20
end
end
end

[edit] Smalltalk

there are various OpenGL bindings available; here is a translation of the bare-bones code from C/Go:

Works with: Smalltalk/X

although there is a Point3 class in some loadable library, here is some self contained code, defining a local anon Point3D class.

 
Point3D :=
Point subclass:#Point3D
instanceVariableNames:'z'
classVariableNames:''
poolDictionaries:''
category:''
inEnvironment:nil.
 
Point3D compile:'z ^ z'.
Point3D compile:'z:v z := v'.
 
normalize := [:v | |invLen|
invLen := 1 / (dot value:v value:v) sqrt.
v x: v x * invLen.
v y: v y * invLen.
v z: v z * invLen.
].
 
dot := [:a :b |
(a x * b x) + (a y * b y) + (a z * b z)
].
 
drawSphere := [:r :k :amb :dir |
|w h imh vec img|
 
w := r*4. h := r*3.
img := Image width:w height:h depth:8.
img photometric:#blackIs0; createPixelStore.
vec := Point3D new.
0-r to:r do:[:x |
0-r to:r do:[:y |
|z s lum|
(z := (r*r) - (x*x) - (y*y)) >= 0 ifTrue:[
vec x: x.
vec y: y.
vec z: z sqrt.
normalize value:vec.
s := dot value:dir value:vec.
s < 0 ifTrue:[ s := 0 ].
lum := 255 * ((s raisedTo: k) + amb) / (1 + amb).
lum < 0 ifTrue:[
lum := 0
] ifFalse:[ lum > 255 ifTrue:[
lum := 255
]].
img atX:(x+(w//2)) y:(y+(h//2)) put:(Color greyByte:lum).
]
]
].
img
].
 
main := [
|dir img|
 
dir := Point3D new x:-30; y:-30; z:50; yourself.
normalize value:dir.
img := drawSphere value: 100 value: 1.5 value: 0.2 value: dir.
img displayOn:(View new extent:400@400; openAndWait).
img saveOn:'sphere.png'.
].
 
main value.
 

Sphere-smalltalk.png

[edit] SVG

Not quite a sphere. Sphere-ish.svg

[edit] Swift

In Playground for example:

 
class Sphere: UIView{
 
override func drawRect(rect: CGRect)
{
let context = UIGraphicsGetCurrentContext()
let locations: [CGFloat] = [0.0, 1.0]
 
let colors = [UIColor.whiteColor().CGColor,
UIColor.blueColor().CGColor]
 
let colorspace = CGColorSpaceCreateDeviceRGB()
 
let gradient = CGGradientCreateWithColors(colorspace,
colors, locations)
 
var startPoint = CGPoint()
var endPoint = CGPoint()
startPoint.x = self.center.x - (self.frame.width * 0.1)
startPoint.y = self.center.y - (self.frame.width * 0.15)
endPoint.x = self.center.x
endPoint.y = self.center.y
let startRadius: CGFloat = 0
let endRadius: CGFloat = self.frame.width * 0.38
 
CGContextDrawRadialGradient (context, gradient, startPoint,
startRadius, endPoint, endRadius,
0)
}
}
 
var s = Sphere(frame: CGRectMake(0, 0, 200, 200))
 


[edit] Tcl

Library: Tk

Assuming the task is to draw a likeness of a sphere, this would usually do:

proc grey {n} {format "#%2.2x%2.2x%2.2x" $n $n $n}
 
pack [canvas .c -height 400 -width 640 -background white]
 
for {set i 0} {$i < 255} {incr i} {
set h [grey $i]
.c create arc [expr {100+$i/5}] [expr {50+$i/5}] [expr {400-$i/1.5}] [expr {350-$i/1.5}] \
-start 0 -extent 359 -fill $h -outline $h
}

Results in this image:

Tcl-spheroid.gif

[edit] TeX

Library: PGF

The PGF shadings library includes a "ball" for a 3-D style highlight. For example with LaTeX,

\documentclass{article}
\usepackage{tikz}
\usetikzlibrary{shadings}
\begin{document}
\begin{tikzpicture}
\shade[ball color=black] (0,0) circle (4);
\end{tikzpicture}
\end{document}

[edit] XPL0

SphereXPL0.png
include c:\cxpl\codes;          \intrinsic 'code' declarations
def R=100, R2=R*R; \radius, in pixels; radius squared
def X0=640/2, Y0=480/2; \coordinates of center of screen
int X, Y, Z, C, D2; \coords, color, distance from center squared
[SetVid($112); \set 640x480x24 graphics mode
for Y:= -R to +R do \for all the coordinates near the circle
for X:= -R to +R do \ which is under the sphere
[D2:= X*X + Y*Y;
C:= 0; \default color is black
if D2 <= R2 then \coordinate is inside circle under sphere
[Z:= sqrt(R2-D2); \height of point on surface of sphere above X,Y
C:= Z-(X+Y)/2+130; \color is proportional; offset X and Y, and
]; \ shift color to upper limit of its range
Point(X+X0, Y+Y0, C<<8+C); \green + blue = cyan
];
repeat until KeyHit; \wait for keystroke
SetVid($03); \restore normal text mode
]

[edit] zkl

Uses the PPM class from http://rosettacode.org/wiki/Bitmap/Bresenham%27s_line_algorithm#zkl

Translation of: XPL0
img:=PPM(640,480);
R:=100; R2:=R*R; //radius, in pixels; radius squared
X0:=640/2; Y0:=480/2; //coordinates of center of screen
foreach Y in ([-R..R]){ //for all the coordinates near the circle
foreach X in ([-R..R]){ // which is under the sphere
D2:=X*X + Y*Y;
C:=0; //default color is black
if(D2<=R2){ //coordinate is inside circle under sphere
Z:=(R2-D2).toFloat().sqrt();//height of point on surface of sphere above X,Y
C=0x82+Z-(X+Y)/2; //color is proportional; offset X and Y, and
} // shift color to upper limit of its range
img[X+X0,Y+Y0]=C.shiftLeft(8)+C; //green + blue = cyan
}
}
img.write(File("foo.ppm","wb"));
Output:
See the XPL0 image or http://home.comcast.net/~zenkinetic/Images/sphere.jpg

The radius of 100 is the max before the color calculation overflows 24 bits so for a radius (R) of, say 200, use

img[X+X0,Y+Y0]=C*140+C;

Perhaps a more useful solution is to use GnuPlot (I grabbed the code from http://ayapin-film.sakura.ne.jp/Gnuplot/):

#<<<
cmd:=0'|
set term wxt
set parametric
set urange [0:pi]
set vrange [0:2*pi]
set xyplane 0
set view equal xyz
set pm3d hidden3d 100 depthorder
set style line 100 lt 7 lw 0.1
set palette defined (0 "dark-blue", 1 "light-blue")
unset key
set samples 24
set isosamples 36
set title 'sphere (pm3d)' font "Times,20"
R = 3
splot R*sin(u)*cos(v), R*sin(u)*sin(v), R*cos(u) w pm3d
|;
#<<<
 
gnuplot:=System.popen("gnuplot","w");
gnuplot.write(cmd); gnuplot.flush();
ask("Hit return to finish"); gnuplot.close();

Where "term wxt" is X11 on my Linux box. A window pops up and stays until the pipe is closed.

Output:

http://home.comcast.net/~zenkinetic/Images/gnuplotSphere.png

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