Compiler/ Verifying Syntax

From Rosetta Code
Compiler/ Verifying Syntax is a draft programming task. It is not yet considered ready to be promoted as a complete task, for reasons that should be found in its talk page.

Verifying Syntax
A Syntax Analyzer that verifies a token stream,
outputs a string "true" if the token stream matches the grammar requirement,
outputs a string "false" if the token stream does not match the grammar.

Task
The program reads input from a file of token stream,
reads it and outputs a string "true" if the token stream matches the grammar,
outputs a string "false" and error messages if the token stream does not match the grammar,
based on the grammar below. The grammar is written in Extended Backus-Naur Form (EBNF).

Grammar

stmt         =         expr ; 

expr         =         expr_level_2; 
expr_level_2 =         expr_level_3 {"or" expr_level_3} ; 
expr_level_3 =         expr_level_4 {"and" expr_level_4} ; 
expr_level_4 = ["not"] expr_level_5 [('=' | '<') expr_level_5] ; 
expr_level_5 =         expr_level_6 {('+' | '-') expr_level_6} ; 
expr_level_6 =         primary      {('*' | '/') primary} ; 

primary      =         Identifier
                     | Integer
                     | '(' expr ')'
                     | "true"
                     | "false"
                     ;
Integer      =         Digit {Digit};

Identifier   =         Letter {Letter | Digit | '_'};

Digit        =         "0" | "1" | "2" | "3" | "4" | "5" | "6" | "7" | "8" | "9" ;

Letter       =         "a" | "b" | "c" | "d" | "e" | "f" | "g" | "h" | "i" | "j" 
                     | "k" | "l" | "m" | "n" | "o" | "p" | "q" | "r" | "s" | "t" 
                     | "u" | "v" | "w" | "x" | "y" | "z" | "A" | "B" | "C" | "D" 
                     | "E" | "F" | "G" | "H" | "I" | "J" | "K" | "L" | "M" | "N" 
                     | "O" | "P" | "Q" | "R" | "S" | "T" | "U" | "V" | "W" | "X" 
                     | "Y" | "Z" ;


ALGOL W[edit]

Includes the test cases from the Go sample. Note, strings are limited to 256 characters in Algol W.

begin
 % verify expressions match expected syntax  %
procedure stmt ( string(256) value text ) ; begin
 % the parsing procedures return true if the expression matches the  %
 % required element, false otherwise - a parse tree is not built  %
logical haveInteger, haveIdentifier, haveEof, hadError;
integer currPos, maxPos, syPos;
string(1) currCh;
string(256) srcText;
string(256) sy;
logical procedure expr ; expr_level_2;
logical procedure expr_level_2 ; begin
logical ok;
ok := expr_level_3;
while ok and have( "or" ) do ok := next and expr_level_3;
ok
end expr_level_2 ;
logical procedure expr_level_3 ; begin
logical ok;
ok := expr_level_4;
while have( "and" ) and ok do ok := next and expr_level_4;
ok
end expr_level_3 ;
logical procedure expr_level_4 ; begin
logical ok;
ok := true;
if have( "not" ) then ok := next;
if ok then ok := expr_level_5;
if ok and ( have( "=" ) or have( "<" ) ) then ok := next and expr_level_5;
ok
end expr_level_4 ;
logical procedure expr_level_5 ; begin
logical ok;
ok := expr_level_6;
while ok and ( have( "+" ) or have( "-" ) ) do ok := next and expr_level_6;
ok
end expr_level_5 ;
logical procedure expr_level_6 ; begin
logical ok;
ok := primary;
while ok and ( have( "*" ) or have( "/" ) ) do ok := next and primary;
ok
end expr_level_6 ;
logical procedure primary ;
if haveIdentifier or haveInteger or have( "true" ) or have( "false" ) then begin
void( next );
true
end
else if have( "(" ) then next and expr and mustBe( ")" )
else error( "Expecting identifier, literal or ""(""" ) ;
logical procedure addAndNextChar ; begin
if syPos = 255 then void( error( "Symbol too long" ) )
else if syPos < 255 then begin
sy( syPos // 1 ) := currCh;
syPos := syPos + 1
end if_syPos_eq_255__lt_255 ;
nextChar
end addAndNextChar ;
logical procedure next ; begin
logical ok;
haveInteger := haveIdentifier := false;
ok  := skipSpaces;
sy  := "";
syPos  := 0;
if not ok then sy := "<eof>"
else begin
if haveDigit then begin
haveInteger := true;
while addAndNextChar and haveDigit do begin end
end
else if haveLetter then begin
while addAndNextChar and ( haveLetter or haveDigit or currCh = "_" ) do begin end;
haveIdentifier := sy not = "and" and sy not = "or" and sy not = "not" and sy not = "true" and sy not = "false"
end
else void( addAndNextChar );
end if_not_ok__ ;
ok
end next ;
logical procedure skipSpaces ; begin
logical ok;
ok := not haveEof;
while ok and currCh = " " do ok := nextChar;
ok
end skipSpaces ;
logical procedure haveLetter ; not haveEof and ( ( currCh >= "a" and currCh <= "z" )
or ( currCh >= "A" and currCh <= "Z" ) );
logical procedure haveDigit  ; not haveEof and ( currCh >= "0" and currCh <= "9" );
logical procedure have ( string(12) value text ) ; text = sy;
logical procedure mustBe ( string(12) value text ) ; begin
logical ok;
ok := have( text );
if ok then void( next )
else begin
string(256) msg;
msg := "Expected:";
msg( strlen( msg ) + 2 // 12 ) := text;
void( error( msg ) )
end if_ok;
ok
end mustBe ;
logical procedure nextChar ; begin
haveEof := currPos > maxPos;
if not haveEof then begin
currCh  := srcText( currPos // 1 );
currPos := currPos + 1
end if_not_haveEof ;
not haveEof
end nextChar ;
integer procedure strlen ( string(256) value text ) ; begin
integer length;
length := 255;
while length >= 0 and text( length // 1 ) = " " do length := length - 1;
length
end strlen ;
logical procedure error ( string(256) value msg ) ; begin
if not hadError then begin
 % have the first error %
writeon( " error at: ", I_W := 1, currPos, "(" );
showText( sy, strlen( sy ) );
writeon( "): " );
showText( msg, strlen( msg ) );
hadError := true
end if_not_hadError ;
false
end ewrror ;
procedure showText ( string(256) value text; integer value length ) ; for c := 0 until length do writeon( text( c // 1 ) );
procedure void ( logical value b ) ; begin end void ;
 % parse text and output messages indicating whether it is OK or not %
hadError := false;
sy  := "<bof>";
srcText  := text;
currPos  := 0;
maxPos  := strlen( srcText );
write();
showText( srcText, maxPos );
writeon( ": " );
if not nextChar then void( error( "Blank source text" ) )
else if not ( next and expr ) then void( error( "Expression expected" ) )
else if not haveEof then void( error( "Expected EOF after expression" ) );
if hadError then writeon( " false" )
else writeon( " true" )
end stmt ;
 % test cases %
stmt( "wombat" );
stmt( "wombat or monotreme" );
stmt( "( wombat and not )" );
stmt( "wombat or not" );
stmt( "a + 1" );
stmt( "a + b < c" );
stmt( "a + b - c * d / e < f and not ( g = h )" );
stmt( "a + b - c * d / e < f and not ( g = h" );
stmt( "a = b" );
stmt( "a or b = c" );
stmt( "$" );
 % test cases from Go %
stmt( "true or false = not true" );
stmt( "not true = false" );
stmt( "3 + not 5" );
stmt( "3 + (not 5)" );
stmt( "(42 + 3" );
stmt( " not 3 < 4 or (true or 3 / 4 + 8 * 5 - 5 * 2 < 56) and 4 * 3 < 12 or not true" );
stmt( " and 3 < 2" );
stmt( "not 7 < 2" );
stmt( "2 < 3 < 4" );
stmt( "2 < foobar - 3 < 4" );
stmt( "2 < foobar and 3 < 4" );
stmt( "4 * (32 - 16) + 9 = 73" );
stmt( "235 76 + 1" );
stmt( "a + b = not c and false" );
stmt( "a + b = (not c) and false" );
stmt( "a + b = (not c and false)" );
stmt( "ab_c / bd2 or < e_f7" );
stmt( "g not = h" );
stmt( "été = false" );
stmt( "i++" );
stmt( "j & k" );
stmt( "l or _m" )
end.
Output:
wombat:  true
wombat or monotreme:  true
( wombat and not ):  error at: 18  ()): Expecting identifier, literal or "(" false
wombat or not:  error at: 13  (<eof>): Expression expected false
a + 1:  true
a + b < c:  true
a + b - c * d / e < f and not ( g = h ):  true
a + b - c * d / e < f and not ( g = h:  error at: 37  (<eof>): Expected: ) false
a = b:  true
a or b = c:  true
$:  error at: 1  ($): Expecting identifier, literal or "(" false
true or false = not true:  error at: 20  (not): Expecting identifier, literal or "(" false
not true = false:  true
3 + not 5:  error at: 8  (not): Expecting identifier, literal or "(" false
3 + (not 5):  true
(42 + 3:  error at: 7  (<eof>): Expected: ) false
 not 3 < 4 or (true or 3 /  4 + 8 *  5 - 5 * 2 < 56) and 4 * 3  < 12 or not true:  true
 and 3 < 2:  error at: 5  (and): Expecting identifier, literal or "(" false
not 7 < 2:  true
2 < 3 < 4:  error at: 8  (<): Expected EOF after expression false
2 < foobar - 3 < 4:  error at: 17  (<): Expected EOF after expression false
2 < foobar and 3 < 4:  true
4 * (32 - 16) + 9 = 73:  true
235 76 + 1:  error at: 7  (76): Expected EOF after expression false
a + b = not c and false:  error at: 12  (not): Expecting identifier, literal or "(" false
a + b = (not c) and false:  true
a + b = (not c and false):  true
ab_c / bd2 or < e_f7:  error at: 16  (<): Expecting identifier, literal or "(" false
g not = h:  error at: 6  (not): Expected EOF after expression false
été = false:  error at: 2  (Ã): Expecting identifier, literal or "(" false
i++:  error at: 3  (+): Expecting identifier, literal or "(" false
j & k:  error at: 4  (&): Expected EOF after expression false
l or _m:  error at: 7  (_): Expecting identifier, literal or "(" false

C[edit]

// cverifyingsyntaxrosetta.c
// http://www.rosettacode.org/wiki/Compiler/_Verifying_Syntax
 
/*
# Makefile
CFLAGS = -O3 -Wall -Wfatal-errors
all: cverifyingsyntaxrosetta
*/

 
#include <stdio.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <ctype.h>
#include <setjmp.h>
 
#define AT(CHAR) ( *pos == CHAR && ++pos )
#define TEST(STR) ( strncmp( pos, STR, strlen(STR) ) == 0 \
&& ! isalnum(pos[strlen(STR)]) && pos[strlen(STR)] != '_' )

#define IS(STR) ( TEST(STR) && (pos += strlen(STR)) )
 
static char *pos; // current position in source
static char *startpos; // start of source
static jmp_buf jmpenv;
 
static int
error(char *message)
{
printf("false  %s\n%*s^ %s\n", startpos, pos - startpos + 7, "", message);
longjmp( jmpenv, 1 );
}
 
static int
expr(int level)
{
while( isspace(*pos) ) ++pos; // skip white space
if( AT('(') ) // find a primary (operand)
{
if( expr(0) && ! AT(')') ) error("missing close paren");
}
else if( level <= 4 && IS("not") && expr(6) ) { }
else if( TEST("or") || TEST("and") || TEST("not") )
{
error("expected a primary, found an operator");
}
else if( isdigit(*pos) ) pos += strspn( pos, "0123456789" );
else if( isalpha(*pos) ) pos += strspn( pos, "0123456789_"
"abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyzABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ" );
else error("expected a primary");
 
do // then look for zero or more valid following operators
{
while( isspace(*pos) ) ++pos;
}
while(
level <= 2 && IS("or") ? expr(3) :
level <= 3 && IS("and") ? expr(4) :
level <= 4 && (AT('=') || AT('<')) ? expr(5) :
level == 5 && (*pos == '=' || *pos == '<') ? error("non-associative") :
level <= 6 && (AT('+') || AT('-')) ? expr(7) :
level <= 7 && (AT('*') || AT('/')) ? expr(8) :
0 );
return 1;
}
 
static void
parse(char *source)
{
startpos = pos = source;
if( setjmp(jmpenv) ) return; // for catching errors during recursion
expr(0);
if( *pos ) error("unexpected character following valid parse");
printf(" true  %s\n", source);
}
 
static char *tests[] = {
"3 + not 5",
"3 + (not 5)",
"(42 + 3",
"(42 + 3 some_other_syntax_error",
"not 3 < 4 or (true or 3/4+8*5-5*2 < 56) and 4*3 < 12 or not true",
"and 3 < 2",
"not 7 < 2",
"2 < 3 < 4",
"2 < foobar - 3 < 4",
"2 < foobar and 3 < 4",
"4 * (32 - 16) + 9 = 73",
"235 76 + 1",
"a + b = not c and false",
"a + b = (not c) and false",
"a + b = (not c and false)",
"ab_c / bd2 or < e_f7",
"g not = h",
"i++",
"j & k",
"l or _m",
"wombat",
"WOMBAT or monotreme",
"a + b - c * d / e < f and not ( g = h )",
"$",
};
 
int
main(int argc, char *argv[])
{
for( int i = 0; i < sizeof(tests)/sizeof(*tests); i++ ) parse(tests[i]);
}
Output:
false  3 + not 5
           ^ expected a primary, found an operator
 true  3 + (not 5)
false  (42 + 3
              ^ missing close paren
false  (42 + 3 some_other_syntax_error
               ^ missing close paren
 true  not 3 < 4 or (true or 3/4+8*5-5*2 < 56) and 4*3 < 12 or not true
false  and 3 < 2
       ^ expected a primary, found an operator
 true  not 7 < 2
false  2 < 3 < 4
             ^ non-associative
false  2 < foobar - 3 < 4
                      ^ non-associative
 true  2 < foobar and 3 < 4
 true  4 * (32 - 16) + 9 = 73
false  235 76 + 1
           ^ unexpected character following valid parse
false  a + b = not c and false
               ^ expected a primary, found an operator
 true  a + b = (not c) and false
 true  a + b = (not c and false)
false  ab_c / bd2 or < e_f7
                     ^ expected a primary
false  g not = h
         ^ unexpected character following valid parse
false  i++
         ^ expected a primary
false  j & k
         ^ unexpected character following valid parse
false  l or _m
            ^ expected a primary
 true  wombat
 true  WOMBAT or monotreme
 true  a + b - c * d / e < f and not ( g = h )
false  $
       ^ expected a primary

Go[edit]

If "and", "or", "not" and "=" are replaced by the corresponding symbols: "&&", "||", "!" and "==", then the task grammar is a subset of Go's own grammar - operator precedence and identifier construction are the same.

After making the appropriate substitutions, we can therefore use the parser in Go's standard library to verify whether the statements are valid or not. As expressions cannot be statements in Go, we simply parse the latter as expressions.

However, before applying the parser, we first need to ensure that the expressions don't include any characters (including non-ASCII) or usages thereof which Go would otherwise permit. Note that it's not necessary to specifically check for "++" and "--" as these are statements in Go and can't appear in expressions anyway.

In particular, after substitutions, "= not", "+ not" etc. would be allowed by the Go parser so we need to exclude them. Curiously, the Go parser allows something like "2 < 3 < 4" even though it doesn't compile. We need therefore to exclude that also (see Talk page).

package main
 
import (
"fmt"
"go/parser"
"regexp"
"strings"
)
 
var (
re1 = regexp.MustCompile(`[^_a-zA-Z0-9\+\-\*/=<\(\)\s]`)
re2 = regexp.MustCompile(`\b_\w*\b`)
re3 = regexp.MustCompile(`[=<+*/-]\s*not`)
re4 = regexp.MustCompile(`(=|<)\s*[^(=< ]+\s*([=<+*/-])`)
)
 
var subs = [][2]string{
{"=", "=="}, {" not ", " ! "}, {"(not ", "(! "}, {" or ", " || "}, {" and ", " && "},
}
 
func possiblyValid(expr string) error {
matches := re1.FindStringSubmatch(expr)
if matches != nil {
return fmt.Errorf("invalid character %q found", []rune(matches[0])[0])
}
if re2.MatchString(expr) {
return fmt.Errorf("identifier cannot begin with an underscore")
}
if re3.MatchString(expr) {
return fmt.Errorf("expected operand, found 'not'")
}
matches = re4.FindStringSubmatch(expr)
if matches != nil {
return fmt.Errorf("operator %q is non-associative", []rune(matches[1])[0])
}
return nil
}
 
func modify(err error) string {
e := err.Error()
for _, sub := range subs {
e = strings.ReplaceAll(e, strings.TrimSpace(sub[1]), strings.TrimSpace(sub[0]))
}
return strings.Split(e, ":")[2][1:] // remove location info as may be inaccurate
}
 
func main() {
exprs := []string{
"$",
"one",
"either or both",
"a + 1",
"a + b < c",
"a = b",
"a or b = c",
"3 + not 5",
"3 + (not 5)",
"(42 + 3",
"(42 + 3)",
" not 3 < 4 or (true or 3 / 4 + 8 * 5 - 5 * 2 < 56) and 4 * 3 < 12 or not true",
" and 3 < 2",
"not 7 < 2",
"2 < 3 < 4",
"2 < (3 < 4)",
"2 < foobar - 3 < 4",
"2 < foobar and 3 < 4",
"4 * (32 - 16) + 9 = 73",
"235 76 + 1",
"true or false = not true",
"true or false = (not true)",
"not true or false = false",
"not true = false",
"a + b = not c and false",
"a + b = (not c) and false",
"a + b = (not c and false)",
"ab_c / bd2 or < e_f7",
"g not = h",
"été = false",
"i++",
"j & k",
"l or _m",
}
 
for _, expr := range exprs {
fmt.Printf("Statement to verify: %q\n", expr)
if err := possiblyValid(expr); err != nil {
fmt.Printf("\"false\" -> %s\n\n", err.Error())
continue
}
expr = fmt.Sprintf(" %s ", expr) // make sure there are spaces at both ends
for _, sub := range subs {
expr = strings.ReplaceAll(expr, sub[0], sub[1])
}
_, err := parser.ParseExpr(expr)
if err != nil {
fmt.Println(`"false" ->`, modify(err))
} else {
fmt.Println(`"true"`)
}
fmt.Println()
}
}
Output:
Statement to verify: "$"
"false" -> invalid character '$' found

Statement to verify: "one"
"true"

Statement to verify: "either or both"
"true"

Statement to verify: "a + 1"
"true"

Statement to verify: "a + b < c"
"true"

Statement to verify: "a = b"
"true"

Statement to verify: "a or b = c"
"true"

Statement to verify: "3 + not 5"
"false" -> expected operand, found 'not'

Statement to verify: "3 + (not 5)"
"true"

Statement to verify: "(42 + 3"
"false" -> expected ')', found newline

Statement to verify: "(42 + 3)"
"true"

Statement to verify: " not 3 < 4 or (true or 3 /  4 + 8 *  5 - 5 * 2 < 56) and 4 * 3  < 12 or not true"
"true"

Statement to verify: " and 3 < 2"
"false" -> expected operand, found 'and'

Statement to verify: "not 7 < 2"
"true"

Statement to verify: "2 < 3 < 4"
"false" -> operator '<' is non-associative

Statement to verify: "2 < (3 < 4)"
"true"

Statement to verify: "2 < foobar - 3 < 4"
"false" -> operator '<' is non-associative

Statement to verify: "2 < foobar and 3 < 4"
"true"

Statement to verify: "4 * (32 - 16) + 9 = 73"
"true"

Statement to verify: "235 76 + 1"
"false" -> expected 'EOF', found 76

Statement to verify: "true or false = not true"
"false" -> expected operand, found 'not'

Statement to verify: "true or false = (not true)"
"true"

Statement to verify: "not true or false = false"
"true"

Statement to verify: "not true = false"
"true"

Statement to verify: "a + b = not c and false"
"false" -> expected operand, found 'not'

Statement to verify: "a + b = (not c) and false"
"true"

Statement to verify: "a + b = (not c and false)"
"true"

Statement to verify: "ab_c / bd2 or < e_f7"
"false" -> expected operand, found '<'

Statement to verify: "g not = h"
"false" -> expected 'EOF', found 'not'

Statement to verify: "été = false"
"false" -> invalid character 'é' found

Statement to verify: "i++"
"false" -> expected 'EOF', found '++'

Statement to verify: "j & k"
"false" -> invalid character '&' found

Statement to verify: "l or _m"
"false" -> identifier cannot begin with an underscore

Julia[edit]

function substituteinnerparentheses(s, subs)
((i = findlast('(', s)) == nothing) && return (s, false)
((j = findfirst(')', s[i:end])) == nothing) && return (s, false)
okparse(s[i+1:j+i-2]) || return (s, false)
return s[1:i-1] * " " * subs * " " * s[j+i:end], true
end
 
function okparse(s)
while findfirst('(', s) != nothing
s, okinparentheses = substituteinnerparentheses(s, "true")
okinparentheses || return false
end
s = strip(s)
# Julia allows expressions like 2 + + + 3, or like true = not false, but these are not allowed here
# = or < can be used only once within parentheses
if occursin(r"(and|or|[\=\<\+\-\*\/])\s*(and|or|[\=\<\+\-\*\/])", s) ||
occursin(r"(^(and|^or|^[\=\<\+\-\*\/]))|((and|or|[\=\<\+\-\*\/])$)", s) ||
occursin(r"(\=|\<)\s*not\s", s) || count(c -> c == '=' || c == '<', s) > 1
return false
end
# Julia allows ., ,, ; and operators like % but these are not allowed here
# permitted: -+*/ true false and or not, ascii identifiers, and integers
for item in split(s, r"\s+")
 !occursin(
r"^[a-zA-Z][a-zA-Z_0-9]*$|^\d+$|^true$|^false$|^or$|^and$|^not$|^\=$|^\<$|^\+$|^-$|^\*$|^\/$",
item) && return false
end
# change and, or, and not to the corresponding Julia operators
s = replace(replace(replace(s, "and" => "&&"), "or" => "||"), "not" => "!")
try
# Use Julia's parser, which will throw exception if it parses an error
Meta.parse(s)
catch
return false
end
return true
end
 
teststatements = [
" not 3 < 4 or (true or 3 / 4 + 8 * 5 - 5 * 2 < 56) and 4 * 3 < 12 or not true",
" and 3 < 2",
"not 7 < 2",
"4 * (32 - 16) + 9 = 73",
"235 76 + 1",
"true or false = not true",
"not true = false",
"2 < 5 < 9"
]
 
for s in teststatements
println("The compiler parses the statement { $s } and outputs: ", okparse(s))
end
 
Output:
The compiler parses the statement {  not 3 < 4 or (true or 3 /  4 + 8 *  5 - 5 * 2 < 56) and 4 * 3  < 12 or not true } and outputs: true
The compiler parses the statement {  and 3 < 2 } and outputs: false
The compiler parses the statement { not 7 < 2 } and outputs: true
The compiler parses the statement { 4 * (32 - 16) + 9 = 73 } and outputs: true
The compiler parses the statement { 235 76 + 1 } and outputs: false
The compiler parses the statement { true or false = not true } and outputs: false
The compiler parses the statement { not true = false } and outputs: true
The compiler parses the statement { 2 < 5 < 9 } and outputs: false

Perl[edit]

Made fix for 'not' see Discussion. Added 'not' and non-assoc fixes. Cooler output.

#!/usr/bin/perl
 
use strict; # http://www.rosettacode.org/wiki/Compiler/_Verifying_Syntax
use warnings;
 
sub error
{
my $pos = pos($_) // 0;
die $_, ' ' x ($pos + 7), "^ $_[0]\n";
}
sub want { /\G\Q$_[0]/gc or error $_[1] }
 
sub expr
{
my $level = shift;
/\G\h+/gc;
/\G\(/gc && want ')', "expected a closing paren", expr(0) or
$level <= 4 && /\Gnot\b/gc && expr(5) or
/\G (?!(?:and|or|not)\b) (?:\d+|[a-zA-Z]\w*)/gcx or
error "expected a primary";
/\G\h+/gc ? 1 :
$level <= 2 && /\Gor\b/gc ? expr(3) :
$level <= 3 && /\Gand\b/gc ? expr(4) :
$level <= 4 && /\G[=<]/gc ? expr(4.5) :
$level == 4.5 && /\G(?=[=<])/gc ? error "non-associative operator" :
$level <= 5 && /\G[+-]/gc ? expr(6) :
$level <= 6 && /\G[*\/]/gc ? expr(7) :
return 1 while 1;
}
 
while( <DATA> )
{
print eval { want "\n", "expected end of input", expr(0) } ?
" true $_" : "false [email protected]";
}
 
__DATA__
3 + not 5
3 + (not 5)
(42 + 3
(42 + 3 syntax_error
not 3 < 4 or (true or 3/4+8*5-5*2 < 56) and 4*3 < 12 or not true
and 3 < 2
not 7 < 2
2 < 3 < 4
2 < foobar - 3 < 4
2 < foobar and 3 < 4
4 * (32 - 16) + 9 = 73
235 76 + 1
a + b = not c and false
a + b = (not c) and false
a + b = (not c and false)
ab_c / bd2 or < e_f7
g not = h
i++
j & k
l or _m
UPPER_cAsE_aNd_letter_and_12345_test
Output:
false  3 + not 5
           ^ expected a primary
 true  3 + (not 5)
false  (42 + 3
              ^ expected a closing paren
false  (42 + 3 syntax_error
               ^ expected a closing paren
 true  not 3 < 4 or (true or 3/4+8*5-5*2 < 56) and 4*3 < 12 or not true
false  and 3 < 2
       ^ expected a primary
 true  not 7 < 2
false  2 < 3 < 4
             ^ non-associative operator
false  2 < foobar - 3 < 4
                      ^ non-associative operator
 true  2 < foobar and 3 < 4
 true  4 * (32 - 16) + 9 = 73
false  235 76 + 1
           ^ expected end of input
false  a + b = not c and false
               ^ expected a primary
 true  a + b = (not c) and false
 true  a + b = (not c and false)
false  ab_c / bd2 or < e_f7
                     ^ expected a primary
false  g not = h
         ^ expected end of input
false  i++
         ^ expected a primary
false  j & k
         ^ expected end of input
false  l or _m
            ^ expected a primary
 true  UPPER_cAsE_aNd_letter_and_12345_test

Phix[edit]

-- demo\rosetta\Compiler\Verify_Syntax.exw
string src
integer ch, sdx
 
procedure skip_spaces()
while 1 do
if sdx>length(src) then exit end if
ch = src[sdx]
if not find(ch," \t\r\n") then exit end if
sdx += 1
end while
end procedure
 
enum SYMBOL, INTEGER, IDENT, ERROR, EOF
constant toktypes = {"SYMBOL","INTEGER","IDENT","ERROR","EOF"}
sequence tok
 
function sprintok(string fmt)
tok[1] = toktypes[tok[1]]
return sprintf(fmt,{tok})
end function
 
procedure next_token()
-- yeilds one of:
-- {SYMBOL,ch} where ch is one of "()+-/*=&<", or
-- {INTEGER,n}, or
-- {IDENT,string}, or
-- {ERROR,msg}, or
-- {EOF}
skip_spaces()
integer tokstart = sdx
if tok[1]=ERROR then
 ?{"erm, tok is",tok} -- looping??
elsif sdx>length(src) then
tok = {EOF}
elsif find(ch,"()+-/*=&<") then
sdx += 1
tok = {SYMBOL,ch&""}
elsif (ch>='0' and ch<='9') then
integer n = ch-'0'
while true do
sdx += 1
if sdx>length(src) then exit end if
ch = src[sdx]
if ch<'0' or ch>'9' then exit end if
n = n*10 + ch-'0'
end while
tok = {INTEGER,n}
elsif (ch>='a' and ch<='z')
or (ch>='A' and ch<='Z') then
while true do
sdx += 1
if sdx>length(src) then exit end if
ch = src[sdx]
if ch!='_'
and (ch<'a' or ch>'z')
and (ch<'A' or ch>'Z')
and (ch<'0' or ch>'9') then
exit
end if
end while
tok = {IDENT,src[tokstart..sdx-1]}
elsif ch='_' then
tok = {ERROR,"identifiers may not start with _"}
sdx += 1
else
tok = {ERROR,sprintf("illegal char (%c/%d)",ch)}
sdx += 1
end if
end procedure
 
forward procedure or_expr()
 
procedure primary()
integer tt = tok[1]
if tt=IDENT
or tt=INTEGER then
next_token()
elsif tok={SYMBOL,"("} then
next_token()
or_expr()
if tok!={SYMBOL,")"} then
tok = {ERROR,") expected"}
else
next_token()
end if
else
tok = {ERROR,sprintok("invalid [%v]")}
end if
end procedure
 
procedure mul_expr()
while true do
primary()
if not find(tok,{{SYMBOL,"*"},{SYMBOL,"/"}}) then exit end if
next_token()
end while
end procedure
 
procedure sum_expr()
while true do
mul_expr()
if not find(tok,{{SYMBOL,"+"},{SYMBOL,"-"}}) then exit end if
next_token()
end while
end procedure
 
procedure cmp_expr()
if tok=={IDENT,"not"} then next_token() end if
sum_expr()
if find(tok,{{SYMBOL,"="},{SYMBOL,"<"}}) then
next_token()
sum_expr()
end if
end procedure
 
procedure and_expr()
while true do
cmp_expr()
if tok!={IDENT,"and"} then exit end if
next_token()
end while
end procedure
 
procedure or_expr()
while true do
and_expr()
if tok!={IDENT,"or"} then exit end if
next_token()
end while
end procedure
 
procedure statement()
or_expr()
end procedure
 
procedure verify_syntax(string source)
src = source
sdx = 1
tok = {0} -- ("not error"/invalid-ish)
next_token()
statement()
printf(1,"%30s ==>  %s\n",{source,iff(tok[1]=EOF?"true":sprintok("false [tok=%v]"))})
end procedure
 
constant tests = {
"$",
"one",
"either or both",
"a + 1",
"a + b < c",
"a = b",
"a or b = c",
"3 + not 5",
"3 + (not 5)",
"(42 + 3",
"(42 + 3)",
" not 3 < 4 or (true or 3 / 4 + 8 * 5 - 5 * 2 < 56) and 4 * 3 < 12 or not true",
" and 3 < 2",
"not 7 < 2",
"2 < 3 < 4",
"2 < (3 < 4)",
"2 < foobar - 3 < 4",
"2 < foobar and 3 < 4",
"4 * (32 - 16) + 9 = 73",
"235 76 + 1",
"true or false = not true",
"true or false = (not true)",
"not true or false = false",
"not true = false",
"a + b = not c and false",
"a + b = (not c) and false",
"a + b = (not c and false)",
"ab_c / bd2 or < e_f7",
"g not = h",
"i++",
"j & k",
"l or _m"}
 
printf(1,"Verify Syntax:\n")
for i=1 to length(tests) do
verify_syntax(tests[i])
end for
Output:

Note that "= not c" fails, whereas "= (not c)" passes, see talk page. (Arguably the task definition should be fixed.)

Verify Syntax:
                             $  ==>  false [tok={"ERROR",`invalid [{"ERROR","illegal char ($/36)"}]`}]
                           one  ==>  true
                either or both  ==>  true
                         a + 1  ==>  true
                     a + b < c  ==>  true
                         a = b  ==>  true
                    a or b = c  ==>  true
                     3 + not 5  ==>  false [tok={"INTEGER",5}]
                   3 + (not 5)  ==>  true
                       (42 + 3  ==>  false [tok={"ERROR",") expected"}]
                      (42 + 3)  ==>  true
 not 3 < 4 or (true or 3 /  4 + 8 *  5 - 5 * 2 < 56) and 4 * 3  < 12 or not true  ==>  true
                     and 3 < 2  ==>  false [tok={"INTEGER",3}]
                     not 7 < 2  ==>  true
                     2 < 3 < 4  ==>  false [tok={"SYMBOL","<"}]
                   2 < (3 < 4)  ==>  true
            2 < foobar - 3 < 4  ==>  false [tok={"SYMBOL","<"}]
          2 < foobar and 3 < 4  ==>  true
        4 * (32 - 16) + 9 = 73  ==>  true
                    235 76 + 1  ==>  false [tok={"INTEGER",76}]
      true or false = not true  ==>  false [tok={"IDENT","true"}]
    true or false = (not true)  ==>  true
     not true or false = false  ==>  true
              not true = false  ==>  true
       a + b = not c and false  ==>  false [tok={"IDENT","c"}]
     a + b = (not c) and false  ==>  true
     a + b = (not c and false)  ==>  true
          ab_c / bd2 or < e_f7  ==>  false [tok={"ERROR",`invalid [{"SYMBOL","<"}]`}]
                     g not = h  ==>  false [tok={"IDENT","not"}]
                           i++  ==>  false [tok={"ERROR",`invalid [{"SYMBOL","+"}]`}]
                         j & k  ==>  false [tok={"SYMBOL","&"}]
                       l or _m  ==>  false [tok={"ERROR",`invalid [{"ERROR","identifiers may not start with _"}]`}]